8 de julho de 2015
DIC: dupe – trouxa, mané
PREFÁCIO DO TRADUTOR INGLÊS WILLIAM PAYNE – 18/06/1892 [!]
“Não é provável que duas pessoas igualmente competentes concordariam completamente sobre uma lista de méritos entre os escritores educacionais, mas eu me aventuraria a enumerar os seguintes como os MAIORES CLÁSSICOS EM EDUCAÇÃO do mundo: a República de Platão, Política de Aristóteles, as 2 Morais de Plutarco, Instituições de Quintiliano, Didactica Magna de Comenius, Levana de Richter, How Gertrude Teaches Her Children de Pestaiozzi, Education of Man de Froebel, Filosofia da Educação de Rosenkranz, Gargantua de Rabelais, Ensaios de Montaigne, o Emílio de Rousseau, Posições de Mulcaster, Schoolmaster de Ascham, Pensamentos (…) de Locke, Educação de Spencer. Dessa lista de clássicos educacionais, os três livros que mais merecem essa preeminência são A República, o Emílio e Educação (Spencer); e se uma redução a mais tivesse de ser feita, designaria o E. de R. como o maior clássico educacional do mundo.” “we are justified in saying of the Émile what R. himself said of the Republic, <C’est le plus beau traité d’éducation qu’on a jamais fait>.” “As obras-pais são o Discurso sobre a Desigualdade e o Contrato Social. Nesses trabalhos a teoria de Rousseau é a de que o homem é naturalmente bom, mas foi depravado pela sociedade, e o único jeito de se reformar é retornar à natureza. O Emílio é o desenvolvimento dessa teoria, e é o monumento mais completo da filosofia de R.” “Às vezes a educação se torna quase totalmente <livresca>, devotada ao estudo dos livros e palavras em vez das coisas, e em outros momentos ela se torna principalmente literária ou humanística, até a negligência do estudo da matéria. Os registros do pensamento humano, do sentimento e das conquistas formam um termo do contraste, enquanto que a matéria e seus fenômenos, sob a alcunha de Natureza, constituem o outro pólo.” “Provavelmente a maioria dos homens sente às vezes esse instinto reverter para o estado de natureza, mas em R. esse instinto era uma paixão dominante. Em sua vida precoce esse instinto induziu a uma espécie de vagabundagem que o conduziu a longas caminhadas a pé pela Itália; e na vida tardia essa paixão achou satisfação no Eremitério de Montmorency, e finalmente em Ermenonville.” O Monge Peregrino
“O Emílio pode ser chamado um romance educacional, seguindo o estilo da Cyropaedia ou do Gargantua, e sua forma pode ter sido sugerida por essas obras, ou bem possível que por aquele romance político incomparável…” “Nessa busca genérica e totalizante devemos dizer que R. estava em companhia respeitável, senão ilustre. Platão escreveu sua República, Harrington sua Oceana, More sua Utopia, Sidney sua Arcadia, e Hobbes seu Leviatã, cada um para expressar sua falta de satisfação com as coisas como existiam, e para achar gratificação na construção ideal de um mundo escorado em melhores princípios. Em todas essas criações há algum elemento de verdade perene, algo de que as sucessivas gerações precisam ser lembradas para manter o mundo, ou fazer do mundo, uma habitação deleitável para a raça.”
“Veja os incontáveis dispositivos e máquinas para ensinar uma criança a ler! Que bando de geringonças inúteis! Crie-se na criança o desejo de ler, e todo esse aparato não serve para nada; o processo se simplifica o máximo, e a criança não poderá ser contida ou impedida de aprender.”
“Boyhood follows childhood, and manhood, in turn, succeeds boyhood.” “um velho erro, que consistia em ou ignorar os direitos da infância como um todo ou prescrever o mesmo tratamento para crianças e homens indistintamente.” “os métodos infantis ganharam uma ascendência que não só é daninha às crianças como também para os adultos, já que os métodos infantis foram transportados para as universidades.” “Em nossos esforços para fazer da educação progressiva ela se tornou estacionária, e mesmo retrógrada. A reforma de Jean-Jacques [foi realmente adotada, mas] foi levada longe demais.” “Seu pensamento é de que, tanto quanto possível, a mente da criança deve ser mantida uma tabula rasa até a idade de 12, mas com toda a sua capacidade desenvolvida e preparada quando o sinal para se começar o trabalho de aquisição soar, sem prepossessão ou preconceito, o que a manteria equilibrada e independente.”
“Foi relatado que uma vez um naturalista descobriu numa mina o que parecia uma nova espécie de planta, mas quando transplantada para a superfície ela se revelou a common tansy [flor amarela da ordem das “daisies”, margaridas] – um habitat anormal havia alterado sua aparência a ponto de ser impossível reconhecê-la.”
“R. merece nossos aplausos quando desaconselha a seleção de uma intelectual para esposa, mas Sophie se parece demais com sua Teresa para merecer sequer nosso respeito.”
“Que outro livro chamou tanto a atenção das mães para seu senso de dever com tamanhos paixão e efeito? O Emílio fez do ministério da sala de aula tão sagrado quanto o ministério do altar; e ao desvelar os mistérios de sua arte e desvendar o segredo de seu poder, fez do ofício de professor algo honrado e respeitado.”
O EMÍLIO PROPRIAMENTE DITO
“Sou continuamente admoestado a propor aquilo que seja praticável! Isso é equivalente a dizer: <Proponha que se faça aquilo que está sendo feito!>, ou ao menos, <Proponha algo bom que seja compatível com a ruindade existente!>”
“As pessoas lamentam a sorte das crianças; não vêem que a raça humana teria perecido se o homem não começasse por ser uma criança.” “quem pode esperar ter todo o controle sobre as conversas e atos que circundam uma criança?”
“Por medo de que o corpo seja deformado por movimentos livres, nós nos apressamos a deformá-lo submetendo-o a uma prensa. Torná-lo-íamos deliberadamente impotente a fim de prevenir que fosse um corpo aleijado!”
“They cry because of the wrong you do them.” “A free child must have ceaseless care, but when he is securely tied we may toss him into a corner and pay no heed to his cries.” “what a barbarous precaution it is to prolong the weakness of children at the expense of fatigue that must be suffered in later life.” “Suffering is the lot of man at every period of life.”
“Augustus, the master of the world which he has conquered and which he governed, himself taught his grandsons to write and to swim”
Les Confessions, livro autobiográfico de R. em que ele expõe suas falhas como pai.
“I will merely observe, contrary to the ordinary opinion, that the tutor of a child ought to be young – just as young as a man can be and be wise. Were it possible, I would have him a child, so that he might become a companion to his pupil and secure his confidence by taking part in his amusements. There are not things enough in common between infancy and mature years, so that there comes to be formed at that distance a really solid attachment. Children sometimes flatter old people, but they never love them.” “There is a great difference, I assure you, between following a young man 4 years and conducting him 25. You give your son a tutor when he is already grown; but I would have him have one before he is born. Your man can take another pupil every 4 years; but mine shall never have but one.”
“it is less reasonable to educate a poor man for becoming rich, than to educate a rich man for becoming poor.”
“Aquele que se incumbe de um aluno doentio e abalável troca sua função de tutor pela de uma enfermeira; ao tratar de uma vida inútil, ele perde o tempo que seria destinado à aumentação de seu valor; e ainda corre o risco de ver uma mãe chorosa reprová-lo algum dia pela morte de um filho que ele manteve longamente vivo para ela.
