FOREWORD (Walter Kaufmann)

Was Lou really that important?”

The bulk of this volume is not out of proportion to the importance of its subject, for Frau Lou is more significant than Lou’s own books. In the case of most biographies the opposite may be taken for granted, but in this case the author’s reach exceeds the woman whose biography he offers us—in two ways.

First: not only does he deal with Nietzsche, Rilke, and Freud; we also encounter an amazing array of other German and Austrian writers and scholars. It is scarcely an exaggeration to say that Lou’s friendships approximate a Who Was Who of Central European intellectual life during the half-century between 1880 and 1930.”

The whole literature on Lou’s troubled relationship to Nietzsche and Paul Rée is dated by Frau Lou.” “Lou, like Nietzsche’s sister, falsified the story. That the sister’s account was mendacious has been known for a long time, but everyone who discussed this episode without relying on the sister has invariably relied on Lou. Thus Binion makes a major contribution to the study of Nietzsche’s life and character.”

In the last chapter we see the old Lou writing her memoirs, rewriting her life once more, fashioning a final version of events that she could not face as they had actually happened. Then we still get an account of the author’s source materials and the obstacles he faced when he visited her archives. It would be a rank abuse of his hospitality to tell this story in the Foreword, but it provides the perfect link between those last years in which Lou tried to forge her myth and this book in which the myth is finally exposed. Only after having read those pages can one fully appreciate Rudolph Binion’s immense accomplishment.”


Dates are written the day first, then the month in Roman, then the year, thus: 7 VII 1897. Lou’s diary entries are cited by their dates preceded by a D, thus: D 7 VII 1897. The formula for a letter, whether published or unpublished, is addresseraddressee, date, thus: LouFreud, 27 IX 1912. Correspondents’ surnames or full names are used except in Lou’s and the following cases: B-H (Richard Beer-Hofmann); CG (Clara Gelzer); Clara (Clara Westhoff Rilke); EK (Ellen Key); Emma (Emma Wilm Flörke); FN (Friedrich Nietzsche); Frieda (Frieda von Bülow); Hanna (Hanna Bormann); Helene (Helene Klots Klingenberg); HVH (Hugo von Hofmannsthal); Ida O (Ida Overbeck); Lisbeth (Elisabeth Nietzsche, later Förster-Nietzsche); MVM (Malwida von Meysenbug); O (Franz Overbeck); RMR (Rainer Maria Rilke). An asterisk signifies an oral source, thus: *Franz Schoenberner.”


Frau Lou is a psychoanalytic study of a near-mad near-genius of a woman.”

Translating Lou was troublesome, for as she grew older her style carried the weight of her arguments more and more. Academic at first—even in her fiction—it acquired sonorous modulation and intricate articulation in her middle years. Then it went the way of compact allusiveness, as if aiming to compress all of Creation into a single, pious syllable. Tractable as is German diction, Lou strained it baroquely in the end. This compelled me to strain English even harder in order to convey her message intact. I moreover found best reason to quote her at her worst, for then her latent texts were most legible—especially when she was either solecistic or silly, which she rarely was.”

P A R T O N E . C H I L D H O O D


Psicanalistas deviam ser proibidos de escrever biografias: “Litde Lelia was wretched amidst plenty as only a human being can be. Her trouble was psychic growing pains which fortunately can, and unfortunately must, be traced to their crude source. This was a craving for her father excited by excretion and attended by darkling visions of reentering his bowel-womb to repossess his penis.”

Mas essa bisonhice na escolha e interpretação dos temas não é o pior: estilo críptico e pouco pertinente para esse tipo de livro. Prosa poética de mau gosto. Quem entender se o que Binion descreve às páginas 6 e 7 são apenas eventos normais de infância ou cenas de estupro ganha uma balinha. Ex: “yet she was pleased to feel tiny and helpless over against him.”; “and if his strokes now felt punitive rather than voluptuous, she now had a father-god only too willing to commiserate over the sore spot.”

P. 8: “In drawing on actual people for her personages, she was opening up her ‘second world’ to the first. Yet beneath the surface, her personages were still mostly herself and her father, their fates still determined by her old father-romance.” Ainda não entendi uma linha da vida dessa garota…

Probably rarely has a girl had everything so much her own way, averred her mother.”

Autistic as ever, ‘awkward’ and ‘shy’ to boot, Lelia kept to herself throughout adolescence.” “Her one confidante her own age was her cousin Emma, who would daydream with her about true love.” “Lelia’s only other intimate was an uncannily clever and charming maiden aunt named Caro, who won her heart by treating her as the special girl she knew herself to be.”

ALICE ÀS AVESSAS: “Lelia ‘learned nothing’ at her gymnasium, the German Lutheran Petrischule, where at 16 she still wrote like a whimsical child of 10.”


Constructions like Gillot’s were rife since Herder and Hegel had made history progressional and Bauer and Strauss had made Jesus historical.” Se isso foi 11:59, ainda estamos na meia-noite em ponto!

Early in 1880 she went abroad with her mother to convalesce from nervous exhaustion.”




P A R T T W O . Y O U T H


Parece que ela foi “aluna especial” ou “ouvinte” na universidade de Zurich porque não pôde se qualificar ao bacharelado.

Paul Rée, a Schopenhauer adept in his student days, took a doctorate at Halle in 1875 with a dissertation on Aristotle’s Ethics and that same year brought out an anonymous collection of psychologistic bons mots: Psychologische Beobachtungen. In 1877 he came into his own as Positivist, Utilitarian and Darwinist all in one with an account of how conscience must have originated” Nie. tinha que fazer muitas concessões para ter amigos, já vejo!

She took him out of her way home from Villa Mattei via the Coliseum, where she assured him beguilingly by moonlight that she was out for comradeship, not romance. Infatuated, Rée sent for help from his one close friend, Friedrich Nietzsche.

Rée had first met N. in 1873 through a common friend, the classicist and Kantian Heinrich Romundt, on arriving for a summer in Basel, where N. was professor and Romundt was visiting him. N. was then 28, Rée 23. With an old classmate of N’s, the dilettante Carl von Gersdorff, Rée attended N.’s course on the pre-Platonic philosophers.”

in (…) 1876 (…) the two were both just then positivistically surmounting Schopenhauer’s influence,¹ N. in his Human, All Too Human and Rée in his derivation of conscience. So congenial did N. find Rée both philosophically and personally that, after ‘enjoying the lovely autumn’ for some days with him near Montreux, N. took him along on a winter’s sick leave spent in Sorrento with Malwida von Meysenbug – by her gracious provision.”

¹ À minha idade atual. Quão doloroso não foi para mim chegar a esse estágio já aos 20? Mas e então – o que fiz desses 12 anos de dianteira? “Progredi” realmente em algo mais?

he is a moralist with the keenest vision – quite a rarity among Germans.” FN

he developed into a genealogist of morals in point-by-point opposition to Rée.” “Perhaps I have never read anything to which I have said no to myself sentence by sentence, conclusion for conclusion, in such measure yet utterly without vexation or impatience.” Prefácio da Genealogia

Gods were not natural forces divinized to the end of sanctifying official penalties, as Rée had it; they were tribal fathers to whom, by reason of the pain of being moral, a bad debt was felt to be owing – and growing. Moreover, religion did not merely underwrite official morality, but often enough rewrote it. For morality was transcending itself continually: today’s virtues were yesterday’s vices.” “N. too viewed the bad conscience as mankind’s mortal ailment, and at first too saw a quick individual remedy in the correction of certain intellectual errors, notably God and free will. He soon looked instead to a gradual ascendancy of mankind’s ‘intellectual conscience’, newly emergent, over mankind’s moral conscience, still at loggerheads with the herd-instinct. By 1882 he was dimly envisioning an inversion of values by ‘free thinkers’ (who would repent of their compassion, rancor and remorse [and of their repenting?]) preliminary to a transvaluation of values by a new, higher species of moral man.” Grifo meu.

