HENRY IV

Depois de pacificar a terra arrasada pelos desmandos de Ricardo II, Henrique IV encontra uma série de problemas, dentre os quais, os próprios sobrinho e filho, este último o Príncipe de Gales. Um príncipe, como se há de ver, MinúsculO, com o perdão da expressão, e que porta nas entranhas o próprio pai, curiosa inversão (ele tem um rei na barriga). Mas será situação irreversível e incontornável?

KING HENRY IV

But I have sent for him to answer this;

And for this cause awhile we must neglect

Our holy purpose to Jerusalem.

Cousin, on Wednesday next our council we

Will hold at Windsor; so inform the lords:

But come yourself with speed to us again;

For more is to be said and to be done

Than out of anger can be uttered.

WESTMORELAND

I will, my liege.

PRINCE HENRY

Thou art so fat-witted, with drinking of old sack

and unbuttoning thee after supper and sleeping upon

benches after noon, that thou hast forgotten to

demand that truly which thou wouldst truly know.

What a devil hast thou to do with the time of the

day? Unless hours were cups of sack and minutes

capons and clocks the tongues of bawds and dials the

signs of leaping-houses and the blessed sun himself

a fair hot wench in flame-coloured taffeta, I see no

reason why thou shouldst be so superfluous to demand

the time of the day.”

PRÍNCIPE HENRIQUE

Você é tão destemperado, só pensa nesse vinho envelhecido e em desabotoar a camisa depois do almoço e em fazer a sesta na poltrona; tanto é assim que já esqueceu das coisas que não se esquece, e agora me pergunta coisas óbvias. Que diabos tem você com a hora do dia? Que t’importa isto? Só mesmo se as horas fossem taças de vinho e minutos codornas e relógios prostitutas e ponteiros letreiros de puteiro e o santo sol a própria grande e excitante puta da casa, caliente e num vestido de tafetá cor-de-fogo, só mesmo assim veria eu razão na sua leviandade em perguntar QUE HORAS SÃO?.

Com toda sua graça em forma de manteiga, não se frita nem um ovo!

FALSTAFF [o Fanffarrão]

(…) let us be Diana’s foresters, gentlemen of the shade, minions of the moon; and let men say we be men of good government, being governed, as the sea is, by our noble and chaste mistress the moon, under whose countenance we steal.”

FALSTAFF

By the Lord, thou sayest true, lad. And is not my

hostess of the tavern a most sweet wench?

PRINCE HENRY

As the honey of Hybla, my old lad of the castle. And

is not a buff jerkin a most sweet robe of durance?

FALSTAFF

How now, how now, mad wag! what, in thy quips and

thy quiddities? what a plague have I to do with a

buff jerkin?

PRINCE HENRY

Why, what a pox have I to do with my hostess of the tavern?

FALSTAFF

Well, thou hast called her to a reckoning many a

time and oft.

PRINCE HENRY

Did I ever call for thee to pay thy part?

FALSTAFF

No; I’ll give thee thy due, thou hast paid all there.

PRINCE HENRY

Yea, and elsewhere, so far as my coin would stretch;

and where it would not, I have used my credit.

(…)

FALSTAFF

(…) Do not thou, when thou art king, hang a thief.

PRINCE HENRY

No; thou shalt.

FALSTAFF

Shall I? O rare! By the Lord, I’ll be a brave judge.

PRINCE HENRY

Thou judgest false already: I mean, thou shalt have

the hanging of the thieves and so become a rare hangman.

FALSTAFF

Well, Hal, well; and in some sort it jumps with my

humour as well as waiting in the court, I can tell

you.”

A sabedoria grita nas ruas mas nenhum homem presta atenção.

Coisa espalhafatosa não pode ser boa!

Antes de conhecer você eu não sabia de nada.

Agora, veja você, sou pouco menos que um velhaco!

Mas chega! chega de ser bebum

tenho que tomar um rumo

Vadiar é minha vocação

E não é pecado dedicar-se ao seu talento nato

Portanto, vade ao ar, que serás recompensado!

Ó, se o homem há de ser salvo pelo mérito,

Em que círculo do Inferno caberás tu e tua vilania?

Ainda não cavaram tão profundo!

Incrível como a continuação de uma tragédia (ou pelo menos vendeta) seja, em Shakespeare, sem problemas de transição, uma comédia:

PRINCE HENRY

Good morrow, Ned.

POINS

Good morrow, sweet Hal. What says Monsieur Remorse?

what says Sir John Sack and Sugar? Jack! how

agrees the devil and thee about thy soul, that thou

soldest him on Good-Friday last for a cup of Madeira

and a cold capon’s leg?”

POINS

But, my lads, my lads, to-morrow morning, by four

o’clock, early at Gadshill! there are pilgrims going

to Canterbury with rich offerings, and traders

riding to London with fat purses: I have vizards [disfarces]

for you all; you have horses for yourselves:

Gadshill lies to-night in Rochester: I have bespoke

supper to-morrow night in Eastcheap: we may do it

as secure as sleep. If you will go, I will stuff

your purses full of crowns; if you will not, tarry

at home and be hanged.

FALSTAFF

Hear ye, Yedward; if I tarry at home and go not,

I’ll hang you for going.

POINS

You will, chops?

FALSTAFF

Hal, wilt thou make one?

PRINCE HENRY

Who, I rob? I a thief? not I, by my faith.

FALSTAFF

There’s neither honesty, manhood, nor good

fellowship in thee, nor thou camest not of the blood

royal, if thou darest not stand for ten shillings.

PRINCE HENRY

Well then, once in my days I’ll be a madcap.

FALSTAFF

Why, that’s well said.

PRINCE HENRY

Well, come what will, I’ll tarry at home.

FALSTAFF

By the Lord, I’ll be a traitor then, when thou art king.

PRINCE HENRY

I care not.

POINS

Sir John, I prithee, leave the prince and me alone:

I will lay him down such reasons for this adventure

that he shall go.

FALSTAFF

Well, God give thee the spirit of persuasion and him

the ears of profiting, that what thou speakest may

move and what he hears may be believed, that the

true prince may, for recreation sake, prove a false

thief; for the poor abuses of the time want

countenance. Farewell: you shall find me in Eastcheap.”

POINS [privately to the prince]

Falstaff, Bardolph, Peto and Gadshill

shall rob those men that we have already waylaid:

yourself and I will not be there; and when they

have the booty, if you and I do not rob them, cut

this head off from my shoulders.”

POINS

Tut! our horses they shall not see: I’ll tie them

in the wood; our vizards we will change after we

leave them: and, sirrah, I have cases of buckram [capas de couro]

for the nonce, to immask our noted outward garments.”

Yet herein will I imitate the sun,

Who doth permit the base contagious clouds

To smother up his beauty from the world,

That, when he please again to be himself,

Being wanted, he may be more wonder’d at,

By breaking through the foul and ugly mists

Of vapours that did seem to strangle him.

If all the year were playing holidays,

To sport would be as tedious as to work;

But when they seldom come, they wish’d for come,

And nothing pleaseth but rare accidents.

So, when this loose behavior I throw off

And pay the debt I never promised,

By how much better than my word I am,

By so much shall I falsify men’s hopes;

And like bright metal on a sullen ground,

My reformation, glittering o’er my fault,

Shall show more goodly and attract more eyes

Than that which hath no foil to set it off.

I’ll so offend, to make offence a skill;

Redeeming time when men think least I will.”

SOL & CONTEMPLAÇÃO

Imitarei o sol,

Que dá licença para as vulgares e licenciosas nuvens

Eclipsarem sua beleza para o mundo,

E que, quando deseja de novo ser si mesmo,

Sendo por todos ansiado, é ainda mais festejado

Ao romper por entre o feio e sórdido véu

De vapores que pareciam ter seus raios estrangulado.

Se o ano todo fossem rejubilantes feriados,

Recrear-se seria tedioso como trabalhar;

Mas quando eles vêm raro, são bastante esperados,

E acolhidos como dádiva oportuna.

É assim então que,

Quando eu deitar de lado a folga,

Deixando de ser sempre folgado,

Pagando de modo inesperado

A dívida da qual era o tributário,

Quão melhor não me mostrarei

Que meu próprio hábito,

Tanto me esforcei para frustrar expectativas!

E como metal brilhante em solo esquálido,

Minha redenção, contrastando com minhas faltas,

Parecerá ‘inda melhor e atrairá muito mais fãs

Que as qualidades constantes, sem máscara.

Ofenderei os olhos e o tato com cuidado

Par’enfim converter a ofensa em agrado,

Recuperando o que já davam por perdido.

(Tradução do monólogo do Príncipe Henrique, no final da CENA II, PRIMEIRO ATO.)

KING HENRY IV

Let me not hear you speak of Mortimer:

Send me your prisoners with the speediest means,

Or you shall hear in such a kind from me

As will displease you. My Lord Northumberland,

We licence your departure with your son.

Send us your prisoners, or you will hear of it.”

HOTSPUR [o sobrinho sedioso]

But I will lift the down-trod Mortimer

As high in the air as this unthankful king,

As this ingrate and canker’d Bolingbroke.”

HOTSPUR

He will, forsooth, have all my prisoners;

And when I urged the ransom once again

Of my wife’s brother, then his cheek look’d pale,

And on my face he turn’d an eye of death,

Trembling even at the name of Mortimer.

EARL OF WORCESTER

I cannot blame him: was not he proclaim’d

By Richard that dead is the next of blood?”

HOTSPUR

But soft, I pray you; did King Richard then

Proclaim my brother Edmund Mortimer

Heir to the crown?

NORTHUMBERLAND

He did; myself did hear it.”

HOTSPUR

All studies here I solemnly defy,

Save how to gall and pinch this Bolingbroke:

And that same sword-and-buckler Prince of Wales,

But that I think his father loves him not

And would be glad he met with some mischance,

I would have him poison’d with a pot of ale.”

HOTSPUR

(…)

Why, what a candy deal of courtesy

This fawning greyhound then did proffer me!

Look,<when his infant fortune came to age>,

And <gentle Harry Percy>, and <kind cousin>;

O, the devil take such cozeners! God forgive me!”

EARL OF WORCESTER

Then once more to your Scottish prisoners.

Deliver them up without their ransom straight,

And make the Douglas’ son your only mean

For powers in Scotland; which, for divers reasons

Which I shall send you written, be assured,

Will easily be granted.”

HOTSPUR

Why, it cannot choose but be a noble plot;

And then the power of Scotland and of York,

To join with Mortimer, ha?

EARL OF WORCESTER

And so they shall.

HOTSPUR

In faith, it is exceedingly well aim’d.”

EARL OF WORCESTER

(…)

For, bear ourselves as even as we can,

The king will always think him in our debt,

And think we think ourselves unsatisfied,

Till he hath found a time to pay us home:

And see already how he doth begin

To make us strangers to his looks of love.”

GADSHILL

(…) I am joined with no foot-land rakers, no long-staff 6-penny strikers, none of these mad mustachio purple-hued malt-worms; but with nobility and tranquillity, burgomasters and great oneyers, such as can hold in, such as will strike sooner than speak, and speak sooner than drink, and drink sooner than pray: and yet, zounds, I lie; for they pray continually to their saint, the commonwealth; or rather, not pray to her, but prey on her, for they ride up and down on her and make her their boots.”

FALSTAFF

(…)

a plague upon it when thieves cannot be true one to another!”

LADY PERCY

Out, you mad-headed ape!

A weasel hath not such a deal of spleen

As you are toss’d with. In faith,

I’ll know your business, Harry, that I will.

I fear my brother Mortimer doth stir

About his title, and hath sent for you

To line his enterprise: but if you go,– ”

HOTSPUR

Away,

Away, you trifler! Love! I love thee not,

I care not for thee, Kate: this is no world

To play with mammets and to tilt with lips:

We must have bloody noses and crack’d crowns,

And pass them current too. God’s me, my horse!

What say’st thou, Kate? what would’st thou

have with me?”

ESPORA-QUENTE

Fora,

Fora daqui, intrigueira! Amor?! Eu não te amo,

Me fodo pra você, Kate: isso não é mundo

Para idolatrar pés-de-barros nem titilar com os lábios:

Tem que ter fogo nas ventas, cara feia, não confiar em nada,

Nem ninguém; nem em quem tem ou terá uma coroa sobre a fronte!

Deus sou eu, Eu e meu cavalo! Que diz disso, ó querida Kate?

Que merda ‘cê’inda quer comigo?”

você é constante, a sua maneira,

mas não deixa de ser mulher: em prol do sigilo,

Nada de senhoras por perto; quero crer

Que você não fala nada sobre o que não sabe;

Por isso ainda acredito em você, querida e amável

Esposa do Espora!”

PRINCE HENRY

I am now of all humours that have showed themselves

humours since the old days of goodman Adam to the

pupil age of this present twelve o’clock at midnight.”

FRANCIS

Anon, anon, sir.

Exit

PRINCE HENRY

That ever this fellow should have fewer words than a parrot, and yet the son of a woman! His industry is upstairs and downstairs; his eloquence the parcel of a reckoning. I am not yet of Percy’s mind, the Hotspur of the north; he that kills me some six or seven dozen of Scots at a breakfast, washes his hands, and says to his wife <Fie upon this quiet life! I want work.> <O my sweet Harry,> says she, <how many hast thou killed to-day?> <Give my roan horse a drench,> says he; and answers <Some fourteen,> an hour after; <a trifle, a trifle.> I prithee, call in Falstaff: I’ll play Percy, and that damned brawn shall play Dame Mortimer his wife. <Rivo!> says the drunkard. Call in ribs, call in tallow.”

there is nothing but roguery to be found in villanous man: yet a coward is worse than a cup of sack with lime in it.”

FALSTAFF

I am a rogue, if I were not at half-sword with a

dozen of them two hours together. I have ‘scaped by

miracle. I am eight times thrust through the

doublet, four through the hose; my buckler cut

through and through; my sword hacked like a

hand-saw–ecce signum! I never dealt better since

I was a man: all would not do. A plague of all

cowards! Let them speak: if they speak more or

less than truth, they are villains and the sons of darkness.

PRINCE HENRY

Speak, sirs; how was it?

GADSHILL

We four set upon some dozen–

FALSTAFF

Sixteen at least, my lord.

GADSHILL

And bound them.

PETO

No, no, they were not bound.

FALSTAFF

You rogue, they were bound, every man of them; or I

am a Jew else, an Ebrew Jew.

GADSHILL

As we were sharing, some six or seven fresh men set upon us–

FALSTAFF

And unbound the rest, and then come in the other.

PRINCE HENRY

What, fought you with them all?

FALSTAFF

All! I know not what you call all; but if I fought

not with fifty of them, I am a bunch of radish: if

there were not two or three and fifty upon poor old

Jack, then am I no two-legged creature.

PRINCE HENRY

Pray God you have not murdered some of them.

FALSTAFF

Nay, that’s past praying for: I have peppered two

of them; two I am sure I have paid, two rogues

in buckram suits. I tell thee what, Hal, if I tell

thee a lie, spit in my face, call me horse. Thou

knowest my old ward; here I lay and thus I bore my

point. Four rogues in buckram let drive at me–

PRINCE HENRY

What, four? thou saidst but two even now.

FALSTAFF

Four, Hal; I told thee four.

POINS

Ay, ay, he said four.

FALSTAFF

These four came all a-front, and mainly thrust at

me. I made me no more ado but took all their seven

points in my target, thus.

PRINCE HENRY

Seven? why, there were but four even now.

FALSTAFF

In buckram?

POINS

Ay, four, in buckram suits.

FALSTAFF

Seven, by these hilts, or I am a villain else.

PRINCE HENRY

Prithee, let him alone; we shall have more anon.

FALSTAFF

Dost thou hear me, Hal?

PRINCE HENRY

Ay, and mark thee too, Jack.

FALSTAFF

Do so, for it is worth the listening to. These nine

in buckram that I told thee of–

PRINCE HENRY

So, two more already.

FALSTAFF

Their points being broken,–

POINS

Down fell their hose.

FALSTAFF

Began to give me ground: but I followed me close,

came in foot and hand; and with a thought seven of

the eleven I paid.

PRINCE HENRY

O monstrous! eleven buckram men grown out of two!

FALSTAFF

But, as the devil would have it, three misbegotten

knaves in Kendal green came at my back and let drive

at me; for it was so dark, Hal, that thou couldst

not see thy hand.

PRINCE HENRY

These lies are like their father that begets them;

gross as a mountain, open, palpable. Why, thou

clay-brained guts, thou knotty-pated fool, thou

whoreson, obscene, grease tallow-catch,–

FALSTAFF

What, art thou mad? art thou mad? is not the truth

the truth?

PRINCE HENRY

Why, how couldst thou know these men in Kendal

green, when it was so dark thou couldst not see thy

hand? come, tell us your reason: what sayest thou to this?

POINS

Come, your reason, Jack, your reason.

FALSTAFF

What, upon compulsion? ‘Zounds, an I were at the

strappado, or all the racks in the world, I would

not tell you on compulsion. Give you a reason on

compulsion! If reasons were as plentiful as

blackberries, I would give no man a reason upon

compulsion, I.

PRINCE HENRY

I’ll be no longer guilty of this sin; this sanguine

coward, this bed-presser, this horseback-breaker,

this huge hill of flesh,–

FALSTAFF

Sblood, you starveling, you elf-skin, you dried

neat’s tongue, you bull’s pizzle, you stock-fish! O

for breath to utter what is like thee! you

tailor’s-yard, you sheath, you bowcase; you vile

standing-tuck,–

PRINCE HENRY

Well, breathe awhile, and then to it again: and

when thou hast tired thyself in base comparisons,

hear me speak but this.

POINS

Mark, Jack.

PRINCE HENRY

We two saw you four set on four and bound them, and

were masters of their wealth. Mark now, how a plain

tale shall put you down. Then did we two set on you

four; and, with a word, out-faced you from your

prize, and have it; yea, and can show it you here in

the house: and, Falstaff, you carried your guts

away as nimbly, with as quick dexterity, and roared

for mercy and still run and roared, as ever I heard

bull-calf. What a slave art thou, to hack thy sword

as thou hast done, and then say it was in fight!

What trick, what device, what starting-hole, canst

thou now find out to hide thee from this open and

apparent shame?

POINS

Come, let’s hear, Jack; what trick hast thou now?

FALSTAFF

By the Lord, I knew ye as well as he that made ye.

Why, hear you, my masters: was it for me to kill the

heir-apparent? should I turn upon the true prince?

why, thou knowest I am as valiant as Hercules: but

beware instinct; the lion will not touch the true

prince. Instinct is a great matter; I was now a

coward on instinct. I shall think the better of

myself and thee during my life; I for a valiant

lion, and thou for a true prince. But, by the Lord,

lads, I am glad you have the money. Hostess, clap

to the doors: watch to-night, pray to-morrow.

Gallants, lads, boys, hearts of gold, all the titles

of good fellowship come to you! What, shall we be

merry? shall we have a play extempore?

PRINCE HENRY

Content; and the argument shall be thy running away.

FALSTAFF

Ah, no more of that, Hal, an thou lovest me!”

BARDOLPH

Yea, and to tickle our noses with spear-grass to

make them bleed, and then to beslubber our garments

with it and swear it was the blood of true men. I

did that I did not this seven year before, I blushed

to hear his monstrous devices.

PRINCE HENRY

O villain, thou stolest a cup of sack 18 years

ago, and wert taken with the manner, and ever since

thou hast blushed extempore. Thou hadst fire and

sword on thy side, and yet thou rannest away: what

instinct hadst thou for it?”

PRINCE HENRY

(…)

How long is’t ago, Jack, since thou sawest thine own knee?

FALSTAFF

My own knee! when I was about thy years, Hal, I was

not an eagle’s talon in the waist; I could have

crept into any alderman’s thumb-ring: a plague of

sighing and grief! it blows a man up like a

bladder.”

– Quanto tempo faz, tratante, que não vês mais teu próprio joelho?

– Ah, meu joelhinho! Quando eu tinha sua idade, ‘Riquinho, e minha cintura não media nem a garra duma águia! Eu podia m’enfiar em qualquer anel-médio de gentil-homem, não duvide! Era tão espesso e denso quanto um palito-de-dente. Soprassem e eu sairia voando feito bexiga de ar quente!…”

FALSTAFF

(…) But tell me, Hal,

art not thou horrible afeard? thou being

heir-apparent, could the world pick thee out three

such enemies again as that fiend Douglas, that

spirit Percy, and that devil Glendower? Art thou

not horribly afraid? doth not thy blood thrill at

it?

PRINCE HENRY

Not a whit, I’ faith; I lack some of thy instinct.”

FALSTAFF

Shall I? content: this chair shall be my state,

this dagger my sceptre, and this cushion [almofada] my crown.

PRINCE HENRY

Thy state is taken for a joined-stool, thy golden

sceptre for a leaden dagger, and thy precious rich

crown for a pitiful bald crown!”

Give me a cup of sack to make my eyes look red, that it may be thought I have wept; for I must speak in passion, and I will do it in King Cambyses’ vein.” [O filho de Ciro]

Me dê uma taça de vinho para meus olhos parecerem vermelhos, para que se pense que eu chorei; devo falar apaixonadamente, à maneira do Rei Cambises.”

Juventude não é unha nem barba, que quanto mais se apara mais cresce vigorosa: não, não; quanto mais se desperdiça esse dom, menos desse dom se tem, meu caro! Quanto mais se é jovem, menos se é jovem, compreende-me? Aquele que passa a juventude sem ser um jovem como os outros ainda se sustém jovial por longos anos. Aquele que deita a perder sua juventude a consuma, no pior sentido possível. Quanto mais intensamente o adolescente viveu, mais o prazer ficou para trás, congelado no passado, inacessível à reprise. Tempere essa gastança hormonal!

FALSTAFF [‘rei’presentando]

That thou art my son, I have

partly thy mother’s word, partly my own opinion,

but chiefly a villanous trick of thine eye and a

foolish-hanging of thy nether lip, that doth warrant

me. If then thou be son to me, here lies the point;

why, being son to me, art thou so pointed at? Shall

the blessed sun of heaven prove a micher and eat

blackberries? a question not to be asked. Shall

the sun of England prove a thief and take purses? a

question to be asked. There is a thing, Harry,

which thou hast often heard of and it is known to

many in our land by the name of pitch: this pitch,

as ancient writers do report, doth defile; so doth

the company thou keepest: for, Harry, now I do not

speak to thee in drink but in tears, not in

pleasure but in passion, not in words only, but in

woes also: and yet there is a virtuous man whom I

have often noted in thy company, but I know not his name.”

If then the tree may be

known by the fruit, as the fruit by the tree, then,

peremptorily I speak it, there is virtue in that

Falstaff: him keep with, the rest banish. And tell

me now, thou naughty varlet, tell me, where hast

thou been this month?”

PRINCE HARRY [HENRY] [agora no papel de seu próprio pai]

Thou art violently carried away from grace:

there is a devil haunts thee in the likeness of an

old fat man; a tun of man is thy companion. Why

dost thou converse with that trunk of humours, that

bolting-hutch of beastliness, that swollen parcel

of dropsies, that huge bombard of sack, that stuffed

cloak-bag of guts, that roasted Manningtree ox with

the pudding in his belly, that reverend vice, that

grey iniquity, that father ruffian, that vanity in

years? Wherein is he good, but to taste sack and

drink it? wherein neat and cleanly, but to carve a

capon and eat it? wherein cunning, but in craft?

wherein crafty, but in villany? wherein villanous,

but in all things? wherein worthy, but in nothing?

FALSTAFF

I would your grace would take me with you: whom

means your grace?”

If sack and sugar be a fault,

God help the wicked! if to be old and merry be a

sin, then many an old host that I know is damned: if

to be fat be to be hated, then Pharaoh’s lean kine

are to be loved. No, my good lord; banish Peto,

banish Bardolph, banish Poins: but for sweet Jack

Falstaff, kind Jack Falstaff, true Jack Falstaff,

valiant Jack Falstaff, and therefore more valiant,

being, as he is, old Jack Falstaff, banish not him

thy Harry’s company, banish not him thy Harry’s

company: banish plump Jack, and banish all the world.”

Sheriff

One of them is well known, my gracious lord,

A gross fat man.

Carrier

As fat as butter.

PRINCE HENRY

The man, I do assure you, is not here;

For I myself at this time have employ’d him.

And, sheriff, I will engage my word to thee

That I will, by to-morrow dinner-time,

Send him to answer thee, or any man,

For any thing he shall be charged withal:

And so let me entreat you leave the house.”

Sheriff

Good night, my noble lord.

PRINCE HENRY

I think it is good morrow, is it not?

Sheriff

Indeed, my lord, I think it be two o’clock.”

GLENDOWER

I say the earth did shake when I was born.

HOTSPUR

And I say the earth was not of my mind,

If you suppose as fearing you it shook.

GLENDOWER

The heavens were all on fire, the earth did tremble.

HOTSPUR

O, then the earth shook to see the heavens on fire,

And not in fear of your nativity.

Diseased nature oftentimes breaks forth

In strange eruptions; oft the teeming earth

Is with a kind of colic pinch’d and vex’d

By the imprisoning of unruly wind

Within her womb; which, for enlargement striving,

Shakes the old beldam earth and topples down

Steeples and moss-grown towers. At your birth

Our grandam earth, having this distemperature,

In passion shook.

GLENDOWER

Cousin, of many men

I do not bear these crossings. Give me leave

To tell you once again that at my birth

The front of heaven was full of fiery shapes,

The goats ran from the mountains, and the herds

Were strangely clamorous to the frighted fields.

These signs have mark’d me extraordinary;

And all the courses of my life do show

I am not in the roll of common men.

Where is he living, clipp’d in with the sea

That chides the banks of England, Scotland, Wales,

Which calls me pupil, or hath read to me?

And bring him out that is but woman’s son

Can trace me in the tedious ways of art

And hold me pace in deep experiments.

HOTSPUR

I think there’s no man speaks better Welsh.

I’ll to dinner.”

GLENDOWER

I can call spirits from the vasty deep.

HOTSPUR

Why, so can I, or so can any man;

But will they come when you do call for them?

GLENDOWER

Why, I can teach you, cousin, to command

The devil.

HOTSPUR

And I can teach thee, coz, to shame the devil

By telling truth: tell truth and shame the devil.

If thou have power to raise him, bring him hither,

And I’ll be sworn I have power to shame him hence.

O, while you live, tell truth and shame the devil!

MORTIMER

Come, come, no more of this unprofitable chat.”

MORTIMER

(…)

England, from Trent and Severn hitherto,

By south and east is to my part assign’d:

All westward, Wales beyond the Severn shore,

And all the fertile land within that bound,

To Owen Glendower: and, dear coz, to you

The remnant northward, lying off from Trent.

And our indentures tripartite are drawn;

Which being sealed interchangeably,

A business that this night may execute,

To-morrow, cousin Percy, you and I

And my good Lord of Worcester will set forth

To meet your father and the Scottish power,

As is appointed us, at Shrewsbury.

My father Glendower is not ready yet,

Not shall we need his help these fourteen days.

Within that space you may have drawn together

Your tenants, friends and neighbouring gentlemen.”

HOTSPUR

Methinks my moiety, north from Burton here,

In quantity equals not one of yours:

See how this river comes me cranking in,

And cuts me from the best of all my land

A huge half-moon, a monstrous cantle out.

I’ll have the current in this place damm’d up;

And here the smug and silver Trent shall run

In a new channel, fair and evenly;

It shall not wind with such a deep indent,

To rob me of so rich a bottom here.

GLENDOWER

Not wind? it shall, it must; you see it doth.

MORTIMER

Yea, but

Mark how he bears his course, and runs me up

With like advantage on the other side;

Gelding the opposed continent as much

As on the other side it takes from you.”

HOTSPUR

Will not you?

GLENDOWER

No, nor you shall not.

HOTSPUR

Who shall say me nay?

GLENDOWER

Why, that will I.

HOTSPUR

Let me not understand you, then; speak it in Welsh.

GLENDOWER

I can speak English, lord, as well as you;

For I was train’d up in the English court;

Where, being but young, I framed to the harp

Many an English ditty lovely well

And gave the tongue a helpful ornament,

A virtue that was never seen in you.

HOTSPUR

Marry,

And I am glad of it with all my heart:

I had rather be a kitten and cry mew

Than one of these same metre ballad-mongers;

I had rather hear a brazen canstick turn’d,

Or a dry wheel grate on the axle-tree;

And that would set my teeth nothing on edge,

Nothing so much as mincing poetry:

Tis like the forced gait of a shuffling nag.”

HOTSPUR

E que sorte a minha!

Agradeço de todo coração não ter o dom;

Preferia mil vezes ser um gatinho que faz miau

Que recitar baladinhas num sarau

Decassilábicas e paraxítonas

Preferia mesmo ouvir rodar uma girândola,

Uma roda sem óleo raspando no seu eixo,

Do que esses mimos pegajosos

Chamados poesia!

É como o trote forçado de um pangaré aleijado!”

Exit GLENDOWER

MORTIMER

Fie, cousin Percy! how you cross my father!

HOTSPUR

I cannot choose: sometime he angers me

With telling me of the mouldwarp and the ant,

Of the dreamer Merlin and his prophecies,

And of a dragon and a finless fish,

A clip-wing’d griffin and a moulten raven,

A couching lion and a ramping cat,

And such a deal of skimble-skamble stuff

As puts me from my faith. I tell you what;

He held me last night at least nine hours

In reckoning up the several devils’ names

That were his lackeys: I cried <hum>, and <well, go to>,

But mark’d him not a word. O, he is as tedious

As a tired horse, a railing wife;

Worse than a smoky house: I had rather live

With cheese and garlic in a windmill, far,

Than feed on cates [gostosuras] and have him talk to me

In any summer-house in Christendom.

MORTIMER

In faith, he is a worthy gentleman,

Exceedingly well read, and profited

In strange concealments, valiant as a lion

And as wondrous affable and as bountiful

As mines of India. Shall I tell you, cousin?

He holds your temper in a high respect

And curbs himself even of his natural scope

When you come ‘cross his humour; faith, he does:

I warrant you, that man is not alive

Might so have tempted him as you have done,

Without the taste of danger and reproof:

But do not use it oft, let me entreat you.”

MORTIMER

This is the deadly spite that angers me;

My wife can speak no English, I no Welsh.”

Glendower speaks to her in Welsh, and she answers him in the same

GLENDOWER

She is desperate here; a peevish self-wind harlotry,

one that no persuasion can do good upon.

The lady speaks in Welsh

MORTIMER

I understand thy looks: that pretty Welsh

Which thou pour’st down from these swelling heavens

I am too perfect in; and, but for shame,

In such a parley should I answer thee.

The lady speaks again in Welsh

I understand thy kisses and thou mine,

And that’s a feeling disputation:

But I will never be a truant, love,

Till I have learned thy language; for thy tongue

Makes Welsh as sweet as ditties highly penn’d,

Sung by a fair queen in a summer’s bower,

With ravishing division, to her lute.

GLENDOWER

Nay, if you melt, then will she run mad.

The lady speaks again in Welsh

MORTIMER

O, I am ignorance itself in this!”

The music plays

HOTSPUR

Now I perceive the devil understands Welsh;

And ‘tis no marvel he is so humorous.

By’r lady, he is a good musician.”

Você jura como a mulher dum confeiteiro”

KING HENRY IV

For all the world

As thou art to this hour was Richard then

When I from France set foot at Ravenspurgh,

And even as I was then is Percy now.

Now, by my sceptre and my soul to boot,

He hath more worthy interest to the state

Than thou the shadow of succession;

For of no right, nor colour like to right,

He doth fill fields with harness in the realm,

Turns head against the lion’s armed jaws,

And, being no more in debt to years than thou,

Leads ancient lords and reverend bishops on

To bloody battles and to bruising arms.

What never-dying honour hath he got

Against renowned Douglas! whose high deeds,

Whose hot incursions and great name in arms

Holds from all soldiers chief majority

And military title capital

Through all the kingdoms that acknowledge Christ:

Thrice hath this Hotspur, Mars in swathling clothes,

This infant warrior, in his enterprises

Discomfited great Douglas, ta’en him once,

Enlarged him and made a friend of him,

To fill the mouth of deep defiance up

And shake the peace and safety of our throne.

And what say you to this? Percy, Northumberland,

The Archbishop’s grace of York, Douglas, Mortimer,

Capitulate against us and are up.

But wherefore do I tell these news to thee?

Why, Harry, do I tell thee of my foes,

Which art my near’st and dearest enemy?

Thou that art like enough, through vassal fear,

Base inclination and the start of spleen

To fight against me under Percy’s pay,

To dog his heels and curtsy at his frowns,

To show how much thou art degenerate.”

FALSTAFF

Why, there is it: come sing me a bawdy song; make

me merry. I was as virtuously given as a gentleman

need to be; virtuous enough; swore little; diced not

above seven times a week; went to a bawdy-house once

in a quarter–of an hour; paid money that I

borrowed, three of four times; lived well and in

good compass: and now I live out of all order, out

of all compass.

BARDOLPH

Why, you are so fat, Sir John, that you must needs

be out of all compass, out of all reasonable

compass, Sir John.”

Yet all goes well, yet all our joints are whole.”

HOTSPUR

Forty let it be:

My father and Glendower being both away,

The powers of us may serve so great a day

Come, let us take a muster speedily:

Doomsday is near; die all, die merrily.

EARL OF DOUGLAS

Talk not of dying: I am out of fear

Of death or death’s hand for this one-half year.

Exeunt

FALSTAFF

Tut, never fear me: I am as vigilant as a cat to

steal cream.

PRINCE HENRY

I think, to steal cream indeed, for thy theft hath

already made thee butter. But tell me, Jack, whose

fellows are these that come after?

FALSTAFF

Mine, Hal, mine.

PRINCE HENRY

I did never see such pitiful rascals.

FALSTAFF

Tut, tut; good enough to toss; food for powder, food

for powder; they’ll fill a pit as well as better:

tush, man, mortal men, mortal men.

WESTMORELAND

Ay, but, Sir John, methinks they are exceeding poor

and bare, too beggarly.

FALSTAFF

Faith, for their poverty, I know not where they had

that; and for their bareness, I am sure they never

learned that of me.

PRINCE HENRY

No I’ll be sworn; unless you call three fingers on

the ribs bare. But, sirrah, make haste: Percy is

already in the field.”

EARL OF WORCESTER

Good cousin [Deafspur], be advised; stir not tonight.

VERNON

Do not, my lord.

EARL OF DOUGLAS

You do not counsel well:

You speak it out of fear and cold heart.”

VERNON

Come, come it nay not be. I wonder much,

Being men of such great leading as you are,

That you foresee not what impediments

Drag back our expedition: certain horse

Of my cousin Vernon’s are not yet come up:

Your uncle Worcester’s horse came but today;

And now their pride and mettle is asleep,

Their courage with hard labour tame and dull,

That not a horse is half the half of himself.”

Atualmente os cavalos não são nem a metade da metade de si mesmos.

SIR WALTER BLUNT

I come with gracious offers from the king,

if you vouchsafe me hearing and respect.

HOTSPUR

Welcome, Sir Walter Blunt; and would to God

You were of our determination!

Some of us love you well; and even those some

Envy your great deservings and good name,

Because you are not of our quality,

But stand against us like an enemy.”

HOTSPUR

The king is kind; and well we know the king

Knows at what time to promise, when to pay.

My father and my uncle and myself

Did give him that same royalty he wears;

And when he was not six and twenty strong,

Sick in the world’s regard, wretched and low,

A poor unminded outlaw sneaking home,

My father gave him welcome to the shore;

And when he heard him swear and vow to God

He came but to be Duke of Lancaster,

To sue his livery and beg his peace,

With tears of innocency and terms of zeal,

My father, in kind heart and pity moved,

Swore him assistance and perform’d it too.

