HISTORY OF THE ROMANS UNDER THE EMPIRE – VOL. VII: Subterfúgio: Polêmicas Judias

Reverendo Charles Merivale

 

(pente fino no capítulo sobre a destruição de Jerusalém sob Tito; circa p. 237)

 

At. 19:13-17: “Ora, também alguns dos exorcistas judeus, ambulantes, tentavam invocar o nome de Jesus sobre os que tinham espíritos malignos, dizendo: Esconjuro-vos por Jesus a quem Paulo prega. E os que faziam isto eram sete filhos de Ceva, judeu, um dos principais sacerdotes. Respondendo, porém, o espírito maligno, disse: A Jesus conheço, e sei quem é Paulo; mas vós, quem sois? Então o homem, no qual estava o espírito maligno, saltando sobre eles, apoderou-se de dois e prevaleceu contra eles, de modo que, nus e feridos, fugiram daquela casa. Isto tornou-se conhecido de todos os que moravam em Éfeso, tanto judeus como gregos”

 

“The extreme party now reigned unresisted in Jerusalem. Jehovah, they proclaimed, had manifestly declared Himself on their side. Judea stood once more erect and independent, and invited her children dispersed throughout the world to fulfil, by a common effort, her imperial destiny. But in Rome they had been crushed; in Alexandria they were baffled; Nero had cajoled Vologesus, and engaged him to control their movements in Ctesiphon and Seleucia; the summons of the patriots met, it seems, with no response beyond the confines of Palestine, and the army of Titus confronted in closed lists the defenders of the city of David.”

Mt. 24:15-21: “Quando, pois, virdes estar no lugar santo a abominação de desolação, predita pelo profeta Daniel (quem lê, entenda), então os que estiverem na Judéia fujam para os montes; quem estiver no eirado não desça para tirar as coisas de sua casa, e quem estiver no campo não volte atrás para apanhar a sua capa. Mas ai das que estiverem grávidas, e das que amamentarem naqueles dias! Orai para que a vossa fuga não suceda no inverno nem no sábado; porque haverá então uma tribulação tão grande, como nunca houve desde o princípio do mundo até agora, nem jamais haverá.”

“While the chiefs of the Roman army were occupied with manoeuvres for securing the empire, the leaders of the Jews were actively engaged in plotting against each other. The Zealots, in the moment of victory, were split into three factions. (…) John and Simon might dispute the superiority in numbers and equipment; but the stronghold of Eleazar was regarded by the Romans as the real citadel of Jerusalem. After many open attacks and secret stratagems, John contrived to assassinate this powerful rival, and obtained possession of the whole Temple with the eminence on which it stood.”

Nota de rodapé p. 226: o Mito de Sião – nunca houve uma Cidade Sagrada, metafórica, “mesal”. Tratava-se da colina mais alta da orla montanhosa de Jerusalém. Citado em Macabeus, mas nunca, de novo, em Josephus[?] ou no Novo Testamento. “The temple of Jerusalem, planted nearly on the southern extremity of this second hill, was completely overlooked by Zion, and also by the fortress Antonia, with which Herod protected it on its northern flank.”

[?] Fariseu contemporâneo (séc. I d.C.) do cerco e que “virou a casaca” depois de uma carreira pregressa como agitador (//Paulo). Teria deixado relatos históricos sobre os eventos em que ele próprio participou (consultados no original em grego por Merivale), tentando dissuadir as duas lideranças rebeldes remanescentes até o fim do cerco.

“Acra, or Moriah, as it has been called by a vulgar error, might thus represent the Capitoline, and Zion the Palatine at Rome: the depression between them, crossed by a bridge or causeway, was thronged with the dwellings of the lowest classes, and occupied the place of the Velabrum or the Suburra.”

“The hill of Zion was almost a perfect square: but Acra, more oblong in shape, overlapped it considerably to the north-east, and in the rectangle between them, a third hill, to which we may give the name of Calvary, rose a little lower than the one, and as much higher than the other. The venerable tradition which assigns this spot for the place of our Lord’s crucifixion, and has consecrated it with the existing church of the Holy Sepulchre, may be accepted with reasonable confidence. At the date of the Crucifixion it stood outside the walls; but Herod Agrippa undertook to enclose it, together with a large suburb to the north, in a third line of defences. Bezetha, or the New City, for so it was denominated, embraced an area towards the north and north-east, fully equal to all the rest of Jerusalem together.”

Trecho destacado por El Hayek: “The circuit of these exterior defences may have measured about four miles, and the ordinary population could scarcely amount to 200,000; but this number was vastly increased on occasion of the great festivals when the Jews thronged to their national temple from all quarters. (…) Tacitus estimates at 600,000 the number enclosed within the walls at the period of the siege; and this estimate, great as it is compared with the extent of accommodation, is far less than what we might infer from certain statements of Josephus. Eusebius states the number roundly at 3,000,000 (Hist. Eccl. iii. 5.), from a passage in Josephus” Segundo o mesmo Jos., essa prévia do Holocausto matou 1 milhão de judeus, número reputado como absurdo.