Rée harked back to premoral man, N. forward to postmoral man – to a final, as against primal, innocence to be achieved through self-mastery and self-knowledge. For only N.’s thinking was bold. Rée’s irreverent philosophy was one long writ of impeachment against a tyrannical conscience – his own.” “Each bore the marks of a pressing personal alternative: melancholia and paranoiac megalomania respectively.” “Yet all along, even as he played up Rée, he played down their differences. In HATH he called Rée ‘a master of soul-searching’ and again ‘one of the boldest and coldest thinkers’. (…) Subsequently he added: ‘Long live Réealism and my good friend!’.” Genial.

AOS 33 (estou a 2 dias do meu aniversário, 2021): “Two years later N. was released from his university duties with a decent allowance because of his health. Subject to dire headaches, eyeaches and nausea since 1873, with ever rarer interludes of euphoric relief, he suffered the worse for imagining his father’s fatal ‘softening of the brain’ to be hereditary. [a fonte aqui é uma carta a Brandes de 1888]”

Foi um projeto longamente cultivado por N. e Rée morarem e viverem juntos, porém nestes tempos de convalescença e de necessidade de eremitismo filosófico N. hesitou primeiro, para em seguida rechaçar tal projeto com firmeza: não era seu destino levar uma existência tão ‘epicurista’!

N.’s distress on Rée’s account, while quite sincere, was only the outside story. The inside story was released to Malwida years afterwards, with a vengeance: <‘He’s a poor fellow, one must push him along’ – how often have I told myself this when his miserable, dishonest way of thinking and living revolted me. I have not forgotten the fury I felt in 1876 as I heard he would come along to you in Sorrento. And . . . in Sils-Maria I became ill at my sister’s news that he wanted to come up. [N. expressou sua vontade de não ser sob qualquer circunstância interrompido em seus trabalhos de verão, por carta, a Elizabeth.]>

On the outside, meanwhile, N. overrated Rée far more than was even his fond wont with friends. For Rée had no notion of N.’s mind beyond the narrow range of his own: all N. was contained for him in N.’s Réealistic sentence, ‘Every word is a prejudice’. And even within that narrow range N. was Rée’s master.” “By mail N. would exchange compliments with Rée but not ideas – for all Rée’s trying.”

Curiosamente, seu amigo também parecia sofrer dessa sinusite-dos-sábios: “I have had a headache now for some 14 months without even a minute’s let-up.’ Desabafo em carta, outubro de 1879.

E aqui eu muito agradeço Lou sequer estar sendo mencionada!

He mothered N., nursed him, read to him to spare his eyes, but then stole his symptoms” Como não deve ter sido prato cheio e apetitoso para um psicanalista estreito escrever essas linhas!

Both were precisionists with the pen, with a like penchant for epigram. N.’s prose was not lost to theory, however, but bacchanalianly live with it. It reveled in his thinking as he himself did; and amidst his solitude, his thinking ran riot with him. Timid as he was, it knew no taboos, so that he took wicked delight in it – while also shuddering at it as, beginning in August 1881, he conceived in turn the ‘eternal recurrence’, the ‘overman’, etc.”

And then it was that N. chose to <return ‘to men’>, as he put it – to come down from the mountain so as ‘to become human again’, like his Zarathustra in The Gay Science, then in preparation.”

Rée teria enviada uma máquina de escrever a N., que quebrou no caminho.

N. dizia de si mesmo em suas cefaléias horrendas: 7/8 (sete oitavos) cego.

Between times they went to see Sarah Bernhardt, who, overplaying Camille, burst a blood vessel on stage – ‘an unbearable impression.’

Your brother uses the typewriter all the time, only his blind groping for keys does give him lots of trouble.” Rée Lisbeth

Greet the Russian girl for me, if that makes any sense: I am greedy for souls of that species. In fact, in view of what I mean to do these next 10 years, I need them! Matrimony is quite another story. I could consent at most to a 2-year marriage” N. escreve nessa mesma carta que logo após essa frase a máquina de escrever “parou”.

Well before then, Lou was already counting N. in on her projected residential salon by reason of Rée’s and Malwida’s respective versions of him as the veriest positivist and veriest idealist.”

Gillot, o preceptor e quiçá proponente a marido de Lou, tendo enviado uma carta de censura sobre seus “projetos devassos” de se encontrar com dois homens (uau, arrebatadoramente imoralista!), Lou respondeu declarando sua emancipação, por assim dizer. Claro que nesse ínterim Rée foi sempre um joguete de seu coquetismo. Agora vinha mais um para diverti-la.

As for his [Reé] taking her [Lou] home on foot after midnight, arm in arm: what if someone had recognized them?! ‘And what would R. have done had an officer or anyone else been unpleasant to you – fought a duel?!!’ Malwida”

Malwida had glimpsed a first truth about Lou: she was not unmindful of sex and convention after all.”

O PRIMEIRO ENCONTRO (NA PRAÇA DE SÃO PEDRO, ROMA, ITÁLIA): “His hands incomparably beautifully and nobly wrought, his unusually small and delicately shaped ears, his fine, highly expressive mouth-lines, almost fully concealed by an ample moustache combed over them, his placid features in general together with his gentle laughter, his noiseless way of talking, his cautious, wistful gait, shoulders a little bent, his ultra-simple neat attire”

His defective eyesight lent his features a quite special magic in that they did not reflect varying outer impressions but only what was passing through him internally. They looked inwards, yet at the same time into the distance”

In return, N.’s eyes could barely make Lou out, while to his ears her voice was somewhat rasping.” Hahaha…

“‘It is unpleasant to be able to do nothing but plead in a matter so close to one’s heart’, she wrote Rée on April 25. [para N. postergar sua estada]”

N. cannot answer for how he will feel tomorrow, but would like to introduce himself to your mother before we meet again at the lakes.”

N. was not fit to leave before another week” “he explained to Lou that her chaste ménage à trois was not all that simple even with chaperon, as I should consider myself duty-bound to offer you my hand so as to protect you from what people might say; otherwise, etc. etc.” Que tempos!

Between times N. presented himself to Lou’s mother, who warned him that Lou’s self-accounting was strictly fantastical; he listened with one sharp ear.”

Finalmente no começo de maio o trio se encontrou novamente.

He spoke to her of the eternal recurrence, which made self-denial eternally foolish, and of his son-to-be, Zarathustra, due to transcend the slave morality of good-and-evil as the historic Zarathustra had transcended the master morality of good-and-bad.” Nunca um flerte foi tão imediatamente alto nível na História!

Lou was just not his buxom type”

Ida Overbeck later remembered him as then ‘most excited’ and ‘most hopefully confident’. For, she explained, ‘N. had given himself to the hope of having found his alter ego in Miss Salomé – of working with her, and through her help, toward his goals.’

That this photo was all Lou’s idea emerges from RéeLou (late May 1882): the Stibbe doctor would examine her as revenge for the photographing: I shall be as stubborn (about it) as you (were)’, and from RéeLou (mid-June 1882): ‘Picture arrived yesterday. N. superb; you and I hideous, can dispute the prize for ugliness between us. You see, Lou, for once you were not right after all.’ FNLou (28 May 1882) was more gallant: ‘Oh the bad photographer! And yet: what a lovely silhouette atop the rack-waggon!’

(*) “Natural science was presumably N.’s idea, but 1890a:224 is the sole source for the stock contention that he wanted to study it 10 years so as to ground the eternal recurrence physically (space and matter finite, time infinite), which is likely as fanciful as the neighboring one (ibid., 224-25) that, cursory study having disclosed the impossibility of ever grounding it, he clung to it only the faster (cf. Schlechta, Fall, 30ff.)” O que não é o tal do telefone sem fio, Mr. Graham!

O DISCRETO: “N. desired Lou’s ‘very existence’ to be kept secret from his mother and sister. Son and twice grandson of preachers, N. did not ridicule his family on account of its ‘Naumburg virtue’ without reverencing it on the same account, even unto fantasies of noble lineage: in nothing, declared Overbeck, was his ‘caprice’ more conspicuous. His sister, still his childhood sweetheart, had since HATH come to idolize his life as against his books, and he cherished her idolatry at heart even as he dreaded her jealousy.”