Now when the lords and barons of the realm

Perceived Northumberland did lean to him,

The more and less came in with cap and knee;

Met him in boroughs, cities, villages,

Attended him on bridges, stood in lanes,

Laid gifts before him, proffer’d him their oaths,

Gave him their heirs, as pages follow’d him

Even at the heels in golden multitudes.

He presently, as greatness knows itself,

Steps me a little higher than his vow

Made to my father, while his blood was poor,

Upon the naked shore at Ravenspurgh;

And now, forsooth, takes on him to reform

Some certain edicts and some strait decrees

That lie too heavy on the commonwealth,

Cries out upon abuses, seems to weep

Over his country’s wrongs; and by this face,

This seeming brow of justice, did he win

The hearts of all that he did angle for;

Proceeded further; cut me off the heads

Of all the favourites that the absent king

In deputation left behind him here,

When he was personal in the Irish war.

SIR WALTER BLUNT

Tut, I came not to hear this.”

EARL OF WORCESTER

It pleased your majesty to turn your looks

Of favour from myself and all our house;

And yet I must remember you, my lord,

We were the first and dearest of your friends.

For you my staff of office did I break

In Richard’s time; and posted day and night

to meet you on the way, and kiss your hand,

When yet you were in place and in account

Nothing so strong and fortunate as I.

It was myself, my brother and his son,

That brought you home and boldly did outdare

The dangers of the time. You swore to us,

And you did swear that oath at Doncaster,

That you did nothing purpose ‘gainst the state;

Nor claim no further than your new-fall’n right,

The seat of Gaunt, dukedom of Lancaster:

To this we swore our aid. But in short space

It rain’d down fortune showering on your head;

And such a flood of greatness fell on you,

What with our help, what with the absent king,

What with the injuries of a wanton time,

The seeming sufferances that you had borne,

And the contrarious winds that held the king

So long in his unlucky Irish wars

That all in England did repute him dead:

And from this swarm of fair advantages

You took occasion to be quickly woo’d

To gripe the general sway into your hand;

Forget your oath to us at Doncaster;

And being fed by us you used us so

As that ungentle hull, the cuckoo’s bird,

Useth the sparrow; did oppress our nest;

Grew by our feeding to so great a bulk

That even our love durst not come near your sight

For fear of swallowing; but with nimble wing

We were enforced, for safety sake, to fly

Out of sight and raise this present head;

Whereby we stand opposed by such means

As you yourself have forged against yourself

By unkind usage, dangerous countenance,

And violation of all faith and troth

Sworn to us in your younger enterprise.”

Both he and they and you, every man

Shall be my friend again and I’ll be his:

So tell your cousin, and bring me word

What he will do: but if he will not yield,

Rebuke and dread correction wait on us

And they shall do their office. So, be gone;

We will not now be troubled with reply:

We offer fair; take it advisedly.”

FALSTAFF

Hal, if thou see me down in the battle and bestride

me, so; ‘tis a point of friendship.

PRINCE HENRY

Nothing but a colossus can do thee that friendship.

Say thy prayers, and farewell.

FALSTAFF

I would ‘twere bed-time, Hal, and all well.

PRINCE HENRY

Why, thou owest God a death.”

Well, ‘tis no matter; honour pricks

me on. Yea, but how if honour prick me off when I

come on? how then? Can honour set to a leg? no: or

an arm? no: or take away the grief of a wound? no.

Honour hath no skill in surgery, then? no. What is

honour? a word. What is in that word honour? what

is that honour? air. A trim reckoning! Who hath it?

he that died o’ Wednesday. Doth he feel it? no.

Doth he hear it? no. ‘Tis insensible, then. Yea,

to the dead. But will it not live with the living?

no. Why? detraction will not suffer it. Therefore

I’ll none of it. Honour is a mere scutcheon: and so

ends my catechism.

Exit

The king should keep his word in loving us;

He will suspect us still and find a time

To punish this offence in other faults:

Suspicion all our lives shall be stuck full of eyes;

For treason is but trusted like the fox,

Who, ne’er so tame, so cherish’d and lock’d up,

Will have a wild trick of his ancestors.

Look how we can, or sad or merrily,

Interpretation will misquote our looks,

And we shall feed like oxen at a stall,

The better cherish’d, still the nearer death.

My nephew’s trespass may be well forgot;

it hath the excuse of youth and heat of blood,

And an adopted name of privilege,

A hair-brain’d Hotspur, govern’d by a spleen:

All his offences live upon my head

And on his father’s; we did train him on,

And, his corruption being ta’en from us,

We, as the spring of all, shall pay for all.

Therefore, good cousin, let not Harry know,

In any case, the offer of the king.”

EARL OF WORCESTER

The Prince of Wales stepp’d forth before the king,

And, nephew, challenged you to single fight.

HOTSPUR

O, would the quarrel lay upon our heads,

And that no man might draw short breath today

But I and Harry Monmouth! Tell me, tell me,

How show’d his tasking? seem’d it in contempt?

VERNON

No, by my soul; I never in my life

Did hear a challenge urged more modestly,

Unless a brother should a brother dare

To gentle exercise and proof of arms.

He gave you all the duties of a man;

Trimm’d up your praises with a princely tongue,

Spoke to your deservings like a chronicle,

Making you ever better than his praise

By still dispraising praise valued in you;

And, which became him like a prince indeed,

He made a blushing cital of himself;

And chid his truant youth with such a grace

As if he master’d there a double spirit.

Of teaching and of learning instantly.

There did he pause: but let me tell the world,

If he outlive the envy of this day,

England did never owe so sweet a hope,

So much misconstrued in his wantonness.

HOTSPUR

Cousin, I think thou art enamoured

On his follies: never did I hear

Of any prince so wild a libertine.

But be he as he will, yet once ere night

I will embrace him with a soldier’s arm,

That he shall shrink under my courtesy.

Arm, arm with speed: and, fellows, soldiers, friends,

Better consider what you have to do

Than I, that have not well the gift of tongue,

Can lift your blood up with persuasion.”

An if we live, we live to tread on kings;

If die, brave death, when princes die with us!”

They fight. DOUGLAS kills SIR WALTER BLUNT. Enter HOTSPUR”

HOTSPUR

This, Douglas? no: I know this face full well:

A gallant knight he was, his name was Blunt;

Semblably furnish’d like the king himself.

EARL OF DOUGLAS

A fool go with thy soul, whither it goes!

A borrow’d title hast thou bought too dear:

Why didst thou tell me that thou wert a king?

HOTSPUR

The king hath many marching in his coats.

EARL OF DOUGLAS

Now, by my sword, I will kill all his coats;

I’ll murder all his wardrobe, piece by piece,

Until I meet the king.

HOTSPUR

Up, and away!

Our soldiers stand full fairly for the day.

Exeunt

FALSTAFF

(…) I am as hot as moulten

lead, and as heavy too: God keep lead out of me! I

need no more weight than mine own bowels. I have

led my ragamuffins where they are peppered: there’s

not three of my hundred and fifty left alive; and

they are for the town’s end, to beg during life.

But who comes here?”

PRINCE HENRY

Give it to me: what, is it in the case?

FALSTAFF

Ay, Hal; ‘tis hot, ‘tis hot; there’s that will sack a city.

PRINCE HENRY draws it out, and finds it to be a bottle of sack

PRINCE HENRY

What, is it a time to jest and dally now?

He throws the bottle at him. Exit

For God’s sake, gimme some sack!

Enter DOUGLAS

EARL OF DOUGLAS

Another king! they grow like Hydra’s heads:

I am the Douglas, fatal to all those

That wear those colours on them: what art thou,

That counterfeit’st the person of a king?

KING HENRY IV

The king himself; who, Douglas, grieves at heart

So many of his shadows thou hast met

And not the very king. I have two boys

Seek Percy and thyself about the field:

But, seeing thou fall’st on me so luckily,

I will assay thee: so, defend thyself.”

They fight. KING HENRY being in danger, PRINCE HENRY enters”

KING HENRY IV

Stay, and breathe awhile:

Thou hast redeem’d thy lost opinion,

And show’d thou makest some tender of my life,

In this fair rescue thou hast brought to me.”

Enter HOTSPUR

HOTSPUR

If I mistake not, thou art Harry Monmouth.

PRINCE HENRY

Thou speak’st as if I would deny my name.

HOTSPUR

My name is Harry Percy.

PRINCE HENRY

Why, then I see

A very valiant rebel of the name.

I am the Prince of Wales; and think not, Percy,

To share with me in glory any more:

Two stars keep not their motion in one sphere;

Nor can one England brook a double reign,

Of Harry Percy and the Prince of Wales.”

They fight

Enter FALSTAFF

FALSTAFF

Well said, Hal! to it Hal! Nay, you shall find no

boy’s play here, I can tell you.

Re-enter DOUGLAS; he fights with FALSTAFF, who falls down as if he were dead, and exit DOUGLAS. HOTSPUR is wounded, and falls

HOTPUR’S LAST DISCOURSE

“…But thought’s the slave of life, and life time’s fool”

Mas pensamentos são os escravos da vida, e os tolos de uma vida vivida.

When that this body did contain a spirit,

A kingdom for it was too small a bound;

But now two paces of the vilest earth

Is room enough: this earth that bears thee dead

Bears not alive so stout a gentleman.

If thou wert sensible of courtesy,

I should not make so dear a show of zeal:

But let my favours hide thy mangled face;

And, even in thy behalf, I’ll thank myself

For doing these fair rites of tenderness.

Adieu, and take thy praise with thee to heaven!

Thy ignominy sleep with thee in the grave,

But not remember’d in thy epitaph!

He spieth FALSTAFF on the ground

What, old acquaintance! could not all this flesh

Keep in a little life? Poor Jack, farewell!

I could have better spared a better man:

O, I should have a heavy miss of thee,

If I were much in love with vanity!

Death hath not struck so fat a deer to-day,

Though many dearer, in this bloody fray.

Embowell”d will I see thee by and by:

Till then in blood by noble Percy lie.

Exit PRINCE HENRY

Counterfeit? I lie, I am no counterfeit: to die,

is to be a counterfeit; for he is but the

counterfeit of a man who hath not the life of a man:

but to counterfeit dying, when a man thereby

liveth, is to be no counterfeit, but the true and

perfect image of life indeed. The better part of

valour is discretion; in the which better part I

have saved my life. ‘Zounds, I am afraid of this

gunpowder Percy, though he be dead: how, if he

should counterfeit too and rise? by my faith, I am

afraid he would prove the better counterfeit.

Therefore I’ll make him sure; yea, and I’ll swear I

killed him. Why may not he rise as well as I?

Nothing confutes me but eyes, and nobody sees me.

Therefore, sirrah,

Stabbing him

with a new wound in your thigh, come you along with me.

Takes up HOTSPUR on his back

Re-enter PRINCE HENRY and LORD JOHN OF LANCASTER

PRINCE HENRY

Come, brother John; full bravely hast thou flesh’d

Thy maiden sword.

LANCASTER

But, soft! whom have we here?

Did you not tell me this fat man was dead?

PRINCE HENRY

I did; I saw him dead,

Breathless and bleeding on the ground. Art

thou alive?

Or is it fantasy that plays upon our eyesight?

I prithee, speak; we will not trust our eyes

Without our ears: thou art not what thou seem’st.

FALSTAFF

No, that’s certain; I am not a double man: but if I

be not Jack Falstaff, then am I a Jack. There is Percy:

Throwing the body down

if your father will do me any honour, so; if not, let

him kill the next Percy himself. I look to be either

earl or duke, I can assure you.

PRINCE HENRY

Why, Percy I killed myself and saw thee dead.

FALSTAFF

Didst thou? Lord, Lord, how this world is given to

lying! I grant you I was down and out of breath;

and so was he: but we rose both at an instant and

fought a long hour by Shrewsbury clock. If I may be

believed, so; if not, let them that should reward

valour bear the sin upon their own heads. I’ll take

it upon my death, I gave him this wound in the

thigh: if the man were alive and would deny it,

zounds, I would make him eat a piece of my sword.

LANCASTER

This is the strangest tale that ever I heard.

PRINCE HENRY

This is the strangest fellow, brother John.

Come, bring your luggage nobly on your back:

For my part, if a lie may do thee grace,

I’ll gild it with the happiest terms I have.

A retreat is sounded

He that rewards me, God reward him! If I do grow great,

I’ll grow less; for I’ll purge, and leave sack, and

live cleanly as a nobleman should do.”

The noble Scot, Lord Douglas, when he saw

The fortune of the day quite turn’d from him,

The noble Percy slain, and all his men

Upon the foot of fear, fled with the rest;

And falling from a hill, he was so bruised

That the pursuers took him. At my tent

The Douglas is; and I beseech your grace

I may dispose of him.”

Rebellion in this land shall lose his sway,

Meeting the cheque of such another day:

And since this business so fair is done,

Let us not leave till all our own be won.

Exeunt

RUMOUR

Open your ears; for which of you will stop

The vent of hearing when loud Rumour speaks?

I, from the orient to the drooping west,

Making the wind my post-horse, still unfold

The acts commenced on this ball of earth:

Upon my tongues continual slanders ride,

The which in every language I pronounce,

Stuffing the ears of men with false reports.

I speak of peace, while covert enmity

Under the smile of safety wounds the world:

And who but Rumour, who but only I,

Make fearful musters and prepared defence,

Whiles the big year, swoln with some other grief,

Is thought with child by the stern tyrant war,

And no such matter? Rumour is a pipe

Blown by surmises, jealousies, conjectures

And of so easy and so plain a stop

That the blunt monster with uncounted heads,

The still-discordant wavering multitude,

Can play upon it. But what need I thus

My well-known body to anatomize

Among my household? Why is Rumour here?

I run before King Harry’s victory;

Who in a bloody field by Shrewsbury

Hath beaten down young Hotspur and his troops,

Quenching the flame of bold rebellion

Even with the rebel’s blood. But what mean I

To speak so true at first? my office is

To noise abroad that Harry Monmouth fell

Under the wrath of noble Hotspur’s sword,

And that the king before the Douglas’ rage

Stoop’d his anointed head as low as death.

This have I rumour’d through the peasant towns

Between that royal field of Shrewsbury

And this worm-eaten hold of ragged stone,

Where Hotspur’s father, old Northumberland,

Lies crafty-sick: the posts come tiring on,

And not a man of them brings other news

Than they have learn’d of me: from Rumour’s tongues

They bring smooth comforts false, worse than

true wrongs.

Exit

LORD BARDOLPH

As good as heart can wish:

The king is almost wounded to the death;

And, in the fortune of my lord your son,

Prince Harry slain outright; and both the Blunts

Kill’d by the hand of Douglas; young Prince John

And Westmoreland and Stafford fled the field;

And Harry Monmouth’s brawn, the hulk Sir John,

Is prisoner to your son: O, such a day,

So fought, so follow’d and so fairly won,

Came not till now to dignify the times,

Since Caesar’s fortunes!

NORTHUMBERLAND

How is this derived?

Saw you the field? came you from Shrewsbury?

LORD BARDOLPH

I spake with one, my lord, that came from thence,

A gentleman well bred and of good name,

That freely render’d me these news for true.

NORTHUMBERLAND

Here comes my servant Travers, whom I sent

On Tuesday last to listen after news.

Enter TRAVERS

I did demand what news from Shrewsbury:

He told me that rebellion had bad luck

And that young Harry Percy’s spur was cold.

With that, he gave his able horse the head,

And bending forward struck his armed heels

Against the panting sides of his poor jade

Up to the rowel-head, and starting so

He seem’d in running to devour the way,

Staying no longer question.

NORTHUMBERLAND

Ha! Again:

Said he young Harry Percy’s spur was cold?

Of Hotspur Coldspur? that rebellion

Had met ill luck?”

NORTHUMBERLAND

How doth my son and brother?

Thou tremblest; and the whiteness in thy cheek

Is apter than thy tongue to tell thy errand.

Even such a man, so faint, so spiritless,

So dull, so dead in look, so woe-begone,

Drew Priam’s curtain in the dead of night,

And would have told him half his Troy was burnt;

But Priam found the fire ere he his tongue,

And I my Percy’s death ere thou report’st it.

This thou wouldst say, <Your son did thus and thus;

Your brother thus: so fought the noble Douglas:>

Stopping my greedy ear with their bold deeds:

But in the end, to stop my ear indeed,

Thou hast a sigh to blow away this praise,

Ending with <Brother, son, and all are dead.>

MORTON

Douglas is living, and your brother, yet;

But, for my lord your son–”

And as the thing that’s heavy in itself,

Upon enforcement flies with greatest speed,

So did our men, heavy in Hotspur’s loss,

Lend to this weight such lightness with their fear

That arrows fled not swifter toward their aim

Than did our soldiers, aiming at their safety,

Fly from the field.

NORTHUMBERLAND

For this I shall have time enough to mourn.

In poison there is physic; and these news,

Having been well, that would have made me sick,

Being sick, have in some measure made me well:

And as the wretch, whose fever-weaken’d joints,

Like strengthless hinges, buckle under life,

Impatient of his fit, breaks like a fire

Out of his keeper’s arms, even so my limbs,

Weaken’d with grief, being now enraged with grief,

Are thrice themselves. Hence, therefore, thou nice crutch!

A scaly gauntlet now with joints of steel

Must glove this hand: and hence, thou sickly quoif!

Thou art a guard too wanton for the head

Which princes, flesh’d with conquest, aim to hit.

Now bind my brows with iron; and approach

The ragged’st hour that time and spite dare bring

To frown upon the enraged Northumberland!

Let heaven kiss earth! now let not Nature’s hand

Keep the wild flood confined! let order die!

And let this world no longer be a stage

To feed contention in a lingering act;

But let one spirit of the first-born Cain

Reign in all bosoms, that, each heart being set

On bloody courses, the rude scene may end,

And darkness be the burier of the dead!

TRAVERS

This strained passion doth you wrong, my lord.

MORTON

(…)

You cast the event of war, my noble lord,

And summ’d the account of chance, before you said

<Let us make head.> It was your presurmise,

That, in the dole of blows, your son might drop:

You knew he walk’d o’er perils, on an edge,

More likely to fall in than to get o’er;

You were advised his flesh was capable

Of wounds and scars and that his forward spirit

Would lift him where most trade of danger ranged:

Yet did you say <Go forth;> and none of this,

Though strongly apprehended, could restrain

The stiff-borne action: what hath then befallen,

Or what hath this bold enterprise brought forth,

More than that being which was like to be?

LORD BARDOLPH

We all that are engaged to this loss

Knew that we ventured on such dangerous seas

That if we wrought our life ‘twas ten to one;

And yet we ventured, for the gain proposed

Choked the respect of likely peril fear’d;

And since we are o’erset, venture again.

Come, we will all put forth, body and goods.”

MORTON

(…)

For that same word, rebellion, did divide

The action of their bodies from their souls;

And they did fight with queasiness, constrain’d,

As men drink potions, that their weapons only

Seem’d on our side; but, for their spirits and souls,

This word, rebellion, it had froze them up,

As fish are in a pond. But now the bishop

Turns insurrection to religion:

Supposed sincere and holy in his thoughts,

He’s followed both with body and with mind;

And doth enlarge his rising with the blood

Of fair King Richard, scraped from Pomfret stones;

Derives from heaven his quarrel and his cause;

Tells them he doth bestride a bleeding land,

Gasping for life under great Bolingbroke;

And more and less do flock to follow him.”

FALSTAFF

(…) the brain of this foolish-compounded clay, man, is not able to invent anything that tends to laughter, more than I invent or is invented on me: I am not only witty in myself, but the cause that wit is in other men.”

I will sooner have a beard grow in the palm of my hand than he shall get one on his cheek”

I looked a’ should have sent me two-and-twenty yards of satin, as I am a true knight, and he sends me security. Well, he may sleep in security; for he hath the horn of abundance, and the lightness of his wife shines through it”

Servant

Sir John Falstaff!

FALSTAFF

Boy, tell him I am deaf.

Page

You must speak louder; my master is deaf.

Lord Chief-Justice

I am sure he is, to the hearing of any thing good. Go, pluck him by the elbow; I must speak with him.

Servant

Sir John!

FALSTAFF

What! a young knave, and begging! Is there not wars? is there not employment? doth not the king lack subjects? do not the rebels need soldiers? Though it be a shame to be on any side but one, it is worse shame to beg than to be on the worst side, were it worse than the name of rebellion can tell how to make it.

Servant

You mistake me, sir.

FALSTAFF

Why, sir, did I say you were an honest man? setting my knighthood and my soldiership aside, I had lied in my throat, if I had said so.

Servant

I pray you, sir, then set your knighthood and our soldiership aside; and give me leave to tell you, you lie in your throat, if you say I am any other than an honest man.

FALSTAFF

I give thee leave to tell me so! I lay aside that which grows to me! if thou gettest any leave of me, hang me; if thou takest leave, thou wert better be hanged. You hunt counter: hence! avaunt!

Servant

Sir, my lord would speak with you.

Lord Chief-Justice

Sir John Falstaff, a word with you.

FALSTAFF

My good lord! God give your lordship good time of day. I am glad to see your lordship abroad: I heard say your lordship was sick: I hope your lordship goes abroad by advice. Your lordship, though not clean past your youth, hath yet some smack of age in you, some relish of the saltness of time; and I must humbly beseech your lordship to have a reverent care of your health.

Lord Chief-Justice

Sir John, I sent for you before your expedition to Shrewsbury.

FALSTAFF

An’t please your lordship, I hear his majesty is returned with some discomfort from Wales.

Lord Chief-Justice

I talk not of his majesty: you would not come when I sent for you.

FALSTAFF

And I hear, moreover, his highness is fallen into this same whoreson apoplexy.

Lord Chief-Justice

Well, God mend him! I pray you, let me speak with you.

FALSTAFF

This apoplexy is, as I take it, a kind of lethargy, an’t please your lordship; a kind of sleeping in the

blood, a whoreson tingling.

Lord Chief-Justice

What tell you me of it? be it as it is.

FALSTAFF

It hath its original from much grief, from study and perturbation of the brain: I have read the cause of his effects in Galen: it is a kind of deafness.

Lord Chief-Justice

I think you are fallen into the disease; for you hear not what I say to you.

FALSTAFF

Very well, my lord, very well: rather, an’t please you, it is the disease of not listening, the malady of not marking, that I am troubled withal.

Lord Chief-Justice

To punish you by the heels would amend the attention of your ears; and I care not if I do become your physician.

FALSTAFF

I am as poor as Job, my lord, but not so patient: your lordship may minister the potion of imprisonment to me in respect of poverty; but how should I be your patient to follow your prescriptions, the wise may make some dram of a scruple, or indeed a scruple itself.

Lord Chief-Justice

I sent for you, when there were matters against you for your life, to come speak with me.

FALSTAFF

As I was then advised by my learned counsel in the laws of this land-service, I did not come.

Lord Chief-Justice

Well, the truth is, Sir John, you live in great infamy.

FALSTAFF

He that buckles him in my belt cannot live in less.

Lord Chief-Justice

Your means are very slender, and your waste is great.

FALSTAFF

I would it were otherwise; I would my means were greater, and my waist slenderer.

Lord Chief-Justice

You have misled the youthful prince.

FALSTAFF

The young prince hath misled me: I am the fellow with the great belly, and he my dog.

Lord Chief-Justice

Well, I am loath to gall a new-healed wound: your day’s service at Shrewsbury hath a little gilded over your night’s exploit on Gadshill: you may thank the unquiet time for your quiet o’er-posting that action.

FALSTAFF

My lord?

Lord Chief-Justice

But since all is well, keep it so: wake not a sleeping wolf.

FALSTAFF

To wake a wolf is as bad as to smell a fox.

Lord Chief-Justice

What! you are as a candle, the better part burnt out.

FALSTAFF

A wassail candle, my lord, all tallow: if I did say of wax, my growth would approve the truth.

Lord Chief-Justice

There is not a white hair on your face but should have his effect of gravity.

FALSTAFF

His effect of gravy, gravy, gravy [recompense, suco da carne].

Lord Chief-Justice

You follow the young prince up and down, like his ill angel.

FALSTAFF

Not so, my lord; your ill angel is light; but I hope he that looks upon me will take me without weighing: and yet, in some respects, I grant, I cannot go: I cannot tell. Virtue is of so little regard in these costermonger times that true valour is turned bear-herd: pregnancy is made a tapster, and hath his quick wit wasted in giving reckonings: all the other gifts appertinent to man, as the malice of this age shapes them, are not worth a gooseberry. You that are old consider not the capacities of us that are young; you do measure the heat of our livers with the bitterness of your galls: and we that are in the vaward of our youth, I must confess, are wags too.

Lord Chief-Justice

Do you set down your name in the scroll of youth, that are written down old with all the characters of age? Have you not a moist eye? a dry hand? a yellow cheek? a white beard? a decreasing leg? an increasing belly? is not your voice broken? your wind short? your chin double? your wit single? and every part about you blasted with antiquity? and will you yet call yourself young? Fie, fie, fie, Sir John!

FALSTAFF

My lord, I was born about three of the clock in the afternoon, with a white head and something a round belly. For my voice, I have lost it with halloing and singing of anthems. To approve my youth further, I will not: the truth is, I am only old in judgment and understanding; and he that will caper with me for a thousand marks, let him lend me the money, and have at him! For the box of the ear that the prince gave you, he gave it like a rude prince, and you took it like a sensible lord. I have chequed him for it, and the young lion repents; marry, not in ashes and sackcloth, but in new silk and old sack.

Lord Chief-Justice

Well, God send the prince a better companion!

FALSTAFF

God send the companion a better prince! I cannot rid my hands of him.

Lord Chief-Justice

Well, the king hath severed you and Prince Harry: I hear you are going with Lord John of Lancaster against the Archbishop and the Earl of Northumberland.

FALSTAFF

Yea; I thank your pretty sweet wit for it. But look you pray, all you that kiss my lady Peace at home, that our armies join not in a hot day; for, by the Lord, I take but two shirts out with me, and I mean not to sweat extraordinarily: if it be a hot day, and I brandish any thing but a bottle, I would I might never spit white again. There is not a dangerous action can peep out his head but I am thrust upon it: well, I cannot last ever: but it was alway yet the trick of our English nation, if they have a good thing, to make it too common. If ye will needs say I am an old man, you should give me rest. I would to God my name were not so terrible to the enemy as it is: I were better to be eaten to death with a rust than to be scoured to nothing with perpetual motion.

Lord Chief-Justice

Well, be honest, be honest; and God bless your expedition!

FALSTAFF

Will your lordship lend me a thousand pound to furnish me forth?

Lord Chief-Justice

Not a penny, not a penny; you are too impatient to bear crosses. Fare you well: commend me to my cousin Westmoreland.

Exeunt Chief-Justice and Servant

FALSTAFF

If I do, fillip me with a three-man beetle. A man can no more separate age and covetousness than a’ can part young limbs and lechery: but the gout galls the one, and the pox pinches the other; and so both the degrees prevent my curses. Boy!

Page

Sir?

FALSTAFF

What money is in my purse?

Page

Seven groats and two pence.

FALSTAFF

I can get no remedy against this consumption of the purse: borrowing only lingers and lingers it out, but the disease is incurable. Go bear this letter to my Lord of Lancaster; this to the prince; this to the Earl of Westmoreland; and this to old Mistress Ursula, whom I have weekly sworn to marry since I perceived the first white hair on my chin. About it: you know where to find me.

Exit Page

A pox of this gout! or, a gout of this pox! for the one or the other plays the rogue with my great toe. ‘Tis no matter if I do halt; I have the wars for my colour, and my pension shall seem the more reasonable. A good wit will make use of any thing: I will turn diseases to commodity.”

Exit

Não há um só perigo que brote em que no meio dele não me joguem! Oh, ok, ok, eu não posso durar para sempre, não é mesmo? Mas seria melhor se a Inglaterra, se é que a Inglaterra tem alguma qualidade, tivesse a qualidade e a prudência de não tornar comum essa coisa de gerar perigos! Ora, se vocês da côrte insistem que sou um velho, deveriam dar-me repouso! Eu peço a Deus que meu nome não permaneça tão terrível a meus adversários, tanto quanto o é agora! Seria melhor ser devorado pela morte por inação e ferrugem dos membros que ser reduzido a nada por esse perpétuo movimento!”

HASTINGS

Our present musters grow upon the file

To five and twenty thousand men of choice;

And our supplies live largely in the hope

Of great Northumberland, whose bosom burns

With an incensed fire of injuries.

LORD BARDOLPH

The question then, Lord Hastings, standeth thus;

Whether our present five and twenty thousand

May hold up head without Northumberland?

HASTINGS

With him, we may.

LORD BARDOLPH

Yea, marry, there’s the point:

But if without him we be thought too feeble,

My judgment is, we should not step too far

Till we had his assistance by the hand;

For in a theme so bloody-faced as this

Conjecture, expectation, and surmise

Of aids incertain should not be admitted.”

LORD BARDOLPH

(…) [THE ROSEBUDS OF WAR]

We see the appearing buds; which to prove fruit,

Hope gives not so much warrant as despair

That frosts will bite them. When we mean to build,

We first survey the plot, then draw the model;

And when we see the figure of the house,

Then must we rate the cost of the erection;

Which if we find outweighs ability,

What do we then but draw anew the model

In fewer offices, or at last desist

To build at all? Much more, in this great work,

Which is almost to pluck a kingdom down

And set another up, should we survey

The plot of situation and the model,

Consent upon a sure foundation,

Question surveyors, know our own estate,

How able such a work to undergo,

To weigh against his opposite; or else

We fortify in paper and in figures,

Using the names of men instead of men:

Like one that draws the model of a house

Beyond his power to build it; who, half through,

Gives o’er and leaves his part-created cost

A naked subject to the weeping clouds

And waste for churlish winter’s tyranny.”

LORD BARDOLPH

What, is the king but five and twenty thousand?

HASTINGS

To us no more; nay, not so much, Lord Bardolph.

For his divisions, as the times do brawl,

Are in three heads: one power against the French,

And one against Glendower; perforce a third

Must take up us: so is the unfirm king

In three divided; and his coffers sound

With hollow poverty and emptiness.”

ARCHBISHOP OF YORK

That he should draw his several strengths together

And come against us in full puissance,

Need not be dreaded.

HASTINGS

If he should do so,

He leaves his back unarm’d, the French and Welsh

Baying him at the heels: never fear that.

LORD BARDOLPH

Who is it like should lead his forces hither?

HASTINGS

The Duke of Lancaster and Westmoreland;

Against the Welsh, himself and Harry Monmouth:

But who is substituted ‘gainst the French,

I have no certain notice.”

ARCHBISHOP OF YORK

(…)

So, so, thou common dog, didst thou disgorge

Thy glutton bosom of the royal Richard;

And now thou wouldst eat thy dead vomit up,

And howl’st to find it. What trust is in

these times?

They that, when Richard lived, would have him die,

Are now become enamour’d on his grave:

Thou, that threw’st dust upon his goodly head

When through proud London he came sighing on

After the admired heels of Bolingbroke,

Criest now <O earth, yield us that king again,

And take thou this!> O thoughts of men accursed!

Past and to come seems best; things present worst.”

FANG

Snare, we must arrest Sir John Falstaff.

MISTRESS QUICKLY

Yea, good Master Snare; I have entered him and all.

SNARE

It may chance cost some of us our lives, for he will stab.

MISTRESS QUICKLY

Alas the day! take heed of him; he stabbed me in

mine own house, and that most beastly: in good

faith, he cares not what mischief he does. If his

weapon be out: he will foin like any devil; he will

spare neither man, woman, nor child.

FANG

If I can close with him, I care not for his thrust.

MISTRESS QUICKLY

No, nor I neither: I’ll be at your elbow.

FANG

An I but fist him once; an a’ come but within my vice,–

MISTRESS QUICKLY

I am undone by his going; I warrant you, he’s an

infinitive thing upon my score. Good Master Fang,

hold him sure: good Master Snare, let him not

scape.”

It is more than for some, my lord; it is for all,

all I have. He hath eaten me out of house and home;

he hath put all my substance into that fat belly of

his: but I will have some of it out again, or I

will ride thee o’ nights like the mare.”

thou didst swear to me then, as I was

washing thy wound, to marry me and make me my lady

thy wife. Canst thou deny it? Did not goodwife

Keech, the butcher’s wife, come in then and call me

gossip Quickly? coming in to borrow a mess of

vinegar; telling us she had a good dish of prawns;

whereby thou didst desire to eat some; whereby I

told thee they were ill for a green wound? And

didst thou not, when she was gone down stairs,

desire me to be no more so familiarity with such

poor people; saying that ere long they should call

me madam? And didst thou not kiss me and bid me

fetch thee thirty shillings? I put thee now to thy

book-oath: deny it, if thou canst.”

Lord Chief-Justice

Sir John, Sir John, I am well acquainted with your

manner of wrenching the true cause the false way. It

is not a confident brow, nor the throng of words

that come with such more than impudent sauciness

from you, can thrust me from a level consideration:

you have, as it appears to me, practised upon the

easy-yielding spirit of this woman, and made her

serve your uses both in purse and in person.”

Come, an ‘twere not for thy humours, there’s not a better wench in England.”

PRINCE HENRY

(…) my heart bleeds inwardly that my father is so

sick: and keeping such vile company as thou art

hath in reason taken from me all ostentation of sorrow.

POINS

The reason?

PRINCE HENRY

What wouldst thou think of me, if I should weep?

POINS

I would think thee a most princely hypocrite.”

PRINCE HENRY

From a God to a bull? a heavy decension! it was

Jove’s case. From a prince to a prentice? a low

transformation! that shall be mine; for in every

thing the purpose must weigh with the folly.”

Viúva LADY PERCY

In military rules, humours of blood,

He was the mark and glass, copy and book,

That fashion’d others. And him, O wondrous him!

O miracle of men! him did you leave,

Second to none, unseconded by you,

To look upon the hideous god of war

In disadvantage; to abide a field

Where nothing but the sound of Hotspur’s name

Did seem defensible: so you left him.

Never, O never, do his ghost the wrong

To hold your honour more precise and nice

With others than with him! let them alone:

The marshal and the archbishop are strong:

Had my sweet Harry had but half their numbers,

To-day might I, hanging on Hotspur’s neck,

Have talk’d of Monmouth’s grave.”

“…so came I a widow;

And never shall have length of life enough

To rain upon remembrance with mine eyes,

That it may grow and sprout as high as heaven,

For recordation to my noble husband.”

NORTHUMBERLAND

(…)

Fain would I go to meet the archbishop,

But many thousand reasons hold me back.

I will resolve for Scotland: there am I,

Till time and vantage crave my company.

Exeunt

FALSTAFF

You make fat rascals, Mistress Doll.

DOLL TEARSHEET

I make them! gluttony and diseases make them; I

make them not.

FALSTAFF

If the cook help to make the gluttony, you help to

make the diseases, Doll: we catch of you, Doll, we

catch of you; grant that, my poor virtue grant that.”

PISTOL

God save you, Sir John!

FALSTAFF

Welcome, Ancient Pistol. Here, Pistol, I charge

you with a cup of sack: do you discharge upon mine hostess.

PISTOL

I will discharge upon her, Sir John, with two bullets.

FALSTAFF

She is Pistol-proof, sir; you shall hardly offend

her.

MISTRESS QUICKLY

Come, I’ll drink no proofs nor no bullets: I’ll

drink no more than will do me good, for no man’s

pleasure, I.

PISTOL

Then to you, Mistress Dorothy; I will charge you.

DOLL TEARSHEET

Charge me! I scorn you, scurvy companion. What!

you poor, base, rascally, cheating, lack-linen

mate! Away, you mouldy rogue, away! I am meat for

your master.

PISTOL

I know you, Mistress Dorothy.”