 

“The perseverance with which Titus renewed his elaborate constructions after every failure was not less eminent than the fortitude of John and Simon.” “The siege had already lasted three months. Seven days were now employed in the destruction of the citadel, one wing only being reserved as a watchtower. All the buildings round it were thrown down to make room for the works required for the attack on the Temple, and the Lower City was at the same time demolished. Titus had now relaxed from his earlier severity. Large numbers of the population received their lives on submission, while the more desperate fled for refuge to the Temple and to Mount Zion.” um monte sagrado, um monte de mentiras

“Josephus addressed them, like the Assyrian of old, in the Hebrew language that all might understand him; but John, perceiving (so at least Joseph us assures us) the impression he was making, sternly interrupted him, declaring that they had nought to fear, for Jerusalem was the Lord’s, and the Lord would protect it.”

Profético (prefácio do “show de 6 milhões”): “Hundreds of the Jews perished in this storm of fire.” 70 d.C. apud Hayek apud AGUIAR (2017). Titus ou Tito teria sido clemente e tentado até o último esforço do cansativo cerco salvar o Templo, mas ele terminou incendiado graças à teimosia judia e à imperícia e codícia dos soldados romanos, que viram no incêndio a única possibilidade de dar um fim à resistência inesgotável dos fanáticos e foram “hipnotizados” pelo ouro dos adornos templares: “Titus looked back with a sigh, but made no further attempt to save it [o Tabernáculo]. He withdrew despondingly from the spot, and the divine decree was accomplished.” “The Jewish chronicler [Josephus] exhausts all his rhetoric in describing the horrors of the scene he had himself witnessed from the camp of the victors. The hill of the Temple was enveloped in a sheet of flame, and the whole city seemed to be involved in a general conflagration. The shouts of the conquerors, the shrieks of the victims, the groans and howls of a nation of spectators in the streets and on the hills surrounding Jerusalem, surpassed all horrors recorded or imagined.”

“A few unarmed priests, who had cowered among the ruins of the Temple, had just before descended, pressed by hunger, and thrown themselves on his mercy [Tito]; they had been led straightway to execution, with the brutal sarcasm that those who live by the altar should perish with the altar.” E os sacerdotes restantes, já vencidos, mas que não davam o braço a torcer, enfureceram o paciente Tito, que ordenou que Jerusalém inteira fosse deitada abaixo.

Apocalypse Yesterday: teria sido num 2 de setembro.

“Depois que o censo dos civis sobreviventes terminou, os velhos e imprestáveis foram atravessados a sangue frio pelo fio da espada. Os mais altos e mais formosos foram escolhidos a seguir para honrar o triunfo do conquistador; do restante, todos acima de 17 anos foram levados como cativos para o Egito, ou condenados a lutar contra feras nos teatros de Antioquia e Cesaréia. Todas as crianças foram vendidas como escravos.” “While John was granted his life, and kept without public disgrace in perpetual confinement, Simon was reserved for the special ornament of the triumph, for ignominy, and for death.”

“Diz-se que Jerusalém foi tomada 17 vezes – mas ela foi destruída e liquidada unicamente por Nabucodonosor e Tito. O de Tito foi apenas o sexto saque.” Foi a chegada ao trono mais triunfal das 320 registradas até então em Roma.

“The residence of Titus at Berytus, and again at Caesarea, was marked by bloody shows in the circus, where he solemnized the birthdays of his father [imperador Vespasiano] and brother with the slaughter of multitudes of Jewish captives. From thence he returned to witness the completion of his instructions with regard to Jerusalem, and, leaving the Tenth legion in garrison on the spot, carried with him the Fifth and Fifteenth into Egypt.”

 

“With the reduction of Palestine the consolidation of the empire was completed. From the Mersey to the Dead Sea no nation remained erect, and the resistance of the last free men on her frontiers had been expiated with their blood. The overthrow of Judea, with all the monuments of an ancient but still living civilization, was the greatest crime of the conquering republic. It commenced in wanton aggression, and was effected with a barbarity, of which no other example occurs in the records of civilization. Jerusalem shared the fate of Tarquinii and Corinth; but the Romans, stalking amongst the ruins of Zion, seemed unconscious that they had annihilated a nation more important in the history of the world than Etruria, or even than Greece. Yet not altogether annihilated. The homeless Jews, scattered, as captives or fugitives, more widely than ever, bore throughout the empire and beyond it the seeds of the law delivered from Sinai, the fortitude which neither Egyptian, nor Syrian, nor Roman could bend or break, the hopes which delay had not extinguished, the maxims which patriarchs and prophets had revered.”

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