EXCERTOS AGRADÁVEIS DE SEMANÁRIOS

ou …E VIVA O ÓCIO! Vol. II

planeta #525 outubro/2016 ano 44

fleursdeprovence

FESTA PARA OS SENTIDOS

Das praias da Côte d’Azur aos Alpes, a Provença, no sul da França, tem uma formidável galeria de paisagens para encantar os visitantes, enriquecida pelos perfumes da lavanda e pelos sabores únicos de sua culinária e de seus vinhos

Por Luis Pellegrini

É fácil entender por que tantas pessoas, de imperadores romanos a estrelas de Hollywood, deixaram-se seduzir pela Provença (Provence, em francês) a ponto de abandonar tudo e compulsivamente comprar uma casa nessa região do sul da França. São em geral pessoas de temperamento artístico, cuja alma sensível ficou intoxicada pela beleza da paisagem e pelos muitos charmes desse jardim do Éden que começa nas praias da Côte d’Azur mediterrânea e vai até o sopé das montanhas dos Alpes.

(…)

REGIÃO DISPUTADA

A Provença foi a primeira província romana fora da Itália, e essa é a origem do seu nome. Após a queda de Roma, ela foi disputada por vários povos conquistadores, francos, sarracenos, senhores feudais, sendo finalmente dividida entre o reino da França e o papado. (…) o vaivém da política, dos exércitos e das guerras deu a esse povo a convicção de que não há bem que sempre dure nem mal que nunca acabe. (…)

          Avignon foi sede da Igreja Católica Romana de 1309 a 1377, depois que o papa Clemente V deixou Roma devido às lutas pelo poder no seio da Igreja. Seu Palácio dos Papas é uma cidade dentro da cidade. Leva-se um dia inteiro para visitá-lo sem pressa, e fazê-lo é mergulhar em ambientes da Idade Média que chegaram intactos até os nossos dias.

(…) Edificadas ao longo da Idade Média, são cidadelas quase inexpugnáveis, onde as construções se espremem aproveitando cada espaço disponível, muitas vezes à beira de precipícios espantosos.

(…)

          Jogo de desafio e de honra, de prática exclusivamente masculina, a pétanque é uma partida de arremesso de bolas metálicas similar à bocha italiana. Os torneios são realizados em toda parte, ao ar livre, diante de um público gozador que não perde o menor lance para arremessar chistes, piadas e impropérios aos jogadores menos afortunados.

          Aos domingos, depois da pétanque, começa o ritual do almoço provençal. O aioli é o prato oficial dessas reuniões de amigos e familiares, sobretudo no verão. É feito de peixes, frutos do mar e legumes cozidos e comidos com um molho cremoso à base de alho, azeite de oliva e várias especiarias regionais. O aioli pode ser substituído [Bela Gil mode on?] pela adola, a carne de panela à provençal, outro prato muito popular. Ou pela bouillabaisse, sopa que se prepara com peixes de água doce e temperados com azeite de oliva, cebola, alho-poró, alho, tomates sem pele e sem sementes, plantas aromáticas e especiarias (foto).

(…)

bouilla

RESPEITO À TERRA

Há dicionários inteiros dedicados aos vinhos provençais. Só a lista dos melhores Côtes de Provence, Côtes du Rhône, Château-neuf-du-Pape e do supercélebre Bandol ocuparia muitas páginas. (…)”

* * *

O TRABALHO REVISTO

Trabalhar precisa ser duro e penoso ou deve ser um suporte para a realização pessoal? Esse debate estava presente no texto a seguir, parte de um exercício de futurologia do francês Patrick Ravignant sobre grandes problemas da humanidade publicado em PLANETA 3, de 1972

(…)

meramenteilustrativo

Retomando a idéia do pecado original, que condena o homem a trabalhar com o suor do seu rosto, a sociedade industrial erigiu, ou tenta erigir, o trabalho como objetivo supremo da existência e lança contra a ociosidade a pior das condenações. A maior parte das pessoas considera hoje que o trabalho é o destino natural do homem, e esse trabalho deve ser duro, cansativo, penoso.