At all odds, Rée was already on intimate Du terms with Lou in Lucerne behind N.’s (and everyone else’s) back – as a ‘little brother’ with his ‘little sister’, to be sure, yet even fraternally he craved Lou’s exclusive affection.”

Rée’s aim of turning Lou over to N. was reversing itself: already he was aiming to turn her against N..”


Paulão visivelmente agindo como fura-olho pelas costas via cartas: “I am and shall remain entirely your friend alone; I have no scruples about behaving a little crookedly, a little falsely, a little mendaciously and deceitfully toward anyone except you. Out of my friendship to you I make a cult; I regard as a sin – (what, Mr. Antimoralist?) – well, I mean: if I did or said anything false, dishonorable, unfriendly, crooked with respect to you, I would have a feeling just like the one believers may have after committing a great sin. And from this special uprightness I draw a justification for being false in generalEscreve como se falasse ao telefone…

Are we really going to see each other again – or have I only dreamed it!” P.R.

R. is from head to toe a better friend than I am or can be: mark well the distinction!”

Your Flush of Dawn is now my only companion. It entertains me in bed better than would visits, shopping, and travel dust. Could I but say: see you soon! Only remain so cheerful and healthy, everything will turn out very well.”

Let me know how you propose to arrange your time from Bayreuth on and what cooperation from me you are counting on. I now badly need mountains and forests: not only health but even more The Gay Science is driving me into solitude: I want to finish it.”

Naumburg is a frightful place for my health.”

But I would like to insist very strongly that you not get all wrapped up in N.’s work. I should have preferred your going your own way mentally, just to prove for once that, even in these highest realms of thought, a woman can stand alone and attain independent results.” Malwida – Não se estamos falando do maior filósofo da Europa moderna!

Above all, I hope N. himself steers another course than in his latest writings”

NEVER did I think that you should ‘read aloud and write’ for me, but I very much wished that I might be your TEACHER. To tell the whole truth: I am now seeking people who could be my heirs; I carry something around with me absolutely not to be read in my books – and am seeking the finest, most fertile soil for it. Observe my self-seeking!”

I was downright bowled over by the fact of having acquired a ‘new person’ after overly strict seclusion and renunciation of all love and friendship.”

tragically, N. alone in his day and age knew how far above that day and age he stood.”

I am now still occupied with very fine matters of language: the final decision on the text requires the most scrupulous ‘listening’ to word and sentence. Sculptors call this work of finishing ‘ad unguem’.”

As for Parsifal, on July 26 she stood through the first performance looking duly transfixed, tone-deaf though she was.”

I hate it when someone does something commonplace and then calls it by a fine name. (…) this talk of their living together was sheer drivel; even assuming that the girl had been quite ideally pure-minded, her habits of life were so different from ours. Fritz is so painfully orderly, exacting, and ascetically inclined” EN

Lou’s earliest Nietzschean apologists themselves (Bernoulli, Halévy, Andler, Hofmiller) all maintained that she was a passionate Wagnerite—indeed, that this was the root of the evil.”

One day a bird flew by me, and I, superstitious like all solitary people who stand at a turning of their way, believed I had seen an eagle. Now the whole world is at pains to prove to me I am mistaken—and there is urbane European prattle about it. Who is better off now—I, who as they say was ‘fooled,’ who spent a whole summer in a lofty world of hope on account of this bird omen, or those who are ‘not to be fooled’?—And so forth. Amen. . . . —Now I am ‘a bit in the wilderness’ and pass many a sleepless night. But no despondency! And that demon was, like everything that now crosses by path (or seems to), heroic-idyllic.” FNPT (Peter Gast)

Relato de EN das palavras de Lou: “he’s a madman who doesn’t know what he wants, he’s a common egoist who wanted only to exploit her mental gifts, she doesn’t care a hoot for him but if now they didn’t go to a city together it would mean she weren’t ‘great’, that’s why Fritz doesn’t want to study with her—so as to shame her. What’s more, Fritz would be crazy to think she should sacrifice herself to his aims or that they had the same aims at all, she knew nothing of his aims. Besides, were they to pursue any aims together, 2 weeks wouldn’t go by before they were sleeping together, men all wanted only that, pooh to mental friendship! and she knew first-hand what she was talking about, she had been caught twice already in that kind of relationship. [com ‘papai-Deus’ e a porra dum padre-tutor!]

As I, now naturally beside myself, said that might well be the case with her Russians only she didn’t know my pure-minded brother, she retorted full of scorn (word for word): ‘Who first soiled our study plan with his low designs, who started up with mental friendship when he couldn’t get me for something else, who first thought of concubinage—your brother!’

utterly out of my element: never in my life had I heard such indecent talk (here I have reproduced it all with propriety at that). And a 21-year-old girl was saying these things, especially about men generally and my brother in particular, and when on top of it all she had proposed their living together!! What is one to think of such a girl?! In the evening, when we were in Tautenburg and Fritz was out looking for a place for us to stay, she broke out again in a fury against Fritz and became downright grossly indecent, as when she said full of derision: ‘just don’t go thinking that I care beans for your brother or am in love with him, I could sleep in the same room with him without getting worked up.’ Would you believe it possible? I too was altogether beside myself and shouted at her repeatedly: ‘Stop this indecent talk!’ ‘Pooh,’ she said, ‘with Rée I talk a lot more indecently.’ She had also told me Rée had told her that Fritz was thinking of a concubinage. So now I told her: All right, I would ask his mother, whereupon she was furious and threatened to get back at me, and she did. I was utterly miserable and didn’t sleep a wink. . . . Oh what a martyrdom for my sensibility the whole story was! . . . The moment she believed she could draw no further advantage from his fame she fell upon him like a wild animal and tore his good name and reputation to bits and trampled on them. . . . The girl is not out to marry Fritz, she just wants to become famous through him. She wants to marry only a rich man because she needs lots of money and has none.”

Again Lisbeth’s account was in substance unquestionably faithful throughout. It depicted a veritable hysterical outburst on Lou’s part modulated by an impish impulse to make Lisbeth squirm in her straight laces. Lisbeth was indeed shocked—for life.”

AH, A TURMINHA DA PSICANÁLISE! “In after years Lou herself, even while officially scouting the whole vulgar incident, represented the contents of her tirade equivalently in diverse contexts; as to its form, in old age she projected the hysteria onto Lisbeth by having her vomit in shock”

Heavens, she had never imagined I still had such retarded views, so what if he had intended concubinage? That would be nothing degrading surely, they were above conventionality so it couldn’t degrade Fritz and she hadn’t meant it to.” EN

Rée, then heading for Helgoland to wait on Lou’s pleasure, did his best to sustain the lovers’ quarrel by mail. He took it out especially on Nietzsche’s shift of philosophical course. By mid-August, however, he was reduced to taking it out on his own jealousy. For through a diary installment Lou told him about having spent a radiant August 14 with Nietzsche away from Lisbeth ‘in the quiet, dark pine forest alone with the sunshine and squirrels’, adding: ‘Conversing with Nietzsche is uncommonly lovely . . . but there is quite special charm in the meeting of like thoughts and like emotions; we can almost communicate with half words. . . . Only because we are so kindred could he take the difference between us, or what seemed to him such, so violently and painfully. . . . The content of a conversation of ours really consists in what is not quite spoken but emerges of its own from our tacit exchanges. (…) But is it good for him to spend the whole day from morning to night in conversation with me, hence away from his work? When I asked him this today, he nodded and replied: But I do it so seldom and am enjoying it like a child. The same evening, though, he said: I ought not to live long in your vicinity. We often recollect our time together in Italy and . . . he said softly: monte sacro—I have you to thank for the most bewitching dream of my life.Lou came close to perceiving a sorry truth: in nothing was she so akin to Nietzsche as in her passion for half-spoken words that denied as well as implied their unspoken half.”

What will become of him? He cannot again devote so much enthusiasm and energy to a cause.¹ A second love is no love. And will anything come of this one? Besides, there is subtle charm to the fact that one often does not clearly understand what he is saying and so supposes more behind it than is there.² Snailie [apelidinho mongolóide entre a puta e R.] will laugh and say pure envy is speaking out of me. Perhaps—”² O limitado Rée

¹ Os maiores livros de Nietzsche ainda estavam todos por ser escritos.