Eu não me incumbiria de uma criança doente e debilitada, fosse para ele viver 80 anos. Não quero um aluno sempre inútil para si mesmo e para os outros, cuja única ocupação é manter-se vivo, e cujo corpo é um embaraço para a educação da alma. O que eu realizaria com cuidados milimétricos sem propósito, a não ser dobrar a perda para a sociedade ao roubar-lhe dois homens em detrimento de um? Se alguém fosse tomar o meu lugar e se devotar a esse inválido, não teria objeção, e aprovaria sua caridade; mas meu próprio talento não corre nessa linha.” “Não sei de que doença os médicos nos curam, mas sei que eles nos dão algumas bem fatais – covardia, pusilanimidade, credulidade, e medo da morte. Se curam o corpo, destroem a coragem. Que conseqüência se nos apresenta que façam corpos mortos caminhar? Do que precisamos é de homens, e não os vemos advir de suas mãos.” “O sábio Locke, que devotou parte de sua vida ao estudo da medicina, recomendava fortemente que crianças não fossem acompanhadas por médicos; nem por precaução e nem para cuidados triviais.” “A única parte útil da medicina é a higiene; e a higiene é menos uma ciência que uma virtude. Temperança e trabalho são os dois reais médicos do homem; o trabalho afia seu apetite, e a temperança previne-o de abusar-lhe.”
“homens amontoados juntos como ovelhas pereceriam dentro em pouco. O bafo do homem é fatal para seus convivas; isso não é menos verdade literalmente que figurativamente. Cidades são os túmulos da espécie humana.”
“Crianças devem ser banhadas freqüentemente; e na proporção que ganham força a quentura da água deve ser gradualmente arrefecida, até, finalmente, inverno e verão, elas tomarem banho em água fria, e mesmo em água a ponto de congelar. Como, para não expor sua saúde, essa redução de temperatura deve ser lenta, sucessiva e insensível, um termômetro terá de ser empregado com o fito de medições exatas.” “Ao manter-se as crianças vestidas e entre 4 paredes, nas cidades, elas sufocam.” “Crianças criadas em casas muito arrumadas em que aranhas não são toleradas têm medo de aranhas, e em muitos casos esse medo permanece depois de crescidas. Nunca vi camponeses, seja homem, mulher, ou criança, com medo de aranha.”
“Uma criança quer desarranjar tudo que vê; ela quebra e danifica tudo que alcançar; segura um pássaro como seguraria uma pedra, e o estrangula sem saber o que faz.”
“Orgulhar-se de não ter sotaque é orgulhar-se de retirar às sentenças sua graça e força.” “O sotaque mente menos que a fala, e é talvez por essa razão que pessoas cultivadas o temam tanto.”
“First he would have your cane [bengala], presently your watch, next the bird which he sees flying in the air, and finally the stars which he sees glittering in the heavens – in a word, he would have everything he sees; and, short of being God himself, how is he to be satisfied?”
“Do not give your pupil any sort of verbal lesson, for he is to be taught only by experience. Inflict on him no species of punishment, for he does not know what it is to be in fault. Never make him ask your pardon, for he does not know how to offend you.”
“Two pupils from the city will do more mischief in the country than the youth of a whole village.” “To know good and evil, and to understand the reason of human duties, is not the business of a child.”
P. 68 (PDF): “Nothing is more difficult than to distinguish, in infancy, real stupidity from that apparent and deceptive stupidity which is the indication of strong characters. It seems strange, at first sight, that the two extremes should have the same signs, and yet this must needs be so; for, at an age when the man has as yet no real ideas, all the difference that exists between him who has genius and him who has it not, is that the latter gives admittance only to false ideas, while the former, finding no others, gives admittance to none. (…) During his infancy the younger Cato seemed an imbecile in the family. He was taciturn and obstinate, and this was all the judgment that was formed of him. It was only in the antechamber of Sylla that his uncle learned to know him. (…) If Caesar had not lived, perhaps men would always have treated as a visionary that very Cato who penetrated his baleful [doloroso] genius, and foresaw all his projects from afar.”
“You are alarmed at seeing him consume his early years in doing nothing! Really! Is it nothing to be happy? Is it nothing to jump, play, and run, all the day long? In no other part of his life will he be so busy.”
“What would you think of a man who, in order to turn his whole life to profitable account, would never take time to sleep? You will say that he is a man out of his senses; that he does not make use of his time but deprives himself of it; and that to fly from sleep is to run toward death.” Ro(u)be novo sono
“It will seem surprising to some that I include the study of languages among the inutilities of education; but it will be recollected that I am speaking here only of primary studies; and that, whatever may be thought of it, I do not believe that, up to the age of twelve or fifteen years, any child, prodigies excepted, has ever really learned two languages.” “The spirit of each language has its peculiar form, and this difference is doubtless partly the cause and partly the effect of national characteristics. This conjecture seems to be confirmed by the fact that, among all the nations of the earth, language follows the vicissitudes of manners, and is preserved pure or is corrupted just as they are.” Saussure diria que todas as nações da Terra estão corrompidas e depravadas, segundo este raciocínio.
“Nevertheless, we are told that he learns to speak several. This I deny. I have seen such little prodigies that thought they were speaking five or six languages. I have heard them speak German in terms of Latin, French, and Italian, respectively. In fact, they used five or six vocabularies, but they spoke nothing but German. In a word, give children as many synonyms as you please, and you will change the words they utter, but not the language; they will never know but one. § It is to conceal their inaptitude in this respect that they are drilled by preference on dead languages, since there are no longer judges of those who may be called to testify. The familiar use of these languages having for a long time been lost, we are content to imitate the remains of them which we find written in books; and this is what we call speaking them.”
“I dare assert that, after studying cosmography and the sphere for two years, there is not a single child of ten who, by the rules which have been given him, can go from Paris to Saint Denis.”
P. 77: A história da morte de Alexandre, que se envenenou em honra da amizade com um famoso médico, Felipe. Felipe havia sido ordenado a envenenar Alexandre.
“Émile shall never learn anything by heart, not even fables, and not even those of La Fontaine, artless and charming as they are; for the words of fables are no more fables than the words of history are history. (…) Fables may instruct men, but children must be told the bare truth § All children are made to learn the fables of La Fontaine, but there is not one of them who understands them. Even if they were to understand them it would be still worse; for the moral in them is so confused, and so out of proportion to their age, that it would incline them to vice rather than to virtue.” “in the fable of the Ant and the Cricket you fancy you are giving them the cricket for an example, but you are greatly mistaken: it is the ant that they will choose. No one likes to be humiliated.”
“Reading is the scourge of infancy, and almost the sole occupation which we know how to give them. At the age of twelve, Émile will hardly know what a book is. But I shall be told that it is very necessary that he know how to read.” “Through what wonder-working has an art so useful and so agreeable become a torment to infancy? It is because children have been constrained to apply themselves to it against their wills, and because it has been turned to uses which they do not at all comprehend.” “Shall I speak at present of writing? No; I am ashamed to spend my time with such nonsense in a treatise on education.”
“What need has he of learning to foretell rain? He knows that you observe the clouds for him.”
“At eighteen, we learn from physics what a lever is; but there is no little peasant of twelve who does not know how to use a lever better than the first mechanician of the Academy.”
“Our first teachers of philosophy are our feet, our hands, and our eyes. To substitute books for all these is not to teach us to reason, but to teach us to use the reason of others”
“The limbs of a growing child should have plenty of room in their clothing. Nothing should impede their movements or their growth; nothing should fit so closely as to pinion the body. French dress, uncomfortable and unhealthy for men, is especially injurious for children.” “A better plan is to let them wear short skirts for as long a time as possible, then to give them a very loose dress, and to take no pride in showing off their form, a thing which serves only to deform it. Almost all their defects of body and mind come from the same cause: we wish to make men of them before their time.” “There should be little or no head-dress at any time of the year. The ancient Egyptians always went bareheaded, while the Persians covered the head with high tiaras, and they still wear high turbans, whose use, according to Chardin, is made necessary by the climate of the country.”