(…) Não é, como se pretendeu muitas vezes, o aspecto monótono do trabalho que gasta e consome o indivíduo. O trabalho é destruidor no plano psicológico quando utiliza uma pequeníssima parte das faculdades humanas, isto é, quando o indivíduo, incapaz de explorar o conjunto de suas aptidões, termina por atrofiá-las e destruí-las. O artista ou cientista, que nos seus trabalhos exerce a maior parte de suas faculdades, raramente considera suas tarefas penosas ou cansativas. Os momentos mais difíceis são também os mais estimulantes.

(…) De fato, todo homem procura uma atividade que lhe permita desenvolver o conjunto de suas funções psicofisiológicas. Se essa atividade coincide com um meio de subsistência, tanto melhor. O essencial, porém, não é a subsistência, mas a realização do indivíduo. (…)

Todos os homens, mesmo os mais iletrados, ao contemplarem um crepúsculo ou sonhar diante de um céu estrelado, interrogam-se sobre a finalidade da existência. (…) Os dirigentes atuais, contudo, não tomam nenhuma providência para que o lazer, no futuro, não se torne um fator geral de padronização, ou de tédio mortal, fonte de todas as neuroses.”

HISTORY OF THE ROMANS UNDER THE EMPIRE – VOL. VII: Subterfúgio: Polêmicas Judias

Reverendo Charles Merivale

 

(pente fino no capítulo sobre a destruição de Jerusalém sob Tito; circa p. 237)

 

At. 19:13-17: “Ora, também alguns dos exorcistas judeus, ambulantes, tentavam invocar o nome de Jesus sobre os que tinham espíritos malignos, dizendo: Esconjuro-vos por Jesus a quem Paulo prega. E os que faziam isto eram sete filhos de Ceva, judeu, um dos principais sacerdotes. Respondendo, porém, o espírito maligno, disse: A Jesus conheço, e sei quem é Paulo; mas vós, quem sois? Então o homem, no qual estava o espírito maligno, saltando sobre eles, apoderou-se de dois e prevaleceu contra eles, de modo que, nus e feridos, fugiram daquela casa. Isto tornou-se conhecido de todos os que moravam em Éfeso, tanto judeus como gregos”

 

“The extreme party now reigned unresisted in Jerusalem. Jehovah, they proclaimed, had manifestly declared Himself on their side. Judea stood once more erect and independent, and invited her children dispersed throughout the world to fulfil, by a common effort, her imperial destiny. But in Rome they had been crushed; in Alexandria they were baffled; Nero had cajoled Vologesus, and engaged him to control their movements in Ctesiphon and Seleucia; the summons of the patriots met, it seems, with no response beyond the confines of Palestine, and the army of Titus confronted in closed lists the defenders of the city of David.”

Mt. 24:15-21: “Quando, pois, virdes estar no lugar santo a abominação de desolação, predita pelo profeta Daniel (quem lê, entenda), então os que estiverem na Judéia fujam para os montes; quem estiver no eirado não desça para tirar as coisas de sua casa, e quem estiver no campo não volte atrás para apanhar a sua capa. Mas ai das que estiverem grávidas, e das que amamentarem naqueles dias! Orai para que a vossa fuga não suceda no inverno nem no sábado; porque haverá então uma tribulação tão grande, como nunca houve desde o princípio do mundo até agora, nem jamais haverá.”

“While the chiefs of the Roman army were occupied with manoeuvres for securing the empire, the leaders of the Jews were actively engaged in plotting against each other. The Zealots, in the moment of victory, were split into three factions. (…) John and Simon might dispute the superiority in numbers and equipment; but the stronghold of Eleazar was regarded by the Romans as the real citadel of Jerusalem. After many open attacks and secret stratagems, John contrived to assassinate this powerful rival, and obtained possession of the whole Temple with the eminence on which it stood.”

Nota de rodapé p. 226: o Mito de Sião – nunca houve uma Cidade Sagrada, metafórica, “mesal”. Tratava-se da colina mais alta da orla montanhosa de Jerusalém. Citado em Macabeus, mas nunca, de novo, em Josephus[?] ou no Novo Testamento. “The temple of Jerusalem, planted nearly on the southern extremity of this second hill, was completely overlooked by Zion, and also by the fortress Antonia, with which Herod protected it on its northern flank.”

[?] Fariseu contemporâneo (séc. I d.C.) do cerco e que “virou a casaca” depois de uma carreira pregressa como agitador (//Paulo). Teria deixado relatos históricos sobre os eventos em que ele próprio participou (consultados no original em grego por Merivale), tentando dissuadir as duas lideranças rebeldes remanescentes até o fim do cerco.