² Já devemos congratular este simplório pela astúcia de entender que havia algo que não podia entender na filosofia nietzschiana…

And I’m somewhat jealous too meanwhile, naturally—understandably. . . . Just you wait, Snailie. [Smeagol] . . . Now that you’re friends again with Nietzsche, enough! More you don’t need, do you hear, Snailie?” Patético.

É a historiografia dos fortes? O que é ‘fortes’?


TALK HAD set them asunder; talk brought them back together. Morning, noon, and night the two talked—in the pine forest, on an inn terrace beneath lindens, along precipitous chamois paths, in her room and in his. They talked of unholy things—of squeamishness about suffering as inhibited delight in it (‘we did not dare look at each other afterwards’) and, over a cognac (‘Ah, how foul it tasted!’, he exclaimed), of his potential for madness. More academically, he argued the original ascendancy of the ‘herd instinct’ over Rée’s constant: egoism. Yet religion was, he later remarked, ‘really our sole topic’. They discussed how each had relinquished his childhood faith—he all at once and effortlessly, she with a painful struggle of mind against heart.”

Odd—how in our talks, without meaning to, we always wind up on the precipice; anyone listening to us would think 2 devils were conferring.” L.

Nietzsche found Lou’s prose sorely wanting yet readily corrigible.”

She labored her diary for his scrutiny too. ‘I have excessive confidence in his power as a teacher’, she entered on August 14. By August 18, however, he has ‘given up on being my teacher; he says I should never have such a prop’ – which on their terms meant never be a woman.”

She resolved on Nietzsche as author, in lieu of woman as such, as the subject of her first full-scale study.” “She had caught him at the ideal moment: in transition – or, as he preferred, transcendence. After 6 years of impassioned positivistic self-restraint, he was about to burst into didactics and song. [?] With his help, she found that he would she himself (sic) a new philosophic purpose in order to deliver himself from the pain of instinctual discord whenever an old one lost its grip on him, and that he would face up to each new purpose as to ‘something cut off from himself and to be endured by him’ – whereas she would struggle painfully toward her one (unspecified) goal felt to be an innermost necessity.”

So ended Lou’s Tautenburg diary. From merely romanticizing his every sign of fondness for her, she had gone on to divinize N. in her own likeness.”

“‘Two things my philosophy forbids me unconditionally: 1. regret, 2. moral indignation. Do be sweet again, dear Llama!’ Llama stayed sour, and Nietzsche shortly reported to Overbeck: I have the Naumburg virtue against me, there is a real break between us – and even my mother so forgot herself with one remark that I packed my things and left for Leipzig in the morning.’ He was to specify thereafter: ‘My mother called me a disgrace to my father’s grave.’

I have no call at all today for praise or blame – a further reason to write no letters.”

FNL “Read Sanctus Januarius once in context! There stands my entire private morality as the sum of my requirements for existence: they prescribe only an ought, in case I do not want to myself.”

Lou at all odds read Sanctus Januarius – and blithely took the passage exhorting an estranged friend to be one with candor and good grace for a message to Rée. § Rée looked just a bit contemptible to Lou after Tautenburg – and felt rather more so. On a note of apology, he promised N. a frank talk in Leipzig. Under the same cover he announced that Lou had won him over to N.’s view that egoism had been celebrated before coming to be reviled: he was back at playing second fiddle, only now under Lou’s baton.”

“‘stellar friendship: our earthly ways have parted, but let us trust that, though we may yet become earthly enemies, our celestial orbits will cross again sometime’ Science. N. unquestionably had Wagner on his mind when penning this passage (though Hofmiller, without dissenting, located the germ of it in FNO, 14/11/81) – but R. may have already been at the back of his mind then and certainly was in 9/1882).”

the oldest signification of ‘good’ was distinguished, powerful, rich, and of ‘bad’ lowly, weak, poor: this was Rée’s one new Nietzschean thesis since his Ursprung.” Ao que consta, Lou ‘convenceu’ Rée de que a filosofia de N. era mais correta que seu ponto de vista liberal-pragmático.

With that, Rée was ready to crawl contritely out of the Trinity.”

as I have lost my natural sister, a preternatural one is due me.”

Between times, Lou was again N.’s self-willed schoolgirl. They discussed her plans for a study of religious history as well as her draft sketch of his life and works.”

Rée era o passivo da não-relação.

I do not like feelings where they reconverge in their circulation, [?] for that is the point of false pathos, at which truth and integrity of feeling are lost. Is this what is estranging me from N.?” Ficou xonadinha e não quis dar o braço a torcer.

Lou “Maia”: ela e o véu – e nada mais!

Dedicatória no exemplar de HDH:

Freundin – sprach Kolumbus – traue

Keinem Genuesen mehr!

Immer start er in das Blaue,

Fernstes zieht ihn allzusehr!

Wen er liebt, den lockt erg erne

Weit hinaus in Raum und Zeit –

Über uns glänzt Stern bei Sterne,

Um uns braust die Wigkeit.”

The Columbus theme in Nietzsche’s poetry goes back to his ‘Colombo’ of 1858, one of his many youthful poems about sailing the high seas – but the only actual sailing he ever did was that to and from Sicily in 1882.”

Even writing letters to my sister is no longer advisable – except for those of the most innocuous sort (I sent her another letter full of merry verses lately).” Nietzsche a Overbeck, 27?/8/1883

How shallow people are to me today! Where is there a sea left in which one can still really drown? I mean a person.”

Then he moved on to Columbus’s city, from which he had originally sailed to meet Lou – in the wrong direction. He had come full circle.”

All nearness makes one so insatiable – and in the last resort I am an insatiable fellow on the whole. – From time to time we will see one another again, won’t we?” NR

Mind? What is mind to me! What is knowledge to me! I esteem nothing but impulses – and I would swear we have something in common here.”

de espírito-livre a corpo-livre lá vai um, lá vão dois, três abismos!…

Affects are devouring me. Dreadful pity, dreadful disillusion, dreadful feeling of wounded pride – how can I stand it any longer? Isn’t pity a feeling out of hell? What should I do? Every morning I despair of lasting the day. I no longer sleep – what good does 8 hours’ walking do! Where do I get these violent affects from! Oh some ice! But where is there ice left for me? This evening I’ll take opium till I lose my mind.”

A cat’s character: that of a beast of prey posing as a domestic animal. Nobleness as reminiscence about association with noble people; strong will, but with no great object; without diligence or cleanliness, without civil probity; cruelly misplaced sensuality. (…) Capable of enthusiasm for people without love for them, yet love for God: need for effusion (…) only some basic mishap in your upbringing and development has temporarily crippled your good will for this. Just think: that cat-egoism unable to love any longer, that professing nothing together with a feeling for life . . . and then knowledge as a pleasure among pleasures. And if I understand you at all: these are all voluntary and self-imposed tendencies with you – for as much as they are not symptoms”

A MACACA DE ZARATUSTRA: “In her loss of herself she was that strongest offense to him: ‘the caricature of my ideal.’

His sister – who, according to a draft to Malwida, ‘regards Lou as a poisonous reptile to be destroyed at all costs’Só porque uma mulher não presta, não quer dizer que sua inimiga preste.

Souls such as yours, my dear sister, I do not like: and I like them least when they are morally bloated.”

For heaven’s sake, what do these little girls of 20 think who have pleasant feelings of love and nothing to do but be sick now and again and lie in bed?”

Formerly I was inclined to take you for a vision, for the earthly apparition of my ideal. Observe: I have poor eyes. . . . Had I created you, I would have given you better health, to be sure, but first of all some things that matter far more

Twins spiritually, they were sexually the titillating reverse. Only the same taboo on both sides brought their mating to a stalemate as its sexual motive loomed lurid to them both” mating!