“In the midst of the manly and sensible precepts which Locke gives us, he falls into contradictions which we should not expect from so exact a reasoner. This very man, who would have children in summer bathe in cold water, would not have them drink cool water when they are warm, nor lie down on the ground in damp places. As if little peasants selected very dry ground on which to sit or to lie, and as if one had ever heard say that the dampness of the earth had ever made one of them ill! To hear the doctors on this subject, one would fancy that all savages are impotent with rheumatism.”
(*) “All this may be very well for savages, but if any enthusiastic disciple of Rousseau or of Locke should apply this hardening process to the children of civilized parents, the result would be like that which followed Peter the Great’s attempt to habituate his naval cadets to drinking sea-water. See Compayré, History of Pedagogy, English tr., p. 198.” Payne
“Children require a long period of sleep, because their physical activity is extreme. One serves as a corrective for the other, and we thus see that they have need of both. Night is the season for repose, as is indicated by Nature.” “Whence it follows that in our climate, as a general rule, men and animals need to sleep longer in winter than in summer.” “No bed is hard for one who falls asleep the moment he lies down.” Professor cruel: “I shall sometimes awaken Émile, less from the fear that he may form the habit of sleeping too long than for the purpose of accustoming him to everything, even to being abruptly awakened. Besides, I should be poorly qualified for my employment if I could not force him to awaken of himself, and to get up, so to speak, at my command, without my saying a single word to him.”
“Children should have many sports by night. This advice is more important than it seems. The night naturally frightens men, and sometimes animals. Reason, knowledge, intelligence, courage, relieve but few people from paying this tribute. I have seen logicians, strong minded men, philosophers, and soldiers, who were intrepid by day, tremble at night like women at the rustling of a leaf. We attribute this affright to the tales told by nurses, but we are mistaken; it has a natural cause. What is this cause? The same which makes the deaf distrustful and the people superstitious ignorance of the things which surround us and of what takes place about us.”
“Let Émile spend his mornings in running barefoot in all seasons around his chamber, up and down stairs, and through the garden. Far from scolding him for this, I shall imitate him; only I shall take care to remove broken glass.”
“As the sight is the sense which is the most intimately connected with the judgments of the mind, it requires a long time to learn to see. Sight must have been compared with touch for a long time in order to accustom the first of these two senses to make a faithful report of forms and distances; without the sense of touch, without progressive movement, the most piercing eyes in the world could not give us an idea of extension. To the oyster, the entire universe must appear only as a mere point; and were this oyster to be informed by a human soul, the world would seem nothing more. It is only by walking, feeling, numbering, and measuring dimensions that we learn to estimate them; but also, if we were always measuring, the eye, reposing on the instrument, would acquire no accuracy.”
“Children, who are great imitators, all try their hand at drawing. I would have my pupil cultivate this art, not exactly for the art itself, but for rendering the eye accurate and the hand flexible; and, in general, it is of very little consequence that he understand such or such an exercise, provided he acquire the perspicacity of sense, and the correct habit of body, which are gained from that exercise. I shall take great care, therefore, not to give him a drawing-master who will give him only imitations to imitate, and will make him draw only from drawings.” “In holding the pencil, I should follow his example; and at first I shall use it as awkwardly as he does.” “I shall begin by tracing a man just as lackeys [alunos] trace them on walls a stroke for each arm, a stroke for each leg, and the fingers larger than the arms. After a very long time we shall both take note of this disproportion; we shall observe that a leg has thickness, and that this thickness is not the same throughout”
O bom quadro não precisa de moldura?
“I have said that geometry is not within the comprehension of children; but this is our fault. We do not perceive that their method is not ours, and that what becomes for us the art of reasoning ought to be for them only the art of seeing. Instead of giving them our method, it would be better for us to borrow theirs; for our way of learning geometry is as much a matter of imagination as of reasoning.” “instead of using a compass to trace a circle, I will trace it with a point at the end of a thread turning about a centre. After this, when I would compare the radii of a circle, Émile will laugh at me, and will give me to understand that the same thread, while stretched tight, can not have traced unequal distances.”
(*) “No experimental process can ever establish the general truth that the sum of the three angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles. We should not confound <geometrical recreations> with geometrical science.”
“I have sometimes asked why we do not offer children the same games of skill which men have, such as tennis, fives, billiards, bow and arrow, foot-ball, and musical instruments.” “We always play games indolently in which we can be unskillful without risk. A falling shuttle-cock does harm to no one; but nothing invigorates the arms like having to protect the head with them, and nothing makes the sight so accurate as having to protect the eyes from blows.”
“A perfect music is that which best unites these three voices. Children are incapable of this music, and their singing never has soul. So also, in the speaking voice, their language has no accent; they cry, but they do not modulate; and as there is little accent in their conversation, there is little energy in their voice. The speech of our pupil will be more uniform and still more simple, because his passions, not yet being awakened, will not mingle their language with his own. Therefore, do not make him recite parts in tragedy, or in comedy, nor attempt to teach him, as the phrase is, to declaim.”
“Moreover, in order to know music well, it does not suffice to render it; it is necessary to compose it, and one should be learned along with the other, for except in this way music is never very well learned.”
The farther the father fades…
“For myself I would say, on the contrary, that it is only the French who do not know how to eat, since such a peculiar art is required in order to render their food palatable.” “Gluttony is the vice of natures which have no substance in them. The soul of a glutton is all in his palate – he is made only for eating; in his stupid incapacity, he is himself only at table, he is able to judge only of dishes. Leave him to this employment without regret; both for ourselves and for him, this employment is better for him than any other.” “The child thinks of nothing but eating; but in adolescence we no longer think of it; for everything tastes good, and we have many other things to occupy our thoughts.”
“The clock strikes, and what a change! In a moment his eye grows dull and his mirth ceases; adieu to joy, adieu to frolicsome sports. A stern and angry man takes him by the hand, says to him gravely, <Come on, sir!> and leads him away. In the room which they enter I discover books. Books! What cheerless furniture for one of his age! The poor child allows himself to be led away, turns a regretful eye on all that surrounds him, holds his peace as he goes, his eyes are swollen with tears which he dares not shed, and his heart heavy with sighs which he dares not utter.”
“His face, which has not been glued down to books, does not rest on his stomach, and there is no need of telling him to hold up his head.”
“A teacher thinks of his own interest rather than that of his pupil. He endeavors to prove that he does not waste his time, and that he earns the money which is paid him; and so he furnishes the child with acquisitions capable of easy display, and which can be exhibited at will. Provided it can easily be seen, it matters not whether what he learns is useful.”
É contado que Alexandre O Grande, em sua infância, fôra o único a conseguir cavalgar o cavalo irado Bucéfalo. Ele descobriu que Bucéfalo nada temia, a não ser a própria sombra, e com a descoberta da causa veio a descoberta do remédio… Gata, eu quero cavalgar no seu bucéfalo!
Oh, but the human race is so easy to get lost, ‘cause there are monkeys who can surpass the negroes!
“I receive pay for my tricks, not for my lessons.”
“All this parade of instruments and machines displeases me. The scientific atmosphere kills science. All these machines either frighten the child, or their appearance divides and absorbs the attention which he owes to their effects.”
“By collecting machines about us we no longer find them within ourselves.” O homemtécnica de Ráidega
“Instead of making a child stick to his books, if I employ him in a workshop, his hands labor to the profit of his mind; he becomes a philosopher, but fancies he is only a workman.”
“those multitudes of foolish and tiresome questions with which children weary all those who are about them, without respite and without profit, more to exercise over them some sort of domination than to derive any advantage from them.” Por quê?
“Things! things! I shall never repeat often enough that we give too much power to words. With our babbling education we make nothing but babblers.”
“I have often observed that in the learned instructions which we give to children we think less of making ourselves heard by them than by the grand personages who are present. I am very certain of what I have now said, for I have observed this very thing of myself.”