Si fortune me tormente, sperato me contento.”

DOLL TEARSHEET

Ah, you sweet little rogue, you! alas, poor ape,

how thou sweatest! come, let me wipe thy face;

come on, you whoreson chops: ah, rogue! I’ faith, I

love thee: thou art as valorous as Hector of Troy,

worth five of Agamemnon, and ten times better than

the Nine Worthies: ah, villain!

FALSTAFF

A rascally slave! I will toss the rogue in a blanket.”

FALSTAFF

Kiss me, Doll.

PRINCE HENRY

Saturn and Venus this year in conjunction! what

says the almanac to that?

POINS

And look, whether the fiery Trigon, his man, be not

lisping to his master’s old tables, his note-book,

his counsel-keeper.”

FALSTAFF

(…) I shall receive

money o’ Thursday: shalt have a cap to-morrow. A

merry song, come: it grows late; we’ll to bed.

Thou’lt forget me when I am gone.

DOLL TEARSHEET

By my troth, thou’lt set me a-weeping, an thou

sayest so: prove that ever I dress myself handsome

till thy return: well, harken at the end.

FALSTAFF

Some sack, Francis.

PRINCE HENRY / POINS

Anon, anon, sir.

Coming forward

FALSTAFF

I dispraised him before the wicked, that the wicked might not fall in love with him; in which doing, I have done the part of a careful friend and a true subject, and thy father is to give me thanks for it. No abuse, Hal: none, Ned, none: no, faith, boys, none.”

You see, my good wenches, how men of merit are sought after: the undeserver may sleep, when the man of action is called on. Farewell good wenches: if I be not sent away post, I will see you again ere I go.”

O ELOGIO REAL AO SONO

How many thousand of my poorest subjects

Are at this hour asleep! O sleep, O gentle sleep,

Nature’s soft nurse, how have I frighted thee,

That thou no more wilt weigh my eyelids down

And steep my senses in forgetfulness?

Why rather, sleep, liest thou in smoky cribs,

Upon uneasy pallets stretching thee

And hush’d with buzzing night-flies to thy slumber,

Than in the perfumed chambers of the great,

Under the canopies of costly state,

And lull’d with sound of sweetest melody?

O thou dull god, why liest thou with the vile

In loathsome beds, and leavest the kingly couch

A watch-case or a common ‘larum-bell?

Wilt thou upon the high and giddy mast

Seal up the ship-boy’s eyes, and rock his brains

In cradle of the rude imperious surge

And in the visitation of the winds,

Who take the ruffian billows by the top,

Curling their monstrous heads and hanging them

With deafening clamour in the slippery clouds,

That, with the hurly, death itself awakes?

Canst thou, O partial sleep, give thy repose

To the wet sea-boy in an hour so rude,

And in the calmest and most stillest night,

With all appliances and means to boot,

Deny it to a king? Then happy low, lie down!

Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown.”

Ah, quantos milhares de meus mais míseros súditos não desfrutam agora

Do mais aconchegante dos sonos noturnos! Ah sono, meu doce sono!

A gentil ama da mãe-natureza: como pude espantar este aio?

A ponto de não esperar mais que pese sobre meus cílios

Banhando meus sentidos em puro esquecimento?

Por que preferes visitar com constância as choças dos labregos?

Espreguiças-te na mais precária palha, não dormes comigo em meu leito real

Estiras-te, ao contrário, onde carapanãs roem tudo o que respira!

Não sentes este perfume do palácio dos senhores

Sob tetos imponentes e opulentos

Nem queres ser embalado e embalar-me por refinadas árias

Divindade tola, tens prazer em freqüentar só os vilões?

Camas sujas, deixando um vácuo nos canapés reais?

Preferes cubículos mofados a espaços bem-cuidados e arejados?

Vais então como sereia acalentar o reles marujinho que assiste do alto do mastro os mares

E deveria guardar-se, vigilante, de ter seus nervos apatetados

Tornando sua dura cama de madeira num berço confortável?

O vento que deveria servir-lhe de alerta-mor é que embalará essa cadeirinha de balanço extemporânea

Mal sabe o vigia enganado que assim entregue ao sono estará pior que enforcado

Voltando a si por demais tarde, quando as nuvens negras anunciarem

Em alto e bom som o estrondo da própria Morte!

Não podes tu, sono, deixar de tomar partido?

Deixar de lado essa gente corsária e voltar pra mim?

Na noite mais silenciosa e tranqüila

Que se mostra a mais propícia

Trairás teu próprio Rei?

Ora, se tão vil és, suma, pois!

Digo que a cabeça que sustenta uma coroa

Jamais dorme sossegada!

Warwick

Que vossa majestade ainda veja muitos sóis como este!

Sick King

Este sol cinza que escurece?

– Bom dia!

– Bom dia pra quem?

– Bom dia pra quem já comeu alguém/a queen!

– Então estou na noite…, e não é de núpcias.

KING HENRY IV

Then you perceive the body of our kingdom

How foul it is; what rank diseases grow

And with what danger, near the heart of it.

WARWICK

It is but as a body yet distemper’d;

Which to his former strength may be restored

With good advice and little medicine:

My Lord Northumberland will soon be cool’d.

KING HENRY IV

O God! that one might read the book of fate,

And see the revolution of the times

Make mountains level, and the continent,

Weary of solid firmness, melt itself

Into the sea! and, other times, to see

The beachy girdle of the ocean

Too wide for Neptune’s hips; how chances mock,

And changes fill the cup of alteration

With divers liquors! O, if this were seen,

The happiest youth, viewing his progress through,

What perils past, what crosses to ensue,

Would shut the book, and sit him down and die.

Tis not ‘ten years gone

Since Richard and Northumberland, great friends,

Did feast together, and in two years after

Were they at wars: it is but eight years since

This Percy was the man nearest my soul,

Who like a brother toil’d in my affairs

And laid his love and life under my foot,

Yea, for my sake, even to the eyes of Richard

Gave him defiance. But which of you was by–

You, cousin Nevil, as I may remember–

To WARWICK

When Richard, with his eye brimful of tears,

Then cheque’d and rated by Northumberland,

Did speak these words, now proved a prophecy?

<Northumberland, thou ladder by the which

My cousin Bolingbroke ascends my throne;>

Though then, God knows, I had no such intent,

But that necessity so bow’d the state

That I and greatness were compell’d to kiss:

<The time shall come,> thus did he follow it,

<The time will come, that foul sin, gathering head,

Shall break into corruption:> so went on,

Foretelling this same time’s condition

And the division of our amity.

WARWICK

There is a history in all men’s lives,

Figuring the nature of the times deceased;

The which observed, a man may prophesy,

With a near aim, of the main chance of things

As yet not come to life, which in their seeds

And weak beginnings lie intreasured.

Such things become the hatch and brood of time;

And by the necessary form of this

King Richard might create a perfect guess

That great Northumberland, then false to him,

Would of that seed grow to a greater falseness;

Which should not find a ground to root upon,

Unless on you.”

-ASCENSÃO & QUEDA DE HENRIQUE NO QUARTO-

REI HENRIQUE

Infeliz daquele que tem acesso ao livro que conta do futuro

E testemunha da revolução dos tempos

Montanhas viram vales, o continente, cansado da secura, derrete-se em mar e sal.

Os oceanos, as calças de Poseidon, se tornam muito largas e as vestes desistem do deus

Tudo se esvai em água!

Se esse livro fosse lido

Nem o jovem mais iludido

Animado o fecharia,

Diante de tantas tribulações para trás e,

O que é mais inconsolável,

Para frente, para frente, sem solenidade

Campeãs da impertinência!

Nem bem dez anos faz

Que Ricardo II e Nortumbelino, grandes meus amigos,

Almoçavam comigo!

Só setecentos dias e uma mudança completa se havia operado!

Um em guerra contra o outro; e Percy me jurou lealdade,

Era o mais fidalgo e meu companheiro de armas mais leal.

Como um irmão, sem esperar recompensa, deu-se aos trabalhos

Mais ásperos, humilhando-se debaixo do amor fraternal,

Arriscando a própria vida e deixando de temer o próprio olhar furioso do então

Rei Ricardo

Nevil Pavio, primo, tu viste tudo de que te falo.

Estavas lá quando Ricardo com o olho umedecido,

Vencido pelo ex-companheiro, profetizou então esta negra revelação.

Nortumbelino, pela escada que erigiste

Meu primo Bolingbroke ascenderá ao trono!

Deus sabe que não tinha essa tenção

Mas o estado das coisas dobrou o Estado

Eu e a grandeza estávamos destinados um ao outro, promissoras núpcias.

Mas Ricardo disse ainda: Chegará o dia em que o pecado abominável explodirá em corrupção.

Então ele já contava

Dos tempos atuais e da nossa divisão.

PAVIOCURTO

Todo homem tem uma história,

E alguns vêem na sua própria

Toda a ruína coletiva.

Não é dom tampouco sorte,

Apenas questão de sutileza, estudo,

Probabilidade! Ele anuncia o que vê

que pode acontecer; e de fato acontece!

Porque ele sabia que as sementes que plantara

Germinariam, e sabia muito bem de que planta se tratava!

Sim, Ricardo ainda vive, através de seus palpites, entre nós

Fazendo esta infame porém necessária Colheita dos Tempos:

Nortumbelino, que o traíra, não perderia ocasião

De fazê-lo de novo, árvore sempre crescente,

Cada vez um carvalho mais velho e falso!

E, meu Rei, este carvalho, que já abrigou na sombra um tal Percy, agora anda necessitado

De solo rico o bastante para suas raízes tão sedentas, a fim de não se ver podado.

E esse solo, que ironia, só pode ser Vossa Majestade!

SCENE II. Gloucestershire. Before SHALLOW’S house.

Enter SHALLOW and SILENCE, meeting; MOULDY, SHADOW, WART, FEEBLE, BULLCALF, a Servant or two with them

FESTA DO SONIC?

Entram Supérfluo e Silêncio, entrecruzando-se; Embolorado, Sombra, Verruga, Fracote, Novilho, um servo ou dois com todos eles.

Desairoso Janota

S[HAL]LOW

(…) Then was Jack Falstaff, now Sir John, a boy, and page to Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk.”

You R.I.P. what you shallow.

Jesu, Jesu, the mad days that I have spent! and to see how many of my old acquaintance are dead!”

SHALLOW

Death is certain. Is old Double of your town living yet?

SILENCE

Dead, sir.” Dobrado no caixão, sô.

Enter BARDOLPH and one with him

BARDOLPH

Good morrow, honest gentlemen: I beseech you, which

is Justice Shallow?

SHALLOW

I am Robert Shallow, sir; a poor esquire of this

county, and one of the king’s justices of the peace:

What is your good pleasure with me?

BARDOLPH

My captain, sir, commends him to you; my captain,

Sir John Falstaff, a tall gentleman, by heaven, and

a most gallant leader.

SHALLOW

He greets me well, sir. I knew him a good backsword

man. How doth the good knight? may I ask how my

lady his wife doth?

BARDOLPH

Sir, pardon; a soldier is better accommodated than

with a wife.

SHALLOW

It is well said, in faith, sir; and it is well said

indeed too. Better accommodated! it is good; yea,

indeed, is it: good phrases are surely, and ever

were, very commendable. Accommodated! it comes of

<accommodo> very good; a good phrase.

BARDOLPH

Pardon me, sir; I have heard the word. Phrase call

you it? by this good day, I know not the phrase;

but I will maintain the word with my sword to be a

soldier-like word, and a word of exceeding good

command, by heaven. Accommodated; that is, when a

man is, as they say, accommodated; or when a man is,

being, whereby a’ may be thought to be accommodated;

which is an excellent thing.

SHALLOW

It is very just.

Enter FALSTAFF

FALSTAFF

(…) where is Mouldy?

MOULDY [Embotado]

Here, an’t please you.

SHALLOW

What think you, Sir John? a good-limbed fellow;

young, strong, and of good friends.

FALSTAFF

Is thy name Mouldy?

MOULDY

Yea, an’t please you.

FALSTAFF

Tis the more time thou wert used.

SHALLOW

Ha, ha, ha! most excellent, I’ faith! Things that

are mouldy lack use: very singular good! in faith,

well said, Sir John, very well said.”

SHALLOW

Where’s Shadow?

SHADOW

Here, sir.

FALSTAFF

Shadow, whose son art thou?

SHADOW

My mother’s son, sir.

FALSTAFF

Thy mother’s son! like enough, and thy father’s

shadow: so the son of the female is the shadow of

the male: it is often so, indeed; but much of the

father’s substance!”

SHALLOW

Ha, ha, ha! you can do it, sir; you can do it: I

commend you well. Francis Feeble!

FEEBLE

Here, sir.

FALSTAFF

What trade art thou, Feeble?

FEEBLE

A woman’s tailor, sir.

SHALLOW

Shall I prick him, sir?

FALSTAFF

You may: but if he had been a man’s tailor, he’ld

ha’ pricked you. Wilt thou make as many holes in

an enemy’s battle as thou hast done in a woman’s petticoat?

FEEBLE

I will do my good will, sir; you can have no more.”

thou wilt be as valiant as the wrathful dove or most magnanimous mouse.”

FEEBLE

I would Wart might have gone, sir.

FALSTAFF

I would thou wert a man’s tailor, that thou mightst

mend him and make him fit to go. I cannot put him

to a private soldier that is the leader of so many

thousands: let that suffice, most forcible Feeble.”

FALSTAFF

I am bound to thee, reverend Feeble. Who is next?

SHALLOW

Peter Bullcalf o’ the green!

FALSTAFF

Yea, marry, let’s see Bullcalf.

BULLCALF

Here, sir.

FALSTAFF

Fore God, a likely fellow! Come, prick me Bullcalf

till he roar again.

BULLCALF

O Lord! good my lord captain,–

FALSTAFF

What, dost thou roar before thou art pricked?

BULLCALF

O Lord, sir! I am a diseased man.

FALSTAFF

What disease hast thou?

BULLCALF

A whoreson cold, sir, a cough, sir, which I caught

with ringing in the king’s affairs upon his

coronation-day, sir.

FALSTAFF

Come, thou shalt go to the wars in a gown; we wilt

have away thy cold; and I will take such order that

my friends shall ring for thee. Is here all?”

Já faz 55 anos, sor.”

Exeunt FALSTAFF and Justices

BULLCALF

Good Master Corporate Bardolph, stand my friend;

and here’s 4 Harry 10 shillings in French crowns

for you. In very truth, sir, I had as lief be

hanged, sir, as go: and yet, for mine own part, sir,

I do not care; but rather, because I am unwilling,

and, for mine own part, have a desire to stay with

my friends; else, sir, I did not care, for mine own

part, so much.

BARDOLPH

Go to; stand aside.

MOULDY

And, good master corporal captain, for my old

dame’s sake, stand my friend: she has nobody to do

any thing about her when I am gone; and she is old,

and cannot help herself: You shall have 40, sir.

BARDOLPH

Go to; stand aside.

FEEBLE

By my troth, I care not; a man can die but once: we

owe God a death: I’ll ne’er bear a base mind:

an’t be my destiny, so; an’t be not, so: no man is

too good to serve’s prince; and let it go which way

it will, he that dies this year is quit for the next.

BARDOLPH

Well said; thou’rt a good fellow.

FEEBLE

Faith, I’ll bear no base mind.

Re-enter FALSTAFF and the Justices

– Como será o pgto., sr.?

– Em 4 xelins e ducados.

– Ah, sim, suponho que todos tenham ido à escola como se deve.

– Não se arrependerá de confiar nas propriedades morais dele, sr.!

MAMÃE EU QUERIA (E VOU) (SERVIR O EXÉRCITO)

Ó, que m’importa! Um homem tem de morrer, e só se morre uma vez, nem mais, nem menos.

Sim, morre-se uma vez! Não há escapatória!

Devemos esta morte a Deus Todo-Poderoso, com certeza. Nunca me esquecerei disso.

Se for coisa do destino, decreto dos céus, que seja!

Se não for, ora, que não seja! Não terá sido dessa vez. Ninguém é bom demais para ser

súdito do Rei! Digo, bom demais

para não ser súdito do Rei, se é que m’entendem! Ninguém é grande pra não ser pequeno.

Pelo menos eu acho. Enfim, só penso:

quem morre esse ano não morre no próximo, já está zerado e saldado! É o qu’eu sempre digo:

Antes cedo do que cinco!

BARDOLPH

Sir, a word with you: I have 3 pound to free

Mouldy and Bullcalf.

FALSTAFF

Go to; well.

SHALLOW

Come, Sir John, which 4 will you have?

FALSTAFF

Do you choose for me.

SHALLOW

Marry, then, Mouldy, Bullcalf, Feeble and Shadow.

FALSTAFF

Mouldy and Bullcalf: for you, Mouldy, stay at home

till you are past service: and for your part,

Bullcalf, grow till you come unto it: I will none of you.”

Here’s Wart; you see what a

ragged appearance it is; a’ shall charge you and

discharge you with the motion of a pewterer’s

hammer, come off and on swifter than he that gibbets

on the brewer’s bucket. And this same half-faced

fellow, Shadow; give me this man: he presents no

mark to the enemy; the foeman may with as great aim

level at the edge of a penknife. And for a retreat;

how swiftly will this Feeble the woman’s tailor run

off! O, give me the spare men, and spare me the

great ones. Put me a caliver into Wart’s hand, Bardolph.”

Ele não é o mestre de seu ofício.”

FALSTAFF

These fellows will do well, Master Shallow. God keep you, Master Silence: I will not use many words with you.”

SHALLOW

Sir John, the Lord bless you! God prosper your

affairs! God send us peace! At your return visit

our house; let our old acquaintance be renewed;

peradventure I will with ye to the court.

FALSTAFF

Fore God, I would you would, Master Shallow.

SHALLOW

Go to; I have spoke at a word. God keep you.

FALSTAFF

Fare you well, gentle gentlemen.”

(…) Lord, Lord, how

subject we old men are to this vice of lying! This

same starved justice hath done nothing but prate to

me of the wildness of his youth, and the feats he

hath done about Turnbull Street: and every third

word a lie, duer paid to the hearer than the Turk’s

tribute. I do remember him at Clement’s Inn like a

man made after supper of a cheese-paring: when a’

was naked, he was, for all the world, like a forked

radish [rabanete espetado], with a head fantastically carved upon it

with a knife: a’ was so forlorn, that his

dimensions to any thick sight were invincible: a’

was the very genius of famine; yet lecherous as a

monkey, and the whores called him mandrake: a’ came

ever in the rearward of the fashion, and sung those

tunes to the overscutched huswives that he heard the

carmen whistle, and swear they were his fancies or

his good-nights. And now is this Vice’s dagger

become a squire, and talks as familiarly of John a

Gaunt as if he had been sworn brother to him; and

I’ll be sworn a’ ne’er saw him but once in the

Tilt-yard; and then he burst his head for crowding

among the marshal’s men. I saw it, and told John a

Gaunt he beat his own name; for you might have

thrust him and all his apparel into an eel-skin; the

case of a treble hautboy [poderia jurar que uma caixinha de anel serviria de mansão para esse frangote!] was a mansion for him, a

court: and now has he land and beefs. Well, I’ll

be acquainted with him, if I return; and it shall

go hard but I will make him a philosopher’s two

stones to me: if the young dace be a bait for the

old pike [se a tilapinha server de isca pro dardo velho… por que não perfurá-lo, não é mesmo? Este é só o começo do bacalhau!], I see no reason in the law of nature but I

may snap at him. Let time shape, and there an end.

Exit

Ó, a adaga do Vício se tornou gentil-homem – mas quando? E por quê?! Cruzes!

WESTMORELAND [MAISTERRAAOESTE]

(…) You, lord archbishop,

Whose see is by a civil peace maintained,

Whose beard the silver hand of peace hath touch’d,

Whose learning and good letters peace hath tutor’d,

Whose white investments figure innocence,

The dove and very blessed spirit of peace,

Wherefore do you so ill translate ourself

Out of the speech of peace that bears such grace,

Into the harsh and boisterous tongue of war;

Turning your books to graves, your ink to blood,

Your pens to lances and your tongue divine

To a trumpet and a point of war?

ARCHBISHOP OF YORK

(…) we are all diseased,

And with our surfeiting and wanton hours

Have brought ourselves into a burning fever,

And we must bleed for it; of which disease

Our late king, Richard, being infected, died.

But, my most noble Lord of Westmoreland,

I take not on me here as a physician,

Nor do I as an enemy to peace

Troop in the throngs of military men;

But rather show awhile like fearful war,

To diet rank minds sick of happiness

And purge the obstructions which begin to stop

Our very veins of life. Hear me more plainly.

I have in equal balance justly weigh’d

What wrongs our arms may do, what wrongs we suffer,

And find our griefs heavier than our offences.

We see which way the stream of time doth run,

And are enforced from our most quiet there

By the rough torrent of occasion;

And have the summary of all our griefs,

When time shall serve, to show in articles;

Which long ere this we offer’d to the king,

And might by no suit gain our audience:

When we are wrong’d and would unfold our griefs,

We are denied access unto his person

Even by those men that most have done us wrong.

The dangers of the days but newly gone,

Whose memory is written on the earth

With yet appearing blood, and the examples

Of every minute’s instance, present now,

Hath put us in these ill-beseeming arms,

Not to break peace or any branch of it,

But to establish here a peace indeed,

Concurring both in name and quality.

WESTMORELAND

When ever yet was your appeal denied?

Wherein have you been galled by the king?

What peer hath been suborn’d to grate on you,

That you should seal this lawless bloody book

Of forged rebellion with a seal divine

And consecrate commotion’s bitter edge?

ARCHBISHOP OF YORK

My brother general, the commonwealth,

To brother born an household cruelty,

I make my quarrel in particular.

WESTMORELAND

There is no need of any such redress;

Or if there were, it not belongs to you.

MOWBRAY

Why not to him in part, and to us all

That feel the bruises of the days before,

And suffer the condition of these times

To lay a heavy and unequal hand

Upon our honours?

WESTMORELAND

O, my good Lord Mowbray,

Construe the times to their necessities,

And you shall say indeed, it is the time,

And not the king, that doth you injuries.

Yet for your part, it not appears to me

Either from the king or in the present time

That you should have an inch of any ground

To build a grief on: were you not restored

To all the Duke of Norfolk’s signories,

Your noble and right well remember’d father’s?”

WESTMORELAND

You speak, Lord Mowbray, now you know not what.

The Earl of Hereford was reputed then

In England the most valiant gentlemen:

Who knows on whom fortune would then have smiled?

But if your father had been victor there,

He ne’er had borne it out of Coventry:

For all the country in a general voice

Cried hate upon him; and all their prayers and love

Were set on Hereford, whom they doted on

And bless’d and graced indeed, more than the king.

But this is mere digression from my purpose.

Here come I from our princely general

To know your griefs; to tell you from his grace

That he will give you audience; and wherein

It shall appear that your demands are just,

You shall enjoy them, every thing set off

That might so much as think you enemies.”

WESTMORELAND

(…)

Our battle is more full of names than yours,

Our men more perfect in the use of arms,

Our armour all as strong, our cause the best;

Then reason will our heart should be as good

Say you not then our offer is compell’d.

MOWBRAY

Well, by my will we shall admit no parley.

WESTMORELAND

That argues but the shame of your offence:

A rotten case abides no handling.”

HASTINGS

Besides, the king hath wasted all his rods

On late offenders, that he now doth lack

The very instruments of chastisement:

So that his power, like to a fangless lion,

May offer, but not hold.”

LANCASTER [PRINCE HENRY]

You are too shallow, Hastings, much too shallow,

To sound the bottom of the after-times.”

HASTINGS

Go, captain, and deliver to the army

This news of peace: let them have pay, and part:

I know it will well please them. Hie thee, captain.

Exit Officer

ARCHBISHOP OF YORK

To you, my noble Lord of Westmoreland.

WESTMORELAND

I pledge your grace; and, if you knew what pains

I have bestow’d to breed this present peace,

You would drink freely: but my love to ye

Shall show itself more openly hereafter.

ARCHBISHOP OF YORK

I do not doubt you.

WESTMORELAND

I am glad of it.

Health to my lord and gentle cousin, Mowbray.

MOWBRAY

You wish me health in very happy season;

For I am, on the sudden, something ill.

ARCHBISHOP OF YORK

Against ill chances men are ever merry;

But heaviness foreruns the good event.

WESTMORELAND

Therefore be merry, coz; since sudden sorrow

Serves to say thus, <some good thing comes

to-morrow.>

A paz é da mesma natureza da conquista: os dois partidos, nobremente submetidos, não se sentem, nenhum deles, vencidos.”

HASTINGS

My lord, our army is dispersed already;

Like youthful steers unyoked, they take their courses

East, west, north, south; or, like a school broke up,

Each hurries toward his home and sporting-place.

WESTMORELAND

Good tidings, my Lord Hastings; for the which

I do arrest thee, traitor, of high treason:

And you, lord archbishop, and you, Lord Mowbray,

Of capitol treason I attach you both.”

MOWBRAY

Is this proceeding just and honourable?

WESTMORELAND

Is your assembly so?

ARCHBISHOP OF YORK

Will you thus break your faith?

LANCASTER

I pawn’d thee none:

I promised you redress of these same grievances

Whereof you did complain; which, by mine honour,

I will perform with a most Christian care.

But for you, rebels, look to taste the due

Meet for rebellion and such acts as yours.

Most shallowly did you these arms commence,

Fondly brought here and foolishly sent hence.

Strike up our drums, pursue the scatter’d stray:

God, and not we, hath safely fought to-day.

Some guard these traitors to the block of death,

Treason’s true bed and yielder up of breath.

Exeunt

FALSTAFF

I have a whole school of tongues in this belly of

mine, and not a tongue of them all speaks any other

word but my name. An I had but a belly of any

indifference, I were simply the most active fellow

in Europe: my womb, my womb, my womb, undoes me.

Here comes our general.”

LANCASTER

(…)

Now, Falstaff, where have you been all this while?

When every thing is ended, then you come:

These tardy tricks of yours will, on my life,

One time or other break some gallows’ back.”

O que pensas que sou, uma andorinha, uma flecha ou uma bala? Teria eu em meus movimentos miseráveis e velhos-velhacos agilidade de pensamento e predição? Vim o mais rápido que pude!”

I came, saw and overcame”

LANCASTER

And now dispatch we toward the court, my lords:

I hear the king my father is sore sick:

Our news shall go before us to his majesty,

Which, cousin, you shall bear to comfort him,

And we with sober speed will follow you.”

FALSTAFF

I would you had but the wit: ‘twere better than

your dukedom. Good faith, this same young soberblooded

boy doth not love me; nor a man cannot make

him laugh; but that’s no marvel, he drinks no wine.

There’s never none of these demure boys come to any

proof; for thin drink doth so over-cool their blood,

and making many fish-meals, that they fall into a

kind of male green-sickness; and then when they

marry, they get wenches: they are generally fools

and cowards; which some of us should be too, but for

inflammation. A good sherris sack hath a two-fold

operation in it. It ascends me into the brain;

dries me there all the foolish and dull and curdy

vapours which environ it; makes it apprehensive,

quick, forgetive, full of nimble fiery and

delectable shapes, which, delivered o’er to the

voice, the tongue, which is the birth, becomes

excellent wit. The second property of your

excellent sherris is, the warming of the blood;

which, before cold and settled, left the liver

white and pale, which is the badge of pusillanimity

and cowardice; but the sherris warms it and makes

it course from the inwards to the parts extreme:

it illumineth the face, which as a beacon gives

warning to all the rest of this little kingdom,

man, to arm; and then the vital commoners and

inland petty spirits muster me all to their captain,

the heart, who, great and puffed up with this

retinue, doth any deed of courage; and this valour

comes of sherris. So that skill in the weapon is

nothing without sack, for that sets it a-work; and

learning a mere hoard of gold kept by a devil, till

sack commences it and sets it in act and use.

Hereof comes it that Prince Harry is valiant; for

the cold blood he did naturally inherit of his

father, he hath, like lean, sterile and bare land,

manured, husbanded and tilled with excellent

endeavour of drinking good and good store of fertile

sherris, that he is become very hot and valiant. If

I had a thousand sons, the first humane principle I

would teach them should be, to forswear thin

potations and to addict themselves to sack.”

Filhos se eu tivesse dez

A todos ensinaria

Encher a pança de tonéis!

KING HENRY IV

Humphrey, my son of Gloucester,

Where is the prince your brother?

GLOUCESTER

I think he’s gone to hunt, my lord, at Windsor.

KING HENRY IV

And how accompanied?

GLOUCESTER

I do not know, my lord.

KING HENRY IV

Is not his brother, Thomas of Clarence, with him?

GLOUCESTER

No, my good lord; he is in presence here.

CLARENCE

What would my lord and father?

KING HENRY IV

Nothing but well to thee, Thomas of Clarence.

How chance thou art not with the prince thy brother?

He loves thee, and thou dost neglect him, Thomas;

Thou hast a better place in his affection

Than all thy brothers: cherish it, my boy,

And noble offices thou mayst effect

Of mediation, after I am dead,

Between his greatness and thy other brethren:

Therefore omit him not; blunt not his love,

Nor lose the good advantage of his grace

By seeming cold or careless of his will;

For he is gracious, if he be observed:

He hath a tear for pity and a hand

Open as day for melting charity:

Yet notwithstanding, being incensed, he’s flint,

As humorous as winter and as sudden

As flaws congealed in the spring of day.

His temper, therefore, must be well observed:

Chide him for faults, and do it reverently,

When thou perceive his blood inclined to mirth;

But, being moody, give him line and scope,

Till that his passions, like a whale on ground,

Confound themselves with working. Learn this, Thomas,

And thou shalt prove a shelter to thy friends,

A hoop of gold to bind thy brothers in,

That the united vessel of their blood,

Mingled with venom of suggestion–

As, force perforce, the age will pour it in–

Shall never leak, though it do work as strong

As aconitum or rash gunpowder.”

WARWICK

My gracious lord, you look beyond him quite:

The prince but studies his companions

Like a strange tongue, wherein, to gain the language,

Tis needful that the most immodest word

Be look’d upon and learn’d; which once attain’d,

Your highness knows, comes to no further use

But to be known and hated. So, like gross terms,

The prince will in the perfectness of time

Cast off his followers; and their memory

Shall as a pattern or a measure live,

By which his grace must mete the lives of others,

Turning past evils to advantages.

KING HENRY IV

Tis seldom when the bee doth leave her comb

In the dead carrion.”

Ó, amigo, muitas vezes a abelha sai de seu favo só quando não há mais mel nenhum…

Tu és para mim uma andorinha de verão que canta as belezas tropicais no mais nevoento inverno…

Os anos passam e mudam seus humores exatamente como as estações do mesmo círculo do sol.

Will fortune never come with both hands full,

But write her fair words still in foulest letters?

She either gives a stomach and no food;

Such are the poor, in health; or else a feast

And takes away the stomach; such are the rich,

That have abundance and enjoy it not.”

A felicidade acaso nunca virá de mancheias e perfeita?

Só escrevendo por linhas tortas nessa comédia de tolos?

Ou temos um estômago sem comida,

Que é a vida do pobre, quando tem saúde;

Ou temos um banquete sem estômago,

Que é a vida do rico, que não desfruta sua abundância.”

My due from thee is this imperial crown,

Which, as immediate as thy place and blood,

Derives itself to me. Lo, here it sits,

Which God shall guard: and put the world’s whole strength

Into one giant arm, it shall not force

This lineal honour from me: this from thee

Will I to mine leave, as ‘tis left to me.

Exit

KING HENRY IV

Where is the crown? who took it from my pillow?

WARWICK

When we withdrew, my liege, we left it here.

KING HENRY IV

The prince hath ta’en it hence: go, seek him out.

Is he so hasty that he doth suppose

My sleep my death?

Find him, my Lord of Warwick; chide him hither.

(…)

How quickly nature falls into revolt

When gold becomes her object!

For this the foolish over-careful fathers

Have broke their sleep with thoughts, their brains with care,

Their bones with industry;

For this they have engrossed and piled up

The canker’d heaps of strange-achieved gold;

For this they have been thoughtful to invest

Their sons with arts and martial exercises:

When, like the bee, culling from every flower

The virtuous sweets,

Our thighs pack’d with wax, our mouths with honey,

We bring it to the hive, and, like the bees,

Are murdered for our pains. This bitter taste

Yield his engrossments to the ending father.”

I stay too long by thee, I weary thee.

Dost thou so hunger for mine empty chair

That thou wilt needs invest thee with my honours

Before thy hour be ripe? O foolish youth!

Thou seek’st the greatness that will o’erwhelm thee.

Stay but a little; for my cloud of dignity

Is held from falling with so weak a wind

That it will quickly drop: my day is dim.

Thou hast stolen that which after some few hours

Were thine without offence; and at my death

Thou hast seal’d up my expectation:

Thy life did manifest thou lovedst me not,

And thou wilt have me die assured of it.

Thou hidest a thousand daggers in thy thoughts,

Which thou hast whetted on thy stony heart,

To stab at half an hour of my life.

What! canst thou not forbear me half an hour?

Then get thee gone and dig my grave thyself,

And bid the merry bells ring to thine ear

That thou art crowned, not that I am dead.

Let all the tears that should bedew my hearse

Be drops of balm to sanctify thy head:

Only compound me with forgotten dust

Give that which gave thee life unto the worms.

Pluck down my officers, break my decrees;

For now a time is come to mock at form:

Harry the Fifth is crown’d: up, vanity!”

Aí seria outra peça, Mel Rey da Co(l)mé(d)ia Humana!

Be happy, he will trouble you no more;

England shall double gild his treble guilt,

England shall give him office, honour, might;

For the fifth Harry from curb’d licence plucks

The muzzle of restraint, and the wild dog

Shall flesh his tooth on every innocent.

O my poor kingdom, sick with civil blows!

When that my care could not withhold thy riots,

What wilt thou do when riot is thy care?

O, thou wilt be a wilderness again,

Peopled with wolves, thy old inhabitants!”

Que dia teremos a minha coração?

Com todo o PESO que isso exige?

Inexoravelmente

Mesmo vindo de coroa enferrujada

pela senilidade do dinheiro?

God witness with me, when I here came in,

And found no course of breath within your majesty,

How cold it struck my heart! If I do feign, [ME: How could it struck my heart?]

O, let me in my present wildness die

And never live to show the incredulous world

The noble change that I have purposed!

Coming to look on you, thinking you dead,

And dead almost, my liege, to think you were,

I spake unto this crown as having sense,

And thus upbraided it: <The care on thee depending

Hath fed upon the body of my father;

Therefore, thou best of gold art worst of gold:

Other, less fine in carat, is more precious,

Preserving life in medicine potable;

But thou, most fine, most honour’d: most renown’d,

Hast eat thy bearer up.> Thus, my most royal liege,

Accusing it, I put it on my head,

To try with it, as with an enemy

That had before my face murder’d my father,

The quarrel of a true inheritor.”

300bD295

Coroa

Cabeça de

Caveira

Não seria estar à

Beira

do Abismo

Começar a falar

Com os mortos ainda estando

Vivo?

Continua…

O my son,

God put it in thy mind to take it hence,

That thou mightst win the more thy father’s love,

Pleading so wisely in excuse of it!

Come hither, Harry, sit thou by my bed;

And hear, I think, the very latest counsel

That ever I shall breathe. God knows, my son,

By what by-paths and indirect crook’d ways

I met this crown; and I myself know well

How troublesome it sat upon my head.

To thee it shall descend with bitter quiet,

Better opinion, better confirmation;

For all the soil of the achievement goes

With me into the earth. It seem’d in me

But as an honour snatch’d with boisterous hand,

And I had many living to upbraid

My gain of it by their assistances;

Which daily grew to quarrel and to bloodshed,

Wounding supposed peace: all these bold fears

Thou see’st with peril I have answered;

For all my reign hath been but as a scene

Acting that argument: and now my death

Changes the mode; for what in me was purchased,

Falls upon thee in a more fairer sort;

So thou the garland wear’st successively.