I tense all my fibers for self-mastery – but I have lived in solitude and fed on ‘my own fat’ too long, so again I am the more readily racked by my affects. Could I but sleep!” NO

Today something occurred to me in passing that made me laugh hard: she actually treated me like a 20-year-old student – a quite permissible approach for a girl of 21 – like a student who had fallen in love with her. But sages like me love only ghosts. Woe if ever I love a human being – I would soon go to ruin. Man is too imperfect a thing.”

But Lou, what letters you write! Little vengeful schoolgirls write that way: what use have I for such paltry stuff? Do understand: I want you to raise yourself before me, not lower yourself still further.”

In Lucerne I gave you my piece on Schopenhauer: I told you that my basic views were in it and that I believed they would be yours too. You should have read it and said no then: much would have been spared me.”

What would you reply if I asked you: are you honest? are you incapable of duplicity? . . . In your mouth, such a poem as To Pain is a deep untruth. In such matters I hate all superficiality. Only a high purpose can make people of your sort bearable to others.”

No, my dear Lou, we are nowhere near ‘forgiving’. I cannot shake forgiveness out of my sleeve after the offense has had 4 months in which to burrow into me. . . . Adieu, my dear Lou, I shall not see you again. Preserve your soul from such doings and make good with others (…) Adieu, dear Lou, I did not read your letter through, but I read too much already.”

Fast upon his ‘adieu’ to Lou, and just 9 months after meeting her, he delivered the first book of So Spoke Zarathustra, written in a trance, as if from inner dictation, in 10 ‘absolutely serene and fresh January days’.” A melhor contribuição (maculada, fenomênica concepção) desta mulher ao mundo!

Now on February 13, 1883, his first Zarathustra was ready for the printer – ‘in just the holy hour in which Richard Wagner died’, he later specified.”

My severance from my family is beginning to appear to me as a true blessing; oh, if you knew all I have had to overcome on this score (since my birth)! I do not like my mother, and hearing my sister’s voice upsets me: I have always fallen ill when together with them.”

With spring (…) the second book of Z. emerged.”

As for the typewriter, it is on the blink like everything weak men take in hand for a while, be it machines or problems or Lous.” NLisb.

Things are moving again. My sister wants her revenge on this Russian – well and good, only so far I have been the victim of her every initiative. She does not even notice bloodshed and the most brutal possibilities hardly an inch off.” NO – poderia estar falando da bestialidade alemã de décadas à frente, sem qualquer reparo!

And do not worry about my false footing with my sister; the truth is that all my footings so far with everyone have been false: she was at least as much affronted as I was, with good right too, and if now she means to work it out for Lou to be sent back to Russia, she will be doing more good if she succeeds than I with my asceticism. Of a sudden Dr. Rée steps into the foreground: to have to relearn about someone with whom I shared love and trust for years is frightful.” NIda O.

From all that I have now learned – of far too late! – these 2 persons, Rée and Lou, are not worthy of licking the soles of my shoes. Excuse the all too human metaphor! (…) Schopenhauer-style ‘pitying’ has so far always done the top damage in my life”

About suicide – a thought that every lengthy letter from N. in over half a year has expressed – I feel quite as you do: nothing can make it acceptable except desperation.” OGast

I would delight in giving you a lesson in practical morality with a few bullets: maybe in the best case I could manage to deter you once and for all from dealing in morality, which calls for clean hands, Dr. Rée, not clammy fingers!” NR

Ao irmão de Rée, teria dito algo que se aproxima, na tradução, a macaca fétida e esquálida com enchimento (falsos peitos). Adorável!

Enmity is incompatible with my whole philosophy and way of thinking”


o rato roebens (rói bem!) a (consciência da) roupa do rei de remorsuras e inteleitos

mas ao pai de todos os reis, a punição mais severa –

a impossibilidade da reconciliação com um seu igual em temperamento.

…posto que se aproveitam de minha nobreza!

I no longer know how to live; it is on my mind continually.”

Se misturar com a ralé, Nietzsche, é da vida! – segue o jogo… Cada um à parte, com sua parte.

Never before did I hate anyone – not even Wagner, whose perfidy went well beyond Lou’s. For the first time I feel humbled.” Imagina-te filho de um Wagner, e não de um pastor que morreu sem dar trabalho…

long a stranger to practical life, I act 49 times out of 50 on a motive no one seeing me thinks of, so that I almost always arouse misunderstanding and wind up my own victim.”

engolindo e vomitando sapos como devora-se o pão de cada dia, mas não a ponto de estar cego a quem diabos sou ou devenho…

Such pain (it was as if a knife had been put to all my sore spots at once!) is a high distinction. My body and soul are so constituted that I can suffer frightfully in both: and as for my soul, I was last year like someone who for many, many years running had experienced nothing: whence my soul was without any skin or natural protective device.”

Given her energy of will and originality of mind, she was headed for something great; given her practical morality, though, she may well belong rather in a penitentiary or madhouse.” O clubinho das Quartas-Feiras não deixa de ser ambos: por fora, ‘something great’ (de acordo a pseudo-historiografia do séc. XX), porém um asilo ou penitenciária até a medula! Nada menos que profético, meu caro e jamais superestimado ídolo!

you cannot imagine how this madness rages in my day and night.”

Ajude-me a sobreviver mais 15 meses! = foi ele, mas poderia ser eu neste fim de maio, o segundo maio da pandemia!

The separation from you threw me back into the deepest melancholy, and the whole return trip I was lost to evil black sentiments, including true hate for my sister, who for one year now has deprived me of all self-control with ill-timed silence and ill-timed talk”

He nonetheless left for Naumburg [cidade das duas víboras-de-família] a few days later – and there, in a month of being tirelessly chided and taunted, the crisis passed. Lisbeth had found ‘something absolutely distracting’: anti-Semitism, the highest lesson she had drawn from the Trinity fiasco. That month Naumburg celebrated her engagement to Bernhard Förster, who was laying plans for Aryan colony in Paraguay.”

By April he had broken with Lisbeth again – this time ‘radically’, for ‘between a vengeful anti-Semitic goose and me, conciliation is impossible.”

Despite all this forfeiture, and for all his show of anguish and fury, he surmounted the sentimental casualty of ‘82 more rapidly, more fully, and more healthily than either of his 2 erstwhile consorts.” [!]


– His is a beautiful mouth.

– But, Miss Salomé, how would you know? His mouth is overcast by a formidable moustache.

– Yes, but when he opens his mouth (and how often I did speak with him!) I see his lips perfectly.

too odd a girl to be easily made out . . . a likable, winning, truly feminine being who renounces all womanly resources in the struggle for existence and instead takes up men’s weapons with a certain harsh exclusiveness. Sharp judging and, as it turns out, condemning of everything; no trace of mercy, so dear to woman; clear resoluteness in every word, yet her character only appears the more one-sided for being so resolute in its one direction; music, art, poetry are discussed, to be sure, but gauged by a strange standard: not pure joy over their beauty, pleasure in their form, comprehension of their substance, poetic enjoyment with heart and soul, no – only a cold, too often negative, corrosive philosophizing about them.” Ludwig Hütter, filósofo alemão, resumindo o caráter e a mente inócuos da ‘valley girl’ Lou a Malwida

Fidelio was ‘not bad’ – to cite one small example.” (Ignora-se se se refere a Rée ou Lou – mas faz diferença?)

I dislike that skepticism which picks holes in everything and yet can offer nothing positive.”

Deussen¹ was, like Romundt, an old friend of N.’s, and Stein a new enthusiast – the one sort being then about as rare as the other.

¹ FN, Genealogy, III:17, called Deussen ‘Europe’s first real expert in Indian philosophy.

Nie.’s occult sway over ‘our friends’ brought home to her his superiority as nothing else could – to the detriment of her chosen alternative to him.”

The Danish cultural historian Georg Brandes, later N.’s 1st notable publicist, evidently escaped detection.” (Aludindo provavelmente a sua possível origem judia – e Paul Rée era um anti-semita!)

In the spring of 1883 Lou and Rée urged a friend of Brandes, the brilliant young sociologist and ardent Nietzschean of the first hour Ferdinand Tönnies, ‘with friendly-violent insistence’ to join them on a trip to the Engadin.”