“Acra, or Moriah, as it has been called by a vulgar error, might thus represent the Capitoline, and Zion the Palatine at Rome: the depression between them, crossed by a bridge or causeway, was thronged with the dwellings of the lowest classes, and occupied the place of the Velabrum or the Suburra.”

“The hill of Zion was almost a perfect square: but Acra, more oblong in shape, overlapped it considerably to the north-east, and in the rectangle between them, a third hill, to which we may give the name of Calvary, rose a little lower than the one, and as much higher than the other. The venerable tradition which assigns this spot for the place of our Lord’s crucifixion, and has consecrated it with the existing church of the Holy Sepulchre, may be accepted with reasonable confidence. At the date of the Crucifixion it stood outside the walls; but Herod Agrippa undertook to enclose it, together with a large suburb to the north, in a third line of defences. Bezetha, or the New City, for so it was denominated, embraced an area towards the north and north-east, fully equal to all the rest of Jerusalem together.”

Trecho destacado por El Hayek: “The circuit of these exterior defences may have measured about four miles, and the ordinary population could scarcely amount to 200,000; but this number was vastly increased on occasion of the great festivals when the Jews thronged to their national temple from all quarters. (…) Tacitus estimates at 600,000 the number enclosed within the walls at the period of the siege; and this estimate, great as it is compared with the extent of accommodation, is far less than what we might infer from certain statements of Josephus. Eusebius states the number roundly at 3,000,000 (Hist. Eccl. iii. 5.), from a passage in Josephus” Segundo o mesmo Jos., essa prévia do Holocausto matou 1 milhão de judeus, número reputado como absurdo.

 

“The perseverance with which Titus renewed his elaborate constructions after every failure was not less eminent than the fortitude of John and Simon.” “The siege had already lasted three months. Seven days were now employed in the destruction of the citadel, one wing only being reserved as a watchtower. All the buildings round it were thrown down to make room for the works required for the attack on the Temple, and the Lower City was at the same time demolished. Titus had now relaxed from his earlier severity. Large numbers of the population received their lives on submission, while the more desperate fled for refuge to the Temple and to Mount Zion.” um monte sagrado, um monte de mentiras

“Josephus addressed them, like the Assyrian of old, in the Hebrew language that all might understand him; but John, perceiving (so at least Joseph us assures us) the impression he was making, sternly interrupted him, declaring that they had nought to fear, for Jerusalem was the Lord’s, and the Lord would protect it.”

Profético (prefácio do “show de 6 milhões”): “Hundreds of the Jews perished in this storm of fire.” 70 d.C. apud Hayek apud AGUIAR (2017). Titus ou Tito teria sido clemente e tentado até o último esforço do cansativo cerco salvar o Templo, mas ele terminou incendiado graças à teimosia judia e à imperícia e codícia dos soldados romanos, que viram no incêndio a única possibilidade de dar um fim à resistência inesgotável dos fanáticos e foram “hipnotizados” pelo ouro dos adornos templares: “Titus looked back with a sigh, but made no further attempt to save it [o Tabernáculo]. He withdrew despondingly from the spot, and the divine decree was accomplished.” “The Jewish chronicler [Josephus] exhausts all his rhetoric in describing the horrors of the scene he had himself witnessed from the camp of the victors. The hill of the Temple was enveloped in a sheet of flame, and the whole city seemed to be involved in a general conflagration. The shouts of the conquerors, the shrieks of the victims, the groans and howls of a nation of spectators in the streets and on the hills surrounding Jerusalem, surpassed all horrors recorded or imagined.”

“A few unarmed priests, who had cowered among the ruins of the Temple, had just before descended, pressed by hunger, and thrown themselves on his mercy [Tito]; they had been led straightway to execution, with the brutal sarcasm that those who live by the altar should perish with the altar.” E os sacerdotes restantes, já vencidos, mas que não davam o braço a torcer, enfureceram o paciente Tito, que ordenou que Jerusalém inteira fosse deitada abaixo.

Apocalypse Yesterday: teria sido num 2 de setembro.