Yet, though thou stand’st more sure than I could do,

Thou art not firm enough, since griefs are green;

And all my friends, which thou must make thy friends,

Have but their stings and teeth newly ta’en out;

By whose fell working I was first advanced

And by whose power I well might lodge a fear

To be again displaced: which to avoid,

I cut them off; and had a purpose now

To lead out many to the Holy Land,

Lest rest and lying still might make them look

Too near unto my state. Therefore, my Harry,

Be it thy course to busy giddy minds

With foreign quarrels; that action, hence borne out,

May waste the memory of the former days.

Leve esses hereges para o Velho Oeste.

Não faça Cruzadas

No deserto

Com esses comedores de areia

que não bebem vinho

Esqueça!

Puros são

os descendentes morenos

de Rousseau!

her eggs and the hereges

My gracious liege,

You won it, wore it, kept it, gave it me”

KING HENRY IV

Doth any name particular belong

Unto the lodging where I first did swoon?

WARWICK

Tis call’d Jerusalem, my noble lord.

KING HENRY IV

Laud be to God! even there my life must end.

It hath been prophesied to me many years,

I should not die but in Jerusalem;

Which vainly I supposed the Holy Land:

But bear me to that chamber; there I’ll lie;

In that Jerusalem shall Harry die.”

Da Ilha ao Exílio

a friend i’ the court is better than a penny in purse.”

LANCASTER

Good morrow, cousin Warwick, good morrow.

GLOUCESTER CLARENCE

Good morrow, cousin.

LANCASTER

We meet like men that had forgot to speak.

WARWICK

We do remember; but our argument

Is all too heavy to admit much talk.”

KING HENRY V

This new and gorgeous garment, majesty,

Sits not so easy on me as you think.

Brothers, you mix your sadness with some fear:

This is the English, not the Turkish court;

Not Amurath an Amurath succeeds,

But Harry Harry. Yet be sad, good brothers,

For, by my faith, it very well becomes you:

Sorrow so royally in you appears

That I will deeply put the fashion on

And wear it in my heart: why then, be sad;

But entertain no more of it, good brothers,

Than a joint burden laid upon us all.

For me, by heaven, I bid you be assured,

I’ll be your father and your brother too;

Let me but bear your love, I’ll bear your cares:

Yet weep that Harry’s dead; and so will I;

But Harry lives, that shall convert those tears

By number into hours of happiness.

Princes

We hope no other from your majesty.

KING HENRY V

You all look strangely on me: and you most;

You are, I think, assured I love you not.

Lord Chief-Justice

I am assured, if I be measured rightly,

Your majesty hath no just cause to hate me.

KING HENRY V

No!

How might a prince of my great hopes forget

So great indignities you laid upon me?

What! rate, rebuke, and roughly send to prison

The immediate heir of England! Was this easy?

May this be wash’d in Lethe, and forgotten?”

And I do wish your honours may increase,

Till you do live to see a son of mine

Offend you and obey you, as I did.

So shall I live to speak my father’s words:

<Happy am I, that have a man so bold,

That dares do justice on my proper son;

And not less happy, having such a son,

That would deliver up his greatness so

Into the hands of justice.> You did commit me:

For which, I do commit into your hand

The unstained sword that you have used to bear;

With this remembrance, that you use the same

With the like bold, just and impartial spirit

As you have done ‘gainst me. There is my hand.

You shall be as a father to my youth:

My voice shall sound as you do prompt mine ear,

And I will stoop and humble my intents

To your well-practised wise directions.

And, princes all, believe me, I beseech you;

My father is gone wild into his grave,

For in his tomb lie my affections;

And with his spirit sadly I survive,

To mock the expectation of the world,

To frustrate prophecies and to raze out

Rotten opinion, who hath writ me down

After my seeming.”

PISTOL

Under which king, Besonian? speak, or die.

SHALLOW

Under King Harry.

PISTOL

Harry the Fourth? or Fifth?

SHALLOW

Harry the Fourth.

PISTOL

A foutre for thine office!

Sir John, thy tender lambkin now is king;

Harry the Fifth’s the man. I speak the truth:

When Pistol lies, do this; and fig me, like

The bragging Spaniard.

FALSTAFF

What, is the old king dead?

PISTOL

As nail in door: the things I speak are just.”

the laws of England are at

my commandment. Blessed are they that have been my

friends; and woe to my lord chief-justice!”

FALSTAFF

God save thee, my sweet boy!

KING HENRY IV

My lord chief-justice, speak to that vain man.

Lord Chief-Justice

Have you your wits? know you what ‘tis to speak?

FALSTAFF

My king! my Jove! I speak to thee, my heart!

KING HENRY IV

I know thee not, old man: fall to thy prayers;

How ill white hairs become a fool and jester!

I have long dream’d of such a kind of man,

So surfeit-swell’d, so old and so profane;

But, being awaked, I do despise my dream.

Make less thy body hence, and more thy grace;

Leave gormandizing; know the grave doth gape

For thee thrice wider than for other men.

Reply not to me with a fool-born jest:

Presume not that I am the thing I was;

For God doth know, so shall the world perceive,

That I have turn’d away my former self;

So will I those that kept me company.

When thou dost hear I am as I have been,

Approach me, and thou shalt be as thou wast,

The tutor and the feeder of my riots:

Till then, I banish thee, on pain of death,

As I have done the rest of my misleaders,

Not to come near our person by ten mile.

For competence of life I will allow you,

That lack of means enforce you not to evil:

And, as we hear you do reform yourselves,

We will, according to your strengths and qualities,

Give you advancement. Be it your charge, my lord,

To see perform’d the tenor of our word. Set on.

Exeunt KING HENRY V, & c

FALSTAFF

That can hardly be, Master Shallow. Do not you

grieve at this; I shall be sent for in private to

him: look you, he must seem thus to the world:

fear not your advancements; I will be the man yet

that shall make you great.”

LANCASTER

I will lay odds that, ere this year expire,

We bear our civil swords and native fire

As far as France: I beard a bird so sing,

Whose music, to my thinking, pleased the king.

Come, will you hence?

Exeunt

Dancer

(…)

One word more, I beseech you. If you be not too

much cloyed with fat meat, our humble author will

continue the story, with Sir John in it, and make

you merry with fair Katharine of France: where, for

any thing I know, Falstaff shall die of a sweat,

unless already a’ be killed with your hard

opinions; for Oldcastle died a martyr, and this is

not the man. My tongue is weary; when my legs are

too, I will bid you good night: and so kneel down

before you; but, indeed, to pray for the queen.”

Anúncios

A REPÚBLICA – Livro VII

Tradução de trechos de “PLATÓN. Obras Completas (trad. espanhola do grego por Patricio de Azcárate, 1875), Ed. Epicureum (digital)”.

Além da tradução ao Português, providenciei notas de rodapé, numeradas, onde achei que devia tentar esclarecer alguns pontos polêmicos ou obscuros demais quando se tratar de leitor não-familiarizado com a obra platônica. Quando a nota for de Azcárate, haverá um (*) antecedendo as aspas.

#Educação #Ética #arete #FiloPol #Guerra #Psicologia #grandesaúde #Tradução #platonismo #controvérsiadofilósofoRei #OUm #Epistemo #sofistas #juventude #Velhice #Matemática #Geometria #Astronomia #Música

– Crês acaso que estes homens acorrentados possam ver outra coisa, de si mesmos e dos companheiros que estão ao lado, senão as sombras que o fogo projeta à frente deles, no fundo da caverna?

– Como poderiam ver, se desde o nascimento estão obrigados a manter a cabeça imóvel?

– E quanto aos objetos que passam por detrás deles, podem ver outra coisa senão as sombras dos mesmos?

– Somente as sombras, Sócrates.

– Se pudessem conversar uns com os outros, não conviriam por fim em dar às sombras que vêem os nomes das coisas mesmas?

– Necessariamente.

– E se no fundo de seu cativeiro houvesse um eco que repetisse as palavras dos transeuntes, imaginar-se-iam outra coisa senão que as próprias sombras que desfilam diante de seus olhos é que emitem essas vozes?

– Não, por Zeus! Só teriam como imaginar isso mesmo.”

Se naquele ato recordava sua primeira estância e a idéia que ali se tem da sabedoria, entre seus companheiros de escravidão, não se regozijaria ele de sua mudança e não se compadeceria da desgraça daqueles primeiros companheiros?”

Dir-lhes-emos: noutros Estados pode-se escusar aos filósofos que evitam a moléstia dos negócios públicos, porque devem sua sabedoria somente a si próprios, uma vez que se formaram sozinhos (num Estado imperfeito, só assim o filósofo se forma, isto é, tornam-se filósofos, apesar do Estado)”

OS ILUMINADOS & OS PERSEFONISTAS: “Nossos discípulos recusarão, portanto, as nossas disposições? Negar-se-ão a arcar alternativamente com o peso do governo, pré-requisito se quiserem usufruir maior parte de sua vida juntos na região da luz pura?”

Desejas agora examinar de que maneira formaremos os homens deste caráter, e como fá-los-emos passar das trevas à luz, como se diz de alguns que atravessaram do Hades à estância dos deuses?”

Ora Palamedes, vês tu que nas tragédias sempre se nos representam Agamemnon como um general peculiar? Não observaste que Agamemnon, nestas representações, se jacta de haver inventado os números, de haver elaborado o plano de campanha diante de Ílion, e de haver procedido à enumeração dos navios e de tudo o mais, como se antes dele fôra impossível praticar tudo isto?? Como se antes de Agamemnon não se soubesse quantos pés tem algo ou alguém, não havendo criatura que soubesse como contar, se é que devemos crer na palavra do personagem dos poemas?!”

– …O conhecimento da unidade é uma das coisas que elevam a alma e fazem-na se voltar à contemplação do ser.

– Mas a visão da unidade produz em nós, Sócrates, o efeito de que falas; porque vemos a mesma coisa sendo ao mesmo tempo una e múltipla, até o infinito.”

Se tentas dividir a unidade propriamente dita diante dos matemáticos, riem-se de ti, tornam-se indiferentes ao que fazes; e se perseveras e divides a unidade, eles a multiplicam outras tantas vezes, temendo que a unidade não se pareça com o que ela é,¹ em outras palavras, una, idêntica a si mesma, e sim que acabe parecendo um conjunto de várias partes.”

¹ Ou: “apareça diferente de como sói aparecer”, tradução alternativa.

– Nunca observaste que os que nasceram para calcular têm mais facilidade para aprender todas as ciências, e que até os espíritos mais vagarosos, quando se exercitam com a devida constância na arte do cálculo, alcançam, no mínimo, a vantagem de adquirirem maior flexibilidade e penetração no ato de aprender?

– É assim, sim.

– Além do mais, não te seria fácil encontrar muitas ciências mais penosas para aprender e praticar do que esta.

– Com certeza não.”

Pois bem, ninguém que possua a menor experiência em geometria negar-nos-á que o objeto desta ciência é diretamente contrário à linguagem que usa aquele que dela trata.

– Que queres dizer com isso?

– Ora, a linguagem dos geômetras é ridícula e forçada. Falam pomposamente em equalizar, aplicar, transpor, somar, e assim por diante, como se eles lidassem com matéria real e fossem artífices, como se suas demonstrações tendessem à prática e atuassem, sendo que esta ciência, toda ela, nunca ultrapassa o puro conhecer.

– Estou conforme.

– E tens de convir também noutra coisa.

– E no que seria?

– Que a geometria tem por objeto o conhecimento do que existe sempre, e não do que nasce e perece em algum momento.

(*) “Calipolis, <bela cidade>, nome apto a um Estado ideal.”

Para Platão, o jovem grego deve ser instruído nos seguintes conhecimentos, pela ordem:

1. A arte da guerra;

2. A geometria;

(conforme seguirá na exposição:)

3. A astronomia;

4. A música;

5. A dialética (filosofia);

6. A política e a filosofia, alternativamente, a partir deste ponto.

SÓCRATES – E a astronomia será o terceiro. Que achas disso?”

As ciências de que falamos (a matemática e a astronomia) têm uma grande vantagem: purificam e reanimam um órgão da alma extinto e embotado pelas demais ocupações da vida.”

seja olhando para o alto e de boca aberta ou olhando para baixo e semicerrando os olhos, se alguém tenta conhecer algo sensível, nego que chegue a conhecer alguma coisa; pois nada do sensível é objeto da ciência, e sustento que a alma não contempla o céu e as imensidões do espaço, mas aponta sempre e inexoravelmente para baixo, ainda quando seu portador esteja apenas nadando de costas, com a boca voltada para o firmamento, ou estirado sobre a terra, na mesma posição.”

Que se admire a beleza e a ordem dos astros que adornam o céu, nada mais justo; mas como, depois de tudo, não deixam de ser objetos sensíveis, quero que se ponha sua beleza ainda em um patamar inferior (muito inferior, na verdade) ao da beleza verdadeira, da que produzem a velocidade e a lentidão reais em si em suas relações mútuas e nos movimentos que comunicam aos astros, segundo o verdadeiro número e todos os verdadeiros avatares.”

Quero, pois, que o céu recamado não seja mais que uma imagem que nos sirva para nossa instrução como serviriam a um geômetra as figuras executadas por Dédalo ou por qualquer outro escultor ou pintor.”

– Esquartejem-me os deuses se o ensino da música hoje não se anda fazendo tão aborrecido quanto o da astronomia pelos eruditos do dia! Nossos músicos falam sem cessar de intervalos condensados(*), aprumam seus ouvidos como que para catalogar os sons que se sucedem; e uns professores dizem que ouvem um som médio entre dois tons, e que este som é o menor intervalo que os separa e que há que se medir todos os outros com esta unidade; outros sustentam, ao contrário, que as cordas produziram dois tons perfeitamente semelhantes; e todos preferem o juízo do ouvido ao da mente.

– Falas desses músicos agora famosos que não dão descanso às cordas, torturando-as e atormentando-as com seus martinetes.”

(*) “Bemol, o semitom típico da lira de 4 cordas, que conforme a posição na notação determina os diferentes modos musicais, mas que na harmonia não-temperada tinha apenas duas possibilidades: ascendente ou descendente.”

Aqui tens, meu querido Glauco, o canto mesmo que interpreta a dialética. Esta, por mais que seja inteligível, pode ser representada pelo órgão da vista que, segundo demonstramos, eleva-se gradualmente do espetáculo dos animais ao dos astros e, por fim, à contemplação do sol mesmo. E assim, aquele que se dedica à dialética, renunciando em absoluto ao uso dos sentidos, eleva-se, exclusivamente pelo uso da razão, até o que é cada coisa em si; e, se continua suas indagações até haver percebido, mediante o pensamento, o bem em si, chega ao término dos conhecimentos inteligíveis. Assim também, o que vê o sol chegou ao término do conhecimento das coisas visíveis.”

(*) “Veja-se Euclides, livro X, sobre as linhas incomensuráveis (como a da diagonal do quadrado).”

Não basta ser em parte laborioso e em parte indolente, que é o que acontece quando um jovem, cheio de ardor na ginástica, na caça e em todos os exercícios corporais rechaça todo estudo e conversação ou indagação científicas, esquivando-se desta classe de trabalhos.”

Não se deve crer em Sólon quando diz que um ancião pode aprender muitas coisas; mais fácil seria para ele correr. Não! Todos os grandes trabalhos estão reservados para a juventude.”

Que os exercícios do corpo sejam forçados ou voluntários, nem por isso o corpo deixa de tirar proveito; mas as lições que se faz entrar compulsoriamente alma adentro não produzem qualquer efeito.”

Logo que tiverem concluído sua formação de exercícios ginásticos (o que dura por volta de dois a três anos), ser-lhes-á impossível dedicar-se a outra coisa, pois nada há de mais adverso às ciências que a fadiga e o sono. Por outro lado, os exercícios ginásticos são uma prova a que é essencial submeter a juventude.

Passado este tempo, e quando já tiverem por volta dos 20 anos, conceder-se-lhes-á, pelo menos aos que demonstrarem aptidão, distinções honrosas, e se lhes apresentarão em conjunto os conhecimentos que adquiriram em separado durante a vida pregressa, a fim de que se acostumem a ver de um golpe só, e de um ponto de vista geral, as relações que as disciplinas guardam entre si, pré-requisito para se conhecer a natureza do ser.”

aquele que sabe reunir os objetos de uma perspectiva geral nasceu para a dialética; os que não estão neste caso, melhor esquecer.”

Portanto, depois de se observar atentamente quais são os melhores para este gênero de vida, priorizando-se aqueles que demonstraram mais zelo e constância, tanto nos estudos quanto nos trabalhos da guerra e nas demais provas prescritas, ao atingirem estes eleitos a casa dos 30 anos, conceder-se-lhes-ão as maiores honras. Dedicando-se à dialética, serão distinguidos aqueles que, sem necessitar do auxílio dos olhos e dos demais sentidos, podem se elevar ao conhecimento do ser, o que exige unicamente a vocação para a verdade; é neste ponto, amigo, que se devem tomar as maiores precauções.”

Pode ser que lhes ocorra como com um filho aristocrata que, educado na nobreza e na opulência, em meio ao fausto e rodeado de aduladores, se apercebesse, já adulto, de que aqueles que alegam ser seus pais de fato não o são, sem no entanto dispor de mais qualquer recurso para descobrir a identidade dos verdadeiros.”

– É uma excelente precaução afastar as crianças ou os púberes da dialética. Não ignoras, sem dúvida, que os jovens, quando se enamoram de algo, principalmente os primeiros argumentos de um saber, gostam de se servir disso como de um passatempo, e têm prazer em provocar controvérsias sem fim. Assim como podem ser facilmente enganados, tendem a tentar enganar o próximo; semelhantes aos cães filhotes, comprazem-se em dar puxões e mordiscadas verbais em toda gente que aparece.

– Os jovens são exatamente o que descreveste, sensualistas extravagantes!

– Após inumeráveis disputas, em que tanto perderam quanto venceram, concluem, o mais das vezes, por não mais acreditarem em nada daquilo em que antes acreditavam e que com ímpeto defendiam. Tornam-se céticos. Desta maneira, facilitam que todos os demais cidadãos não lhes dêem crédito ou reputação, e também maculam a imagem da filosofia.

– Ó, nada mais certo!”

– Seria bastante dar à dialética um tempo dobrado em relação à formação em ginástica, fazendo os aprendizes dialéticos se consagrarem a sua arte sem trégua e com exclusividade, pelo menos de forma tão exclusiva quanto se fez antes, na idade dos exercícios corporais?

– Estás falando, então, de um tempo de 4, 6 anos…?

– Isso não é o mais importante, atenção: passemos adiante, então, dando um número médio para tua pergunta: 5 – se fazes questão de uma resposta exata… Depois deste tempo o Estado fá-los-á descer de novo à caverna, obrigando-os a passar pelo exército e pelas demais ocupações da faixa etária. Além de ser dialéticos, não deverão perder para os demais em termos de experiência. Durante este período, serão cuidadosamente observados, para se constatar se ainda se mantêm firmes, diante de mil contingências, não só em assuntos filosóficos ou militares, mas para o que quer que se dirijam em seu tempo livre ou por encargo da sociedade; ou se vacilam como cidadãos.

– Mas quanto tempo deverão durar estas provas?

– Quinze anos. Então é chegada a ocasião de conduzir ao termo aqueles que, aos 50 anos de idade, tiverem saído incólumes de todas estas provas, havendo-se destacado nos estudos e na conduta.”

COMO TRADUZIR A BÍBLIA: THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF TRANSLATION (Vol. VIII) – NIDA, Eugene & TABER, Charles, 1969 (1982)

Os 7 primeiros volumes são devotados a controvérsias bíblicas.

GLOSSÁRIO POLIGLOTA

heap: monte (amontoado)

quiasmo: “(do grego khiasmós, -oû, disposição em cruz, arranjo diagonal) substantivo masculino; (Retórica) Figura composta de um paralelo ou uma dupla antítese cujos termos se cruzam (ex.: é preciso comer para viver e não viver para comer).”

PREFACE

This volume on The Theory and P. of Tr. is the logical outgrowth of the previous book Toward a Science of Translating (1964)” “In this vol. the illustrative data are drawn primarily from the field of Bible translating. (…) Bible transl. has a long tradition (it began in the III BC), involves far more languages (1393, by the end of 1968[!]), is concerned with a greater variety of cultures, and includes a wider range of literary types (from lyric poetry to theological discourse) than any comparable kind of translating.”

1. A NEW CONCEPT OF TRANSLATION

It is estimated that at least 100.000 persons dedicate most or all of their time to such work (translation), and of these at least 3.000 are engaged primarily in the translation of the Bible into 800 languages, representing about 80% of the world’s population.”

One specialist in translating and interpreting for the aviation industry commented that in his work he did not dare to employ the principles often followed by translators of the Bible (…) Unfortunately, translators of religious materials have sometimes not been prompted by the same feeling of urgency to make sense.”

A pequeno-burguesia da rima (nem pobre nem rica!)

On translating Hegel (from his idiom to our idiom!)

A expressão “montes de carvão em brasa em sua cabeça” (que seria a tradução literal de um trecho em Romanos 12) significa, dentro da tradição hebraica, estar profundamente envergonhado de sua conduta. Seria fácil errar ingenuamente ou manipular a informação, removendo seu caráter de metáfora (vd. além).

Não use, no entanto, a língua como prova e testemunha de defesa no seu ofício de Advogado de Deus!

in the American Standard Version (1901), 2 Corinthians 3:10 reads, <For verily that which hath been made glorious hath not been made glorious in this respect, by reason of the glory that surpasseth.> The words are all English, but the sentence structure is essentially Greek. The New English Bible quite rightly restructures this passage to read <Indeed, the splendour that once was is now no splendour at all; it is outshone by a splendour greater still.>”

moniThor guia-para-o-portal-de-mármore

inkissidor do abraço fúnebre

João 1:14

a. “And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth”

b. “So the word of God became a human being and lived among us. We saw his splendour (the splendour as of a father’s only son), full of grace and truth”

c. “The Word became a human being and lived among us. We saw his glory, full of grace and truth. This was the glory which he received as the Father’s only Son”

DIS|SECTION

a. “And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth” (30 palavras) (2 repetições de ênfase ou para facilitar o entendimento) (1 oclusão – parênteses) (1 sentença) Father

dwell – origem: pelo menos 900, conectado à idéia da loucura (cf. The Thing That Should Not Be), sedução, perdição, prevenção, estorvar, chocar, fumaça, nuvem, vapor, erro…

behold – origem: pelo menos 900, ligado à idéia de conservar no campo de visão, pertencer, amarrar-se a… (cf. Eye of The Beholder)

begotten – origem: pelo menos 1000, ligado à idéia de derivar de, gênesis, criação, pertencimento, advento (inclusive se usa Advento em Português para se referir ao mês de dezembro, antes do Natal)…

significados mais implícitos: valorização da Eleição; mas todos somos irmãos de Jesus e portanto filhos de Deus.

b. “So the word of God became a human being and lived among us. We saw his splendour (the splendour as of a father’s only son), full of grace and truth” (30 palavras) (2 repetições de ênfase ou para facilitar o entendimento) (1 oclusão) (2 sentenças) God-father

A estrutura frasal evita o verbo no particípio no meio do versículo.

significados mais implícitos: valorização da paternidade de um filho homem sem outros co-descendentes, humanização do fato (da Vinda).

c. “_The Word became a human being and lived among us. We saw his glory, full of grace and truth. This was the glory which he received as the Father’s only Son” (31 palavras) (1 repetição de ênfase ou para facilitar o entendimento) (0 oclusões) (3 sentenças) Father

Inversão frasal não verificada nos itens a e b.

Os parênteses são trocados pelo conectivo.

Primeira referência “genérica” a Jesus como “he”.

receive – origem: de 1250 a 1300; ligado à idéia de bênção, dom, recuperação (quem recebe também toma, ou antes poderíamos dizer que neste caso Deus tem o poder de dar ilimitado, é Ele mesmo quem recebe, mas em prol de Suas criaturas, que no fim O São, mesmo quando ainda não O sabem); ao contrário dos demais verbos, a etimologia é francesa.

significados mais implícitos: O “as” já despido de “of” possui menos valor poético, e mais valor “possessivo”: o legítimo herdeiro, deus em carne e osso de fato. Logo, Son precisa ser enaltecido (como nome próprio).

UNIVERSALITIES (a&b&c): and, among us, as, full of grace and truth, only, a idéia da Palavra (sendo necessariamente) Divina. João remete ao primeiro versículo do Antigo Testamento, sem dúvida.

CONTRASTE COM TRADUÇÕES DO PORTUGUÊS:

“E o Verbo se fez carne, e habitou entre nós, e vimos a sua glória, como a glória do unigênito do Pai, cheio de graça e de verdade.”

Aquele que é a Palavra tornou-se carne e viveu entre nós. Vimos a sua glória, glória como do Unigênito vindo do Pai, cheio de graça e de verdade.”

“A Palavra se tornou um ser humano e morou entre nós, cheia de amor e de verdade. E nós vimos a revelação da sua natureza divina, natureza que ele recebeu como Filho único do Pai.”

COMENTÁRIOS:

Verbo no lugar de Palavra: Ação, no lugar de Contrato. Prefiro palavras. Prefiro as escolhas da terceira tradução encontrada, que inclusive também realiza uma inversão frasal, denunciando sua provável origem (c). A supressão do termo “graça” também foi muito feliz, devido ao duplo sentido moderno presente na palavra, ainda mais em minúscula. Unigênito me soa forçado e esquisito. Veja que pouco se entra em concórdia sobre o verbo inicial (Jesus entre nós): morar, viver, habitar. Particularmente, é a única coisa que eu modificaria na 3ª opção. “Aquele” e “carne” para mim subtraem e ocultam sentidos de forma desnecessária. Outro mérito da 3ª: glória se tornou um termo muito secular e degradado. Em sua passagem na terra (enquanto cá morou, habitou, viveu), Jesus Cristo teve uma vida que foi exatamente o avesso da glória temporal.

* * *

A promessa se materializou. Bíblia para crianças superdotadas e adultos retardados. Para o rico, para o pobre e para o preto (RPP). LGBT your neighbour.

Ele esteve Aqui. Foi um ser-aí. Mas não há provas dessa discreta e efêmera luz, seja você um leigo ou um perito. Padre no tiene hijo. Que trágico! E a Mãe nisso tudo, recebeu P.A.?

E se descobríssemos, aliás, que tudo não passou duma grande pegadinha (uma pegada ou pegadona) de José mais 12 amigos (um quis caguetar no final e quase levou outro junto) para não pagar P.A. à Maria, com a ciência e colaboração do filho do casal, Jesus O (C)anastr(ão)?

Tem gente que adora um flash, mas não conseguimos mesmo é viver sem flesh, sejamos francos. Mesmo que sejamos até saxões ou bárbaros… Visigodo. Vizinho gordo. À refeição grátis não se olha os pentelhos nem dentes de alho, muito menos caroço ou alface no dente após o arroto consagrador da missão.

Jesus precisou comer, cagar e pagar aluguel. Não foi fácil pra NINGUÉM, nem pro filho do dono!

Quem não vê com os Olhos do Coração, o que é que faz, hein?!

Mas no final, vocês sabem, né: é tudo Verdade!

vivencivivi.alexandre.cesar.gloriatemporal.ig.pt/estantismo

Clicai e sê feliz!

No sofá? Not so far… so bad. So war!

3 Romanos em 1 Bar

Paulo 1:71: “No dia do Juízo Final eu pago a Conta! Enquanto isso, pendura aí, que ninguém é de ferro!”

Pra que serviram os profetas do Antigo Testamento? Não houve raça mais imunda e inútil sobre a terra! Um bando de farisaicos!

Now,

com o passar dos milênios, se transforma em

in these days (tá chegando, você não tá sentindo? Hm, talvez você tenha perdido seus poderes espirituais ou seu nen)

all them that believe

//

upon everybody without distinction, if…

Descartes, me diz aí: Ser é Acreditar?

Todo ser humano é realmente humano?

Mentir e rezar, é só começar…

God’s ways

at last

Oh, but that is always a <but>!

Secular butts

Só sei que não sei de ná-digas

Raul Seixas esqueceu de dizer que é tudo da Fé também!

* * *

Finalmente voltamos ao livro de Nida. Toda essa excursão? Não foi NADA!

Eu acho que pirei, meus pés saíram do chão, Pai!

Each language is rich in vocabulary for the areas of cultural focus, the specialities of the people, e.g., cattle (Anuaks in the Sudan), yams [batata doce] (Ponapeans in Micronesia), hunting and fishing (Piros in Peru), or technology (the western world).”

one missionary in Latin America insisted on trying to introduce the passive voice of the verb into a language which had no such form. Of course, this was not successful. One must simply accept the fact that there are many languages which do not have a passive voice. They merely choose to report actions only as active.” “we do not have such a match even in translating from Hebrew or Greek into English, with all its wealth of vocabulary (more than a million words if one includes all the technical terminology).” “Similarly, when the Gospel of John uses the Greek word logos, <Word>, in the prologue, there simply is no English word (and certainly not Word itself) which can do justice to the variety and richness of meaning of the Greek term.”

loving-kindness” “covenant love” partículas literais hebraicas

A ALMA EXISTE: “in the 3rd chapter of John, Jesus speaks of the <wind> and of the <Spirit>. In Greek a single word, pneuma, is used with both meanings. This results in a very significant play on words, but it cannot be reproduced in English. The best we can do under such circumstances is to use a marginal note to call the attention of the reader to the fact that in the source language one and the same word has both meanings.”

sacrifice the form or the meaning? Here it seems obvious and evident that the preservation of rhymes in poems is a dull and fool thing to do. some people would imply the exact opposite.”

Às vezes é importante converter substantivos (mais escassos) de uma língua em verbos na TL (mais profusos).

Quite naturally the easiest transitions (those with the least amount of formal change), occur when one translates from a language such as English into German, or Fante into Ashanti, closely related languages. Moreover, English and German represent the same general cultural setting, Western technological, and Fante and Ashanti represent the same cultural setting, West African.”

EXPRESSÕES INTERESSANTES PARA ANÁLISE:

a. “if she pass the flower of her age” I Cor. 7:36b

b. “Bring forth therefore fruits meet for repentance” Mat. 3:8

c. “which devour widows’ houses” Lucas 20:47

d. “our fathers: who received the lively oracles to give unto us” Atos 7:38b

a.

“quando ela já for avançada em idade”

“se ela já estiver na idade da sabedoria”

“Se já contar mais verões que ovos em três caixas”

b.

“Só é digno de mim aquele capaz do arrependimento”

“Sede humilde; não sejais presunçoso”

c.

“destruidor de órfãos, pregador hipócrita (sentido contextual)” // “Afasta-te da gentalha e do oportunista” // “Cuidado com os demagogos” // “Evite os falsos professores de moral” // “Certa vez conheci um crente chamado Davi…” – tradução pessoal

d.

“nossos pais (os contemporâneos de Moisés, os judeus, os primeiros crentes, etc.) foram encarregados de nos dar as boas-novas”

Hebrew is regarded as a special esoteric tongue for the theologians, and Greek is a <mystery>, or <the finest instrument of human thought ever devised by man>. On the contrary, Greek and Hebrew are just <languages>, with all the excellencies and liabilities that every language tends to have. They are neither the languages of heaven nor the speech of the Holy Spirit.”

A IMANÊNCIA DA PALAVRA: “in the Greek Gospels there are some 700 grammatical and lexical ambiguities, but of course, as in most languages, a high percentage of these are resolved by the linguistic context.” “the words of the Bible were all current terms. Our problem today is that many of the cultural contexts of Bible times which provided meanings for those words no longer exist and therefore we often cannot determine just what a word means.”

Writing to be understood might seem to be a truism, but for some persons it is a startling revelation, for many individuals have assumed that the Bible is not a book to be understood [só sentida!]. One person, for example, who began to read Today’s English Version remarked, <This must not be the Bible; I can understand it.>1

some persons insist that in translating the Greek of the New Testament one must go back to the Aramaic and understand Jesus’ words in terms of what he must have said in Aramaic. But the translator is bound to ask himself: What was it that Luke, writing in his day, understood by the Greek that he used? If we are to make a faithful translation of Luke’s Gospel, this is what must be our viewpoint. Otherwise, we will not only be involved in interminable controversy, but we will inevitably tend toward unwarranted harmonization. For example, in the Lucan form of the Beatitudes it is the <poor> who are blessed, but in Matthew they are the <poor in spirit> (or <those who recognize their spiritual poverty> [which is, indeed, a richness!]). Luke employs an expression which is a direct reference to poor people, but Matthew puts it into a more <spiritual context>. To try to reconstruct the Aramaic, and to reinterpret both Luke and Matthew on the basis of this reconstruction of the Psalms have important Ugaritic parallels,¹ and much can be understood in the Psalms as the result of such studies, but one does not translate these Psalms as though they were Ugaritic ritual songs, but as hymns used in the temple of worship of Yahweh.”

¹ Ugarítico: idioma hebreu extinto oralmente; redescoberto em escritos apenas no século XX.

A TARA PELA GENEALOGIA CEGA A ANÁLISE: “the Greek term pistis, <faith>, came to have the meaning <content of faith>, or <creed>, in the later parts of the New Testament and especially in the writings of the early Christian Fathers. But it would be quite wrong to read this meaning back into the Gospels, e.g., in Luke 18:8. Similarly, we must not read back into the Genesis account of creation our own <world view> and translate the days as <geological ages>, or the <dome of the sky> (wrongly translated in English as <firmament>) as <the ionosphere>.”

ARMADILHAS COMUNS DA EVOLUÇÃO DO INGLÊS: the case of “event nouns”: “baptism of repentance” é um arcaísmo; traduzi-lo por “repent and be baptized” // “obedience of faith” é nonsense: no lugar, “be obedient and have faith (or be faithful, embora o verbo, seja no passivo ou ativo, seja sempre uma alternativa mais segura)”. Mais simplesmente ainda, “believe and obey”.

Deus atravessa como uma adaga. Ele é pungente e efetivo.

FILOSOFANDO E TECENDO TEIAS D’ARANHA

mestre trágico do existir

vi, vivi, venci

o profeta vitorioso da vivência

dominei, sofri, logo sou

penso, logo excito

materializo minhas luxúrias

a solitária existência

Você cumpriu os requerimentos e requisitos formais estatuídos pelo regimento da fé!

3 Gal. 2:6: linguagem moderna: não importa se puta ou ladrão ou tratante ou patife, ou gay ou sodomita, se eles entenderam a Mensagem, como foi enunciada pelos que conviveram com Jesus Cristo, acredite no que eles dizem. Não confie em togas e cargos. Investiduras não são consideradas pelo Espírito e no dia do Juízo.

2. THE NATURE OF TRANSLATING

In trying to reproduce the style of the original one must beware, however, of producing something which is not functionally equivalent. F.e., Mark employs typical Semitic Greek in the use of the conjunction kai, <and>, to begin many sentences. This is perfectly appropriate Semitized Koine Greek, in that it accurately reflects the corresponding use of the Hebrew conjunction waw. In the RSV, however, most of these conjunctions are reproduced literally, with the result that 26 sentences in Mark 1 begin with <And>, producing a kind of style completely contrary to good English usage. In fact, it gives the impression of being <childish>. This is, of course, not the case with the original Greek text of Mark. This means that reproducing style, even on a formal level, may not result in an equivalence, and it is functional equivalence which is required, whether on the level of content or on the level of style.”