Paulsen, outro amigo do “círculo”, a Tönnies: “though I by no means like leaving you alone to the Rées and Nietzsches, I much enjoy conversing with Rée but do not expect I could live close to them. There is something morbid there…”

Lisb., 1/9/1900: “I believe Georg Brandes also first heard his name [N.] from me, in the winter of 1879/80 at Friedrich Paulsen’s house”

Tödo mundo cai no cönto dessa sereia: “She is really an altogether extraordinary being: so much cleverness in a 21-year-old girl would almost make your flesh creep were it not for her truly tender disposition and utter demureness. She is a phenomenon that must be seen from close up to be believed. And a single look suffices to annihilate any thought of a ‘woman of loose ways’, as the preacher says: cut off both my hands if I am mistaken!”

On July 26 Tönnies struck the first sour note by complaining of senility as he turned 28.”

There, Lou forgave Tönnies only pro forma and would not see him alone, much less let him call her ‘dear Loulou’ as of old.” HAHAHAHAHA! O irônico é que Tönnies não cometeu nenhuma gafe ou indelicadeza (“dar em cima dela”, seria a 1ª suspeita de quem lê), não nesse sentido: para Lou e Rée, que o incumbiram de uma missão – ver Nietzsche e convencê-lo a arranjar as pazes entre os 3 – ele fracassou além do permitido ao sequer ter conseguido tocar no assunto durante sua visita. Diz em carta que “os olhos semi-cegos porém penetrantes do meu interlocutor me preveniram de qualquer iniciativa”.

He bought Lou a copy of Zarathustra I and read to her from it. She was not a pleased father.” Hahahahaha!

N.’s mid-summer fury [nas cartas cheias de invectivas, a ela, a Rée, ao irmão de Rée e à mãe de Lou! – sem falar das piores ainda, de Elizabeth] had left Lou doubly apprehensive of forcible repatriation” A família Nietzsche era tão influente a ponto de sujar a honra da virgenzinha e torná-la persona non grata na Alemanha? Ou Na Europa inteira, já que esses pseudo-intelectuais faziam viagens quase toda semana para diferentes pontos da Itália, principalmente… Aqui entendo o sentido: a mãe de Lou seria convencida a cortar as ‘finanças’ da idle girl…: “The point was to acquire a profession in any case and maybe even a livelihood just in case.”

Desnecessário dizer que ninguém do “círculo” apreciou o hoje imortal 1º volume do Zaratustra. O próprio circunspecto Peter Gast teria dito, tolamente: “Eu acho que a doença afeta sua escrita”.

Sua tática defensiva (permanecer fora da Prússia por 18 meses e estabelecer-se profissionalmente) era válida somente contra a família Rée; mas ela se preocupava sumamente com a sua. Meio século depois ela ainda insistiria: ‘Eles tentavam me deserdar de volta para casa’ – acrescentando, incoerentemente, que sua família concordara, então, com seus planos de publicar um livro como meio de obter uma ‘permissão de residir no estrangeiro’.” “Im Kampf um Gott [o wannabe-book] Um esforço por um Deus, um romance à dupla chave [double clef, seja lá o que isso significa] –, recounted Lou’s Nietzsche experience not only disguised, but modified in accordance with her attendant hopes and fears. Her narrator-hero was Kuno (Nico), a preacher’s son who, having lost the paternal Faith in his youth, seeks to override the resultant ‘inner conflict’ by setting himself successive intellectual tasks contrary to his inclinations.” E essa BABOSEIRA vem da pena de quem achou Zaratustra ruim? Ok.

Lou’s allowance from home may have been cut in 1883 (in any case Rée escravoceta paid most of their way).”

No “romance” a personagem louaniana recusa uma proposta de Kuno em casamento; Kuno sai da cidade aliviado; Lou comete suicídio envenenando-se! Patético. E depois o romance se prolonga, com Kuno voltando e conhecendo uma filha sua com Lou, crescida, de quem esconde a identidade, e com quem tem um caso. Nauseante. Três vezes patético!

Through Margharita’s inner misgivings over her cat-egoism, Lou was retracting her final, self-justificatory letters to N.; through Margharita’s noble shamming of depravity, Lou was roundly refuting N.’s final indictment of her; through M.’s suicide, Lou was living up to a remark of N.’s, proudly noted by her, about how a nature as ‘concentrated’ as hers really ought to issue in a deed.” Parabéns a Binion por analisar essa merda com tanto esmero – páginas e páginas!

More immediately it was a secret message to N. (like ‘Märchen’s love-recognition at Nico-end’): the declaration of a love that could never be. In the spring of 1884 the hapless lovers communicated indirectly, probably through Romundt. N. learned that he had ‘actually done her much harm’ the preceding summer as also that she was in Meran with Rée and about to publish ‘something on religious affects’. She on her side heard that N. was ready to resume relations.”

she was in Munich afterwards with Stein, whom she engaged to plead before N. for a reconcilement – and mention her novel to him. Then Stein visited Sils for 3 enchanting days beginning August 26. He not only mentioned the novel, but also, N. told his mother, ‘spoke with the highest regard of Dr. Rée’s character and of his love for me – which did me much good.’ As for the plea, it went unheard, having perhaps been inaudible.”

Lou was back in Berlin by December, when her novel appeared. It brought Henri Lou, (?) besides rave reviews, a satchel-load of fan mail. One enthusiast declared: I and a whole circle of kindred spirits to whom I took your confession wish to express our warm and sincere gratitude’Zzzzzz…

My friend Ebbinghaus called it ‘nun’s fantasies’.” Deussen

Overbeck himself judged it ‘the most astonishing book I have read this year.’ He subsequently sent it to N.’s old friend the classical philologist Erwin Rohde, who ‘read it with much interest. For all its great faults (its bodilessness, ghostly spirituality, etc.), it is enticing by virtue of the pure ardor and genuine sentiment bursting forth throughout.’N. também leu o livrito.

A mulher deseja se tornar independente, então ela começa a esclarecer o homem acerca da ‘mulher enquanto tal’: isso é um dos piores progressos no enfeiamento geral da Europa.” Além do Bem e do Mal

Considero o verdadeiro amigo das mulheres aquele que assim as aconselha hoje: mulier taceat de muliere (mulheres devem silenciar sobre a mulher)!”

quando a mulher tem tendências intelectuais, amiúde ela não é sexualmente saudável”

alguém de gênio é insofrível quando lhe faltam ao menos duas coisas: gratidão e asseio”

quem, para salvar sua reputação, jamais sacrificou, pelo menos uma vez, – a si mesmo?”

Eterno masculino” (cunhado por Goethe): a característica de quem sabe, reconhece e exalta as mulheres mais nobres.

Toda sua seção sobre as mulheres em Beyond está repleta de Louísmos virados contra Lou, muito além de seus desertos [Aqui não fica claro o que eu deveria traduzir por ‘well beyond her deserts’ – As puerilidades e futilidades da mulher em geral, de Lou Salomé? Dos aforismos sobre o feminino que Lou tinha elaborado e que N. corrigiu com paciência?] [ou carências?] (ecoando, entretanto, [O que é que ‘ecoava’? o deserto, ou os ‘louísmos’ de N.? ou os louísmos da própria Lou?] o discurso zombeteiro da mulher como ente muito mais talhado para gerar um filho que para competir com o homem): foi sem dúvida a pior conseqüência intelectual de seu encontro.” Se Binion diz!

Convencer o homem a tê-la em alta consideração; para em seguida, implicitamente, acreditar na estima que o homem nutre por ela: quem sabe melhor que a mulher realizar essa mágica?”


Convencer o homem a tê-la em alta consideração; inconscientemente, acreditar na própria nobreza como coisa dada: quem melhor que a mulher para fazê-lo?”

ou ainda:

Convencer o homem de que ela vale muito; acreditar no homem: não é este o truque supremo da feminilidade?”

…depois conferimos o aforismo 148 nas traduções já existentes em Português para uma pós-avaliação!