“a man of his stature is buried in bushes.”
“do you think that I should fail to weep if I could dine on my tears?”
O adolescente de 15 anos de Rousseau se comporta como nossa criança de 10 anos, talvez de 8.
“I hate books; they merely teach us to talk of what we do not know.” (*) “Pestalozzi and even Plato affected a contempt for books: yet they were prolific authors, and owe their immortality to their writings. There are modern instances of this self-inflicted and unconscious satire of writing books to prove that books are useless!” Se eu ao menos pudesse falar de tudo que não sei… Heil, Hitler!
my despite for sea ribes
(*) “Rousseau owed many of his ideas to the greater writers of ancient and modern times; but the source of his inspiration was Robinson Crusoé.”
“Whatever men have made, men may destroy; there are no ineffaceable characters save those which Nature impresses, and Nature makes neither princes, nor millionaires, nor lords.”
“I see that he owes his existence solely to his crown, and that if he were not king he would be nothing at all. But he who loses his crown and does without it, is then superior to it. From the rank of king, which a craven, a villain, or a madman might occupy as well, he ascends to the state of man which so few men know how to fill.”
UMA LIÇÃO PARA O DIOGO (EMBORA R. ESTEJA ERRADO): “<But,> you say, <my father served society while gaining this property.> Be it so; he has paid his own debt, but not yours. You owe more to others than as though you were born without property; you were favored in your birth. It is not just that what one man has done for society should release another from what he owes it; for each one, owing his entire self, can pay only for himself, and no father can transmit to his son the right of being useless to his fellows; yet that is what he does, according to you, in leaving him his riches, which are the proof and reward of labor.” “Outside of society, an isolated man, owing nothing to any one, has a right to live as he pleases; but in society, where he necessarily lives at the expense of others, he owes them in labor the price of his support; to this there is no exception. To work, then, is a duty indispensable to social man. Rich or poor, powerful or weak, every idle citizen is a knave.”
“I insist absolutely that Émile shall learn a trade. <An honorable trade, at least,> you will say. What does this term mean? Is not every trade honorable that is useful to the public? I do not want him to be an embroiderer, a gilder, or a varnisher, like Locke’s gentleman; neither do I want him to be a musician, a comedian, or a writer of books.*
* <You yourself are one,> some one will say. I am, to my sorrow, I acknowledge; and my faults, which I think I have sufficiently expiated, are no reasons why others should have similar ones. I do not write to excuse my faults, but to prevent my readers from imitating them.” A diligência chegou tarde, Rousseau! Eu sou outro você! Vamos salvar, juntos, a próxima geração?! Hmm, pouco provável… Eles estão ocupados demais jogando League of Legends para nos LER… Mas eis aí um progresso, quem sabe!
“I would rather have him a cobbler [sapateiro; torta de fruta!] than a poet; I would rather have him pave the highways than to decorate china [porcelana].”
“The great secret of education is to make the exercises of the body and of the mind always serve as a recreation for each other.”
Músculos doem, porque exagerei. Pensando no futuro de Rastignac e Mademoiselle Taillefer eu relaxo a postura, mas enervo e franzo minha fronte. Logo quererei caminhar, fazer uma promenade pelas aléias, en bouleversant le boulevard.
“Émile has only natural and purely physical knowledge. He does not know even the name of history, nor what metaphysics and ethics are.”
“At first we do not know how to live; soon we are no longer able to live; and in the interval which separates these two useless extremities three quarters of the time which remains to us is consumed in sleep, in labor, in suffering, in constraint, in troubles of every description.”
“and whatever God wishes a man to do he does not cause it to be told to him by another man, but he says it to him himself, he writes it in the depths of his heart.”
À Tharsila na terapia:
Lembrei de você ao ler este trecho de Rousseau – Emílio, em que o autor elabora sucintamente seu conceito de “amor de si” em contraposição a “amor-próprio”. Vemos que talvez existam tantos conceitos de amor-próprio ou “auto-estima” quantas forem as cabeças!
[Voltei a trabalhar hoje, chego e não tenho conexão com a Internet nem mouse que funcione; tento resolver o problema e no começo (ou: até o momento) ninguém sabe o que houve… isso que eu chamo de pátria educadora!… Hehe, portanto, assim que voltar a me conectar ao mundo estarei enviando esse fragmento… acho que terei tempo de sobra para traduzir o trecho se você desejar (não sei seu nível de conhecimento do Inglês)… PS: o trecho após o asterisco, do próprio punho do Rousseau, parece ter sido feito sob encomenda para mim nas nossas sessões – vira-e-mexe parece que estou lendo justamente o que devia ler no momento em que estou lendo!]
“The love of self (amour de soi), which regards only ourselves, is content when our real needs are satisfied; but self-love (amour-propre), which makes comparisons, is never satisfied, and could not be, because this feeling, by preferring ourselves to others, also requires that others prefer ourselves to them – a thing which is impossible.* (…) Thus, that which makes man essentially good is to have few needs and to compare himself but little with others; while that which makes him essentially bad is to have many needs and to pay great deference to opinion.
(*) Rousseau distinguishes love of self (amour de soi) from self-love (amour-propre). The first feeling is directed toward simple well-being, has no reference whatever to others, and is unselfish. The second feeling, on the contrary, leads the individual to compare himself with others, and sometimes to seek his own advantage at their expense. Our term self-love includes both meanings.”
“The instructions of nature are tardy and slow, while those of men are almost always premature. In the first case, the senses arouse the imagination; and in the second, the imagination arouses the senses and gives them a precocious activity which can not fail to enervate and enfeeble, first the individual, and then, in the course of time, the species itself. [O MITO DA BESTA-LOIRA PUDICA NA GELEIRA:] A more general and a more trustworthy observation than that of the effect of climate is that puberty and sexual power always come earlier among educated and refined people than among ignorant and barbarous people [o mal da república tropical!].” Explicação: a educação moderna, ao consistir num elevamento da censura, instiga a curiosidade no “pré-jovem”, tendo um efeito inverso e perverso em seu desenvolvimento físico e mental!
“and if you are not sure of keeping him in ignorance of the difference of the sexes up to his sixteenth year, take care that he learn it before the age of ten.”
“Modesty is born only with the knowledge of evil”
“Whoever blushes is already guilty; true innocence is ashamed of nothing.”
“There is a certain artlessness of language which becomes innocence and is pleasing to it; this is the true tone which turns aside a child from a dangerous curiosity.”
“giggling governesses address conversation to them at 4 years which the most shameless would not dare to hold at 15. These nurses soon forget what they have said, but the children never forget what they have heard. Licentious conversation leads to dissolute manners; a vile servant makes a child debauched”
“show them only pictures which are touching but modest, which move without seducing” A internet agradece.
“Thucydides, in my opinion, is the true model for historians.” “The good Herodotus, without portraits, without maxims, but flowing, artless, and full of details the most capable of interesting and pleasing, would perhaps be the best of historians if these very details did not often degenerate into puerile simplicities, better adapted to spoil the taste of youth than to form it. Discernment is already necessary for reading him.” “We often find in a battle gained or lost the reason of a revolution which, even before that battle, had become inevitable.” “The fury of systems having taken possession of them all, nobody attempts to see things as they are, but only so far as they are in accord with his system.”
avoid a void
“<The writers of lives who please me most,> says Montaigne, <are those who take more pleasure in counsels than in events, more in what proceeds from within than in what comes from without; and this is why in all respects my man is Plutarch.>”
“There is no folly, save vanity, of which we can not cure a man who is not a fool.”