“Depois que o censo dos civis sobreviventes terminou, os velhos e imprestáveis foram atravessados a sangue frio pelo fio da espada. Os mais altos e mais formosos foram escolhidos a seguir para honrar o triunfo do conquistador; do restante, todos acima de 17 anos foram levados como cativos para o Egito, ou condenados a lutar contra feras nos teatros de Antioquia e Cesaréia. Todas as crianças foram vendidas como escravos.” “While John was granted his life, and kept without public disgrace in perpetual confinement, Simon was reserved for the special ornament of the triumph, for ignominy, and for death.”

“Diz-se que Jerusalém foi tomada 17 vezes – mas ela foi destruída e liquidada unicamente por Nabucodonosor e Tito. O de Tito foi apenas o sexto saque.” Foi a chegada ao trono mais triunfal das 320 registradas até então em Roma.

“The residence of Titus at Berytus, and again at Caesarea, was marked by bloody shows in the circus, where he solemnized the birthdays of his father [imperador Vespasiano] and brother with the slaughter of multitudes of Jewish captives. From thence he returned to witness the completion of his instructions with regard to Jerusalem, and, leaving the Tenth legion in garrison on the spot, carried with him the Fifth and Fifteenth into Egypt.”

 

“With the reduction of Palestine the consolidation of the empire was completed. From the Mersey to the Dead Sea no nation remained erect, and the resistance of the last free men on her frontiers had been expiated with their blood. The overthrow of Judea, with all the monuments of an ancient but still living civilization, was the greatest crime of the conquering republic. It commenced in wanton aggression, and was effected with a barbarity, of which no other example occurs in the records of civilization. Jerusalem shared the fate of Tarquinii and Corinth; but the Romans, stalking amongst the ruins of Zion, seemed unconscious that they had annihilated a nation more important in the history of the world than Etruria, or even than Greece. Yet not altogether annihilated. The homeless Jews, scattered, as captives or fugitives, more widely than ever, bore throughout the empire and beyond it the seeds of the law delivered from Sinai, the fortitude which neither Egyptian, nor Syrian, nor Roman could bend or break, the hopes which delay had not extinguished, the maxims which patriarchs and prophets had revered.”

HISTORY  OF THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE: Subterfúgio: Polêmicas Agostinianas e Maometanas

Edward Gibbon

 

Vol. III

CHAPTER 33

A Conquista da África pelos Vândalos

 

Consta que Maomé praticava o incesto com sua filha Fátima.

 

“the terrible Genseric [Gizericus]; a name, which, in the destruction of the Roman empire, has deserved an equal rank with the names of Alaric and Attila. The king of the Vandals [território espanhol] is described to have been of a middle stature, with a lameness in one leg, which he had contracted by an accidental fall from his horse. His slow and cautious speech seldom declared the deep purposes of his soul”

 

Abraão teria nascido em 2015 a.C. Quem segue seu calendário está em 4032 d.A.

 

“and the fair complexions of the blue-eyed warriors of Germany [vândalos] formed a very singular contrast with the swarthy [trigueiro] or olive hue which is derived from the neighborhood of the torrid zone [mouros].” Aqui devemos acrescentar os importantes parênteses: no caso específico dos “genseritas”, eram guerreiros cristianizados; no entanto, sua “cruzada pessoal” africana não era religiosa, e podia contar com aliados pagãos ou heresiarcas; e ajudou a ruir o Grande Império do Resíduo Católico.

 

“the calendar of martyrs received on both sides a considerable augmentation.” Belo eufemismo.

 

No fim da vida Santo Agostinho se tornou piedoso e deixou de combater belicamente cismáticos como os masdeístas ou maniqueus. O “santo” se demonstrava bastante ativo em termos de correspondência política (principalmente na tentativa de dissuadir qualquer confronto letal entre cristãos).

 

“Careless of the distinctions of age, or sex, or rank, they employed every species of indignity and torture, to force from the captives a discovery of their hidden wealth. The stern policy of Genseric justified his frequent examples of military execution: he was not always the master of his own passions, or of those of his followers; and the calamities of war were aggravated by the licentiousness of the Moors, and the fanaticism of the Donatists [ordem de padres excomungados].”