In the Greek translation of the Old Testament, made a couple of centuries before Christ, Jewish scholars used the Greek term kurios to render both Adonai and YHWH. This use was carried over into the Greek New Testament, with the result that there is a kind of divine ambiguity in the use of the same term to apply both to God and to Jesus Christ.

It is interesting that in the English tradition, the term <LORD> has consistently been preferred to <Jehovah> (the use of <Jehovah> in the Revised Version and the American Standard Version never proved especially popular), and the RSV has returned to the King James use of <LORD>.

Some persons assume that a translation which is well done in the aspect of its printed form will be quite easily read aloud, but this is by no means always true. In fact, if one is to anticipate the problems of the hearer, it is necessary to bear in mind a number of very essential matters”

in I Chronicles 25:1, the RSV reads, <prophesy with lyres,>, but people will almost inevitably think of liars and not lyres, since the latter is such an uncommon term. The problem of the written form of language is very acute in the case of Chinese, in which a written text may be quite clear, but a spoken text of the same passage can be very ambiguous.

Lyres used to be liars instruments for lying chants in people’s ears and minds.

in American English the word ass does not seem so vulgar in a printed text, but in pronunciation the term carries strongly unfavorable connotations.”

In some languages, e.g., Portuguese, it is quite common for people to listen for combinations of sounds (usually the endings of words combined with the initial portions of following words) which have vulgar or obscene meanings. This means that one must carefully read all translations of the Bible so as to avoid any combinations of sounds which can be reinterpreted as a different and unacceptable word.”

In order to preserve some of the special phonological contrasts in Hebrew and Greek, some languages have employed artificial sound distinctions and combinations of sounds, which are very misleading to the average reader. As a result, many persons hesitate, or even refuse, to read the Scriptures in public, for they do not know how to pronounce these unusual letters of combinations of letters.

One could always caution the reader that the meaning of the verse is uncertain. But as a principle it is best at least to make sense in the text and put the scholarly caution in the margin, rather than to make nonsense in the text and offer the excuse in the margin.”

it is not only legitimate, but also necessary, to see that the rate at which new information is communicated in the translation will not be too fast for the average listener.”

P. 31 (in-book): os 3 tipos de tradução da Bíblia:

  • eclesiástica ou litúrgica (formal clerical);

  • contemporânea literária (formal laica);

  • contemporânea popular (no limite do informal publicável – formal/informal).

the Scriptures must be intelligible to non-Christians, and if they are, they will also be intelligible to Christians.” They aren’t up to today.

The use of language by persons 25 to 30 years of age has priority over the language of the older people or of children. (…) At the same time, one should not accept the language of children or teenagers as a norm, for this does not have sufficient status to be fully acceptable. Such forms often including slang and fad words are generally rejected by the young people themselves, who may be offended by being adressed in a style which seems substandard or paternalistic.

Vamos fazer um teste com Gên. 1 (tradução do Português mais formal encontrado para um Português que eu considere “jovial” nesta faixa):

KITSCH(GAY): EVANGELIZE

A pedagogia do Tudo para os retardados.

No começo de tudo, Deus criou todas as coisas.

Nosso mundo não tinha forma nem matéria nem substância, tudo era o Breu e as Águas do Oceano Primordial.¹

Deus disse: Luz!²

E fez-se luz. [segundo Eugene Nida, ênclises estão proibidas porque causam confusão na leitura para uma audiência!]

Fizeram luz, pronto! Fizeram um abajur sem forma. Antes da língua francesa sequer existir.

A luz era o bem; as trevas primordiais ficaram sendo o mal. Quem pode, pode.

Este foi o primeiro dia do universo.

Deus disse: Agora divida-se o Oceano em dois, e acima fique o Céu e abaixo fiquem as Águas (H2O)!

Este foi o dia 2.

Deus disse: Agora é hora de haver continentes e oceanos!

A parte seca Deus chamou de terra; a úmida são os mares. Deus era um artesão e tanto e gostou do que fez.

Deus disse: Brote vegetação da terra, e cada fruto se multiplique na superfície!

A flora era o bem.

Este foi o dia 3.

Deus disse: Não está bem que o Céu fique indiferenciado. Criarei as estrelas, o Sol, e a Lua, e que bem e mal se alternem no Céu!³

Este foi o dia 4, quando Deus criou “o dia”.

E a Deus, muito admirado da própria inteligência, agradou esse arranjo (tanto que depois desmembraria em duas coisas esta palavra, criando o “ar” e criando o “anjo”).

Deus disse: Nasçam bichos na água e aves no ar!

Deus criou as espécies animais, que eram também o bem.

Deus comandou: Procriai-vos!

Deus achou o panorama muito bonito. Melhor do que antes.

Deus disse: Mas falta alguma coisa! Que tal um clone meu, mortal? Como num espelho (mas antes Deus também teve de pensar um pouco e criar o primeiro espelho)…

Deus decretou: O homem será o rei dos peixes, o rei das aves, o Antônio Fagundes (charada), e independente de gênero ou ideologia ou identidade, até o rei das cobras!

Deus se masturbou e desse germe indiferenciado (o sêmen auto-fecundado) pulularam, formadinhos, Adão e Eva.

Deus pediu: ‘Bença!

– ‘Bença, nhô!

– ‘Bença, nhôzinho!

Deus disse: Agora que sois meus animais prediletos, sejam meus primeiros atores pornôs. Comam este afrodisíaco e tenham um filho (ainda não inventei a impotência, a camisinha nem essas viadagens que-tais…)!

Deus era muito tagarela e antes de Adão e Eva poderem realizar qualquer gesto, continuou (falar, até Papagaio fala):

– O destino de vocês é serem os Senhores deste planetinha. Com mãos de ferro e de pelica, tanto faz, por isso na verdade criei dois diferentes de vocês, e não uma bola perfeita, com pinto e boceta!

Peixes são pra pescar; aves pra adestrar e engaiolar; cavalos são pra cavalgar!

Ainda não inventei isso que chamarão um dia de “dosar”! (malditos epicureus, por que vou criar esses troços?!)

Maldito Seja Eu!

Retomando a compostura:

– Cof, cof! (Inventando a aspirina)

Fauna e flora são serventia da casa, “rapaziada”… (inventou a gíria)

Vou ter que inventar um relógio, puta merda, falei tanto que já tá terminando o sexto dia.

As pálpebras foram baixando…

Tirou um ronco e enquanto isso (enquanto SEXTAVA) nem os gemidos de Eva acordaram o Patrão…

¹ Aristóteles fotografou este momento e depois analisou-o com retidão em sua “Metafísica”.

² Aí nasceu a expressão arrogante dos diretores de Cinema: Luz, Câmera, Ação!

³ GÊNESE do materialismo histórico.

* * *

3. GRAMMATICAL ANALYSIS

P. 21 (PDF): Alice Através do Espelho

Jabberwocky

Twas brillig, and the slithy toves,

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;

All mimsy were the borogoves,

And the mome raths outgrabe.

The syntactical meanings here indicated are subsequently confirmed in Through the Looking Glass by Humpty Dumpty, who, in answer to Alice’s enquiry, also assigns a lexical meaning to each of the items concerned.”

THE BOOK OF MOSES: “If one employs the normal possessive construction, Moses’ book, then it is the book that Moses had in his possession, rather than the one he was regarded as having written.”

Verbos tocam mais o Espírito

Pronomes pessoais também

P. 24 (PDF): Problem 9: resolução:

I.

John I

Colossians I

Hebrews II

KJV (King James), RSV (Revised Standard) (old translations)(a) X NEB, Phillips, TEV (modern translations)(b)

John I

James

1 That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon, and our hands have handled, of the Word of life;

2 (For the life was manifested, and we have seen it, and bear witness, and shew unto you that eternal life, which was with the Father, and was manifested unto us;)

3 That which we have seen and heard declare we unto you, that ye also may have fellowship with us: and truly our fellowship is with the Father, and with his Son Jesus Christ.

4 And these things write we unto you, that your joy may be full.

[—]

5 This then is the message which we have heard of him, and declare unto you, that God is light, and in him is no darkness at all.

6 If we say that we have fellowship with him, and walk in darkness, we lie, and do not the truth:

7 But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin [once and for all?].

8 If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us.

9 If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.

10 If we say that we have not sinned, we make him a liar, and his word is not in us.”

substantivos com significados (relevância) (18):

beginning (of time)

eyes

Word of life

(manifested) life

eternal life

the Father

fellowship

his Son Jesus Christ

your joy

the message

light

darkness

the truth

the blood of Jesus Christ

all sin, our sins, all unrighteousness

a liar

his word

in us

dividir em (substantivos) concretos e abstratos:

C / A

eyes, Jesus / almost all!

No começo kantiano dos tempos alguém proferiu discursos verdadeiros, dos quais só nos restam escombros e indícios de indícios. Muito se fala duma tal vida, mas ninguém a “experimenta”, nem sabe o quanto dura. Na verdade, nunca se a provou, se é que me entende, detetive! Uma irmandade de estranhos fala em sentimentos de terceiros, como alegria, contentamento… O que eles sabem? Luzes, trevas, confusão… Alegorias sem sentido para perpetuamente cegos… Cafonas que acham que o sangue de alguém purifica alguma coisa! O que é pecado? Não preste ouvido aos mentirosos. Menina-dos-olhos do pastor é a ovelha, cuide bem das suas.

Phillips

1 1-4 We are writing to you about something which has always existed yet which we ourselves actually saw and heard: something which we had an opportunity to observe closely and even to hold in our hands, and yet, as we know now, was something of the very Word of life himself! For it was life which appeared before us: we saw it, we are eye-witnesses of it, and are now writing to you about it. It was the very life of all ages, the life that has always existed with the Father, which actually became visible in person to us mortal men. We repeat, we really saw and heard what we are now writing to you about. [!!!] We want you to be with us in this—in this fellowship with the Father, and Jesus Christ his Son. We must write and tell you [thrice!] about it, because the more that fellowship extends the greater the joy it brings to us who are already in it.

Experience of living <in the light>

5-10 Here, then, is the message which we heard from him, and now proclaim to you: GOD IS LIGHT [SHOUT!!! I CAN’T HEAR YOU!!! LOUDER!!! ONE MORE TIME, MOTHERFUCKERS!] and no shadow of darkness can exist in him. Consequently, if we were to say that we enjoyed fellowship with him and still went on living in darkness, we should be both telling and living a lie. But if we really are living in the same light in which he eternally exists, then we have true fellowship with each other, and the blood which his Son shed for us keeps us clean from all sin. If we refuse to admit that we are sinners, then we live in a world of illusion and truth becomes a stranger to us. But if we freely admit that we have sinned, we find God utterly reliable and straight-forward—he forgives our sins and makes us thoroughly clean from all that is evil. For if we take up the attitude <we have not sinned>, we flatly deny God’s diagnosis of our condition and cut ourselves off from what he has to say to us.”

verbos vicários (29):

to write

to exist

to see and hear

to have

to observe

… hold

know

be

appear

become

REPEAT

want

must

tell

extend

bring

LIVE (“invented”)

proclaim

enjoy

go

SHARE

keep

refuse to admit

forgive

make

take up

DENY

cut

GIROS ALÉM!

Colossians I

Revised

Salutation

1 Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, and Timothy our brother,

2 To the saints and faithful brethren in Christ at Colos′sae:

Grace to you and peace from God our Father.

Paul Thanks God for the Colossians

3 We always thank God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, when we pray for you, 4 because we have heard of your faith in Christ Jesus and of the love which you have for all the saints, 5 because of the hope laid up for you in heaven. Of this you have heard before in the word of the truth, the gospel 6 which has come to you, as indeed in the whole world it is bearing fruit and growing—so among yourselves, from the day you heard and understood the grace of God in truth, 7 as you learned it from Ep′aphras our beloved fellow servant. He is a faithful minister of Christ on our behalf and has made known to us your love in the Spirit.

9 And so, from the day we heard of it, we have not ceased to pray for you, asking that you may be filled with the knowledge of his will in all spiritual wisdom and understanding, 10 to lead a life worthy of the Lord, fully pleasing to him, bearing fruit in every good work and increasing in the knowledge of God. 11 May you be strengthened with all power, according to his glorious might, for all endurance and patience with joy, 12 giving thanks to the Father, who has qualified us to share in the inheritance of the saints in light. 13 He has delivered us from the dominion of darkness and transferred us to the kingdom of his beloved Son, 14 in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins.

The Supremacy of Christ

15 He is the image of the invisible God, the first-born of all creation; 16 for in him all things were created, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or authorities—all things were created through him and for him. [Then why Caesar?] 17 He is before all things, and in him all things hold together. 18 He is the head of the body, the church; he is the beginning, the first-born from the dead, that in everything he might be pre-eminent. 19 For in him all the fulness of God was pleased to dwell, 20 and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether on earth or in heaven, making peace by the blood of his cross.

21 And you, who once were estranged and hostile in mind, doing evil deeds, 22 he has now reconciled in his body of flesh by his death, in order to present you holy and blameless and irreproachable before him, 23 provided that you continue in the faith, stable and steadfast, not shifting from the hope of the gospel which you heard, which has been preached to every creature under heaven, and of which I, Paul, became a minister.

Paul’s Interest in the Colossians

24 Now I rejoice in my sufferings for your sake, and in my flesh I complete what is lacking in Christ’s afflictions for the sake of his body, that is, the church, 25 of which I became a minister according to the divine office which was given to me for you, to make the word of God fully known, 26 the mystery hidden for ages and generations but now made manifest to his saints. 27 To them God chose to make known how great among the Gentiles are the riches of the glory of this mystery, which is Christ in you, the hope of glory. 28 Him we proclaim, warning every man and teaching every man in all wisdom, that we may present every man mature in Christ. 29 For this I toil, striving with all the energy which he mightily inspires within me.”

substantivos concretos:

apóstolo

Timóteo

santos

irmãos

Epafras

tronos (dúbio)

autoridades

toda criatura mortal

São Paulo

meus sofrimentos

minha carne

os pagãos

Nada mais abstrato do que “a imagem do deus invisível”.

Phillips

1-2 Paul, messenger of Jesus Christ by God’s will, and brother Timothy send this greeting to all faithful Christians at Colossae: grace and peace be to you from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ!

We thank God for you and pray constantly for you

3-6 I want you to know by this letter that we here are constantly praying for you, and whenever we do we thank God the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ because you believe in Christ Jesus and because you are showing true Christian love towards other Christians. We know that you are showing these qualities because you have grasped the hope reserved for you in Heaven—that hope which first became yours when the truth was brought to you. It is, of course, part of the Gospel itself, which has reached you as it spreads all over the world. Wherever that Gospel goes, it produces Christian character, and develops it, as it had done in your own case from the time you first heard and realised the amazing fact of God’s grace.

7-10 You learned these things, we understand, from Epaphras who is in the same service as we are. He is a most well-loved minister of Christ, and has your well-being very much at heart. As a matter of fact, it was from him that we heard about your growth in Christian love, so you will understand that since we heard about you we have never missed you in our prayers. We are asking God [terrível telemarketing!] that you may see things, as it were, from his point of view by being given spiritual insight and understanding. We also pray that your outward lives, which men see, may bring credit to your master’s name, and that you may bring joy to his heart by bearing genuine Christian fruit, and that your knowledge of God may grow yet deeper.

We pray for you to have real Christian experience

11-14 As you live this new life, we pray that you will be strengthened from God’s boundless resources, so that you will find yourselves able to pass through [zzz] any experience and endure it with courage. You will even be able to thank God in the midst of pain and distress because you are privileged to share the lot of those who are living in the light. For we must never forget that he rescued us from the power of darkness, and re-established us in the kingdom of his beloved Son, that is, in the kingdom of light. For it is by his Son alone that we have been redeemed and have had our sins forgiven.

Who Christ is, and what he has done

15-20 Now Christ is the visible expression of the invisible God. He existed before creation began, for it was through him that every thing was made, whether spiritual or material, seen or unseen. Through him, and for him, also, were created power and dominion, ownership and authority. In fact, every single thing was created through, and for him. He is both the first principle and the upholding principle of the whole scheme of creation. And now he is the head of the body which is composed of all Christian people [Mega Zord da Paixão]. Life from nothing began through him, and life from the dead began through him, and he is, therefore, justly called the Lord of all. It was in him that the full nature of God chose to live, and through him God planned to reconcile in his own person, as it were, everything on earth and everything in Heaven by virtue of the sacrifice of the cross.

21-23 And you yourselves, who were strangers to God, and, in fact, through the evil things you had done, his spiritual enemies, he has now reconciled through the death of his body on the cross, so that he might welcome you to his presence clean and pure, without blame or reproach. This reconciliation assumes, of course, that you maintain a firm position in the faith, and do not allow yourselves to be shifted away from the hope of the Gospel, which you have heard, and which, indeed, the whole world is now having an opportunity of hearing. [AGUARDE NA LINHA ENQUANTO RESOLVEMOS O SEU PROBLEMA, SR.!]

My divine commission [$$$]

24-27 I myself have been made a minister of this same Gospel, and though it is true at this moment that I am suffering on behalf of you who have heard the Gospel, yet I am far from sorry about it. Indeed, I am glad, because it gives me a chance to complete in my own sufferings something of the untold pains for which Christ suffers on behalf of his body, the Church. For I am a minister of the Church by divine commission, a commission granted to me for your benefit and for a special purpose: that I might fully declare God’s word—that sacred mystery which up to now has been hidden in every age and every generation, but which is now as clear as daylight to those who love God. They are those to whom God has planned to give a vision of the full wonder and splendour of his secret plan for the sons of men. And the secret is simply this: Christ in you! Yes, Christ in you bringing with him the hope of all glorious things to come.

To preach and teach Christ is everything to us

28-29 So, naturally, we proclaim Christ! We warn everyone we meet, and we teach everyone we can, all that we know about him, so that, if possible, we may bring every man up to his full maturity in Christ. This is what I am working at all the time, with all the strength that God gives me.”

Hebrews II

James

1 Therefore we ought to give the more earnest heed to the things which we have heard, lest at any time we should let them slip.

2 For if the word spoken by angels was stedfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just recompence of reward;

3 How shall we escape, if we neglect so great salvation; which at the first began to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed unto us by them that heard him;

4 God also bearing them witness, both with signs and wonders, and with divers miracles, and gifts of the Holy Ghost, according to his own will?

5 For unto the angels hath he not put in subjection the world to come, whereof we speak.

6 But one in a certain place [ouvi dizer, um dragonight me contou…] testified, saying, What is man, that thou art mindful of him [pra que te importas com isso]? or the son of man that thou visitest him? [SON OF A BITCH MAN]

7 Thou madest him a little lower than the angels; thou crownedst him with glory and honour, and didst set him over the works of thy hands:

8 Thou hast put all things in subjection under his feet. For in that he put all in subjection under him, he left nothing that is not put under him. But now we see not yet all things put under him.

9 But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honour; that he by the grace of God should taste death for every man.

10 For it became him, for whom are all things, and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings.

11 For both he that sanctifieth and they who are sanctified are all of one: for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren,

12 Saying, I will declare thy name unto my brethren, in the midst of the church will I sing praise unto thee.

13 And again, I will put my trust in him. And again, Behold I and the children which God hath given me.

14 Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same; that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil;

15 And deliver them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage.

16 For verily he took not on him the nature of angels; but he took on him the seed of Abraham.

17 Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people.

18 For in that he himself hath suffered being tempted, he is able to succour them that are tempted.”

substantivos concretos:

tempo (?)

contratantes

a descendência de Abraão

rid of arid rides

Phillips

The angels had authority in past ages: today the Son is the authority

1-4 We ought, therefore, to pay the greatest attention to the truth that we have heard and not allow ourselves to drift away from it. For if the message given through angels proved authentic, so that defiance of it and disobedience to it received appropriate retribution, how shall we escape if we refuse to pay proper attention to the salvation that is offered us today? For this salvation came first through the words of the Lord himself: it was confirmed for our hearing by men who had heard him speak, and God moreover has plainly endorsed their witness by signs and miracles, by all kinds of spiritual power, and by gifts of the Holy Spirit, all working to the divine plan.

5 For though in past ages God did grant authority to angels, yet he did not put the future world of men under their control, and it is this world that we are now talking about.

6-7 But someone has said: ‘What is man that you are mindful of him, or the son of man that you take care of him? You made him a little lower than the angels; you crowned him with glory and honour, and set him over the works of your hands. You have put all things in subjection under his feet’.

8 Notice that the writer [?] puts ‘all things’ under the sovereignty of man: he left nothing outside his control. But we do not yet see ‘all things’ under his control.

Christ became man, not angel, to save mankind

9-12 What we actually see is Jesus, after being made temporarily inferior to the angels (and so subject to pain and death), in order that he should, in God’s grace, taste death for every man, now crowned with glory and honour. It was right and proper that in bringing many sons to glory, God (from whom and by whom everything exists) should make the leader of their salvation a perfect leader through the fact that he suffered. For the one who makes men holy and the men who are made holy share a common humanity. So that he is not ashamed to call them his brothers, for he says: ‘I will declare your name to my brethren; in the midst of the congregation I will sing praise to you’.

13 And again, speaking as a man, he says: ‘I will put my trust in him’. And, one more instance, in these words: ‘Here am I and the children whom God has given me’.

14-18 Since, then, ‘the children’ have a common physical nature as human beings, he also became a human being, so that by going through death as a man he might destroy him who had the power of death, that is, the devil; and might also set free those who lived their whole lives a prey to the fear of death. It is plain that for this purpose he did not become an angel; he became a man, in actual fact a descendant of Abraham. It was imperative that he should be made like his brothers in nature, if he were to become a High Priest both compassionate and faithful in the things of God, and at the same time able to make atonement for the sins of the people. For by virtue of his own suffering under temptation he is able to help those who are exposed to temptation.”

A diferença entre Velho Testamento e Novo Testamento (antigas e novas traduções) é nítida: No VT há um grande contraste; mas os capítulos do NT são praticamente idênticos ao longo dos séculos.

III (última parte da tarefa da P. 24).

double expressions kernel (cerne mais simples possível)ver a definição lingüística de kernel na p. 105 do PDF

hardness of heart: incredulity, skepticism

flow of blood: ilness, tumour

the prophets of old: Hebrew heralds, Yaweh priests, yester oracles, soothsayers, blessed

the washing of cups: washing-up, do the dishes, domestic ablution

precepts of men: vain knowledge, mundane wisdom

the commandment of God: Law

the eye of a needle: the straightest path, the smallest hole

Mount of Olives: altar, sacred site

the master of the house: the Judgement Day, the hour appointed

the King of the Jews: Messiah, last prophet

the day of Preparation: fast, eve, mourning day

men of little faith: incredulous, blasphemers, unbelievers

men of violence: sinners

fishers of men: preachers, teachers

Now with verbalizations (except the first two terms)…

1 who prophecized/prophesied before/used to prophecize/prognosticate

2 the cups are washed

3 the given precepts / laws once told / lessons they taught / doctrines they taught

4 the things God commanded

5 crossing through the inside of a needle

6 the mount where olives flourished / the place where they prayed

7 he who commands and owns

8 he who leads, who reigns over

9 preparing for the Sabbath

10 who trusts not / believes not

11 those that search for power, those who dominate, those who do wrong

12 fish(es) men / talk to the laymen

* * *

What makes Today’s English Version, published by the American Bible Society, so popular and helpful to translators is that it is frequently restructured in the direction of kernel expressions, and is thus more readily understandable and provides a useful basis for transfer to other languages.”

Da tradução mais erudita e elusiva à mais simplificada, popular e moderna, vai muita labuta:

Efésios 1:7

in whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace” “God redeemed us through Christ’s shedding of blood, and God forgave our sins. All this indicates how richly God showed his grace.”

Efésios 2:8

For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: not of works, lest any man should boast.” “For it is by his grace you are saved through trusting him. It is not your own doing. It is God’s gift, not a reward for work done. There is nothing for anyone to boast of.” “God showed his grace to you, and in this way he saved you through your trusting in him. You yourselves did not save yourselves. Rather, God gave you this salvation. You did not earn it by what you did. Therefore no one can boast about what he has done.”

Em breve teremos umas gordas 500 páginas a mais, se continuarmos nesse ritmo…

Analfabetismo funcional transcendental

Fé dispensa

trabalho

compensa

dispensa férias

diz e pensa aquilo

que crê

recompensa

a falta de crença

e energia

descompensado

atabalhoado

disperso

nada temente

às Doze Tábuas

gravadas

com sucesso

no disco rígido

do coração

fé desacreditada

despida de energia

ritmo truncado

coro desafinado

missa fúnebre

informal

sem carteira assinada

para o defunto

da ocasião

intemporal

P. 31: Problema 15

By his great mercy we have been born anew to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, and to an inheritance which is imperishable, undefiled, and unfading, kept in heaven for you…”

1. God pardons abundantly

2. God can change our lives

3. Only they who believe are changed by God

4. We are heirs to God’s indestructible gifts

5. God is able to turn mortals into immortals, fix, heal and create ex nihilo

6. Our prizes are waiting for us (the believers) in the Heavens

7. You have free will to persecute these prizes or not

8. God is watching

Go(o)d e(no)ugh?

And because God forgives us, we are as purified individuals, because we believe that Jesus Christ resurrected from the dead that day. And as a gift he, in the name of God, gave us a seat in the Heavens, the only eternal realm, after this corrupted life.

So as God resurrected Jesus Christ His Son, God resurrects our bodies, our souls and our hearts, because we do believe in Them…

MISISON BRIEF: Diga o que os versículos a seguir querem dizer:

King James diz:

Mateus 7

1 Judge not, that ye be not judged.

2 For with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged: and with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you again.”

Podemos considerá-lo um fragmento de existencialismo de século XX, com conclusões tão óbvias quanto duras. Talvez sejam sutis e reconfortantes, afinal.

DEONTOLOGIA EM MATEUS, PROTÁGORAS E NA FENOMENOLOGIA

Você pode julgar, com certeza. Todo homem pode ser juiz. Porém, isto não sai de graça: serão, decerto, juízes contigo. E o juiz severo irá se deparar com juízes igualmente severos. Mas eis que alguém que enxerga o mundo como um poço de maldade só terá olhos para a maldade dos outros. Mesmo que se imagine a única fonte a emanar benignidade. E eis que a ovelha não saberá reconhecer os lobos, e pensa que mesmo os piores arbítrios direcionados contra si sejam apenas a devida paga por ser um pecador impuro. Assim talvez seja simples viver, pensa o fraco. Ou pensou o primeiro fraco pelas próximas gerações de fracos. E nisso o fraco ainda tinha muitos resíduos do forte. Protágoras certamente se poria de acordo com os versos. Porque o homem é a medida de todas as coisas. Porque a coisa que somos nós é o parâmetro para todos os homens; e todos os homens nos julgam como nós os julgamos. Portanto é o prêmio (a colheita) do poeta ser tratado com a mais sobeja das indiferenças. É a recompensa por seu talento anômalo. Incompreensão de berço gera desprezo no jovem adulto em relação aos pais, e saudades de todos os lados. Nada mais pragmático que Mateus neste início. Apenas agüenta as conseqüências de ser, ou dissimula quem tu és para teu próprio bem-estar. Maldiga o vizinho sim, ora! só esteja com pedras na mão para quando o assalto alheio começar… Porque não há nada mais certo que o apedrejamento dos vizinhos que pensam diferente. O problema do ansioso e severo demais: não é que ele o seja conscientemente consigo próprio. É que os outros, na medida em que o tempo passa, de vidro passarão a espelhos. E tudo quebrará, revelando novas essências. Quem se pensa lixo e frágil, e que não persistiu o bastante, é teu próprio pai. Mas ele não o é; ou não o seria se se convencesse menos disso. É verdade que eu gostaria de ser mais reconhecido, mas não bajulado nem lisonjeado feiamente. Tenho um tamanho, e não é do monte Rushmore. É menor. Posso engolir certa medida de despeito multidirecional. Certa medida. Preciso de pausas em que enxergo futuros brilhantes nos outros. Mas como eu poderia mentir para mim mesmo que este mundo ocidental não está condenado, quando sei que vou morrer?! Pelo menos eu posso escolher que juízes terei em cada recinto em que adentrarei, e não esperar como numa antessala de consultório que dure a vida inteira… Paradoxalmente, este aforismo nos diz que não há quem interceda por nós, sejamos arrogantes ou humildes, mas que todas as relações pessoais são imanentes. Todo repolho gera peido, diria o escatológico gourmet. Se te dissessem: Não respires e não tomarás o oxigênio dos outros, far-te-ia este conselho mudar de postura? Pois bem. Por isso, quem exige demais de si mesmo não consegue ter amigos. Porque ninguém parece ter valor, e não o contrário. Talvez seja por isso que todo velho que fez um balanço de sua existência é indulgente acima da média com a juventude de seus tempos idosos.

4. REFERENTIAL MEANING

Marcador sintático e marcador semotático do significado semântico-contextual do termo. (mais simples do que parece)

os “etic” e os “emic” pseudodomains.

Folk classifications are often relatively unsystematic, without the neat classifications employed by the specialists (compare, f.ex., the average English-speaker’s classification of plants and animals with those the technically trained botanist or zoologist employs). (…) most English-speaking people can name various kinds of dogs without being able to describe systematically what the distinguishing features are.”

VENERAÇÃO PELO SÁBIO DA MONTANHA

Sujeito meditabundo não é fervoroso

vagabundo não é rancoroso

decoroso não é ser deste mundo

louvar é comungar dum leito

conspurcado com o fluido

da pureza da eminência

divina

venero o Nero que há em

você

nunca a bajulação

nos custou um só

tostão

psicanálise não é devoção mística mas

canônica

verbal

diga-se a palavra tabu e a maldição

será arrancada.

SEM MALDADE SAFADEZA

verso branco

cintura dura

sem malemolência

frente rosa

cadeira cheirosa

da negra que se

esfrega

no carnaval

comunhão

de todos

righteous, as found in Matthew, turns to be hierarchically subordinate to good, that is to say, it is a special subclass of good, namely, the goodness which is in conformance to the standard established by God. At the same time, righteous as used by Paul is quite distinct from righteous as used by Matthew, for rather than being ethical behavior, it is essentially a right relationship made possible by God, and thus characteristic of the man who has been <justified>, i.e., put into a right relationship with God (cf. Today’s English Version).”

figure 10

Diagrama-síntese da interrelação entre sinônimos

mother and father share all essential components except that of sex, but on that one the contrast is polar, and the 2 terms are antonyms.”

Compreendendo um pouco da carga negativa dos cristãos ortodoxos (ou misticistas!) associada à palavra “desgraça”. Fora de alcance mesmo da fé…

The two Greek terms agapao and phileo, both translated <love> in most contexts, have been extensively discussed by exegetes as instances of near synonyms, which are supposed to have certain important distinctions of meaning.” “phileo is never used in the imperative.” “one can <love> (agapao) without <liking> (phileo), but this is likewise too strong a contrast.”

Amor ao primeiro cogito

Certainly there is no clear-cut contextual contrast in John 21:15-17

Though agapao and phileo do occur in similar semotactic frames [contextos semânticos], the great preponderance of uses of agapao in certain types of contexts does point to the divine element of love.”

assoma um corpo somático

SESSÃO CATEQUESE

It should be noted that in the Bible the <holiness> of God differs from holy as applied to the gods, in that God possesses a moral quality, for he is expected to act justly quite apart from any propitiation. Note the exclamation of Abraham in Gen. 18:25: <Shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?>”

Henotheism means that there is one supreme god over other gods (a belief which is reflected in some passages of Old Testament), while monotheism means that there is only one God and that other gods simply do not exist.”

the word Elohim is plural in form but is used of God as well as of gods; a typical case is Psalm 138:1, in which different versions interpret the word differently. But such cases are relatively rare.”

this contrast between the meanings of a single word becomes even more startling when one compares the <meanings> of Jesus and Isa, the Christian and Muslim name for the same historical personage. In a number of translations employed in the Muslim world some persons have insisted that Isa must be used because this is the historical person referred to both in the New Testament and in the Koran. On the other hand, other persons have insisted that some adaptation of Jesus must be used since Isa is entirely inappropriate.”

To overcome the perennial problem of people’s twisting and changing the meaning of words (e.g. Communist use of terms such as peace, democracy, and republic), some persons want to set up some all-powerful language academy which would rule on all terms once and for all. But this will never work, for words are always subject to reshaping as circumstances and conditions change. In fact, such capacity for growth and change in language is essential to the very nature of language. Therefore, to enjoy the advantage of a living language we must also take the risks of its being perverted. Furthermore, even if it were desirable, so-called language engineering would still be in almost all cases a futile effort, simply because there is no effective authority which can impose its will on the way people speak. Cases as diverse as those of the French Academy and the efforts to impose Hindi in India are ample proof of this. Apparent exceptions, as in Israel or Turkey, result from the fact that official efforts happened to coincide with a powerful trend in the social history of the peoples involved, which would no doubt have come to fruition without any official pronouncements.”

BATIZO MINHA OBRA!

Mark 10:38: “Are you able… to be baptized with the baptism with which I am baptized?”

the essential components of Christian baptism are normally regarded to be: (1) the use of liquid (though as to the exact amount there is considerable disagreement), (2) the religious nature of the rite (this is not a secular act of dipping or washing), (3) the name in which the act of baptism is done, and (4) the function of the rite as a symbol of initiation into the Christian community. These are the same essential components of meaning which have continued to be generally recognized by most Christians through the ages. There are, however, some supplementary components of the rite which have in some instances competed for priority. For example, some churches have insisted that baptism cannot be valid unless one is actually totally immersed under the surface of the water, though even in the Didache, coming from the 2nd century, the possibility of pouring is allowed in cases of necessity. For other persons, baptism must not only be immersion, but immersion 3 times in order to be in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. For some Christians the precise form of the verbal formula employed in the rite of baptism is also an essential part, without which the baptism is not efficacious or valid; while for other persons the real issue is whether the individual is a <believer>, that is, a person of accountable age (not an infant) who accepts baptism as a believer. In the case of certain churches the giving of a name is such an important part of baptism that the name for the rite has become <to give a name to>. (…) the most extreme form of restructuring of the meaning of baptism takes place among groups such as the Quakers and Salvation Army churches, who in reaction against ritual formalism have <spiritualized> the meaning of baptism and rejected the use of water entirely. The event of baptism among Quakers is, however, an important religious experience, and it marks initiation into the community, but not as a rite conducted by man but as an act of the Spirit of God. Quakers do not hesitate, however, to say that in a passage such as Acts 2:41 water was employed.”

fox is assigned the component <deceptively clever> only in Western European culture (note the Reynard stories); in other cultures the same trait is, just as arbitrarily, assigned to the rabbit, or to the spider, or to some other animal.”

The figurative sense of any term rests on the fact that it has an almost entirely distinct set of components, but that it also has a link to the primary sense through some one component, usually a supplementary one. This supplementary component can be actually relevant to the referent of the primary sense, or only conventionally assigned, but in either case it is not one of the essential, distinctive features by which the primary sense is distinguished from others.”

The terms circumcised and uncircumcised in Galatians 2, though literally object-event words, actually function primarily as object-words, and can more correctly be translated <Jews> and <Gentiles>. Their reference is to ethnic groups rather than to the physical operation (or its lack) which typically characterized these groups.” Particularmente discordo.

In some instances, one must deal with special Semitic usages, which may pose certain difficulties. F.ex., the common phrases children of… and sons of… frequently identify persons who are characterized by the term which follows the of: thus sons of disobedience (Ephesians 2:2) means simply <people who disobey (God)>, and children of wrath (Ephesians 2:3) refers to <persons who will experience the wrath of God> or, better, <those whom God will judge>.”