“The lesson which revolts does not profit. I know nothing more stupid than this saying, I told you so.” “But if to his chagrin you add reproaches, he will hate you, and will make it a law no longer to listen to you, as though to prove to you that he does not think as you do on the importance of your advice.” “In saying to him, for example, that a thousand others have committed the same faults, you will place him far above his own reckoning; you will correct him by not seeming to pity him; for, to one who believes he is of more account than other men, it is a very mortifying excuse to be consoled by their example”
muskox buttocks buckocks
“Through what strange turn of mind is it that we are taught so many useless things, while the art of self-conduct counts for nothing? It is asserted that we are trained for society, and yet we are taught as though each of us was to spend his life in thinking alone in his cell, or in discussing idle questions with the indifferent. You fancy you are teaching your pupils to live by teaching them certain contortions of the body and certain verbal formula which have no significance. (…) The laws do not permit young men to transact their own business and to dispose of their own property; but of what use would these precautions be to them if up to the prescribed age they could acquire no experience? They would have gained nothing by waiting, and would be just as inexperienced at 25 as at 15.”
“a man superior to others, but not able to raise them to his level, to know how to condescend to theirs!”
“Without having experienced the human passions, he knows their illusions and their manner of acting.”
“Locke would have us begin with the study of mind, and pass thence to the study of the body. This is the method of superstition, of prejudice, and of error, but not that of reason, nor even of well-ordered nature; it is to close one’s eyes in order to learn how to see. We must have studied the body for a long time in order to form a correct notion of mind and to suspect that it exists. The contrary order serves only to establish materialism.”
“<I would much prefer,> says the good Plutarch, <that one should believe there is no Plutarch in existence, than to say that Plutarch is unjust, envious, jealous, and so tyrannical as to exact more than he gives power to perform.>”
“If I dissimulate and pretend to see nothing, he takes advantage of my weakness; thinking that he deceives me, he holds me in contempt, and I am the accomplice of his ruin. If I attempt to hold him back, the time for it is passed, and he no longer listens to me. I become disagreeable to him, odious, unendurable, and he will not be likely to lose any time in getting rid of me.”
“Young men who are found wise on these subjects, without knowing how they became so, have never gained their wisdom with impunity.”
“But why does the child choose secret confidants? Always through the tyranny of those who govern him. Why should he conceal himself from them if he were not forced to do so? Why should he complain of them if he had no subject of complaint? Naturally they are his first confidants; and we see from the eagerness with which he comes to tell them what he thinks, that he believes that he has only half thought it until he has told them. Consider that, if the child fears neither lecture nor reprimand on your part, he will always tell you everything; and that no one will dare confide anything to him which he ought to conceal from you, if he is very sure that he will conceal nothing from you.” “but if he becomes more timid and more reserved, and I perceive in his conversation the first embarassment from shame, the instinct is already developing itself, and the idea of evil is already beginning to be associated with it.” O engraçado é que isso está no capítulo dos 15 aos 20 anos, quando deveria estar no capítulo dos 7 anos de idade.
Drama queen Rousseau: “Reading, solitude, idleness, an aimless and sedentary life, intercourse with young men and women, these are the paths dangerous to open to one of his age, and which ceaselessly keep him alongside of peril.”
“When the hands are fully occupied, the imagination is in repose; when the body is very weary, the heart does not become excited.”
“If hunting is ever an innocent pleasure, if it is ever fitting for a man, it is now that we must have recourse to it.”
“Diana has been represented as the enemy of love, and the allegory is very appropriate. The languors of love spring only from a pleasing repose; violent exercise suppresses tender emotions.” Deixa eu correr pra você, gata!
MONTESQUIEU APLICADO ÀS PULSÕES (“Só a paixão freia a paixão”): “We have no hold on the passions save through the passions; it is through their empire that we must make war on their tyranny, and it is always from Nature herself that we must draw the instruments proper for controlling her.”
“Give me a child of 12 years who knows nothing at all, and at 15 I will guarantee to make him as wise as he whom you have instructed from infancy”
“Whoever has passed all his youth at a distance from cultivated society will maintain there for the rest of his life an air of embarrassment and restraint, a style of conversation that is always inappropriate, and dull and awkward manners which the habit of living there no longer corrects, and which become only the more ridiculous by the effort to escape from them.”
“What is real love itself, if not a dream, a fiction, an illusion? We love the picture which we form much more than the object to which we apply it. If we saw what we love exactly as it is, there would no longer be any love in the world. When we cease to love, the person whom we loved remains the same as before, but we no longer see her the same. The veil of delusion falls, and love vanishes.” “Sophie is so modest! How will he view their advances? Sophie has such simplicity! How will he love their airs?”
“You can not imagine how Émile, at the age of twenty, can be docile. How different our ideas are! As for me, I can not conceive how he could be docile at ten; for what hold had I on him at that age? It cost me the cares of fifteen years to secure that hold. (…) I grant to him, it is true, the appearance of independence; but he was never in more complete subjection, for his obedience is the result of his will.” “He sets too little value on the judgments of men to incur their prejudices, and is not at all anxious to be esteemed before being known.” But he would like to be known. And does not know exactly how. What to do with his know-how.
“Just the contrary. If, alone, he takes no account whatever of other men, does it follow that he should take no account of them while living with them?”
Era uma vez o gentil Emílio no ônibus: “He indicates no preference for them over himself in his manners, because he does not prefer them in his heart; but, on the other hand, he does not treat them with an indifference which he is very far from feeling; if he has not the formalities of politeness, he has the active instincts of humanity. He does not love to see any one suffer. He will not offer his place to another through affectation, but will yield it to him voluntarily through goodness of heart, if, seeing him neglected, he thinks that this neglect mortifies him; for it will cost my young man less to remain standing voluntarily than to see the other remain standing by compulsion.”
“Generally speaking, people who know little speak much, and people who know much speak little.” D*** “not for the sake of seeming well informed in social usages, nor to affect the airs of a polished gentleman, but, on the contrary, for the sake of escaping notice, for fear that he may be observed; and he is never more at ease than when no one is paying attention to him.” “Although, on entering society, he is in absolute ignorance of its usages, he is not, on this account timid and nervous. If he keeps in the background, it is not through embarrassment, but because in order to see well, he must not be seen; for he is hardly disturbed by what people think of him, and ridicule does not cause him the least fear.”
SÍNDROME DE GON: “Émile will be, if you please, an amiable foreigner, and at first his peculiarities will be pardoned by saying: <He will outgrow all that!> In the end, people will become perfectly accustomed to his manners, and, seeing that he does not change them, he will again be pardoned for them by saying: <He was made so!>” “He will not be fêted in society as a popular man, but people will love him without knowing why.” “He aims neither at eccentricity nor brilliancy. Émile is a man of good sense, and wishes to be nothing else”
“In running he would be the fleetest, in a contest the strongest, in work the most clever, and in games of skill the most dexterous; but he will care little for advantages which are not clear in themselves, but which need to be established by the judgment of others as of having more genius than another, of being a better talker, of being more learned, etc.; still less those which become no one, as of being better born, of being thought richer”
“he philosophizes on the principles of taste, and this is the study that is proper for him during this period.” “taste is corrupted by an excessive delicacy, which makes us sensitive to things which the most of mankind do not perceive. (…) In disputes as to the preference, philosophy and learning are exhausted (…) At this moment there is perhaps no civilized place on the globe where the general taste is as bad as in Paris. And yet it is in this capital that good taste is cultivated; and there appear but few books esteemed in Europe whose author was not trained in Paris. Those who think it suffices to read the books which are written there are deceived, we learn much more from the conversation of authors than from their books (…) If you have a spark of genius, come and spend a year in Paris; you will soon be all you are capable of being, or you will never be anything.”
“It is of little account to learn languages for themselves, for their use is not so important as we think; but the study of language leads to the study of general grammar. We must learn Latin in order to know French well; and we must study and compare both in order to understand the rules of the art of speaking.”