Mais abstrata é a verdade que se quer ensinar, melhor se deve cativar os sentidos com ela.” Algo de que Heidegger certamente é incapaz…

As colossais expectativas depositadas pela mulher no ato sexual e seu pudor concomitante frustram desde sempre toda a sua vida sexual.”

one should talk only about what one knows firsthand”, assim resenhou N. o livro de Rée sobre a consciência, hahaha!

Rée then separated after all from his soeur inseparable: ‘86 found them living, as Lou then put it, ‘at opposite ends’ of Berlin ‘like children mad at each other’. (…) Besides, Rée had had enough of chaperoning Lou, and Lou enough of his chaperoning.”

The previous fall Rée had again failed his examination for a university lectureship, this time in Strasbourg, whereupon he had commenced studying the natural sciences with a view to grounding his moral philosophy in them” O nível do cidadão…

Mais meia dúzia de velhos babões pediram a mão da russinha em casamento, blá, blá, blá…

Finally, after returning from a few weeks in Bavaria spent principally with Jenia, Lou received a proposal from Fred Charles Andreas, a prodigious philologist [define it!]; the engagement followed secretly on November 1, 1886.”

Afterwards he studied medicine, zoology, and mineralogy at Halle and Göttingen, and at 22 he took a doctorate in oriental philology at Erlangen.” Morou muitos anos na Pérsia: “Only when he injured his eyes deciphering inscriptions in bright sunlight did he return to Europe – as courier to his royal patron, himself en route to Wiesbaden for eye treatment.”

By ‘87 he had mastered Greek, Latin, Pahlavi, Sanskrit, Old Norse, Aramaic, and Hebrew, in addition to Javanese, Dutch, German, French, the Scandinavian tongues, English, Hindi, Arabic, Turkish, Armenian, and just about every dialect of Persian, from Afghan to Baluchi (including Dravidian Brahvi) to Ossetic to Kurdish. Furthermore, in each case he had an expert’s knowledge of the corresponding literature, religion, and folklore, as also of the history, geography, and archaeology. He deciphered inscriptions with surpassing ease, memorizing even as he deciphered. (…) His special concern was how dead languages sounded, particularly how sounds relates to writing and how dialects emerge, then vary; he intended to do a great book on all this once he was settled professionally.” Mas vacilou e o pai da Lingüística foi Saussure e não ele!

POR ISSO NÃO GOSTO DE PSICANALISTAS BIOGRAFANDO: “Whereas he called himself Charles, Lou called him Fred (in writing, mostly ‘F.’), and soon after their engagement he Germanized his given names to Friedrich Carl. This hints at Nie.. So do his age and profession, his interest in Zarathustra, even his eye trouble – and a friendship with Erwin Rohde.”

Done with Lou as far as he knew, N. turned against R. in July 87 with The Genealogy of Morals, subtitled ‘a polemical piece’. In the preface he declared his arguments of 1876-86 against Rée’s moral theory to have been just that, pretending, however, to have drawn them from an age-old theory of his own about to be expounded in full for the 1st time – whereupon he presented them newly consolidated, sharpened, rectified, amplified, supplemented, and cleansed of Darwin’s and Bagehot’s traces. By predating this theory before his acquaintance with Rée, he was extirpating Rée from his past. He was also repudiating Rée the positivist par excellence when now he represented the scientific ideal as a derivative of Christian asceticism, Europe’s mortal malady, and repudiating Rée the rationalist par excellence when now he treated thinking as instinctual like everything else in life, only surreptitiously so. Thus confuted, R. became for him ‘congenial Dr. Rée’ again. And then, while in Ecce Homo he claimed to have meant himself by his Human, All Too Human tribute to ‘one of my friends, excellent Dr. Rée – fortunately too fine an animal to . . .’, (!) he also supposed that a subsidy remitted to him by Deussen from ‘unknown Berlin admirers’ came out of Deussen’s own pocket and, he told his mother, Rée’s.”

Genealogy does retain Bagehot’s distinctive frame of reference – nature’s huge enterprise of making the human animal law-abiding – but no hint at a natural selection of those primitive tribes having the hardest cakes of custom. As for Darwinism, the old ‘herd instinct’ gave way to the slavish principle of strength in numbers.”

Carta a Rée de 1877: “I ever more admire how solid your exposition is on the logical side. Yes, I can do nothing like that, at most sing or sigh a little – but prove! for the good of the head! That you can do, and that is of 100x more consequence.”

Rome viewed the Jew as something against nature, an antipodal monstrosity so to say” Genealogy of Morals

the big news in The Genealogy of Morals, crucial to its whole argument, is the world-historical role of the Jews, a sly priestly folk with a genius for rancor, who, subjugated by Rome, incite the slaves of the Empire to moral revolt against their masters, thereby determining a unique historic reversal of values with modern nihilism as its final consequence – pending a transvaluation of values.”

O mestre deveria aprender ao inverso: compaixão pelos escravos e suportar o ressentimento dos escravos.” Sempre achei que a forma mais cristalina desse axioma está contida não na Genealogia, mas no Crepúsculo dos Ídolos

Mulheres… todas gostam de mim – esse fato é de há muito conhecido: exceto as abortivas, as ‘emancipadas’, que não têm o que é preciso para gerar descendência.” Ecce Homo

Nem se eu enlouquecer eu mando cartas pra vocês!

Rée took his medical degree in 1890, then set up in Tütz as a medical saint. Living alone in a hut on the family estate, he tended the community free of charge for 10 years without a break. He would carry bread and wine to poor patients beneath his priestly mantle and readily finance trips to the distant clinics. He came to hate Lou, and he dismissed N. as all ‘morbid vanity’ and ‘raving’ in ‘clever’ and ‘beautiful’ phraseology. He was preparing a supreme opus, Philosophie

He was still deriving transcendental concepts such as ‘justice’ from selfishness progressively rationalized – still writing history a priori, only now without wasting labor on corroborative research. His philosophy, once daring, was now dated: like his counterpart the Count, he had outlived himself – and not only philosophically.” Acabou com o jumento!

He died on October 28, 1901”

Tönnies também possui um artigo devastador, chamado simplesmente ‘Rée’.

As for Malwida, Hütter recollected that, when he asked her about Lou in 92, she ‘replied – gruff, embittered, deprecatory (not at all like herself) – <I was deceived by her. She let me down>, something like <unworthy>. I said no more…’


With Fred she proved frigid: the marriage could not be consummated.”

She ruled out divorce because of ‘the bond, the word… – they retain their sting: he is still alive, he is, exists, and you have abandoned your freely chosen task!’”

[1890] Throughout most of Europe, Realism had already yielded to Naturalism on stage and in letters a decade or two earlier. That is, the inescapable banalities of social life had yielded to its inextricable problems, the pointless norm to the pointed extreme, occurrences and recurrences to situations, data to theses. Flaubert having shown that adultery was as dull as marriage, Ibsen and Strindberg were now showing that marriage was anything but dull given its inherent perils, including adultery – and dullness. In Germany, though, where Realism had been best known in translation, Naturalism was naturalized belatedly – on the stage for the most part, and with a strong admixture of dialect, reverie, and rhyme. Just so it created a scandal: on October 20, 1889, the Freie Bühne’s first domestic offering, Vor Sonnenaufgang by the unknown Silesian dramatist Gerhart Hauptmann, drew riotous cheers and jeers for blending didactics, lyricism, and crudity.”

As mulheres foram até hoje tratadas como pássaros pelo homem” Beyond Good and Evil

She advocated the emancipation of women, but with the proviso that new, self-given obligations and interdictions should replace the old, man-given ones.”

Though Lou’s Ibsen book was extravagantly acclaimed in its time, its big talk about ideals – about self-liberation versus self-alienation through ideals, and about self-sacrifice for ideals or for want of them – rings false in ours.” “she discussed neither Ibsen’s plays nor even his characterizations, but his characters themselves, quite as if they were real people” “Lou could develop no farther as authoress, feminist or female except as Nietzsche’s ex-disciple.”