<horn of salvation> must be restructured semantically as <a great savior>”

5. CONNOTATIVE MEANING

the phrase thus saith the Lord is not merely equivalent to the Lord says, but carries with it the connotations of King James language and ecclesiastical intonations. Certainly once upon a time no longer means literally <once upon a time>.”

the Toity-toid and Toid Avenue dialect of New York, with its special pronunciation of bird as boid, girl as goil and third as toid is quite understandable and after a little practice one can readily <restructure> the sounds. However, these forms do carry certain associative meaning of being substandard.”

<Living forever> is in the Buddhist view one of the greatest of tragedies, for this means being trapped in the physical world of delusion and thus never permitted to escape into the eternal bliss of Nirvana, which is the logical and metaphysical opposite to the physical world.”

the Guaica Indians of southern Venezuela were entirely unmoved by the story of Jesus’ trial and death, for they regarded him as a complete coward for not having put up a fight in the Garden of Gethsemane. Anyone who would not fight or attempt to escape was regarded by the Guaica as deserving death.”

6. TRANSFER

Um problema comum entre os tradutores é que eles distorcem a mensagem não por saberem de menos, mas por saberem DEMAIS da matéria, algo que contraria a noção vulgar. Com efeito, eles tendem a se equiparar ao público-alvo, quando na realidade quase sempre são um técnicos-especialistas que superestimam o nível de compreensão do leitor típico. Creio que tomei a escolha correta nas minhas traduções de Platão ao me alongar em trechos que pareceriam inteligíveis tão-somente a estudantes de Filosofia; sempre penso nos meus amigos mais íntimos nestes momentos-chave: “Como será que eles processarão a informação ‘x’? Não fará qualquer sentido para eles se eu não adaptar dessa e daquela maneira!”.

translationese”

But if all the laymen can understand the Bible, what will the preachers have to do?” Por isso é altamente benéfico se especializar em Heidegger ou Shakespeare: sempre teremos algo a ensinar a alguém!

One of the particularly unfortunate ways of translating the Bible is to proceed verse by verse, for the verse divisions are often quite arbitrary units.”

Of course there are some situations in which one individual, unusually gifted in a knowledge of the original languages and skilled in the style of the receptor language, can undertake the task of Bible translating alone. But such one-man translations are increasingly less possible.”

expressões como ‘heap coals of fire on his head’ (Rom 12:20) [pilhas de carvão deixam sua cabeça em brasa] se transformam, na tradução, em <o envergonharão>.” CONTRA-EXEMPLO DE TRADUÇÃO, PORTANTO: “Portanto, se o teu inimigo tiver fome, dá-lhe de comer; se tiver sede, dá-lhe de beber; porque, fazendo isto, amontoarás brasas de fogo sobre a sua cabeça.

In some languages, Holy Spirit means little more than a white ghost, for holy has been equated with cleanness or whiteness, and Spirit is more readily understood in such a context as ghost rather than as the Spirit of God. An even worse situation was encountered in a language in which holy was rendered as that which makes taboo and spirit meant primarily an evil or malicious spirit.”

the phrase Son of man in discourses by Jesus must be modified to read I who am the Son of man, since in some languages such a 3rd person reference could not be to Jesus. § Some persons have argued that Jesus did not actually speak of himself as <the Son of man>, but that this is a wrong attribution made to him by his disciples. Regardless of what position one might take with respect to such a reinterpretation of the data, it is evident that the Gospel writers themselves made this identification, and it is their text which we are translating rather than any presumed underlying original.”

Whenever a language has an obligatory order, the situation is somewhat easier than when there are a number of optional patterns, for though the different choices may appear to be substantially identical, there are usually certain subtle distinctions which are only mastered by long association with and close study of a language.”

In Quechua, a term may occur in the plural form at the beginning of a paragraph but any later references to the same term normally do not have the plural suffix. To keep attaching plural suffixes regularly to every occurrence of a plural word seems awkward and childish in Quechua.”

SABER TRANSCENDENTAL E SABER MUNDANO: “Judge not so that God will not judge you.” Intenção judaica original: “Não julgue outros homens para que Deus não o julgue desfavoravelmente.”; Provérbio que se tornou popular e uma referência como conselho para a vida: “Não julgue-os para que eles (os homens) não o julguem também.” Porém, sabemos que é-se julgado independentemente de querer ou divulgar seus julgamentos, seja numa instância fenomênica, seja na Prestação de Contas Derradeira (C://Memorando nº 666-PCD/PURG/Post-Morten/DEUS)!

Ah, que isso, os humilhados estão descontrolados (exaltados)!

cuscuz levantará os shinobi afogados.

He is greater than I must be rendered in some languages as He is greater than I am great, while in other languages the equivalent is He is great, I am not.”

O Black Sabbath foi feito para o homem, não o homem para o Black Sabbath.

beheaded fool

sejacabeceado tologordo

descabeçado

descabaçado

circuncidado

pelas circunstâncias

In some languages, one cannot say Jesus arose from the dead, but rather Jesus got up and left the dead, for such a language simply does not employ a preposition from but rather a verb indicating an event of movement.”

In the Guaica language of Venezuela, each complete sentence must end with one of the aspectual particles which indicates whether the described was seen by the speaker, was heard from reliable persons, or is purely legendary or imaginary.”

PAULO, O MAU ESCRITOR: “in Colossians 1:1-12 the we forms are essentially exclusive, but at verse 13 Paul evidently shifts viewpoints and includes his audience, and in verse 21 there is another shift back to the I-you or the we-you distinction. In Ephesians the problem is somewhat more acute.”

CRISTO, O 1º ZUMBI (d.C.?): “Some languages mark continually the differences between persons who are dead (or have died) and those who are still alive.”

In the recasting of borrowed words, including proper names especially, one normally attempts to follow the phonological structure of the receptor language. This may mean, for example, that Mark may become Maliko and Peter may become Petelo. There are, however, two principles which tend to alter a systematic adjustment to the phonological patterns of the receptor language: (1) the prestige of the orthography of a dominant language and (2) the problems of accidental correspondences.” “in many of the Indian languages of Latin America the people insist that the forms of common proper names must be like Spanish or Portuguese. (…) The same is true in many situations in Africa where French, English and Portuguese tend to dominate.”

Messiah in one language of West Africa turned out to be identical with an indigenous expression meaning death’s hand.”

7. RESTRUCTURING

figure 12

The solid lines in each instance represent the producer language, that is to say, the type of language which the person X or Y is able to produce, whether in speaking or writing. The broken lines represent the corresponding <consumer> language, that is to say, the range of language which these same persona are able to understand. It should be noted that in each instance, the spread or range of the consumer language is greater than that of the producer language. In other words, one is generally able to hear or read more than he can say or write.” “It is important to realize, however, that speaker X does not usually understand the total range of Y. That is to say, there are certain substandard forms which he probably can neither understand nor use correctly.”

In fact, if persons in class X employ substandard forms in writing to or for persons of class Y, the latter are quite understandably offended, and usually refuse to accept such communications”

The diagram employed in Figure 12 is not, however, adequate, since it does not reveal the historical perspective, and in all languages with a literary heritage there are many documents which reflect earlier stages of language. This is specially true of the Bible, which so often reflects long-established literary associations and well-entrenched stylistic usages.”

REDUBLAGEM & ESQUECIMENTO: “It is altogether possible that with the advent of recording we shall experience quite a different role for the oral language, but anything which is likely to be preserved over any long period of time is also likely to be relatively close to acceptable written style.”

figure 13

Ovelha não pode ler a Bíblia

The King James Version is listed at the extreme of the historical dimension, even though, of course, it was preceded by others. However, it is the only translation from the early period that exerts a significant continuing influence. § The RSV represents a somewhat middle position between the KJV and contemporary usage. As far as vocabulary usage is concerned, however, it is not on such a high literary level as the NEB. On the other hand, the NEB is stylistically much simpler in sentence structure, so that in some measure these 2 factors produce an average which makes the RSV and the NEB somewhat parallel. It is, of course, quite impossible to represent all the finer grades of contrast in a diagram of this type. § Phillips’ translation may be said to dip a little further than the NEB into the language of overlap between the upper and lower languages.”

In languages without literary traditions, one should attempt to produce a translation in the <popular> form of language, which represents the usage between the technical levels at the top and the vulgar speech at the bottom. The artificial forms of translationese should certainly be rejected as not representing the true genius of the language, and speech which is only used by the older generation should be largely rejected. However, in these situations one is generally able to employ a relatively wider range of the total resources of the language than in the case of <common language translations>, in which usage must be restricted primarily to the specific area of overlap [sobreposição – formal ou informal, tabuísmos, tecnicismos, etc.].”

whereas in case of languages with long literary traditions one is faced with the problems of socioeconomic and educational <dialects>, in the case of languages only now being reduced to writing, the problems are not those of vertical (sociological) dialects but of horizontal, or geographical, ones. Without the normalizing influence of a national educational program, local geographical dialects quite naturally proliferate, and one is confronted with certain very serious difficulties.”

in some instances the written language may almost be a <foreign language>, as in the case of written Arabic, which differs so markedly from the colloquial form of speech that a child must go to school for several years before being able to read standard written Arabic with ease.”

One well-known linguist has compared this relationship [between oral and written languages] to that between a person and a dog being walked on a long elastic leash. The dog (written language) can get quite far from the man (oral language), but the leash imposes limits, and the elasticity of the leash forces the dog to return to the man from time to time.” Alguns homens parecem cães (Kikuchi).

Lyric poetry should sound like poetry and not like an essay; letters should read like letters and not like some technical treatise on theology.”

<To hell with you and your money>, which is really an excellent equivalent of the Greek term apollumi. In Bible translating perhaps the greatest distortion in style comes in the rendering of the Epistles, for so often instead of producing letters the translator becomes so hopelessly entangled in technical theological language that the results sound more like a legal document than a letter.”

The first part of Romans appears in some languages to sound something like the following: <I, Paul, a slave of said master Jesus Christ, have been specifically called and summoned by God to be sent for a particular purpose and have been commissioned to that end, appointed to serve as a preacher of what is commonly known as the Good News, a message disclosed and published prior to final pronouncement in the Scriptures, widely known as the Old Testament.> Of course, no one translates quite so badly as this, but the heavy, involved, and ponderous style of some translations is equally out of place and poorly designed to represent something of the <spontaneous fullness> with which Paul speaks.”

If, for example, languages differ by more than 15% in their basic vocabulary (the central core of vocabulary which tends to be the most conservative), it is almost impossible to bring such dialects together, for they represent a linguistic separation, in glottochronological terms, of more than 700 years.”

Unfortunately, it often happens that translators have attempted to solve the problems of geographical dialects by a kind of <democratic method>, by which they select certain words and forms from one dialect, other words and forms from a 2nd dialect, and so on, until presumably all the dialects have been democratically represented. Such a procedure results in a hopeless mélange, a kind of language that no one speaks and all persona unanimously reject.”

some languages have a 4th person, but it is a specialized kind of 3rd person, not a really distinct one.”

The essential differences between languages are thus not in what can be said, but in what are permissible and/or probable combinations, and especially in what categories are marked obligatorily and what are purely optional.”

The most effective translations of Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey are now in prose, not in poetry, for poetic translations seem rather unnatural and even, at times, <silly>, but as prose, translations of Homer can be full of life, vigor and punch (e.g., Rieu’s). On the other hand, in India the poetic form is still much appreciated in many of the languages, and one of the very popular accounts of the life of Christ has been done in Malayalam verse by a skilled poet.”

phillips

Evitar a tradução Phillips

It is the job of a pastor and teacher, not of the translator, to make the cultural adaptation. This is also one of the major differences between an exegetical commentary and a homiletical or devotional commentary.”

RSV X NEB em Lucas 15:

1. The Greek text reads literally <and he said>, but this expression is used frequently by Luke as a marker of discourse transition, that is, to signal the shifts from one story or account to another. Accordingly, the NEB is thoroughly justified in introducing an equivalent marker in English. Stylistic feature: Discourse-transition marker.

2. The use of <once> in the NEB suggests the discourse type, i.e., the fact that this is a parable, rather than the account of a particular person and his two sons. In Greek this is clearly marked by the indefinite pronoun tis, <some>, <any>, <a>. Stylistic feature: Discourse-type marker.

(…)

4. Though the phrase <that falls to me> is a literal rendering of the original, the NEB has avoided a phrase which is semotactically unnatural. Stylistic feature: Semotactic appropriateness.

5. The use of <so> in place of the literal translation <and> is used to mark the intra-discourse transition. This is a perfectly legitimate translation of the Greek conjunction kai. Stylistic feature: Intradiscourse transition.

6. Though <living> is a literal rendering of Greek bios, it is misleading in present-day English, for <living> would refer to <income> and not to one’s entire estate. The NEB rendering is basically not a matter of style but of correctness in rendering, based on the principle of dynamic equivalence and not on the principle of formal correspondence.

(…)

8. The NEB is a more idiomatic rendering and is fully justified by Koine usage. Moreover, it results in a much more understandable account.”

Para mim foi o contrário (facilidade maior da RSV).

13. The phrase <loose living> implies immorality, but this element in the story does not come out until one hears the accusation of the elder brother. The NEB <reckless> seems a much better rendering of the Greek asotos. This is essentially a matter of interpretation.

14. The RSV construction, <when he … spent …, a great famine arose…>, suggests that the first action took place with anticipation of what was to follow. The NEB, however, makes the second clause the dependent clause to emphasize the unexpectedness of the famine. The Greek sentence would normally be translated as in the RSV, since the <spending> is a dependent participle. However, it is by no means necessary to treat all Greek participles in this rather mechanical fashion. Therefore, the NEB rendering can be justified as a much more effective and semantically appropriate means of showing relationships between clauses. Stylistic feature: Interclause markers.” Mas quem em santa consciência creria que um só hedonista, por mais rico que fosse, produziria um estado de penúria e fome geral num país? E que o jovem hedonista tinha fins suicidas em suas ações destemperadas? Não vejo qualquer desvantagem na primeira tradução; para se ler a Bíblia, é preciso ter algum raciocínio lógico – e não é uma tradução mais “exata” ou didática que o fará pelo leitor! Não pensei que a situação de falta de comida fosse um só instante condicionada pela dilapidação da fortuna do jovem…

16. The adjective <great> normally suggests something valuable or important, and is not so semotactically appropriate with <famine>. Stylistic feature: Semotactic appropriateness.

17. Normally so-called natural calamities are said to <fall>; they do not <arise>. Stylistic feature: Semotactic appropriateness.” Ok, já está quase me convencendo…

FINALMENTE UM GANHO DE CAUSA PARA A RSV (no décimo oitavo ponto, i.e.!): “The phrase <to be in want> is obsolescent, but <to feel the pinch> is rather weak. This suggests to many Britishers rising income taxes rather than being completely out of money. Stylistic feature: Contemporary usage (but misleading).

19. The expression <joined to> suggests a meeting of equals or an association, while <attached to> shows dependency relationship. Perhaps a better rendering would be <went to work for>. Stylistic feature: Semotactic appropriateness.

27. The phrase <bread enough and to spare> is obsolescent.” A Bíblia é obsoleta! O mal do homem é prolongar algo fadado ao fim há milênios…

36. The verb <embraced> seems not only somewhat stilted, but to many people it carries a rather heavy sexual connotation.” HAHAHA!

RSV X NEB X TEV em Hebreus 1:

3. The usage of <fathers> is obsolescent (and translationese), while <forefathers> is rather technical. <Ancestors> is more normal (at least for American English). Stylistic features: Contemporary usage and level of language.

The use of a term such as <effulgence> is likewise typical of the lexical high level of academic or technical style.”

12. The term <purification> is very seldom used with <sins>, except in certain traditional religious contexts. The word <purgation> is even less used in such a context and is understood, if it is known at all, by most persons as applying to <purgation of gastrointestinal wastes>.”

Some modern writers have introduced calculated formal confusion in order to suggest by the style something of the confusion and <absurdity> of the action or the responses of the participants.”

One might assume that well-known words would automatically all be high-frequency words. That is not, however, always the case. For example, headache and knee are not high-frequency words, but they are quite well known by any user of English. On the other hand, words such as matter and object are relatively frequent, but they are not always easy to comprehend.”

For special effects obsolescent or archaic words may be useful”

New and striking combinations of words make a writing fresh and give the impression that the ideas are also new and important.”

Some exegetes insist that en with <Christ>, <Son> or any other designation of the 2nd person of the Trinity can only mean <in Christ> in a very special Pauline sense. The principal difficulty with such a rendering is that it simply does not make much sense, if any, in English. (…) Even in the more than 400 years that this expression has been used in the English language, Christian preachers and scholars have been quite incapable of making it really meaningful. (…) It is precisely for this reason that even in this passage various translators have translated en as <by means of> or <by>.”

O novo testamento só quer saber de agência: ele é imensamente espírita.

If a stylist is to be employed either for the initial work or for later revision of the manuscript, it is important that he have certain very essential qualifications: (1) he must be a good writer, (2) he should not have too much acquaintance with the traditional forms of the Scriptures, (3) he should be sympathetic with the message of the Scriptures (though not necessarily a <believer>), and (4) in general he should work as a special consultant or assessor, and not as a member of a committee.

Being a good writer must mean much more than his having turned in a couple of publishable articles for a church paper. If at all possible a stylist should be a professional writer. It is not even enough that he be an editor or a corrector of other people’s writing. He should have creative writing abilities himself, for in the process of providing stylistic help for a translation he must do more than spot awkward sentences; he must be able to provide the creative assistance which is so essential.”

The really 1st-rate stylist usually does not survive as a member of a committee, for his job is an aesthetic type of contribution, and aesthetics is something many theologically trained persons simply do not understand. (…) he is usually ill equipped to defend his suggestions against the onslaught of those who claim to know just what the original means. The fact that what the committee is rendering may not make sense to the common man or that, if it is intelligible, it is painfully awkward, seems not to be too important to many theologically trained people translating the Bible. Accordingly, it is probably better for the stylist to do his work alone, in circumstances in which he can be far more creative.”

ETNOGRAFANDO: “To understand something about the style of oral literature in a language, it is essential to make thorough studies of the literary forms of legends, myths and stories from candidly recorded texts. That is to say, recordings should be made when the speaker is unaware of the fact that a recording is being made. Otherwise he will almost inevitably introduce a number of artificialities into the material. The translator who comes to the receptor language as a foreign language must alto <soak up> the language by saturating himself in hearing and speaking the language. And to do this he will need a number of years. (…) The average person can quite well master the syntactic structure of a language in 4 or 5 years, but it is the rare individual who masters the semotactic structure of a foreign language in less than 20 years, especially if he begins this process after he has become an adult.”

TRAINING STYLISTS FOR LANGUAGES LACKING A LITERARY TRADITION

Many persons have insisted that stylists, like any other artists, are born, not made, and in very large measure this is true. However, even persons with artistic talent need to have their capacities developed, and even those persons who seemingly have limited abilities can improve their output immensely through careful and consistent practice under guidance.”

For the most part such persons should have (1) good oral ability in the language, (2) creative imagination, i.e., the capacity to put words together, (3) some evidence of ability to write their own language reasonably well, (4) pride in their own language, (5) knowledge of the oral literature, i.e., of the legends, myths, etc., or a keen desire to study them, and (6) willingness to listen to and carefully consider suggestions made by others. Without these minimal qualifications [!] it is unlikely that a person will really succeed in doing quality work as a stylist, regardless of how much help he may be given in trying to learn how to write and to edit.”

The selection of potentially qualified persons is, however, only the beginning. They must also be carefully guided through a relatively long and carefully [QUANTOS CAREFULLY!] worked-out series of steps [não basta passos, tem de ser SÉRIES DE PASSOS!] in learning how to write [contradição em termos]. (…) writing for different levels of audience, writing for different degrees of impact, writing for differences of response, adaptation of articles and stories, learning to respond to orally given alternatives (…)”

Perhaps one of the most serious problems to overcome in the completely new writer is his tendency to be unbearably brief.” Nunca – N-U-N-C-A – tive esse problema!!

Nunca vou entender o pressuposto de que oralidade e escrita são absolutamente dependentes entre si. Realmente os autores nunca conheceram alguém como eu em toda sua longa vida!

* * *

8. TESTING THE TRANSLATION

As has already been intimated at several points in the preceding chapters, there is a tendency for all good translations to be somewhat longer than the originals.” “This tendency to greater length is due essentially to the fact that one wishes to state everything that is in the original communication but is also obliged to make explicit in the receptor language what could very well remain implicit in the source-language text, since the original receivers of this communication presumably had all the necessary background to understand the contents of the message. Moreover, there seems to be a relatively fixed tendency for languages to be approximately 50% redundant, not only in the sounds which are used but also in the flow of lexical information. From all evidence we have it is also assumed that most languages have approximately the same rate of flow of information for corresponding types of style and levels of usage.” Será que uma tradução que volte um texto traduzido da própria língua (3ª versão) [ex: LIVRO ALEMÃO LIVRO INGLÊS (2ª versão) LIVRO ALEMÃO], traduzido por uma terceira pessoa, por esporte, ou por desconhecimento da fonte original, seria necessariamente maior que a 1ª versão? (Parece que a resposta é não, a julgar pelo estudo realizado e descrito em VINAY & DARBELNET no tocante ao backtranslating; vd. próximas publicações.)

Some expressions, however, are so semantically condensed in the source-language text that they often require considerable expansion in the receptor language. For example, <I am a jealous God> (Exod. 20:5) can be badly misunderstood if translated literally, for it may only suggest that God acts like some jilted lover or that he has a mean, possessive disposition. More often than not, a literal rendering introduces quite unwarranted sexual connotations. Accordingly, in some languages this sentence must be semantically restructured by expansion to read <I am a God who demands that my people love no one else other than me>.

among some of the tribes in South America gambling is not known nor are there any devices for <selecting by lot>. Accordingly, in order for readers to comprehend the significance of certain accounts in the Scriptures, some supplementary information must be given in marginal notes.”

simplification of highly repetitious style, often associated with stateliness of form and importance of the theme, e.g., the first chapter of Genesis. While in Hebrew such repetitions and pleonasms may have a valued liturgical significance, a close formal parallel in another language may seem awkwardly heavy.”

it is just as important to employ the proper reductions as it is to introduce the proper expansions”

Actually the only linguistically sound [confiável] test of ease of comprehension is the Cloze Technique, which is based on the principle of transitional probabilities. That is to say, the easier it is for the reader to guess the next word, the easier it is to comprehend the word in such a context. This matter of <degree of predictability> (being able to guess the right word is only another way of talking about predictability) is essentially a concept derived from Information Theory. In its written application the Cloze Technique provides the reader with a text in which every 5th word is deleted and a blank space is left in its place. The reader is then asked to fill in those words which seem to fit the context best. (…) In general, one only needs about 50 such blanks in any text to provide a very satisfactory guide as to the relative comprehensibility of the text.”

As the text is read, the translator should note carefully those places at which the reader stumbles, hesitates, makes some substitution of another grammatical form, puts in another word, or in any way has difficulty in reading the text fluently. Of course, some of the problems in reading may be due to inexperience in public reading”

Despite all the tests that one might wish to make of a translation it seems that only the actual publication of sample materials can provide the kind of test necessary to judge the acceptability of a translation. But even the analysis of reactions to a published text is not a simple matter. The popularity may be for a number of different reasons: price, illustrations, format, marketing, and even quality of paper. (…) This is especially true of the Bible, which is so often bought as a prestige symbol or as a kind of <fetish of the faith>. The fact that a Bible with particularly small types sells well may not mean that it is greatly read (in fact, some small-type Bibles are practically illegible)”

Does his face show real interest and understanding (or is he only going through a devotional practice)?”

APPENDIX

AUTHORIZED CANONICAL BABEL GOSPEL: “In an earlier day, it was commonly supposed in Christian circles that translations of the Scriptures would be required for all the languages of the world. The most recent guesses, based on reliable though fragmentary data, suggest that there are somewhere between 4,000 and 5,000 languages and significantly different dialects now spoken in the world. The Bible has already been translated into some 1,500 languages, and these represent fully 97% of the world’s population.”

In many constituencies the very word <revision> often troubles people, for revision of the Bible means changing it, and this seems to call into question its inspiration and authority. (…) A new translation is so different from the old that it more or less disarms the attacks of the traditionalists.”

TATUAGEM RECURSAL INFINITA: “Revising an unsatisfactory translation has been compared to painting over the dirty spots on a wall.”

Testemunhas do Bem-Estar, um grupo de democratas fanáticos loucos que bate de porta em porta perguntando se os moradores não gostariam de ouvir a palavra da Constituição Federal de 1988, disseminando a Lei para Todos, convertendo almas degeneradas para o vade mecum da salvação.

enormormon

Increasingly, Roman Catholics and Protestants are working together on joint Bible translation projects. In order to facilitate such cooperation, a document has been prepared entitled Guiding Principles for Interconfessional Cooperation in Translating the Bible. This document issued jointly by the United Bible Societies and the Vatican’s Secretariat for Promoting Christian Unity, spells out in considerable detail the way in which such cooperation can be made to work harmoniously.”

assess their asses.

Experience has indicated that the ideal number of translators is between 3 and 5. When the group is larger, its procedures become excessively cumbersome.” “In case after case it has proved virtually impossible to make satisfactory progress when translators are working only part time.” Realmente a tradução não irá cair do céu!

Most of their work is done individually, each working in his own manner. From time to time they meet together as a group to compare and evaluate their work and to decide the final form of the translation.

The reviewers usually number 8 to 10 and are especially chosen either because of their competence in the original languages and in Biblical studies, or because of their ability as writers in the receptor language. They are often persons who have the technical capability to translate but who, because of other responsibilities or because they do not work well in a team, cannot serve effectively as translators.”

In order for the project to proceed efficiently, it is necessary that one person be designated as secretary or coordinator of the project.”

Livros com as passagens mais difíceis: Gênesis 1, Salmos 1, Isaías 53, Mateus 5 a 7, Marcos 1, João 1, Romanos 1 e Efésios 1.

Uma seleção de princípios de tradução para línguas denominadas <Bantu meridionais>

(…)

Para o Antigo Testamento o comitê deve basear seu trabalho no texto Masorético [Tanakh, a bíblia considerada original e mais completa] conforme fornecido pela terceira edição de Kittel, com a previsão formal de que em trechos particularmente problemáticos dever-se-á empreender uma releitura comparada de versões reputadas, recorrendo-se excepcionalmente, na persistência de divergências, a tradições hebraicas alternativas e, em último caso, a emendas [trechos que as autoridades reconhecem como ilegítimos conquanto válidos do ponto de vista da facilitação proporcionada pelo escriba e intérprete ao leitor comum].

Para o Novo Testamento o texto publicado pela United Bible Societies (Sociedades Bíblicas Unidas) é o recomendável. Para as passagens carentes de autoridade, recomenda-se a inserção de palavras entre parênteses ou colchetes, com o acréscimo de observação introdutória indicando que tais passagens não se encontram nos primeiros manuscritos canônicos e foram acrescidas depois.

(…) Ajudas de exegese: The Revised Standard Version (RSV), The New English Bible (NEB), Today’s English Version (TEV) e The Translators’ Translation (TT). (…)

Answers to rhetorical questions should be introduced unless the following expressions clearly imply the proper answer.

(…)

The basic unit of translation should be the paragraph

(…)

1st-person plural references to the 1st-person singular should be changed to 1st-person singular.

(…)

In case of genuine ambiguity, either in the source or receptor texts, one alternative should be given in the text and the other in the margin.

(…)

Proper names should in general be transcribed on the basis of receptor-language phonological structures, taking into consideration syllabic patterns, sequences of vowels and length of words.

(…)

Todos os termos para pesos e medidas que não forem familiares deverão ser explicados numa Tábua de Pesos e Medidas à parte.

Deverão ser incluídos mapas com as principais localizações apresentadas. [!!]”

Translating in committee is not only highly inefficient and wasteful of time, but it rarely produces an acceptable style.”

It is important not to break up books of the Bible and assign parts of them to different people, for the resulting will be too uneven.”

when a serious issue strongly divides the group, it is often advisable to set the problem aside until it can be discussed with a translations consultant. (…) The reason is that in the heat of argument the issues seem much more important than they do several days or weeks later when more experience has been gained and the problems are seen in a wider perspective.”

In some projects the reviewers have insisted on meeting together as a committee and going over the whole draft verse by verse. This is rarely a desirable approach. Not only can such a committee spend endless hours debating over details, but the end results are rarely as good as the work of the translators which was the basis of the discussion. The reviewers and the consultative group should remember that it is not their work to be censors.” Irônico… Um CHEFE DE TRADUÇÃO INQUISITIVO, he-he…

Versões para comparação instrutiva:

(*) American Bible Society

ASV – American Standard Version, 1901

ANT – The Amplified New Testament, 1958

TEV, 1966 (*)

KJV I, 1611

NEB, 1961

Livros/artigos de ajuda em técnicas de tradução, tópicos bíblicos, lingüística geral e antropologia:

Ackroyd & Knibb, Translating the Psalms, 1966

Benveniste, Problèmes de Linguistique Générale, 1966

Bratcher, Review of the 20th Century New Testament, 1962 (artigo)

______, Review of New American Standard Gospel of John, 1960 (artigo)

Chao, Yuen Ren. How Chinese logic operates, 1959 (artigo)

Clements, Divine Titles as a problem of Old Testament Translation, 1966 (artigo)

Garvin, L’analyse linguistique automatique: un problème heuristique, 1964 (artigo)

Hall, Pidgin and Creole Languages, 1966

Hess, A study of glossa in the New Testament, 1964 (artigo)

Hjelmslev, La stratification du langage, 1954 (artigo)

Hockett, Ethno-linguistic implications of studies in linguistics and psychiatry, 1960 (artigo)

Lamb, Ervin & Horowitz, Navaho color categories, 1960 (artigo)

Meek, Translating the Hebrew Bible, 1965 (artigo)

Newman, The Meaning of the New Testament, 1966

Pickett, Those problem pronouns: we, us and our in the New Testament, 1964 (artigo)

Smalley, La Version Populaire: a new version in simplified French, 1961 (artigo)

______, Phillips and NEB: some comments on style, 1965 (artigo)

Swellengrebel, Puzzles in Luke, 1966 (artigo)

Wonderly, La Versión Popular: a new version in simplified Spanish, 1961 (artigo)

1 Nunca esqueça do valor da nota de rodapé!

L’ENCYCLOPÉDIE – AM – Âme

ÂME. “Il ne peut y avoir que deux manieres d’envisager l’ame, ou comme une qualité, ou comme une substance. Ceux qui pensoient qu’elle n’étoit qu’une pure qualité, comme Epicure, Dicéarchus, Aristoxène, Asclepiade & Galien, croyoient & devoient nécessairement croire qu’elle étoit anéantie à la mort. Mais la plus grande partie des Philosophes ont pensé que l’ame étoit une substance. Tous ceux qui étoient de cette opinion ont soutenu unanimement qu’elle n’étoit qu’une partie séparée d’un tout, que Dieu étoit ce tout, & que l’ame devoit enfin s’y réunir par voie de réfusion.” “Ceux qui soûtenoient qu’il n’y avoit qu’une seule substance universelle étoient de vrais athées: leurs sentimens & ceux des Spinosistes modernes sont les mêmes; & Spinosa sans doute a puisé ses erreurs dans cette source corrompue de l’antiquité. Ceux qui soûtenoient qu’il y avoit dans la nature deux substances générales, Dieu & la matiere, concluoient en conséquence de cet axiome fameux, de rien rien, que l’une & l’autre étoient éternelles: ceux-ci formoient la classe des Philosophes Théistes & Déistes, approchant plus ou moins suivant leurs différentes subdivisions, de ce qu’on appelle le Spinosisme. Il faut remarquer que tous les sentimens des anciens sur la nature de Dieu tenoient beaucoup de ce systeme absurde. La seule barriere qui soit entr’eux & Spinosa, c’est que ce Philosophe ainsi que Straton, destituoit & privoit de la connoissance & de la raison cette force répandue dans le monde, qui selon lui en vivifioit les parties & entretenoit leur liaison, au lieu que les Philosophes Théistes donnoient de la raison & de l’intelligence à cette ame du monde. La divinité de Spinosa n’étoit qu’une nature aveugle, qui n’avoit ni vie ni sentiment, & qui néanmoins avoit produit tous ces beaux ouvrages, & y avoit mis sans le savoir une symmétrie & une subordination qui paroissent évidemment l’esset d’une intelligence très-éclairée, qui choisit & (sic?) ses fins & ses moyens.” “Voyez l’article de l’immatérialisme, où nous prouvons que les anciens Philosophes n’avoient eu aucune teinture de la véritable spiritualité.”

Humanus autem animus decerptus est, mente divina, cum alio nullo nisi cum ipso Deo comparari potest.” « On ne rencontre rien, dans la nature terrestre, qui ait la faculté de se ressouvenir & de penser, qui puisse se rappeller le passé, considérer le présent, & prévoir l’avenir. Ces facultés sont divines; & l’on ne trouvera point d’où l’homme peut les avoir, si ce n’est de Dieu. Ainsi ce quelque chose qui sent, qui goûte, qui veut, est céleste & divin, & par cette raison il doit être nécessairement éternel » Cícero

Celles qui s’étoient souillées par des vices ou par des crimes, passoient par une succession de corps différens, pour se purifier avant que de retourner à leur substance primitive. C’étoit-là les deux especes de métempsycoses naturelles, dont faisoient réellement profession ces deux écoles de Philosophie [Platônicos e Pitagóricos].” “les 4 grandes sectes de l’ancienne Philosophie; savoir les Pythagoriciens, les Platoniciens, les Péripatéticiens, & les Stoïciens

« Pourquoi donc l’ame, que vous dites être immortelle, être Dieu, est-elle malade dans les malades, imbécille dans les enfans, caduque dans les vieillards? ô folie, démence, infatuation! » Arnobe (?)

Après avoir parlé des ames sensitives, & déclaré qu’elles étoient mortelles, Aristote ajoûte que l’esprit ou l’intelligence existe de tout tems, & qu’elle est de nature divine: mais il fait une seconde distinction; il trouve que l’esprit est actif ou passif, & que de ces deux sortes d’esprit le premier est immortel & éternel, le second corruptible. Les plus savans Commentateurs de ce Philosophe ont regardé ce passage comme inintelligible, & ils se sont imaginés que cette obscurité provenoit des formes & des qualités qui infectent sa philosophie, & qui confondent ensemble les substances corporelles & incorporelles. (…) Aristote tire ici une conclusion contre son existence particuliere & distincte dans un état futur [e funda o Existencialismo, por assim dizer]: sentiment qui a été embrassé par tous les Philosophes, mais qu’ils n’ont pas tous avoüé aussi ouvertement.”

A ansiedade vai passar como a vontade, fique à vontade. Prolixo ansioso. Ânsia de vômito e sêmen, de engolir e ruminar, de introjetar, de ser invadido e libertar. Embraçar o embaraçado. Um ébrio médio, um Baco baço. Coceira no ventre, o baixo. Venta e molda o barro. Muda o endereço do bairro dos deuses. Sede nectarina da existência e dos assopros.