“There is, moreover, a certain simplicity of taste which penetrates the heart and which is found only in the writings of the ancients. In oratory, in poetry, in every species of literature, he will find them, just as in history, abundant in matter and sober in judgment. Our authors, on the contrary, say little and talk much. To be ever giving their judgment for law is not the means of forming our own. The difference between the two tastes is visible on monuments, and even on tombstones. Ours are covered with eulogies, while on those of the ancients we read facts:
Sta, viator; heroem calcas. [Pare, peregrino; você está pisando sobre o pó de um herói]”
“being the first, the ancients are nearer to Nature, and have more native genius. Whatever La Motte and the Abbé Terrasson may say to the contrary, there is no real progress in reason in the human race, because what is gained on the one hand is lost on the other; for as all minds always start from the same point, and as the time spent in learning what others have thought is lost for teaching one’s self how to think, we have more acquired knowledge and less vigor of mind. Our minds, like our hands, are trained to do everything with tools, and nothing by themselves.” “I take Émile to the theatre in order to study, not manners, but taste; for it is there, in particular, that he will be presented to those who know how to reflect. (…) The study of the theatre leads to that of poetry; they have exactly the same object. If he has the least spark of taste for poetry, with what pleasure he will cultivate the languages of poets, the Greek, the Latin, and the Italian!” E que depreciação monstruosa ter lido os renascentistas em Inglês!
“They will be delicious to him at an age and in circumstances when the heart is interested so charmingly in all varieties of beauty calculated to touch it. Imagine on one side my Émile, and on the other a college blade, reading the fourth book of the AEneid, or Tibullus, or the Banquet of Plato. What a difference!” Seria eu um retardado, no sentido anacrônico do termo? Num livro em que Rousseau sempre prescreve as coisas com atraso em relação a nossa época tão precoce, eu nunca jamais teria tido o prazer de gastar horas com um Platão em mãos, atualizando este blog, que para mim só passou a fazer real sentido em 2008, justo à segunda década de vida… Mas até seu Emílio se adianta a mim, logo neste hábito que me é tão caro!
“Be a man of feeling, but be a wise man. If you are but one of these, you are nothing.” “I have said elsewhere that taste is but the art of discerning the value of little things (…) since the happiness of life depends on the contexture of little things, such concerns are far from being unimportant” “I should be temperate for sensual reasons.”
“and in my viands I should always prefer those which she has made the most toothsome, and which have passed through the fewest hands in order to reach my table.”
“who, seeking for summer in winter and winter in summer, would have cold in Italy and heat in the north.”
“In order to be well served, I would have few domestics. A private citizen derives more real service from a single servant than a duke from the ten gentlemen who surround him.”
“My furniture should be as simple as my tastes. I would have neither picture-gallery nor library, especially if I loved books and were a judge of pictures.”
Anti-Ronaldo Fenômeno, o PokerStars: “Play is not an amusement for a rich man, but the resource of an idler; and my pleasures would give me too much employment to leave me much time to be so poorly employed. Being solitary and poor, I do not play at all, save sometimes at chess, and this is too much. (…) We rarely see thinkers who take much pleasure in play, for it suspends this habit, or employs it in dry combinations”
“The dishes would be served without order, appetite dispensing with manners”
“it is a hundred times more easy to be happy than to appear so.”
“Adeus a Paris, então, cidade tão famosa, barulhenta, fumacenta, e suja, onde as mulheres não mais acreditam na honra, nem os homens na virtude. Adeus, Paris. Como estamos em busca de amor, felicidade, e inocência, não estaremos jamais longe o bastante de ti.”
A partir da p. 260, a caracterização de Sophie: trechos que vão irritar a Brenda!
“His merit lies in his power; he pleases simply because he is strong. I grant that this is not the law of love, but it is the law of Nature, which is anterior even to love.”
A burguesa crítica rousseauana de Platão: “As though it were not through the little community, which is the family, that the heart becomes attached to the great! And as though it were not the good son, the good husband, and the good father, who makes the good citizen!”
“You are always saying that women have faults which you have not. Your pride deceives you. They would be faults in you, but they are virtues in them; and everything would not go so well if they did not have them.”
Brilhante e rafaelítica análise?
“Woman is worth more as a woman, but less as a man; wherever she improves her rights she has the advantage, and wherever she attempts to usurp ours she remains inferior to us. Only exceptional cases can be urged against this general truth – the usual mode of argument adopted by the gallant partisans of the fair sex.” “A mulher vale mais como mulher, mas menos como homem; onde quer que ela aperfeiçoe seus direitos ela tem a vantagem, e onde quer que ela procure usurpar os nossos ela permanece inferior a nós. Só casos excepcionais podem ser evocados contra essa verdade geral – a principal argumentação utilizada pelos galantes partidários do sexo frágil.”
“Ao tentar usurpar nossas vantagens elas não abandonam as próprias (…) conseqüentemente, não podendo manejar ambas propriamente, devido a sua incompatibilidade inata, esbarram em suas próprias limitações sem predominar nas nossas, assim perdendo metade de seu valor.” “Acredite em mim, mãe judiciosa, não faça de sua filha um bom homem, como se quisesse passar a perna na Natureza, mas faça dela sim uma boa mulher, e tenha certeza de que ela valerá mais para si mesma e para nós.” “the whole education of women ought to be relative to men. To please them, to be useful to them, to make themselves loved and honored by them, to educate them when young, to care for them when grown, to counsel them, to console them, and to make life agreeable and sweet to them – these are the duties of women at all times, and what should be taught them from their infancy.” “Little girls, almost from birth, have a love for dress. Not content with being pretty, they wish to be thought so. We see in their little airs that this care already occupies their minds; and they no sooner understand what is said to them than we control them by telling them what people will think of them. The same motive, very indiscreetly presented to little boys, is very far from having the same power over them.” “Delicacy is not languor, and one need not be sickly in order to please.” “Once opened, this first route is easy to follow; sewing, embroidery, and lace-work will come of themselves. Tapestry is not so much to their liking; and as furniture is not connected with the person, but with mere opinion, it is too far out of their reach. Tapestry is the amusement of women; young girls will never take very great pleasure in it.” “As long as they live they will be subject to the most continual and the most severe restraint – that which is imposed by the laws of decorum.” “By reason of our senseless customs, the life of a good woman is a perpetual combat with herself; and it is just that this sex share the discomfort of the evils which it has caused us.” “Do not deny them gayety, laughter, noise, and sportive diversions; but prevent them from being satiated with one and running to the other; never suffer them for a single moment of their lives to know themselves free from restraint.” “Made to obey a being as imperfect as man, often so full of vices, and always so full of faults, she ought early to learn to suffer even injustice, and to endure the wrongs of a husband without complaint” “Heaven has not made them insinuating and persuasive in order to become waspish; has not made them weak in order to be imperious; has not given them so gentle a voice in order to use harsh language; and has not made their features so delicate in order to disfigure them by anger. When they become angry they forget themselves; they often have reason to complain, but they are always wrong in scolding. (…) The husband who is too mild may make a woman impertinent; but, unless a man is a brute, the gentleness of a wife reforms him, and triumphs over him sooner or later.” “the little girls who have only just come into the world, so to speak; compare them with little boys of the same age, and if the latter do not seem dull, thoughtless, and stupid in their presence, I shall be unquestionably wrong.” “I know that austere teachers would have young girls taught neither singing, dancing, nor any other accomplishment. This seems to me ludicrous. To whom, then, would they have these things taught? To boys? To whom does it pertain, by preference, to have these talents: to men, or to women? To no one, they will reply; profane songs are so many crimes; the dance is an invention of the devil; a young girl ought to have no amusement save her work and her prayers. Strange amusements these for a child of ten!” “I can imagine nothing more ridiculous than to see an old dancing-master approach with a grim air young persons who want merely to laugh, and, while teaching them his frivolous science, assume a tone more pedantic and magisterial than if it were their catechism he was teaching.” “I shall never be made to believe that the same attitudes, the same steps, the same movements, the same gestures, and the same dances are equally becoming to a little brunette, lively and keen, and to a tall, beautiful blonde with languishing eyes.” “Women have a flexible tongue; they speak sooner, more easily, and more agreeably than men. They are accused also of speaking more. This is proper, and I would willingly change this reproach into a commendation. With them the mouth and the eyes have the same activity, and for the same reason. A man says what he knows, and a woman what is pleasing. In order to speak, one needs knowledge and the other taste” Estranha verdade que agrada, essa.