 

A África, próspero continente que alimentava a megalópole da Antiguidade Roma com trigo a perder de vista, começou a parecer o cenário desolado que é hoje muito também devido a lendas e exagerações cristãs, que depreciavam o trabalho dos Vândalos na conquista da região e até lhes atribuíam a deliberada falta de assepsia e “empilhamento arbitrário de cadáveres” que gerava pestes negras em cada cidade dominada…

 

“The youth of Augustin had been stained by the vices and errors which he so ingenuously [artfully!] confesses; but from the moment of his conversion to that of his death, the manners of the bishop of Hippo were pure and austere: and the most conspicuous of his virtues was an ardent zeal against heretics of every denomination; the Manichaeans, the Donatists, and the Pelagians [“não somos afetados pelo Pecado Original; o livre-arbítrio de cada qual permite chegar de forma autônoma ao Bem Supremo…”], against whom he waged a perpetual controversy. When the city [Hippo], some months after his death, was burnt by the Vandals, the library was [un]fortunately saved, which contained his voluminous writings; 232 separate books or treatises on theological subjects,[*] besides a complete exposition of the psalter and the gospel, and a copious magazine of epistles and homilies. According to the judgment of the most impartial critics, the superficial learning of Augustin was confined to the Latin language; and his style, though sometimes animated by the eloquence of passion, is usually clouded by false and affected rhetoric. But he possessed a strong, capacious, argumentative mind; he boldly sounded the dark abyss of grace, predestination, free will, and original sin; and the rigid system of Christianity which he framed or restored, has been entertained, with public applause, and secret reluctance, by the Latin church.”

 

[*] “Such, at least, is the account of Victor Vitensis (de Persecut. Vandal. 50. 1. 100. 3); though Gennadius seems to doubt whether any person had read, or even collected, all the works of St. Augustin (see Hieronym. Opera, tom. I p. 319, in Catalog. Scriptor. Eccles.). They have been repeatedly printed; and Dupin (Bibliotheque Eccles. tom. III p. 158-257) has given a large and satisfactory abstract of them as they stand in the last edition of the Benedictines. My personal acquaintance with the bishop of Hippo does not extend beyond the Confessions, and the City of God [ao fim e ao cabo as duas obras que realmente importam].

 

Cada vez mais vejo que o verbete do Wikipédia estava repleto de razão: a influência de Gibbon se faz sentir principalmente a partir de suas fantásticas notas de rodapé, cheias de “spoilers” sobre a vida particular das personalidades que cunharam o mundo!

 

“In his early youth (Confess. i. 14) St. Augustin disliked and neglected the study of Greek; and he frankly owns that he read the Platonists in a Latin version, (Confes. vii. 9) Some modern critics have thought that his ignorance of Greek disqualified him from expounding the Scriptures; and Cicero or Quintilian would have required the knowledge of that language in a professor of rhetoric.”

 

The church of Rome has canonized Augustin, and reprobated Calvin. Yet as the real difference between them is invisible even to a theological microscope, the Molinists are oppressed by the authority of the saint, and the Jansenists are disgraced by their resemblance to the heretic. In the mean while, the Protestant Arminians stand aloof, and deride the mutual perplexity of the disputants (see a curious Review of the Controversy, by Le Clerc, Bibliotheque Universelle, tom. XIV pp. 144-398.) Perhaps a reasoner still more independent may smile in his turn, when he peruses an Arminian Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans.”

 

Bonifácio e Aécio, os dois maiores generais de então (e os últimos grandes de Roma), decidiram num duelo o destino da África: ganhou Bonifácio, mas o estrago feito pelo sublevado e amigo dos bárbaros, Aécio, era já irreparável. Cartago, a “capital” africana, cairia em 8 anos. Uma verdadeira Babilônia no coração do continente negro, aliás: “The streets of Carthage were polluted by effeminate wretches, who publicly assumed the countenance, the dress, and the character of women. If a monk appeared in the city, the holy man was pursued with impious scorn and ridicule”

 

Pére Jobert – Science des Medailles

 

Prosper – Chronicle, A.D. 442. (Sobre as crueldades de Genseric.)