Peu de tems après la naissance du Christianisme, les Philosophes étant puissamment attaqués par les écrivains chrétiens, altérerent leur philosophie & leur religion, en rendant leur philosophie plus religieuse, & leur religion plus philosophique. Parmi les rafinemens du paganisme, l’opinion qui faisoit de l’ame une partie de la substance divine, fut adoucie. Les Platoniciens la bornerent [confinerent] à l’amedes brutes. Toute puissance irrationnelle, dit Porphire, retourne par réfusion dans l’ame du tout. Et l’on doit remarquer que ce n’est seulement qu’alors que les Philosophes commencerent à croire réellement & sincerement le dogme des peines & des récompenses d’une autre vie. Mais les plus sages d’entre-eux n’eurent pas plûtôt abandonné l’opinion de l’ame universelle, que les Gnostiques, les Manichéens & les Priscilliens s’en emparerent: ils la transmirent aux Arabes, de qui les athées de ces derniers siecles, & notamment Spinosa, l’ont empruntée. § On demandera peut-être d’où les Grecs ont tiré cette opinion si étrange de l’ame universelle du monde; opinion aussi détestable que l’athéisme même, & que M. Bayle trouve avec raison plus absurde que le système des atomes de Démocrite & d’Epicure. On s’est imaginé qu’ils avoient tiré cette opinion d’Egypte. La nature seule de cette opinion fait suffisamment voir qu’elle n’est point Egyptienne: elle est trop rafinée, trop subtile, trop métaphysique, trop systématique: l’ancienne philosophie des Barbares (sous ce nom les Grecs entendoient les Egyptiens comme les autres nations) consistoit seulement en maximes détachées, transmises des maîtres aux disciples par la tradition, où rien ne ressentoit la spéculation, & où l’on ne trouvoit ni les rafinemens ni les subtilités qui naissent des systèmes & des hypothèses. Ce caractere simple ne régnoit nulle part plus qu’en Egypte. Leurs Sages n’étoient point des sophistes scholastiques & sédentaires, comme ceux des Grecs; ils s’occupoient entierement des affaires publiques de la religion & du gouvernement; & en conséquence de ce caractere, ils ne poussoient les Sciences que jusqu’où elles étoient nécessaires pour les usages de la vie. Cette sagesse si vantée des Egyptiens, dont il est parlé dans les saintes Écritures, consistoit essentiellement dans les arts du gouvernement, dans les talens de la législature, & dans la police de la société civile. § Le caractere des premiers Grecs, disciples des Égyptiens, confirme cette vérité; savoir, que les Egyptiens ne philosophoient ni sur des hypothèses, ni d’une maniere systématique. Les premiers Sages de la Grece, conformément à lusage des Égyptiens leurs maîtres, produisoient leur philosophie par maximes détachées & indépendantes, telle certainement qu’ils l’avoient trouvée, & qu’on la leur avoit enseignée. Dans ces anciens tems le Philosophe & le Théologien, le Législateur & le Poëte, étoient tous réunis dans la même personne: il n’y avoit ni diversité de sectes, ni succession d’écoles: toutes ces choses sont des inventions Greques § (…) Le plus beau principe de la Physique des Grecs eut deux auteurs, Démocrite & Séneque: le principe le plus vicieux de leur Métaphysique eut de même deux auteurs, Phérécide le Syrien, & Thalès le Milésien, Philosophes contemporains. § Phérécide le Syrien, dit Cicéron, fut le premier qui soûtint que les ames des hommes étoient sempiternelles; opinion que Pythagore son disciple accrédita beaucoup. § Quelques personnes, dit Diogene Laërce, prétendent que Thalès fut le premier qui soûtint que les ames des hommes étoient sempiternelles. Thalès, dit encore Plutarque, fut le premier qui enseigna que l’ame est une nature éternellement mouvante, ou se mouvant par elle-même.” “l’immortalité de l’ame étoit une chose que l’on avoit crue de tout tems? Homere l’enseigne, Hérodote rapporte que les Égyptiens l’avoient enseignée depuis les tems les plus reculés: c’est sur cette opinion qu’étoit fondée la pratique si ancienne de déifier les morts.”

O CÍRCULO CONTRA O TRIÂNGULO: “Suidas nous dit que Phérécide n’eut de maître que lui-même.” E eu digo que sou deus. “Le grand secret des mystères & le premier des mysteres qui furent inventés en Égypte, consistoit dans le dogme de l’unité de Dieu: c’étoit-là le mystère que l’on apprenoit aux Rois, aux Magistrats & à un petit nombre chois d’hommes sages & vertueux; & en cela même cette pratique avoit pour objet l’utilité de la société. (…) tout est Dieu: ce qui les a entraînés dans toutes les erreurs & les absurdités de notre spinosisme. Les Orientaux d’aujourd’hui ont aussi tiré originairement leur réligion d’Égypte, quoiqu’elle soit infectée du spinosisme le plus grossier: mais ils ne sont tombés dans cet égarement que par le laps de tems, & par l’effet d’une spéculation rafinée, nullement originaire d’Égypte. Ils en ont contracté le goût par la communication des Arabes-Mahométans, grands partisans de la Philosophie des Grecs, & en particulier de leur opinion sur la nature de l’ame.

Anima velut surculus quidam ex matrice Adami in propaginem deducta, & genitalibus semine foveis commodata. Pullulabit tam intellectu quam & sensu.” Tertullien

M. Leibnitz a sur l’origine des ames un sentiment qui lui est particulier. Le voici: il croit que les ames ne sauroient commencer que par la création, ni finir que par l’annihilation; & comme la formation des corps organiques animés ne lui paroit explicable dans l’ordre, que lorsqu’on suppose une préformation déjà organique; il en infere que ce que nous appellons génération d’un animal, n’est qu’une transformation & augmentation: ainsi puisque le même corps étoit déjà organisé, il est à croire, ajoûte-t-il, qu’il étoit déjà animé, & qu’il avoit la même ame.”

Encore aujourd’hui il y a peu d’hommes en Orient qui aient une connoissance parfaite de la spiritualité.”

PERSEGUIÇÃO INTELECTUAL: “Spinosa ayant une fois posé pour principe qu’il n’y a qu’une substance dans l’univers, s’est vû forcé par la suite de ses principes à détruire la spiritualité de l’ame. Il ne trouve entre elle & le corps d’autre différence que celle qu’y mettent les modifications diverses, modifications qui sortent néanmoins d’une même source, & possedent un même sujet. Comme il est un de ceux qui paroît avoir le plus étudié cette matiere, qu’il me soit permis de donner ici un précis de son système & des raisons sur lesquelles il prétend l’appuyer. Ce Philosophe prétend donc qu’il y a une ame universelle répandue dans toute la matiere, & surtout dans l’air, de laquelle toutes les ames particulieres sont tirées; que cette ame universélle est composée d’une matiere déliée & propre au mouvement, telle qu’est celle du feu; que cette matiere est toûjours prête à s’unir aux sujets disposés à recevoir la vie, comme la matiere de la flamme est prête à s’attacher aux choses combustibles qui sont dans la disposition d’être embrasées.” “Ainsi les corps ne sont que des modifications qui peuvent exister ou non exister sans faire aucun tort à la substance; ils caractérisent & déterminent la matiere ou la substance, à peu près comme les passions caractérisent & déterminent un homme indifférent à être mû ou à rester tranquille. En conséquence, la matiere n’est ni corporelle ni incorporelle; sans doute, parce qu’il n’y a qu’une seule substance dans l’univers, corporelle en ce qui est corps, incorporelle en ce qui ne l’est point. (…) Aussi Pythagore & Platon conviennent-ils l’un & l’autre, que Dieu existoit avant qu’il y eût des corps, mais non avant qu’il y eût de la matiere, l’idée de la matiere ne demandant point l’existence actuelle du corps.” “Mais si par substance Spinosa entend une substance idéale métaphysique & arbitraire, il ne dit rien; car ce qu’il dit ne signifie autre chose, sinon qu’il ne peut y avoir dans l’univers deux essences différentes qui aient une même essence? Qui en doute? C’est à la faveur d’une équivoque aussi grossiere qu’il soûtient qu’il n’y a qu’une seule substance dans l’univers.”

Ce seroit une extravagance de dire que l’esprit de l’homme fût un point mathématique, puisque le point mathématique n’existe que dans l’imagination. Ce n’est pas aussi un point physique ou un atome. Outre qu’un atome indivisible répugne par lui-même, cette ridicule pensée n’est jamais tombée dans l’esprit d’aucun homme, non pas même d’aucun Épicurien.”

Spinosa pose comme un principe de sa Philosophie, que l’esprit n’a aucune faculté de penser ni de vouloir: mais seulement il avoüe qu’il a telle ou telle pensée, telle ou telle volonté. Ainsi par l’entendement, il n’entend autre chose que les idées actuelles qui surviennent à l’homme. Il faut avoir un grand penchant à adopter l’absurdité, pour recevoir une philosophie si ridicule.” APENAS CHAUVINISMO: “Cet absurde système a été embrassé par Hobbes: écoutons-le expliquer la nature & l’origine des sensations.”

PRÉ-SAUSSUREANOS: “quand on entend dire Dieu, l’Arabe reçoit le même mouvement d’air à la prononciation de ce mot François; le tympan de son oreille, les petits os qu’on nomme l’enclume & le marteau, reçoivent de ce mouvement d’air la même secousse & le même tremblement qui se fait dans l’oreille & dans la tête d’une personne qui entend le François. Par conséquent tous ces petits corps qu’on suppose composer l’esprit humain, sont remués de la même maniere, & reçoivent les mêmes impressions dans la tête d’un Arabe que dans celle d’un François; par conséquent encore un Arabe attacheroit au mot de Dieu la même idée que le François, parce que les petits corps subtils & agités qui composent l’esprit humain, selon Epicure & les Athées, ne sont pas d’une autre nature chez les Arabes que chez les François. Pourquoi donc l’esprit de l’Arabe ne se forme-t-il à la prononciation du mot Dieu aucune autre idée que celle d’un son, & que l’esprit d’un François joint à l’idée de ce son celle d’un être tout parfait, Créateur du ciel & de la terre? Voici un détroit pour les Athées & pour ceux qui nient la spiritualité de l’ame, d’où ils ne pourront se tirer, puisque jamais ils ne pourront rendre raison de cette différence qui se rencontre entre l’esprit de l’Arabe & celui du François. § (…) comme l’Arabe qui ne sait pas la langue Françoise ignore cette convention, il ne reçoit que la seule idée du son, sans y en joindre aucune autre. Cette vérité est constante, & il n’en faut pas davantage pour détruire les principes d’Epicure, d’Hobbes, & de Spinosa; car je voudrois bien savoir quelle seroit la partie contractante dans cette convention; à ce mot Dieu, je joindrai l’idée d’un être tout parfait; ce ne sera pas ce corps sensible & palpable, chacun en convient; ce ne sera pas aussi cet amas de corps subtils & agités, qui sont l’esprit humain, selon le sentiment de ces Philosophes, parce que ces esprits reçoivent toutes les impressions de l’objet, sans pouvoir rien faire au-delà: or ces impressions étoient les mêmes, & parfaitement semblables, lorsque l’Arabe entendoit prononcer ce mot Dieu, sans savoir pourtant ce qu’il signifioit. Il faut donc nécessairement qu’il y ait quelqu’autre cause que ces petits corps avec laquelle on convienne qu’à ce mot Dieu l’ame se représentera l’être tout parfait, de la même maniere qu’on peut convenir avec le Gouverneur d’une place assiégée, qu’à la décharge de 20 ou 30 volées de canon, il doit assûrer les habitans qu’ils seront bien-tôt secourus.”

1e. quand on a les yeux ouverts, en pensant fortement à quelque chose, il arrive très-souvent qu’on n’apperçoit pas les objets qui sont devant soi, quoiqu’ils envoyent à nos yeux les mêmes especes & les mêmes rayons, que lorsqu’on y fait plus d’attention. De sorte qu’outre tout ce qui se passe dans l’oeil & dans le cerveau, il faut qu’il y ait encore quelque chose qui considere & qui examine ces impressions de l’objet, pour le voir & pour le connoître.”

Precursores de uma longa discussão que não leva a nada: “Le néant, le pur néant, quoiqu’il ne puisse produire aucune impression, parce qu’il ne peut agir, ne laisse pas d’être l’objet de la pensée, de même que ce qui existe. L’esprit, par sa propre vertu & par la faculté qu’il a de penser, tire le néant de l’abysme pour le confronter avec l’être, & pour reconnoître que ces deux idées du néant & de l’étre se détruisent réciproquement.”

la question de la matérialité de l’ame, portée au tribunal de la raison, sera décidée en faveur de M. Locke.”

La question de l’immortalité de l’ame est nécessairement liée avec la spiritualité de l’ame. Nous ne connoissons de destruction que par l’altération ou la séparation des parties d’un tout; or nous ne voyons point de parties dans l’ame: bien plus nous voyons positivement que c’est une substance parfaitement une & qui n’a point de parties. Pherécide le Syrien est le premier qui au rapport de Cicéron & de S. Augustin, répandit dans la Grèce le dogme de l’immortalité de l’ame. Mais ni l’un ni l’autre ne nous détaillent les preuves dont il se servoit, & de quelles preuves pouvoit se servir un Philosophe qui, quoique rempli de bon sens, confondoit les substances spirituelles avec les matérielles, ce qui est esprit avec ce qui est corps. On sait seulement que Pythagore n’entendit point parler de ce dogme dans tous les voyages qu’il fit en Égypte & en Assyrie, & qu’il le reçut de Phérécide, touché principalement de ce qu’il avoit de neuf & d’extraordinaire. L’Orateur Romain ajoûte que Platon étant venu en Italie pour converser avec les disciples de Pythagore approuva tout ce qu’ils disoient de l’immortalité de l’ame, & en donna même une sorte de démonstration qui fut alors très applaudie: mais il faut avoüer que rien n’est plus frêle que cette démonstration, & qu’elle part d’un principe suspect. En effet, pour connoître quelle espece d’immortalité il attribuoit à l’ame, il ne faut que considérer la nature des argumens qu’il emploie pour la prouver. Les argumens qui lui sont particuliers & pour lesquels il est si fameux ne sont que des argumens métaphysiques tirés de la nature & des qualités de l’ame, & qui par conséquent ne prouvent que sa permanence, & certainement il la croyoit; mais il y a de la différence entre la permanence de l’ame pure & simple, & la permanence de l’ame accompagnée de châtimens & de récompenses. Les preuves morales sont les seules qui puissent prouver un état futur & proprement nommé de peines & de récompenses. Or Platon, loin d’insister sur ce genre de preuves, n’en allegue point d’autres, comme on peut le voir dans le douzieme livre de ses lois, que l’autorité de la tradition & de la religion. Je tiens tout cela pour vrai, dit-il, parce que je l’ai oüi dire. Par là il fait assez voir qu’il en abandonne la vérité, & qu’il n’en réclame que l’inutilité. 2e. L’opinion de Platon sur la métempsycose a donné lieu de le regarder comme le plus grand défenseur des peines & des récompenses d’une autre vie. A l’opinion de Pythagore qui croyoit la transmigration des ames purement naturelle & nécessaire, il ajoûta que cette transmigration étoit destinée à purifier les ames qui ne pouvoient point à cause des souillures qu’elles avoient contractées ici bas, remonter au lieu d’où elles étoient descendues, ni se rejoindre à la substance universelle dont elles avoient été séparées; & que par conséquent les ames pures & sans tache ne subissoient point la métempsycose. Cette idée étoit aussi singuliere à Platon que la métempsycose physique l’étoit à Pythagore. Elle semble renfermer quelque sorte de dispensation morale que n’avoit point celle de son maître; & elle en différoit même en ce qu’elle n’y assujettissoit pas tout le monde sans distinction, ni pour un tems égal. Mais pour faire voir néanmoins combien ces deux Philosophes s’accordoient pour rejetter l’idée des peines & des récompenses d’une autre vie, il suffira de se rappeller ce que nous avons dit au commencement de cet article de leur sentiment sur l’origine de l’ame. Des gens qui étoient persuadés que l’ame n’étoit immortelle que parce qu’ils la croyoient une portion de la divinité elle-même, un être éternel, incréé aussi bien qu’incorruptible; des gens qui supposoient que l’ame, après un certain nombre de révolutions, se réunissoit à la substance universelle où elle étoit absorbée, confondue & privée de son existence propre & personnelle: ces gens-là, dis-je, ne croyoient pas sans doute l’ame immortelle dans le sens que nous le croyons: autant valoit-il pour les ames être absolument détruites & anéanties, que d’être ainsi englouties dans l’ame universelle, & d’être privées de tout sentiment propre & personnel. Or nous avons prouvé au commencement de cet article, que la réfusion de toutes les ames dans l’ame universelle étoit le dogme constant des 4 principales sectes de Philosophes qui florissoient dans la Grèce.”

qu’il y a trois juges dans les enfers: il parle du Styx, du Cocyte & de l’Achéron, &c. & il y insiste avec tant de force, que l’on peut & que l’on doit même croire qu’il a voulu persuader les lecteurs auxquels il avoit destiné les ouvrages où il en parle, comme le Phédon, le Gorgias, sa République, &c. Mais qui peut s’imaginer qu’il ait été lui-même persuadé de toutes ces idées chimériques? Si Platon, le plus subtil de tous les Philosophes, eût crû aux peines & aux récompenses d’une autre vie, il l’eût au moins laissé entrevoir comme il l’a fait à l’égard de l’éternité de l’ame, dont il étoit intimement persuadé; c’est ce qu’on voit dans son Epinomis, lorsqu’il parle de la condition de l’homme de bien après sa mort: « J’assûre, dit-il, très-fermement, en badinant comme sérieusement, que lorsque la mort terminera sa carrière, il sera à sa dissolution dépouillé des sens dont il avoit l’usage ici-bas; ce n’est qu’alors qu’il participera à une condition simple & unique; & sa diversité étant résolue dans l’unité, il sera heureux, sage & fortuné ». (…) n’est pas sans dessein que Platon est obscur dans ce passage. Comme il croyoit que l’ame se réunissoit finalement à la substance universelle & unique de la nature dont elle avoit été séparée, & qu’elle s’y confondoit, sans conserver une existence distincte, il est assez sensible que Platon insinue ici secrètement, que lorsqu’il badinoit, il enseignoit alors que l’homme de bien avoit dans l’autre vie une existence distincte, particulière, & personnellement heureuse, conformément à l’opinion populaire sur la vie future; mais que lorsqu’il parloit sérieusement, il ne croyoit pas que cette existence fût particulière & distincte: il croyoit au contraire que c’étoit une vie commune, sans aucune sensation personnelle, une résolution de l’ame dans la substance universelle. J’ajoûterai seulement ici, pour confirmer ce que je viens de dire, que Platon dans son Timée s’explique plus ouvertement, & qu’il y avoue que les tourmens des enfers sont des opinions fabuleuses.

En effet, les Anciens les plus éclairés ont regardé ce que ce Philosophe dit des peines & des récompenses d’une autre vie comme choses d’un genre exotérique, c’est-à-dire, comme des opinions destinées pour le peuple, & dont il ne croyoit rien lui-même. Lorsque Chrysippe, fameux Stoïcien, blâme Platon de s’être servi mal-à-propos des terreurs d’une vie future pour détourner les hommes de l’injustice, il suppose lui-même que Platon n’y ajoûtoit aucune foi; il ne le reprend pas d’avoir crû ces opinions, mais de s’être imaginé que ces terreurs puériles pouvoient être utiles au progrès de la vertu. Strabon fait voir qu’il est du même sentiment, lorsqu’en parlant des Brachmanes des Indes, il dit qu’ils ont à la manière de Platon, inventé des fables concernant l’immortalité de l’ame & le jugement futur. Celse avoue que ce que Platon dit d’un état futur & des demeures fortunées destinées à la vertu, n’est qu’une allégorie.

Aristote s’explique sans détour, & de la manière la plus dogmatique contre les peines & les récompenses d’une autre vie: « La mort, dit-il, est de toutes les choses la plus terrible, c’est la fin de notre existence; & après elle l’homme n’a ni bien à espérer, ni mal à craindre. »

Epictète, vrai Stoïcien s’il y en eut jamais, dit en parlant de la mort: « Vous n’allez point dans un lieu de peines: vous retournez à la source dont vous êtes sortis, à une douce réunion avec vos élémens primitifs; il n’y a ni enfer, ni Achéron, ni Cocyte, ni Phlégéton. ». Séneque dans sa consolation à Marcia, fille du fameux Stoïcien Crémutius Cordus, reconnoît & avoue les mêmes principes avec aussi peu de tour qu’Epictète: « Songez que les morts ne ressentent aucun mal; la terreur des enfers est une fable; les morts n’ont à craindre ni ténebres, ni prison, ni torrent de feu, ni fleuve d’oubli; il n’y a après la mort ni tribunaux, ni coupables, il regne une liberté vague sans tyrans. Les Poëtes donnant carriere à leur imagination, ont voulu nous épouvanter par de vaines frayeurs: mais la mort est la fin de toute douleur, le terme de tous les maux; elle nous remet dans la même tranquillité où nous étions avant que de naître ».”

Les Newtoniens peuvent-ils supposer que l’attraction soit une cause réelle, quand même il ne surviendroit jamais aucun phénomene qui ne suivît la loi inverse du quarré des distances?”

Falando assim até parece fácil: “Mais de quelque manière que l’on conçoive ce qui pense en nous, il est constant que les fonctions en sont dépendantes de l’organisation, & de l’état actuel de notre corps pendant que nous vivons. Cette dépendance mutuelle du corps & de ce qui pense dans l’homme, est ce qu’on appelle l’union du corps avec l’ame; union que la saine Philosophie & la révélation nous apprennent être uniquement l’effet de la volonté libre du Créateur. Du moins n’avons-nous nulle idée immédiate de dépendance, d’union, ni de rapport entre ces deux choses, corps & pensée. Cette union est donc un fait que nous ne pouvons révoquer en doute, mais dont les détails nous sont absolument inconnus.”

On a des expériences de destruction d’autres parties du cerveau, telles que les nates & testes, sans que les fonctions de l’ame aient été détruites. Il en faut dire autant des corps cannelés; c’est M. Petit qui a chassé l’ame des corps cannelés, malgré leur structure singulière. Où est donc le sensorium commune? où est cette partie, dont la blessure ou la destruction emporte nécessairement la cessation ou l’interruption des fonctions spirituelles, tandis que les autres parties peuvent être altérées ou détruites, sans que le sujet cesse de raisonner ou de sentir? M. de la Peyronie fait passer en revûe toutes les parties du cerveau, excepté le corps calleux; & il leur donne l’exclusion par une foule de maladies très-marquées & très-dangereuses qui les ont attaquées, sans interrompre les fonctions de l’ame: c’est donc, selon lui, le corps calleux qui est le lieu du cerveau qu’habite l’ame. Oui, c’est selon M. de la Peyronie, le corps calleux qui est ce siége de l’ame, qu’entre les Philosophes les uns ont supposé être partout, & que les autres ont cherché en tant d’endroits particuliers” “Voilà donc l’ame installée dans le corps calleux, jusqu’à ce qu’il survienne quelqu’expérience qui l’en déplace, & qui réduise les Physiologistes dans le cas de ne savoir plus où la mettre. En attendant, considérons combien ses fonctions tiennent à peu de chose; une fibre dérangée; une goutte de sang extravasé; une légere inflammation; une chûte; une contusion: & adieu le jugement, la raison, & toute cette pénétration dont les hommes sont si vains: toute cette vanité dépend d’un filet bien ou mal placé, sain ou mal sain.”

La nature des alimens influe tellement sur la constitution du corps, & cette constitution sur les fonctions de l’ame, que cette seule réflexion seroit bien capable d’effrayer les mères qui donnent leurs enfans à nourrir à des inconnues.”

A HISTORINHA DA BOA CRENTE: “Une jeune fille que ses dispositions naturelles, ou la sévérité de l’éducation, avoit jettée dans une dévotion outrée, tomba dans une espece de mélancholie religieuse. La crainte mal raisonnée qu’on lui avoit inspirée du souverain-Être, avoit rempli son esprit d’idées noires; & la suppression de ses règles fut une suite de la terreur & des alarmes habituelles dans lesquelles elle vivoit. L’on employa inutilement contre cet accident es emmenagogues les plus efficaces & les mieux choisis [plantas aplicadas na pélvis para estimular o sangramento no útero]; la suppression dura; elle occasionna des effets si fâcheux, que la vie devint bientôt insupportable à la jeune malade; & elle étoit dans cet état, lorsqu’elle eut le bonheur de faire connoissance avec un Ecclésiatique d’un caractere doux & liant, & d’un esprit raisonnable, qui, partie par la douceur de sa conversation, partie par la force de ses raisons, vint à bout de bannir les frayeurs dont elle étoit obsédée, à la réconcilier avec la vie, & à lui donner des idées plus saines de la Divinité; & à peine l’esprit fut-il guéri, que la suppression cessa, que l’embonpoint revint, & que la malade joüit d’une très-bonne santé, quoique sa manière de vivre fût exactement la même dans les deux états opposés. Mais, comme l’esprit n’est pas moins sujet à des rechûtes que le corps, cette fille étant retombée dans ses premieres frayeurs superstitieuses, son corps retomba dans le même dérangement, & la maladie fut accompagnée des mêmes symptomes qu’auparavant. L’Écclésiastique suivit, pour la tirer de-là, la même voie qu’il avoit employée; elle lui réussit, les règles reparurent, & la santé revint. Pendant quelques années, la vie de cette jeune personne fut une alternative de superstition & de maladie, de religion & de santé. Quand la superstition dominoit, les règles cessoient, & la santé disparoissoit; lorsque la religion & le bon sens reprenoient le dessus, les humeurs suivoient leur cours ordinaire, & la santé revenoit.”

O MÚSICO AFICIONADO: “La fièvre & le délire étoient toûjours suspendus pendant les concerts, & la Musique étoit devenue si nécessaire au malade, que la nuit il faisoit chanter & même danser une parente qui le veilloit, & à qui son affliction ne permettoit guère d’avoir pour son malade la complaisance qu’il en exigeoit. Une nuit entr’autres qu’il n’avoit auprès de lui que sa garde, qui ne savoit qu’un misérable vaudeville, il fut obligé de s’en contenter, & en ressentit quelques effets. Enfin 10 jours de Musique le guérirent entierement, sans autre secours qu’une saignée du pié, qui fut la seconde qu’on lui fit, & qui fut suivie d’une grande évacuation.” The discmanman. “Il n’y a pas d’apparence qu’un Peintre pût être guéri de même par des tableaux; la Peinture n’a pas le même pouvoir sur les esprits, & elle ne porteroit pas la même impression à l’ame.” Sessões continuadas de recitação de poemas e muito thrash metal inoculado diretamente na veia…

ÂME des Bêtes (Métaph.). “La question qui concerne l’ame des bêtes étoit un sujet assez digne d’inquiéter les anciens Philosophes; il ne paroît pourtant pas qu’ils se soient fort tourmentés sur cette matiere, ni que partagés entr’eux sur tant de points différens, ils se soient fait de la nature de cette ame un prétexte de querelle. Ils ont tous donné dans l’opinion commune, que les brutes sentent & connoissent, attribuant seulement à ce principe de connoissance plus ou moins de dignité, plus ou moins de conformité avec l’ame humaine; & peut-être, se contentant d’envelopper diversement, sous les savantes ténebres de leur style énigmatique, ce préjugé grossier, mais trop naturel aux hommes, que la matiere est capable de penser. Mais quand les Philosophes anciens ont laissé en paix certains préjugés populaires, les modernes y signalent leur hardiesse [neste contexto, provavelmente afobação cairia bem]. Descartes suivi d’un parti nombreux, est le premier Philosophe qui ait osé traiter les bêtes de pures machines [e é incrível como esta reificação do universo era tratada como um avanço nos últimos esplendores do Progressismo, neste século tão secular! O quanto não devemos voltar a beber dos gregos e glorificar neo-filósofos que humanizem as coisas, hoje em dia, desintoxicando nossa NÃO-ALMA desta bobajada mecanicista toda!]: car à peine Gomesius Pereira, qui le dit quelque tems avant lui, mérite-t’il qu’on parle ici de lui; puisqu’il tomba dans cette hypothèse par un pur hasard, & que selon la judicieuse réflexion de M. Bayle, il n’avoit point tiré cette opinion de ses véritables principes. Aussi ne lui fit-on l’honneur ni de la redouter, ni de la suivre, pas même de s’en souvenir; & ce qui peut arriver de plus triste à un novateur, il ne fit point de secte.”

Peter Bayle – The Dictionary Historical and Critical [já baixado] (orig. 1737 – 2ª edição crítica de Des Maizeaux – 4º tomo, letras M-R) (dicionário muito bem-detalhado de personalidades). A seguir, trechos: “If it be a strange doctrine we ought not to wonder at it; for of all physical objects, none is more abstruse and perplexing than the souls of beasts.” O que começou mal, termina mal. O homem, ao se inventar a alma, pensa primeiro na sua. Depois, quimera das quimeras, inventa uma alma para os bichos. Se ainda não decidiu o quão espiritualizada é a natureza e o quão coisa é ou está ele mesmo, que homem poderia acertar o palpite sobre os animais, remexendo e atiçando ígneos híbridos com vara curtíssima? Um coelho alucinado não é menos humano que um homem dormindo.

Seek the clown Descartes in thyself!

Todos nós somos de origem obscura (uterina). África-mãe-nação.

INTRANSIGENTE: Desde que me entendo por em transe, gente!

On peut observer en passant que la Philosophie de Descartes, quoiqu’en aient pû dire ses envieux, tendoit toute à l’avantage de la religion” Papagaiam isso o tempo inteiro.

Heureusement depuis Descartes, on s’est apperçû d’un troisieme parti qu’il y avoit à prendre; & c’est depuis ce tems que le ridicule du système des automates s’est développé. On en a l’obligation aux idées plus justes qu’on s’est faites, depuis quelque tems, du monde intellectuel. On a compris que ce monde doit être beaucoup plus étendu qu’on ne croyoit, & qu’il renferme bien d’autres habitans que les Anges, & les ames humaines; ample ressource pour les Physiciens, partout où le méchanisme demeure court, en particulier quand il s’agit d’expliquer les mouvemens des brutes.”

Un musicien, un joüeur de luth, un danseur, exécutent les mouvemens les plus variés & les plus ordonnés tout ensemble, d’une maniere très-exacte, sans faire la moindre attention à chacun de ces mouvemens en particulier: il n’intervient qu’un seul acte de la volonté, par où il se détermine à chanter, ou joüer un tel air, & donne le premier branle aux esprits animaux; tout le reste suit régulierement sans qu’il y pense.” Eu, AnimaRobô

Rien ne donne une plus juste idée des automates Cartésiens, que la comparaison employée par M. Regis, de quelques machines hydrauliques que l’on voit dans les grottes & dans les fontaines de certaines maisons des Grands, où la seule force de l’eau déterminée par la disposition des tuyaux, & par quelque pression extérieure, remue diverses machines. Il compare les tuyaux des fontaines aux nerfs; les muscles, les tendons, &c. sont les autres ressorts qui appartiennent à la machine; les esprits sont l’eau qui les remue; le coeur est comme la source; & les cavités du cerveau sont les regards. Les objets extérieurs, qui par leur présence agissent sur les organes des sens des bêtes, sont comme les étrangers qui entrant dans la grotte, selon qu’ils mettent le pié sur certains carreaux disposés pour cela, font remuer certaines figures; s’ils s’approchent d’une Diane, elle fuit & se plonge dans la fontaine; s’ils avancent davantage, un Neptune s’approche, & vient les menacer avec son trident. On peut encore comparer les bêtes dans ce système, à ces orgues qui joüent différens airs, par le seul mouvement des eaux: il y aura de même, disent les Cartésiens, une organisation particuliere dans les bêtes, que le Créateur y aura produite, & qu’il aura diversement réglée dans les diverses especes d’animaux, mais toûjours proportionnément aux objets, toûjours par rapport au grand but de la conservation de l’individu & de l’espece.

On sait jusqu’où est allée l’industrie des hommes dans certaines machines: leurs effets sont inconcevables, & paroissent tenir du miracle dans l’esprit de ceux qui ne sont pas versés dans la méchanique. Rassemblez ici toutes les merveilles dont vous ayez jamais oüi parler en ce genre, des statues qui marchent, des mouches artificielles qui volent & qui bourdonnent; des araignées de même fabrique qui filent leur toile; des oiseaux qui chantent; une tête d’or qui parle; un Pan qui joue de la flûte: on n’auroit jamais fait l’énumération, même à s’en tenir aux généralités de chaque espece, de toutes ces inventions de l’art qui copie si agréablement la nature. Les ouvrages célebres de Vulcain, ces trépiés qui se promenoient d’eux-mêmes dans l’assemblée des Dieux; ces esclaves d’or, qui sembloient avoir appris l’art de leur maître, qui travailloient auprès de lui, sont une sorte de merveilleux qui ne passe point la vraissemblance; & les Dieux qui l’admiroient si fort, avoient moins de lumieres apparemment que les Méchaniciens de nos jours. Voici donc comme nos Philosophes Cartésiens raisonnent. Réunissez tout l’art & tous les mouvemens surprenans de ces différentes machines dans une seule, ce ne sera encore que l’art humain (…) le corps de l’animal est incontestablement une machine composée de ressorts infiniment plus déliés que ne seroient ceux de la machine artificielle” BioTech is GodZilla

Si les bêtes sont de pures machines, Dieu nous trompe; cet argument est le coup fatal à l’hypothese des machines.”

Esplêndida reviravolta: ”Avoüons-le d’abord; si Dieu peut faire une machine, qui par la seule disposition de ses ressorts exécute toutes les actions surprenantes que l’on admire dans un chien ou dans un singe, il peut former d’autres machines qui imiteront parfaitement toutes les actions des hommes: l’un & l’autre est également possible à Dieu; & il n’y aura dans ce dernier cas qu’une plus grande dépense d’art; une organisation plus fine, plus de ressorts combinés, seront toute la différence. Dieu dans son entendement infini renfermant les idées de toutes les combinaisons, de tous les rapports possibles de figures, d’impressions & de déterminations de mouvement, & son pouvoir égalant son intelligence, il paroît clair qu’il n’y a de différence dans ces deux suppositions, que celle des degrés du plus & du moins, qui ne changent rien dans le pays des possibilités. Je ne vois pas par où les Cartésiens peuvent échapper à cette conséquence, & quelles disparités essentielles ils peuvent trouver entre le cas du méchanisme des bêtes qu’ils défendent, & le cas imaginaire qui transformeroit tous les hommes en automates, & qui réduiroit un Cartésien à n’être pas bien sûr qu’il y ait d’autres intelligences au monde que Dieu & son propre esprit.”

Vous Cartésien, m’alléguez l’idée vague d’un méchanisme possible, mais inconnu & inexplicable pour vous & pour moi: voilà, dites-vous, la source des phénomenes que vous offrent les bêtes. Et moi j’ai l’idée claire d’une autre cause; j’ai l’idée d’un principe sensitif: je vois que ce principe a des rapports très-distincts avec tous les phénomenes en question, & qu’il explique & réunit universellement tous ces phénomenes. Je vois que mon ame en qualité de principe sensitif, produit mille actions & remue mon corps en mille manieres, toutes pareilles à celles dont les bêtes remuent le leur dans des circonstances semblables. Posez un tel principe dans les bêtes, je vois la raison & la cause de tous les mouvemens qu’elles font pour la conservation de leur machine: je vois pourquoi le chien retire sa patte quand le feu le brûle; pourquoi il crie quand on le frappe, &c. ôtez ce principe, je n’apperçois plus de raison, ni de cause unique & simple de tout cela. J’en conclus qu’il y a dans les bêtes un principe de sentiment, puisque Dieu n’est point trompeur, & qu’il seroit trompeur au cas que les bêtes fussent de pures machines; puisqu’il me représenteroit une multitude de phénomenes, d’où résulte nécessairement dans mon esprit l’idée d’une cause qui ne seroit point: donc les raisons qui nous montrent directement l’existence d’une ame intelligente dans chaque homme, nous assûrent aussi celle d’un principe immatériel dans les bêtes.”

pourquoi ces yeux, ces oreilles, ces narines, ce cerveau? c’est, dites-vous, afin de régler les mouvemens de l’automate sur les impressions diverses des corps extérieurs: le but de tout cela, c’est la conservation même de la machine. Mais encore, je vous prie, à quoi bon dans l’univers des machines qui se conservent elles-mêmes? (…) Nierez-vous que les différentes parties du corps animal soient faites par le Créateur pour l’usage que l’expérience indique? Si vous le niez, vous donnez gain de cause aux athées.” “Cette machine doit être faite pour quelque fin distincte d’elle; car elle n’est point pour elle-même, non plus que les roues de l’horloge ne sont point faites pour l’horloge.”

qui nous empêcheroit de supposer dans l’échelle des intelligences, au-dessous de l’ame humaine, une espece d’esprit plus borné qu’elle, & qui ne lui ressembleroit pourtant que par la faculté de sentir; un esprit qui n’auroit que cette faculté sans avoir l’autre, qui ne seroit capable que d’idées indistinctes, ou de perceptions confuses? Cet esprit ayant des bornes beaucoup plus étroites que l’ame humaine, en sera essentiellement ou spécifiquement distinct.”