“It is easy to see that if boys are not in a condition to form any true idea of religion, for a still stronger reason the same idea is above the conception of girls. It is on this very account that I would speak to them the earlier on this subject; for if we must wait till they are in a condition to discuss these profound questions methodically, we run the risk of never speaking to them on this subject.” “For the reason that the conduct of woman is subject to public opinion, her belief is subject to authority. Every daughter should have the religion of her mother, and every wife that of her husband. Even were this religion false, the docility which makes the mother and the daughter submit to the order of nature expunges in the sight of God the sin of error. As they are not in a condition to judge for themselves, women should receive the decision of fathers and husbands as they would the decision of the Church.” “Always extremists, they are all free-thinkers or devotees; none of them are able to combine discretion with piety.”
“I wish some man who thoroughly knows the steps of progress in the child’s mind would write a catechism for him. This would perhaps be the most useful book that was ever written”
“To what condition should we reduce women if we make public prejudice the law of their conduct? Let us not abase to this point the sex which governs us, and which honors us when we have not degraded it. There exists for the whole human species a rule anterior to opinion. (…) § This rule is the inner moral sense.” “Are women capable of solid reasoning? Is it important for them to cultivate it? Will they cultivate it with success? Is this culture useful to the functions imposed on them? Is it compatible with the simplicity which is becoming to them?” “The reason which leads man to the knowledge of his duties is not very complex; and the reason which leads woman to the knowledge of hers is still simpler.” “The search for abstract and speculative truths, principles, and scientific axioms, whatever tends to generalize ideas, does not fall within the compass of women; all their studies ought to have reference to the practical; it is for them to make the application of the principles which man has discovered, and to make the observations which lead man to the establishment of principles. All the reflections of women which are not immediately connected with their duties ought to be directed to the study of men and to that pleasure-giving knowledge which has only taste for its object; for as to works of genius, they are out of their reach, nor have they sufficient accuracy and attention to succeed in the exact sciences; and as to the physical sciences, they fall to that one of the two which is the most active, the most stirring, which sees the most objects, which has the most strength, and which exercises it most in judging of the relations of sensible beings and of the laws of nature.” “She must therefore make a profound study of the mind of man, not the mind of man in general, through abstraction, but the mind of the men who surround her, the mind of the men to whom she is subject, either by law or by opinion.” “It is for women to discover, so to speak, an experimental ethics, and for us to reduce it to a system. Woman has more spirit and man more genius; woman observes and man reasons.” “The world is woman’s book; when she reads it wrong, it is her fault or some passion blinds her.” “In France girls live in convents and women travel the world over. Among the ancients it was just the contrary: girls, as I have said, indulged in sports and public festivals, while the women lived in retirement. This custom was the more reasonable and better maintained the public morals. (…) Mothers, at least make companions of your daughters. Give them a sense of uprightness and a soul of honor, and then conceal nothing from them, nothing which a chaste eye may look at. Balls, banquets, games, even the theatre, everything which, wrongly viewed, makes the charm of unadvised youth, may be offered without risk to uncorrupted eyes. The better they see these noisy pleasures the sooner will they be disgusted with them.” “I hear the clamor which is raised against me.”
“The convents are veritable schools of coquetry – not of that honest coquetry of which I have spoken, but of that which produces all the caprices of women and makes the most extravagant female fops [dandismos; coisas de janota; almofadinhagens].” “it seems to me that, in general, Protestant countries have more family affection, more worthy wives, and more tender mothers than Catholic countries”
“Unfortunately, private education in our large cities no longer exists. Society there is so general and so mixed that there is no longer an asylum for retreat, and we live in public even at home. By reason of living with everybody we no longer have a family, we hardly know our parents, we see them as strangers, and the simplicity of domestic manners has become extinct along with the sweet familiarity which constituted its charm.”
“In the large cities the depravation begins with life, and in the small it begins with reason. Young women from the provinces, taught to despise the happy simplicity of their manners, make haste to come to Paris to share the corruption of ours” “Only fools are loud in their conduct; women who are wise create no sensation.”
“Gloomy lessons serve only to involve in hatred both those who give them and all that they say.”
“and if she were more perfect she would be less pleasing.” “Sophie is not beautiful; but in her presence men forget beautiful women, and beautiful women are discontented with themselves.” “she charms, but no one can tell why.” “She has also devoted herself to all the details of housekeeping. She is acquainted with the kitchen and the pantry; she knows the price of provisions, and also their qualities; she has a thorough knowledge of book-keeping, and serves her mother as housekeeper.” “It is not with girls as with boys, who can be governed up to a certain point by their appetite. This inclination has its consequences for the sex; it is too dangerous to go unchecked. The little Sophie, in her girlhood, going alone into her mother’s pantry, did not always come back empty-handed, and her fidelity with respect to sugar-plums and bonbons was not above suspicion. Her mother detected her, reproved her, punished her, and made her fast. At last she succeeded in persuading her that bonbons spoiled the teeth, and that eating too much made one stout. In this way Sophie reformed. As she grew up she contracted other tastes, which have turned her aside from this low sensuality. In women, as in men, as soon as the heart grows warm gluttony is no longer a dominant vice. Sophie has preserved the characteristic taste of her sex: she likes milk, butter, cream, and sweetmeats; is fond of pastry and dessert, but eats very little meat; she has never tasted either wine or intoxicating liquors. Moreover, she eats very moderately of everything; her sex, less laborious than ours, has less need to repair its waste.” “Sophie is naturally gay – she was even frolicsome in her childhood; but little by little her mother has taken care to repress her giddy airs, for fear that too sudden a change might ere long apprise her of the moment which had rendered it necessary.” “Woman is made to submit to man, and even to endure his injustice. You will never reduce young boys to the same point; in them the inner sense rises in revolt against injustice; nature has not made them for tolerating it.” “Sophie loves virtue, and this love has become her ruling passion. She loves it because there is nothing so beautiful as virtue; she loves it because virtue constitutes the glory of woman, and a virtuous woman seems to her almost equal to an angel” “Sophie will be chaste and upright even to her last breath” “She speaks of the absent only with the greatest circumspection, especially if they are women. She thinks that what makes them slanderous and satirical is the habit of speaking of their own sex; for as long as they restrict themselves to speaking of ours they are only just.” “although she is not tall, she has never wished for high heels; she has feet that are small enough to do without them.”
ROUSSEAU ENSINANDO A CORTAR CANTADAS DE PEDREIRO NO SÉCULO XVIII
“Deixe o bonitão loquaz cumprimentá-la, exortá-la em altos termos por sua esperteza, por sua beleza, por suas graças, e pela felicidade incomprável de agradar-lhe, e ela o interromperá prontamente dizendo com polidez: <Senhor, receio ter conhecimento dessas coisas melhor do que o senhor, e se não temos nada melhor sobre o que conversar, penso que devemos encerrar a conversação neste mesmo instante.>”
Não corta o meu barato, gata, corta o meu carão.