 

* * *

 

OS SETE DORMINHOCOS

 

“Among the insipid legends of ecclesiastical history, I am tempted to distinguish the memorable fable of the Seven Sleepers; whose imaginary date corresponds with the reign of the younger Theodosius, and the conquest of Africa by the Vandals. When the emperor Decius persecuted the Christians, seven noble youths of Ephesus concealed themselves in a spacious cavern in the side of an adjacent mountain; where they were doomed to perish by the tyrant, who gave orders that the entrance should be firmly secured by a pile of huge stones. They immediately fell into a deep slumber, which was miraculously prolonged without injuring the powers of life, during a period of 187 years. At the end of that time, the slaves of Adolius, to whom the inheritance of the mountain had descended, removed the stones to supply materials for some rustic edifice: the light of the sun darted into the cavern, and the Seven Sleepers were permitted to awake. After a slumber, as they thought of a few hours, they were pressed by the calls of hunger; and resolved that Jamblichus, one of their number, should secretly return to the city to purchase bread for the use of his companions. The youth (if we may still employ that appellation) could no longer recognize the once familiar aspect of his native country; and his surprise was increased by the appearance of a large cross, triumphantly erected over the principal gate of Ephesus. His singular dress, and obsolete language, confounded the baker, to whom he offered an ancient medal of Decius as the current coin of the empire; and Jamblichus, on the suspicion of a secret treasure, was dragged before the judge. Their mutual inquiries produced the amazing discovery, that two centuries were almost elapsed since Jamblichus and his friends had escaped from the rage of a Pagan tyrant. The bishop of Ephesus, the clergy, the magistrates, the people, and, as it is said, the emperor Theodosius himself, hastened to visit the cavern of the Seven Sleepers; who bestowed their benediction, related their story, and at the same instant peaceably expired.

 

The origin of this marvellous fable cannot be ascribed to the pious fraud and credulity of the modern Greeks, since the authentic tradition may be traced within half a century of the supposed miracle. James of Sarug, a Syrian bishop, who was born only two years after the death of the younger Theodosius, has devoted one of his 230 homilies to the praise of the young men of Ephesus. Their legend, before the end of the 6th century, was translated from the Syriac into the Latin language, by the care of Gregory of Tours. The hostile communions of the East preserve their memory with equal reverence; and their names are honorably inscribed in the Roman, the Abyssinian, and the Russian calendar. Nor has their reputation been confined to the Christian world. This popular tale, which Mahomet might learn when he drove his camels to the fairs of Syria, is introduced as a divine revelation, into the Koran. The story of the Seven Sleepers has been adopted and adorned by the nations, from Bengal to Africa, who profess the Mahometan religion; and some vestiges of a similar tradition have been discovered in the remote extremities of Scandinavia. This easy and universal belief, so expressive of the sense of mankind, may be ascribed to the genuine merit of the fable itself. We imperceptibly advance from youth to age, without observing the gradual, but incessant, change of human affairs; and even in our larger experience of history, the imagination is accustomed, by a perpetual series of causes and effects, to unite the most distant revolutions. But if the interval between two memorable aeras could be instantly annihilated; if it were possible, after a momentary slumber of 200 years, to display the new world to the eyes of a spectator, who still retained a lively and recent impression of the old, his surprise and his reflections would furnish the pleasing subject of a philosophical romance.

 

The scene could not be more advantageously placed, than in the two centuries which elapsed between the reigns of Decius and of Theodosius the Younger. During this period, the seat of government had been transported from Rome to a new city on the banks of the Thracian Bosphorus; and the abuse of military spirit had been suppressed by an artificial system of tame and ceremonious servitude. The throne of the persecuting Decius was filled by a succession of Christian and orthodox princes, who had extirpated the fabulous gods of antiquity: and the public devotion of the age was impatient to exalt the saints and martyrs of the Catholic church, on the altars of Diana and Hercules. The union of the Roman empire was dissolved; its genius was humbled in the dust; and armies of unknown Barbarians, issuing from the frozen regions of the North, had established their victorious reign over the fairest provinces of Europe and Africa.” Outras evocações: Schopenhauer, Platão, Vanilla Sky, um coma dentre tantos possíveis, o sonho de criogenia enfermiço de Walt Disney (Baudrillard)…

 

“Two Syriac writers, as they are quoted by Assemanni (Bibliot. Oriental. tom. I pp. 336, 338), place the resurrection of the Seven Sleepers in the year 736 (A.D. 425) or 748 (A.D. 437), of the aera of the Seleucides. Their Greek acts, which Photius had read, assign the date of the 38th year of the reign of Theodosius, which may coincide either with A.D. 439, or 446. The period which had elapsed since the persecution of Decius is easily ascertained; and nothing less than the ignorance of Mahomet, or the legendaries [hagiólogos], could suppose an interval of 300 or 400 years.”

 

…welcome to the seat of madness

                         the sea of madman

                                   & mermaids!