Si l’ame des bêtes est immatérielle, dit-on, si c’est un esprit comme notre hypothèse le suppose, elle est donc immortelle, & vous devez nécessairement lui accorder le privilége de l’immortalité, comme un apanage inséparable de la spiritualité de sa nature. Soit que vous admettiez cette conséquence, soit que vous preniez le parti de la nier, vous vous jettez dans un terrible embarras. L’immortalité de l’ame des bêtes est une opinion trop choquante & trop ridicule aux yeux de la raison même, quand elle ne seroit pas proscrite par une autorité supérieure, pour l’oser soûtenir sérieusement. Vous voilà donc réduit à nier la conséquence, & à soûtenir que tout être immatériel n’est pas immortel: mais dès lors vous anéantissez une des plus grandes preuves que la raison fournisse pour l’immortalité de l’ame. Voici comme l’on a coûtume de prouver ce dogme: l’ame ne meurt pas avec le corps, parce qu’elle n’est pas corps, parce qu’elle n’est pas divisible comme lui, parce qu’elle n’est pas un tout tel que le corps humain, qui puisse périr par le dérangement ou la séparation des parties qui le composent. Cet argument n’est solide qu’au cas que le principe sur lequel il roule le soit aussi; savoir, que tout ce qui est immatériel est immortel, & qu’aucune substance n’est anéantie: mais ce principe sera réfuté par l’exemple des bêtes; donc la spiritualité de l’ame des bêtes ruine les preuves de l’immortalité de l’ame humaine.” Não acredito que depois de São Tomás de Aquino e suas enciclopédias escolásticas ainda haja tanto o que discutir!

Ainsi, quoique l’ame des bêtes soit spirituelle, & qu’elle meure avec le corps, cela n’obscurcit nullement le dogme de l’immortalité de nos ames, puisque ce sont là deux vérités de fait dont la certitude a pour fondement commun le témoignage divin. Ce n’est pas que la raison ne se joigne à la révélation pour établir l’immortalité de nos ames: mais elle tire ses preuves d’ailleurs que de la spiritualité.”

E qual é o problema de levar meu cãozinho para o paraíso comigo?

Si les brutes ne sont pas de pures machines, si elles sentent, si elles connoissent, elles sont susceptibles de la douleur comme du plaisir; elles sont sujettes à un déluge de maux, qu’elles souffrent sans qu’il y ait de leur faute, & sans l’avoir mérité, puisqu’elles sont innocentes, & qu’elles n’ont jamais violé l’ordre qu’elles ne connoissent point. Où est en ce cas la bonté, où est l’équité du Créateur? Où est la vérité de ce principe, qu’on doit regarder comme une loi éternelle de l’ordre? Sous un Dieu juste, on ne peut être misérable sans l’avoir mérité. Mais ce qu’il y a de pis dans leur condition, c’est qu’elles souffrent dans cette vie sans aucun dédommagement dans une autre, puisque leur ame meurt avec le corps; & c’est ce qui double la difficulté. Le Pere Malebranche a fort bien poussé cette objection dans sa défense contre les accusations de M. de la Ville. § Je répons d’abord que ce principe de S. Augustin, savoir, que sous un Dieu juste on ne peut être misérable sans l’avoir mérité n’est fait que pour les créatures raisonnables, & qu’on ne sauroit en faire qu’à elles seules d’application juste.”

Eu e meus apaniguados mereceríamos nós essa dorzinha de pedra nos rins ou de bexiga apertada?

que sous un Dieu bon aucune créature ne peut être nécessitée à souffrir sans l’avoir mérité: mais loin que ce principe soit évident, je crois être en droit de soûtenir qu’il est faux. L’ame des brutes est susceptible de sensations, & n’est susceptible que de cela: elle est donc capable d’être heureuse en quelque degré. (…) Qu’emporte donc la juste idée d’un Dieu bon? c’est que quand il agit il tende toûjours au bien, & produise un bien; c’est qu’il n’y ait aucune créature sortie de ses mains qui ne gagne à exister plûtôt que d’y perdre: or telle est la condition des bêtes; qui pourroit pénétrer leur intérieur, y trouveroit une compensation des douleurs & des plaisirs, qui tourneroit toute à la gloire de la bonté divine; on y verroit que dans celles qui souffrent inégalement, il y a proportion, inégalité, ou de plaisirs ou de durée; & que le degré de douleur qui pourroit rendre leur existence malheureuse, est précisément ce qui la détruit: en un mot, si l’on déduisoit la somme des maux, on trouveroit toûjours au bout du calcul un résidu de bienfaits purs, dont elles sont uniquement redevables à la bonté divine; on verroit que la sagesse divine a sû ménager les choses, en sorte que dans tout individu sensitif, le degré du mal qu’il souffre, sans lui enlever tout l’avantage de son existence, tourne d’ailleurs au profit de l’univers.” [Esse raciocínio seria genial se aplicado à enantiodromia do próprio ser humano – mas que falta de tato clássico!]

O gato não sabe que é charmoso e elegante, que inútil cega beleza, que não se aproveita! Poderia a mulher?… Poderia eu?… Pingos conscienciosos.

Est-il juste que l’ame d’un poulet souffre & meure afin que le corps de l’homme soit nourri? que l’ame du cheval endure mille peines & mille fatigues durant si long-tems, pour fournir à l’homme l’avantage de voyager commodément? Dans cette multitude d’ames qui s’anéantissent tous les jours pour les besoins passagers des corps vivans, peut-on reconnoître cette équitable & sage subordination qu’un Dieu bon & juste doit nécessairement observer? Je réponds à cela que l’argument seroit victorieux, si les ames des brutes se rapportoient aux corps & se terminoient à ce rapport; car certainement tout être spirituel est au-dessus de la matiere. Mais, remarquez-le bien, ce n’est point au corps, comme corps, que se termine l’usage que le Créateur tire de cette ame spirituelle, c’est au bonheur des êtres intelligens. Si le cheval me porte, & si le poulet me nourrit, ce sont bien là des effets qui le rapportent directement à mon corps: mais ils se terminent à mon ame, parce que mon ame seule en recueille l’utilité.”

Tudo isso pertence à Genealogia do Fascismo: “Pour l’anéantissement, ce n’est point un mal pour une créature qui ne refléchit point sur son existence, qui est incapable d’en prévoir la fin, & de comparer, pour ainsi dire, l’être avec le non-être, quoique pour elle l’existence soit un bien, parce qu’elle sent. La mort, à l’égard d’une ame sensitive, n’est que la soustraction d’un bien qui n’étoit pas dû [A Mosca Filosófica!]; ce n’est point un mal qui empoisonne les dons du Créateur & qui rende la créature malheureuse. Ainsi, quoique ces ames & ces vies innombrables que Dieu tire chaque jour du néant soient des preuves de la bonté divine, leur destruction journalière ne blesse point cet attribut: elles se rapportent au monde dont elles font partie; elles doivent servir à l’utilité des êtres qui le composent; il suffit que cette utilité n’exclue point la leur propre, & qu’elles soient heureuses en quelque mesure, en contribuant au bonheur d’autrui. Vous trouverez ce système plus développé & plus étendu dans le traité de l’essai philosophique sur l’ame des bêtes de M. Bouillet [Dispenso, obrigado.]”

Confrontando novamente o Ultra-existencialismo/solipsismo de uma alma antiga (2009): “Il n’est pas possible que les hommes avec qui je vis soient autant d’automates ou de perroquets instruits à mon insu. J’apperçois dans leur extérieur des tons & des mouvemens qui paroissent indiquer une ame: je vois régner un certain fil d’idées qui suppose la raison: je vois de la liaison dans les raisonnemens qu’ils me font, plus ou moins d’esprit dans les ouvrages qu’ils composent. Sur ces apparences ainsi rassemblées, je prononce hardiment qu’ils pensent en effet. Peut-tre que Dieu pourroit produire un automate en tout semblable au corps humain, lequel par les seules lois du méchanisme, parleroit, feroit des discours suivis, écriroit des livres très-bien raisonnés. Mais ce qui me rassûre contre toute erreur c’est la véracité de Dieu.” “Je vois un chien accourir quand je l’appelle, me caresser quand je le flatte, trembler & fuir quand je le menace, m’obéir quand je lui commande, & donner toutes les marques extérieures de divers sentimens de joie, de tristesse, de douleur, de crainte, de desir, des passions de l’amour & de la haine; je conclus aussitôt qu’un chien a dans lui-même un principe de connoissance & de sentiment, quel qu’il soit.”

Il vaudroit encore mieux s’en tenir aux machines de Descartes, si l’on n’avoit à leur opposer que la forme substantielle des Péripatéticiens, qui n’est ni esprit ni matiere. Cette substance mitoyenne est une chimere, un être de raison dont nous n’avons ni idée ni sentiment. Est-ce donc que les bêtes auroient une ame spirituelle comme l’homme? Mais si cela est ainsi, leur ame sera donc immortelle & libre; elles seront capables de mériter ou de démériter, dignes de récompense ou de châtiment; il leur faudra un paradis & un enfer. Les bêtes seront donc une espece d’hommes, ou les hommes une espece de bêtes; toutes conséquences insoûtenables dans les principes de la religion.” “puisqu’il est prouvé par plusieurs passages de l’Écriture, que les démons ne souffrent point encore les peines de l’enfer, & qu’ils n’y seront livrés qu’au jour du jugement dernier, quel meilleur usage la justice divine pouvoit-elle faire de tant de légions d’esprits réprouvés, que d’en faire servir une partie à animer des millions de bêtes de toute espece, lesquelles remplissent l’univers, & font admirer la sagesse & la toute-puissance du Créateur? (…) Une dégradation si honteuse pour ces esprits superbes, puisqu’elle les réduit à n’être que des bêtes, est pour eux un premier effet de la vengeance divine, qui n’attend que le dernier jour pour se déployer sur eux d’une maniere bien plus terrible.” “Les bêtes sont naturellement vicieuses: les bêtes carnacieres & les oiseaux de proie sont cruels; beaucoup d’insectes de la même espece se dévorent les uns les autres; les chats sont perfides & ingrats; les singes sont malfaisans; les chiens sont envieux; toutes sont jalouses & vindicatives à l’excès, sans parler de beaucoup d’autres vices que nous leur connoissons. Il faut dire de deux choses l’une: ou que Dieu a pris plaisir à former les bêtes aussi vicieuses qu’elles sont, & à nous donner dans elles des modeles de tout ce qu’il y a de plus honteux; ou qu’elles ont comme l’homme un péché d’origine qui a perverti leur premiere nature.” “Pythagore enseignoit autrefois, qu’au moment de notre mort nos ames passent dans un corps soit d’homme, soit de bête, pour recommencer une nouvelle vie, & toûjours ainsi successivement jusqu’à la fin des siecles. Ce système qui est insoûtenable par rapport aux hommes, & qui est d’ailleurs proscrit par la religion, convient admirablement bien aux bêtes, selon le P. Bougeant, & ne choque ni la religion, ni la raison. Les démons destinés de Dieu à être des bêtes, survivent nécessairement à leur corps, & cesseroient de remplir leur destination, si lorsque leur premier corps est détruit, ils ne passoient aussitôt dans un autre pour recommencer à vivre sous une autre forme.”

ConFABULANDO: “Si les bêtes ont de la connoissance & du sentiment, elles doivent conséquemment avoir entre-elles pour leurs besoins mutuels, un langage intelligible. La chose est possible, il ne faut qu’examiner si elle est nécessaire. Toutes les bêtes ont de la connoissance, c’est un principe avoüé; & nous ne voyons pas que l’Auteur de la nature ait pû leur donner cette connoissance pour d’autres fins que de les rendre capables de pourvoir à leurs besoins, à leur conservation, à tout ce qui leur est propre & convenable dans leur condition, & la forme de vie qu’il leur a prescrite. Ajoûtons à ce principe, que beaucoup d’especes de bêtes sont faites pour vivre en société, & les autres pour vivre du moins en ménage, pour ainsi dire, d’un mâle avec une femelle, & en famille avec leurs petits jusqu’à ce qu’ils soient élevés. Or, si l’on suppose qu’elles n’ont point entr’elles un langage, quel qu’il soit, pour s’entendre les unes les autres, on ne conçoit plus comment leur société pourroit subsister: comment les castors, par exemple, s’aideroient-ils les uns les autres pour se bâtir un domicile, s’ils n’avoient un langage très-net & aussi intelligible pour eux que nos langues le sont pour nous? (…) si la nature les a faites capables d’entendre une langue étrangere, comment leur auroit-elle refusé la faculté d’entendre & de parler une langue naturelle? car les bêtes nous parlent & nous entendent fort bien.” HAHA!

Une hirondelle ne fait pas le printemps.” Proverbe!

Quelque difficile qu’il soit d’expliquer leur langage & d’en donner le dictionnaire, le Père Bougeant a osé le tenter. Ce qu’on peut assurer, c’est que leur langage doit être fort borné, puisqu’il ne s’étend pas au-delà des besoins de la vie (…) Point d’idées abstraites par conséquent, point de raisonnemens métaphysiques, point de recherches curieuses sur tous les objets qui les environnent, point d’autre science que celle de se bien porter, de se bien conserver, d’éviter tout ce qui leur nuit, & de se procurer du bien. (…) Comme la chose qui les touche le plus est le desir de multiplier leur espece, ou du moins d’en prendre les moyens, toute leur conversation roule ordinairement sur ce point. On peut dire que le Pere Bougeant a décrit avec beaucoup de vivacité leurs amours, & que le dictionnaire qu’il donne de leurs phrases tendres & voluptueuses, vaut bien ce de l’Opéra. Voilà ce qui a révolté dans un Jésuite condamné par état à ne jamais abandonner son pinceau aux mains de l’amour. La galanterie n’est pardonnable dans un ouvrage philosophique, que lorsque l’Auteur de l’ouvrage est homme du monde; encore bien des personnes l’y trouvent-elles déplacée. En prétendant ne donner aux raisonnemens qu’un tour léger & propre à intéresser par une sorte de badinage, souvent on tombe dans le ridicule; & toûjours on cause du scandale, si l’on est d’un état qui ne permet pas à l’imagination de se livrer à ses saillies. Il paroît qu’on a censuré trop durement notre Jesuite sur ce qu’il dit, que les bêtes sont animées par des diables. Il est aise de voir qu’il n’a jamais regardé ce système que comme une imagination bisarre & presque folle. Le titre d’amusement [Amusement philosophique] qu’il donne à son livre, & les plaisanteries dont il l’égaye, font assez voir qu’il ne le croyoit pas appuyé sur des fondemens assez solides pour opérer une vraie persuasion.”

Âme des Plantes (Jardinage.) Les Physiciens ont toûjours été peu d’accord sur le lieu où réside l’ame des plantes; les uns la placent dans la plante, ou dans la graine avant d’être semée; les autres dans les pepins ou dans le noyau des fruits.” Haverá briófitas no Céu? Coitada da planta, está sobrevivendo em estado vegetativo somente!

on restraint à l’homme, comme à l’être le plus parfait, les trois qualités de l’ame, savoir de végétative, de sensitive, & de raisonnable.”

Âme de Saturne. Ame de Saturne, anima Saturni, selon quelques Alchimistes, est la partie du plomb la plus parfaite, qui tend à la perfection des métaux parfaits; laquelle partie est selon quelques-uns, la partie teignante [? – régnante?].”

A REPÚBLICA – Livro IV

Tradução de trechos de “PLATÓN. Obras Completas (trad. espanhola do grego por Patricio de Azcárate, 1875), Ed. Epicureum (digital)”.

Além da tradução ao Português, providenciei notas de rodapé, numeradas, onde achei que devia tentar esclarecer alguns pontos polêmicos ou obscuros demais quando se tratar de leitor não-familiarizado com a obra platônica. Quando a nota for de Azcárate, haverá um (*) antecedendo as aspas.

“Sim. E acrescenta que sua remuneração consiste apenas na alimentação, que não recebem como os demais e, portanto, não podem nem viajar por conta própria nem presentear as libertinas, nem dispor de nada que seja a seu gosto, como fazem os felizes presumidos.”

“Se nos ocupássemos em pintar estátuas e alguém nos objetasse que não empregávamos as mais belas cores para pintar as mais belas partes do corpo, por exemplo, que não pintávamos os olhos de vermelho, mas de preto, creríamos responder cordialmente a este censor dizendo-lhe: não imagines surpreendente, homem, que houvéssemos de pintar os olhos tão belos que deixassem de ser olhos, e aquilo que digo desta parte do corpo deve-se estender a todas as outras, sendo que o que deves examinar é se damos a cada parte a cor que lhe convém, a fim de chegarmos a um conjunto perfeito.

“- Mas Adimanto, um lutador exercitado ao máximo em seu ofício não venceria facilmente dois adversários que não dominam o pugilato, ricos e obesos?

– Talvez não, caso tivesse de lutar com ambos ao mesmo tempo.

– O quê! Se tivesse a possibilidade de fugir e pudesse ferir, volvendo-se, ao que o seguisse mais de perto, e se empregasse muitas vezes essa estratégia à luz do sol e no meio do calor ardente, ser-lhe-ia difícil derrotar muitos, uns após os outros?!”

“- Portanto, ao que parece, nossos atletas se baterão sem dificuldade com um exército duas ou três vezes mais numeroso.

– Concordo, afinal de contas.

– E se pedissem socorro aos habitantes de um dos dois Estados vizinhos, dizendo-lhes o que é a verdade: nós não temos necessidade de ouro nem de prata, e nos está proibido tê-los; vinde em nosso socorro, que vos abandonaremos os despojos de nossos inimigos; crês tu que aqueles a quem se fizesse tal oferta prefeririam fazer a guerra a cães fracos e robustos a unir-se aos primeiros contra esse mesmo rebanho ou matilha gorda e tão delicada?”

Não há uma sociedade global: a República será apenas uma nata; grão de poeira num deserto de nações.

“- Assim ordenaremos nossos guardiães que atuam de uma maneira tal que o Estado não pareça grande nem pequeno, mas algo que deva permanecer num justo meio e sempre uno.

– Isso não é tão importante!”

“Em matéria de música, hão de estar mui prevenidos para não admitir nada, porque correm o risco de perder tudo, ou como disse Dámon,¹ e eu sou de sua opinião, não se pode alterar as regras da música sem comover as leis fundamentais do governo.”

¹ Foi o professor de Péricles na arte musical.

“os jovens devem estar calados diante dos anciãos, levantar-se quando estes se apresentam, ceder-lhes sempre o lugar de honra, respeitar os pais, conservar o modo de se vestir, de cortar o cabelo e de se calçar, todo o relativo ao cuidado com o corpo e outras mil coisas semelhantes” “Se bem que seria uma loucura fazer leis sobre tais coisas (…) nenhum legislador se rebaixou a semelhantes pormenores.”

“- Mas em nome dos deuses! Empreenderemos o formar regulamentos sobre o contrato de compra e venda, os convênios, os tratos sobre a mão-de-obra, os insultos, as violências, os processos, a nomeação dos juízes, a imposição ou supressão de direitos pela entrada ou saída de mercadorias por mar ou por terra e, numa palavra, sobre todo o relativo ao tráfico, à cidade e ao porto? Nos atreveremos a legislar sobre tudo isso?

– Não é necessário prescrever nada sobre isso aos homens de bem; eles encontraram por si mesmos e sem dificuldade os regulamentos que se fizerem necessários. (…) Caso contrário, passarão a vida redigindo, a cada dia, novos regulamentos sobre todos esses artigos, enxertá-los-ão fazendo correção sobre correção, imaginando-se sempre que assim conseguirão a perfeição.

– Isto é, sua conduta se parecerá com a daqueles doentes que, por intemperança, não querem renunciar a um gênero de vida que altera sua saúde.

– Justamente.

– A vida de tais doentes é decerto encantadora! Todos os remédios que tomam não fazem mais do que complicar e piorar sua doença e, no entanto, esperam sempre pela saúde a cada remédio que se lhes prescreve!

– É exatamente essa a sua condição.

– E não é ainda mais singular neles que aquele que consideram seu mais mortal inimigo seja quem delibera que se não pararem de comer e beber em excesso e de viver na libertinagem e na desídia de nada lhes servirá nenhum medicamento, cautério, cirurgia, encantamento ou amuleto?”

(*) “Os antigos criam que Delfos estava situada no centro do mundo.”

“Faz muito tempo, meu querido amigo, que, segundo parece, temos uma idéia diante de nós e não a desenvolvemos adequadamente. Merecemos que se ria de nós como dos que buscam o que já têm nas próprias mãos! Fixemos nossa vista longe, no lugar de olharmos apenas para perto, que é onde ela está. Quiçá seja esta a causa de ela se nos haver ocultado por tanto tempo!”

“Seria ridículo se esse caráter ardente e indômito atribuído a certas nações, como os trácios, citas e todos os povos do Norte em geral, ou esse espírito curioso e ávido de ciência que com razão se pode atribuir a nossa própria nação ou, enfim, esse espírito de interesse que caracteriza os fenícios e os egípcios, tivessem sua origem noutra parte que não nos particulares que compõem cada uma destas nações.”

“Leôncio, filho de Agláion, voltando um dia do Pireu, percebeu ao longe, ao longo da muralha setentrional, uns cadáveres estendidos perto do verdugo, e sentiu de repente um desejo violento de se aproximar para vê-los e um temor mesclado de aversão à vista de semelhante quadro. Mas logo resistiu e tapou a cara. Sucumbindo, porém e ao cabo, num terceiro instante, à violência de seu desejo, dirigiu-se aos cadáveres e, abrindo os olhos o quanto pôde, exclamou: <Ora então! Desgraçados, gozai amplamente de tão magnífico espetáculo!>.”

“Chegamos, enfim, ainda que com enormes dificuldades, a mostrar claramente que há na alma de cada homem as mesmas partes que no Estado, e em igual número.”

(*) “Há uma teoria de Hipócrates de que a saúde depende do equilíbrio de três líquidos no corpo: o sangue, a fleuma e a bile.”

“- Quero dizer que a alma tem tantas formas diferentes quanto o governo.

– Quantas?

– Cinco as do governo e cinco as da alma.

– Diga-me quais são!

– Então eu digo que a forma de governo que nós estabelecemos é una, mas que se lhe pode dar dois nomes. Se governa um só, dar-se-á ao governo o nome de monarquia; e se a autoridade se divide entre muitos se chamará aristocracia.

– Correto.

– Digo que aqui não há mais que uma só forma de governo; porque que o mando esteja em mãos de um só ou nas de muitos, isto não altera em nada as leis fundamentais do Estado, se os princípios das crianças e da educação que queremos forem rigorosamente observados.”

DEMILICH

QUANDO O SOL BEBEU O PESO DA ÁGUA

 

Guerra de elementos

Água contra Sol

O sol liderando a batalha da guerra

Que não acabará

 

Sugando o peso da água

Devolvendo sua fraqueza

Possuindo agora uma importante arma

O peso que falta às moléculas

 

A água se eleva ao céu

Pessoas flutuando enquanto o vento vai

As sementes do

Seu ódio nunca morrem

Tudo é tarde agora

A Terra vai embora

Tudo por causa da raiva do Sol

 

O DÉCIMO SEXTO DENTE-FILHO DE CATORZE DIMENSÕES DE QUATRO REGIÕES (AINDA INOMINADAS)

 

Você nasceu de

14 Dimensões Quadripartites

Seu sêmen e ovo deram sua vida de várias alterações

 

Você sabe que não existe nem deus nem Belial

Sua missão é mostrar que o único caminho é negação negação…

 

Todos os cristãos e satanistas que vê devem ser crucificados antes de fugirem

Você pode todas as almas

Você se nega, eles são tão tolos

Você sabe que não existe nem deus nem Belial

Sua missão é mostrar que o único caminho é negação

Ainda sem nome —

A REPÚBLICA – Livro III

Tradução de trechos de “PLATÓN. Obras Completas (trad. espanhola do grego por Patricio de Azcárate, 1875), Ed. Epicureum (digital)”.

Além da tradução ao Português, providenciei notas de rodapé, numeradas, onde achei que devia tentar esclarecer alguns pontos polêmicos ou obscuros demais quando se tratar de leitor não-familiarizado com a obra platônica. Quando a nota for de Azcárate, haverá um (*) antecedendo as aspas.

“- Pois bem, um homem que está persuadido da existência do Hades e que é horrível, poderá deixar de temer a morte? Poderá preferi-la em combate a uma derrota e à escravidão?

– Impossível.”

PREFIGURAÇÕES SINISTRAS DAS CALDEIRAS DE LIVROS? “Conjuremos a Homero e aos demais poetas a não levarem a mal que apaguemos de sua obra essas passagens. Não é porque não sejam demasiado poéticas e não satisfaçam o ouvido do público; mas, quanto mais belas são, tanto mais são perigosas para as crianças e para os homens que, destinados a viver livres, devem preferir a morte à servidão.”

“Apaguemos também estes nomes odiosos e formidáveis de Cócito, Estige, Ínferos, Manes¹ e outros semelhantes, que fazem tremer aos que os escutam.”

¹ “1. Sombras ou almas dos mortos; 2. Deuses infernais do paganismo; 3. [Figurado] Memória dos antepassados. <manes>, in Dicionário Priberam da Língua Portuguesa, 2008-2013, https://dicionario.priberam.org/manes [consultado em 23-06-2019].”

“Com razão é que suprimimos nos homens ilustres as lamentações, e reservamo-las às mulheres, e ainda assim não às mais dignas dentre elas, nem aos homens vis”

“- Tampouco será conveniente que se sintam inclinados à hilaridade. Risos em excesso dão lugar quase sempre a uma alteração também violenta.

– Assim também o creio.”

“Somente os magistrados supremos terão o poder de mentir, a fim de enganar o inimigo ou os cidadãos pelo bem da república.”

“Não consintamos, pois então, que aqueles que são objeto de nosso cuidado e para quem é um dever chegar a ser homens de bem se comprazam, já varões, no imitar uma mulher, seja jovem ou velha, uma casada briguenta ou orgulhosa, que pretenda se igualar aos deuses, jactanciosa de sua suposta felicidade, ou que se abandone em desgraça a queixas e lamentações. Ainda menos imitarão a adoentada, a apaixonada ou a que sofre das dores do parto.(*)” “Deve-se conhecer os dementes e os homens e mulheres maus, porém não se os deve imitar nem com eles parecer-se.”

(*) “No teatro grego, todos os papéis, tanto masculinos quanto femininos, eram desempenhados por homens.”

“Em nosso Estado daremos guarida a esses 3 tipos de narrativa ou só admitiremos uma ou outra das simples ou das mistas?”

“- Me parece, meu querido amigo, que tratamos a fundo esta parte da música que corresponde aos discursos e às fábulas, posto que falamos do que há que dizer e da forma de dizê-lo.

– Concordo contigo.

– Resta-nos falar desta outra metade da música que diz respeito ao canto e à melodia, certo?

– Ó, é evidente.”

“- Quais são as harmonias lastimosas? Diga-mo, já que és músico.

– A lídia mista, a lídia tensa¹ e outras semelhantes.

– É preciso, por conseguinte, suprimi-las como más, não só para os homens, mas também para aquelas mulheres que se gabam como sábias e moderadas.

– Totalmente de acordo.”

¹ Modalidades nascidas na Lídia, Ásia.

“- Quais são as harmonias moles e usadas nos banquetes?

– Algumas variedades da jônica e da lídia, consideradas harmonias relaxantes.

– Podem ser de algum uso para os guerreiros, meu querido?

– De forma alguma, restando, assim, apenas a dórica e a frígia para utilizar.

– Eu não conheço todas as espécies de harmonia; escolhe uma destas: uma forte, que traduza o tom e as expressões de um homem de coração, seja na peleja, seja em qualquer outra ação violenta, como quando, sem que o detenham as feridas nem a morte ou estando imerso na desgraça, espera, em tais ocasiões, com firmeza e sem se abater, pelos azares da fortuna; outra mais tranqüila, própria das ações pacíficas e completamente voluntárias de alguém que tenta convencer um outro de alguma coisa, com súplicas se é um deus, com advertências, se é um homem; ou que, ao contrário, se rende a suas súplicas, escuta suas lições e seus ditames, e que pelo menos nunca experimenta o menor contratempo, e que, enfim, longe de se envaidecer de seus triunfos, conduz-se com sabedoria e moderação e está sempre contente com sua sorte.”

“- Tampouco teremos necessidade de instrumentos de numerosas cordas nem da técnica pan-harmônica em nossos cantos e em nossa melodia, correto?

– Não, sem dúvida.

– Nem sustentaremos fabricantes de triângulos, de plectros¹ e outros instrumentos de cordas numerosas e de muitas harmonias?

– Não, ao que parece.

– Mas consentirias então em receber em nossa república os construtores e tocadores de flauta? Não equivale esse instrumento justamente aos que têm o maior número de cordas? E os que reproduzem todos os tons, são algo senão imitações da flauta?

– São equivalentes da flauta, com efeito.

– Assim, não nos restam mais que a lira e a cítara para a cidade, e para os campos o pífaro,² que será utilizada pelos pastores.

– É evidente, após tudo o que dissemos.

– Além do mais, meu querido amigo, não faremos nada extraordinário se dermos preferência a Apolo sobre Marsias,³ e aos instrumentos inventados por este deus aos do sátiro.

– Não, por Zeus!”

¹ Palheta

² Ou pife ou pífano. As principais fontes citam sua origem como indígena, ou pelo menos ligada a comunidades suíças do século XIV, portanto seria um instrumento da idade moderna apenas; mas, pela descrição de “siringa” no dicionário, trata-se virtualmente do mesmo objeto: uma flauta mais simples, feita de tubos de cana, bambus ou ossos ocos, e portanto muito antigo.

³ Entidade mitológica. Devido a sua presunção em julgar-se melhor músico que Apolo, recebe uma cruel punição divina (uma morte penosa).

“todas as medidas se reduzem a três tipos, assim como todas as harmonias resultam de quatro tons principais”

“Creio tê-lo ouvido falar algo confusamente acerca de certo metro composto que se chamava enoplio,¹ de um dátilo² e um heróico,³ e que se compunha, não sei como, igualando a parte tônica com a átona4 e terminando em sílabas longas ou breves; ademais, formava outro que se chamava iambo,5 creio eu, e não sei qual outro chamado troqueu,6 que se compunha de longas e breves.”

¹ A palavra parece existir só em italiano, celeiro precoce da música clássica; “enóplio” em Português é um inseto. Por falta de conhecimento em teoria musical, deixo no original, acrescentando o itálico que não havia na versão de Azcárate. Descreve o movimento rítmico que vai da sílaba breve à longa. Lembrando que, no contexto do diálogo platônico, não se trata só de música, mas algo mais amplo: pode se referir simplesmente à métrica utilizada por um poeta; normalmente o poeta se apresentava no teatro, ou um ator apresentava o poema escrito, sendo a voz humana, aliás, um instrumento musical em si, e dos mais complexos e versáteis.

² Uma sílaba longa + 2 breves; nesta ordem.

³ Normalmente associado a composições de versos decassílabos.

4 Ou “tonal e atonal”.

5 Sílaba átona sílaba tônica

6 Sílaba tônica sílaba átona (ou ainda “coreu”).

“o ritmo e a harmonia estão feitos para as palavras, e não as palavras para o ritmo e a harmonia.”

“- Não vês que os atletas passam a vida dormindo, e que, por pouco que se separem do regime que se lhes prescreve, contraem perigosas doenças?

– Já o observei.

– Necessitamos, pois, de um regime de vida mais flexível para os atletas guerreiros, que devem estar, como os cães, sempre alertas, ver tudo, ouvir tudo, mudar sem cessar, em campanha, de alimento e de bebida, sofrer frio e calor e, em conseqüência, ter um corpo à prova de todas as fadigas.

– Penso igual.”

“Em Homero mesmo pode-se aprendê-lo. Sabes que à mesa dos heróis nunca se servira peixe embora estivessem acampados no Helesponto, nem frituras, só carne assada, alimento cômodo para gente em guerra, a quem é mais fácil fazer fogo que levar consigo utensílios de cozinha.”

“-…as novas palavras <flatulência> e <catarro>.

– Decerto que estas palavras são novas e estrambóticas.

– E desconhecidas, na minha opinião, nos tempos de Asclépio.¹”

¹ Fundador mitológico da medicina.

MODERNIDADE: MELHOR VIVER DOENTE

“Que caia doente um carpinteiro, e verás como pede ao médico que lhe dê logo um vomitório ou um purgante ou, se for necessário, recorra ao ferro ou ao fogo. Mas se lhe prescreve um tratamento muito comprido, à base de gorrinho de lã para a cabeça e outras coisinhas que são moda, dirá bem pronto que não tem tempo para ficar de cama e que prefere morrer que renunciar a seu trabalho a fim de se ocupar do seu mal. Em seguida dispensará o médico e voltará a seu método ordinário de vida, com o qual ou recobrará a saúde cedo ou tarde, dedicado à labuta diária, ou, se o corpo não pode resistir à enfermidade, advirá a morte em seu auxílio e assim se livrará de preocupações.”

“- Em compensação, o rico, segundo se diz, não tem nenhuma classe de tarefas à qual não possa renunciar.

– Isso é o que dizem, ao menos.”

Não é certo que o primeiro efeito da música é adoçar seu valor, da mesma forma que o fogo abranda o ferro, e afrouxa essa rigidez que antes o inutilizava e o fazia de difícil trato? Mas se se continua entregando a seu feitiço sem se conter, esse mesmo valor desaparece e se derrete pouco a pouco, cortados por assim dizer os nervos da alma” “Sé a alma é fogosa, pelo contrário, sua coragem, ao se debilitar, faz-se instável; o menor motivo a irrita ou acalma, e em vez de fogosa torna-se colérica, irascível, repleta de mau humor.”

Vós que sois todos parte do Estado, vós – dir-lhes-ei, continuando a ficção – sois irmãos; mas o deus que os formou fez entrar o ouro na composição daqueles que estão destinados a governar os demais, e assim são os mais preciosos. Mesclou prata na formação dos auxiliares, e ferro e bronze na dos lavradores e demais artesãos. Como possuís todos uma origem comum, em que pese terdes, corriqueiramente, filhos que parecem-se convosco, poderá suceder, não obstante, que uma pessoa da raça de ouro tenha um filho da raça de prata, que outra da raça de prata dê a luz a um filho da raça de ouro, e que o mesmo suceda reciprocamente nas demais raças.“há um oráculo que diz que perecerá a república quando for governada pelo ferro ou pelo bronze.”

“Que comam sentados em mesas comuns, e que vivam juntos como devem viver os guerreiros no campo. Que se lhes faça entender que os deuses colocaram em suas almas ouro e prata divina e, por isso, eles não têm necessidade do ouro e da prata dos homens; que não lhes é permitido manchar a posse deste ouro imortal com a do ouro terrestre; que o ouro que eles têm é puro, enquanto que o ouro dos homens foi em todos os tempos a origem de muitos crimes.”