Ou sou seu cachorrinho ou sou meu próprio demônio. Você me pediu para ir com calma, mas eu fui tão calmo quanto uma tsunami umedecendo a praia desguarnecida, arrancando as raízes das árvores mais anciãs!
Luneta profana, é o que eu nunca vou usar. No meio da montanha-russa eu não sei sentar!
Deus-micróbio: ou plenipotente ou um nada levado pelo vento das circunstâncias e emoções. microDeus-óbito.
Estou tendo um AVC. Vou terminar de tê-lo quando eu morrer. Isso pode levar décadas.
“With such a great maturity of judgment, and developed in all respects like a girl of twenty, Sophie at fifteen will not be treated by her parents as a child. (…) The happiness of a noble girl consists in making a good man happy. We must therefore think of your marriage, and we must think of it thus early, for on marriage depends the destiny of life, and there is never too much time for thinking of this.” “Nada é mais difícil do que a escolha de um bom marido, salvo, talvez, a de uma boa esposa. Sofia, você deve ser essa esposa tão rara.” “but, although you have good judgment and know your own merits, you are lacking in experience, and do not know to what extent men can disguise themselves. An adroit rascal may study your tastes in order to lead you astray, and in your presence feign virtues which he does not have. This one might ruin you, Sophie, before you were aware of it, and you would become conscious of your error only to weep over it [LA FEMME DE 30 ANS]. The most dangerous of all snares, and the only one which reason can not avoid, is that of the senses. If you ever have the misfortune to fall into it, you will see nothing but illusions and idle fancies; your eyes will be fascinated, your judgment will be unsettled, your will will be corrupted, and you will cherish even your illusion, and when you are in a condition to be conscious of it you will not disown it. (…) As long as you are cool-headed, remain your own judge; but as soon as you are in love, then trust the care of yourself to your mother.” “In the two sexes I know of but two classes that are really distinct: people who think and people who do not think; and this difference depends almost wholly on education. A man belonging to the first of these two classes ought not to form an alliance with the second; for the greatest charm of companionship fails him when, having a wife, he is reduced to thinking alone. Men who devote their whole lives to working for a living have no other idea than that of their work or their interests, and their whole mind seems to be at the ends of their fingers.” “The conscience is the clearest of philosophers, and we need not know Cicero’s Offices in order to be a man of worth; and the most honorable woman in the world has perhaps the least idea of what honor is.” “It is then not meet for an educated man to take a wife who is uneducated, nor, consequently, to marry into a class where education is impossible. But I would a hundred times prefer a simple girl, rudely brought up, to a girl of learning and wit who should come to establish in my house a literary tribunal of which she should make herself the president. A woman of wit is the scourge of her husband, her children, her friends, her servants, of everybody. (…) Away from home she is always the subject of ridicule, and is very justly criticised, as one never fails of being the moment she leaves her proper station and enters one for which she is not adapted” “Readers, I appeal to you on your honor which gives you the better opinion of a woman as you enter her room, which makes you approach her with the greater respect: to see her occupied with the duties of her sex, with her household cares, the garments of her children lying around her; or, to find her writing verses on her dressing-table, surrounded with all sorts of pamphlets and sheets of notepaper in every variety of color? If all the men in the world were sensible, every girl of letters would remain unmarried all her life.”
“It is asked whether it is good for young men to travel, and the question is in great dispute. If it were differently stated, and it were asked whether it is good for men to have traveled, perhaps there would not be so much discussion. § The abuse of books kills science. Thinking they know what they have read, men think they can dispense with learning it.” “Of all the centuries of literature there is not one in which there has been so much reading as in this, and not one in which men have been less wise; of all the countries of Europe, there is not one where so many histories and travels have been printed as in France, and not one where less is known of the genius and customs of other countries. So many books make us neglect the book of the world” “A Parisian fancies he knows men, while he knows only Frenchmen. (…) we must have lived with them, in order to believe that with so much spirit they can also be so stupid. The queer thing about it is, that each of them has read, perhaps ten times, the description of the country one of whose inhabitants has filled him with so much wonder.” “I have spent my life in reading books of travel, and I have never found two of them which gave me the same idea of the same people.” “They [books] are useful for preparing Platos of fifteen for philosophizing in clubs, and for instructing a company on the customs of Egypt and India, on the faith of Paul Lucas or of Tavernier.” O caráter nacional: “He who has seen ten Frenchmen has seen them all. Although we can not say the same of the English and of some other peoples, it is nevertheless certain that each nation has its peculiar and specific character, which is inferred by induction, not from the observation of a single one of its members, but of several.” Carmelitando: “There are many people whom travel instructs still less than books, because they are ignorant of the art of thinking; whereas in reading, their mind is at least guided by the author, while in their travels they do not know how to see anything for themselves.” Beware with whom you travel next time! “Of all the people in the world, the Frenchman is he who travels the most; but, full of his own ways, he slights indiscriminately everything which does not resemble them.” O gringo amado do Doutor Sérgio-Sapiente é o francês de hoje. “The English also travel, but in a different way; and it seems that these two nations must be different in everything. The English nobility travel, the French nobility do not travel; the French people travel, the English people do not travel. This difference seems to me honorable to the latter.” E quem seria o britânico de hoje? O britânico mesmo?! O europeu em geral?!? “The Englishman has the prejudices of pride, and the Frenchman those of vanity.” “Whoever returns from a tour of the world is, on his return, what he will be for the rest of his life.”
Seria eu, citando tantas passagens de um livro, o mesmo que um selfier ou recorder de show de música? Mas ora, se eu não leio várias vezes o que eu posto!! Já o selfier… E, bem, não há o que eu possa chamar de “exemplar original” no meu metier… Nen(h)um romance possui esse romantismo!
Tem gente que volta fedida da Europa porque só tomou banho de loja.
Vai uma fotografia na chapa com sal aí?!
“To travel for the sake of traveling, is to be a wanderer, a vagabond; to travel for the sake of instruction, is still too vague an object, for instruction which has no determined end amounts to nothing. I would give to the young man an obvious interest in being instructed; and this interest, if well chosen, will go to determine the nature of the instruction. This is always the method which I have attempted to put in practice.”
Livro análogo em que Rousseau “ensina a religião do futuro, ou como sempre deveria ter sido ensinada”: Profession de Foi du Vicaire Savoyard.
Comentários póstumos de filósofos franceses:
“Rousseau was not a pure theorist, proceeding by a + b and subjecting society without pity to the bed of Procrustes [que exigisse que se achatasse ou se alongasse a seu molde]”
“Ele, que desdenhava fazer a barba a fim de aparecer diante do Rei da França, saltava de sua cama ainda no escuro a fim de saudar, na floresta, a flor recém-brotada ou um pássaro de estação.” Tradução bem livre, devo avisar.
“We may imagine and even predict that a day will come when there will no longer be a single man in the world who has opened a single volume of Voltaire; but Rousseau!” “The moment we scrutinize his system of morals and come into close relations with it, it stands the test no better than his philosophy or his politics. The form is a marvel, but the substance is only an incoherent jumble of maxims, relatively true, but often false in their application.” “His mind was deformed from infancy, and could never be repaired. No; he withdraws from the real world, and with the ink and paper of the old books with which he has stuffed his head he builds a moral and philosophic world” “Teria ele se tornado nosso Rousseau se ele houvesse sido um pai de família, confinado a uma vida sedentária e regrada cujos fins seriam tão-só suas crianças e o pão de cada dia? Certamente que não.” Querida, abandonei as crianças!
Ab ovo: do começo. É dito que Helena de Tróia nasceu de um de dois ovos gêmeos botados por Leda. Helena, filha de Zeus, não deixa por isso de ser mais ou menos avó, bisavó ou trisavó de Aquiles, por mais absurdo que pareça! Já a maçã, símbolo do pecado e da perdição, em latim é mala. Os cristãos são uns malas sem ramo!