Following Nietzsche’s breakdown, Lou filled in her old sketch of him and brought it up-to-date as she pored over his life’s work. The result was the first significant treatment of him in print: 10 precursory articles of 1891-93, elaborated into Friedrich Nietzsche in seinen Werken¹ of 1894.” “Other Nietzscheana prior to Lou’s were crackpot adulation or defamation.” “N.’s writings emerged as symptomatic expressions of self-induced nervous derangement at distinct stages of its development toward insanity. This thesis, startling for its time, was damning for N. in effect and in after-effect, confused as were Lou’s intent and argument respectively.”

If one has character, one has an ever-recurrent typical experience.” BGE

In point of fact N.’s insanity was due to a brain ailment of physical origin, hence was not mentally self-induced, and there is no correlation whatever between the onsets of his malady, his intellectual self-renewals, and his alternations between felt instinctual harmony and felt instinctual chaos. He does seem to have induced and relished many a crisis, only not knowingly. Lou, however, lacked a conception of unconscious purpose”

When speaking summarily, Lou let nothing philosophical survive N.’s self-renewals beyond his philosophical personality itself.”

Evidently she took his Zarathustra IV (1st published in 1891) for his ‘last work’, written ‘on the threshold of madness’ (1890a), only to learn belatedly that it was actually completed in 1885” HAHAHAAHAHA!

Para a loira burra russa:

suprahomem – misticismo

vontade de potência – ( ) (não escreveu sobre)

eterno retorno – idéia fixa

transvaloração de todos os valores – blá, blá, blá (é tão idiota que seria humilhante proceder a este résumé

Her first large-scale autobiographic hoax was, then, an approximation to that great coveted but forbidden spiritual and carnal union between them, rendered celestial and eternal by being depicted only dimly and solemnly and without temporal beginning or end.”

Within N.’s old circle Erwin Rohde, after deeming L.’s first articles on N. incomparably fine and deep, now told Overbeck that she was ‘above all a literary parasite who would just like to live off N. a while as off a suitable substratum while also putting her own person to advantage, and this not so tactfully or nicely.’

her reflexions and constructions about N.’s illness are sufficient in themselves to rule out any really intimate association or communication.”

In July 1893 Peter Gast, in his introduction to a reedition of N.’s Human, All Too Human, upbraided L. for her latest articles: he threw back her charge against N. of mystical madness, refuted her on point after point beginning with N.’s having come to positivism through Rée, and denounced her trickery about how long she knew N. – all this too late, however, to affect her book.”

Mr. and Mrs. Förster had founded their colony – ‘New Germania’ – in Paraguay early in 1886. In 89, facing financial ruin, Bernhard took his life; Lisbeth carried on alone, slowly retrieving the deficit. She returned to Germany in the fall of 90 for 18 months to boost subscriptions, then definitively in September 93 to cash in on her brother’s growing fame. She wrested his literary estate from Gast’s hands, then from her mother’s proprietorship. In February 94 she founded the Nietzsche Archiv in Naumburg with Gast’s help – only to turn Gast out that very spring. For she intended using the Archiv to represent N.’s life and thought in the way of her neo-Germanic propaganda, anti-Semitism and all. Her very own first project was known in Archiv parlance as ‘the biography’.”

In 1900 the Archiv began publishing N.’s letters: forged ones to Lisbeth reviling Lou and Jews plugged untoward gaps. A year later The Will to Power appeared, a concatenation of N. scraps presented as N.’s supreme work – as if to render Lou’s study obsolete. Lisbeth meanwhile more than once called Lou a liar in print – notably in 99 concerning Lou’s pretended conversations and correspondence with N. about the eternal recurrence. In 1904 the volume of the Archiv biography covering 82 appeared. By this account, Lou approached N. as a would-be disciple, but fast showed herself to be intellectually unfit and only out for an amour, so N., who really just wanted a secretary anyhow, sent her packing. L.’s book, ‘utterly false and untrue’, contained ‘conversations never held, excerpts from imaginary letters, and events that never took place.’ It was ‘an act of revenge upon sick N. due to wounded feminine vanity’ – and was ‘perhaps meant to win back Paul Rée’s alienated affections’ to boot.”

Unfortunately for Lou, the mud slung at her was made up of pure grains of truth – or rather, fortunately for her, the pure grains of truth were all mudded over. So, speciously wondering that anyone could regard her book as directed against N., she dismissed the Archival as beneath her dignity to read, let alone refute”

Her ethereal, ageless romance with N. having been refuted, she made him over into a nasty suitor – indeed a vengeful spurned man.”

In this contest between fabler and forger, the one sure loser was N. himself.”

P A R T T H R E E . W O M A N H O O D


IN 92 Lou Andreas, 31-year-old virginal wife, and Georg Ledebour, a Marxist journalist and lecturer 11 years her senior, fell in love.” “She insisted on working things out her own way. For months thereafter she lied to the 2 overwrought rivals by turns until she no longer heard what they growled or hissed back at her. She grew numb and skeletal.” “Ledebour married one of his pupils in 95—one of approximately Lou’s own age and social standing whom he had known, like Lou, since 92. She made him a tender companion through a stormy career and—following Hitler’s advent—a long exile.” “Lou’s Ledebour affair paralleled her Nietzsche hoax as her sorriest off-paper attempt since girlhood to impress fantasy upon reality. Even so, it was her farthest advance toward womanhood to date—a roundabout advance as if to a 2nd adolescence, this one compelling. Her first documented amour since her marriage, it was also her last with an older man: thereafter, while remaining a child-wife at home, she resumed her maidenly coquetterie abroad with new earnestness.”

Lou also made acquaintances fleetingly with August Strindberg, tenuously with the lesser playwright Otto Hartleben, and abidingly with the Danish translator Therese Krüger. And early in 92 she met Frieda von Bülow, soon her closest friend.” “A most possessive friend, she nonetheless had mixed, unstable feelings toward Lou, who was unfailingly devoted to her.”

Her next votive offering, Von der Bestie bis zum Gott (From Beast to God), was a delectable scholarly study of how deities, on losing their following, turn satanic and how, conversely, frightful beasts work their way up through totemism to fusion with tribal fathers, then withdraw to the wilderness as divinity sets in.”

Having found Vienna enchanting at first sight, Lou now found it doubly so. Schnitzler was then, on turning 33, a physician who dabbled in letters; only later that year did his drama Liebelei invert the formula overnight.”


At Wassermann’s for tea on May 12, Lou was confronted with a veteran poet of 21 who, with huge soulful eyes, ‘narrow shoulders, thin neck’, ‘receding chin and almost no back to his head’, looked to her like a ‘sickly aristocrat’.”

She was far from suspecting his genius. And no wonder, for he was then in his artistic incunabula, which were all sensibility, sentiment, and fancy, in rich effusion.”


P A R T F O U R . M A T U R I T Y



Puro lixo e devaneio.






At Alvastra in ‘11 Lou seduced Poul (sic) Bjerre after having befriended his wife, an invalid, and laughed down his marital scruples (…) he too had once written on Nietzsche as a mad genius, but expressly to eschew reductive exegetics.” “About then Ellen Key ran into Bjerre, who inquired whether Lou still took Freud so seriously—and Ellen, reporting to Lou, added that Bjerre had just brought out a fine book exposing Freud’s exaggeration of sex.” “Lou’s next was Viktor Tausk, her classmate in Vienna, a Croation (sic) ex-jurist come lately to medicine and psychoanalysis.”

P A R T F I V E . O L D A G E [ O F A H A R L O T ]


Reaffirming her individuality by this same token, she treated Freud’s work as a contribution to her existence rather than the reverse.”

By and large, Lou treated other celebrities just like Tolstoi in not letting on how well or ill she knew them and as if her knowing them were a matter of course—though in fact she ransacked her ‘Celebrities’ file to compile 2 chapters teeming with them.”


As the pain eased over the months, she went back from 100 to 125 pounds even on a limited calorie diet—one permitting her chocolate at night in lieu of bread by day.” “Later that year she was laid up in plaster with a broken foot. Her proud calligraphy was reduced to a pencil scrawl—as during her prostration of 2 years before, only this time definitively, for her eyesight was failing.” “Another year or so and her chronic heart ailment had set in for the duration, followed by cancer in a breast that was successfully amputated in mid-35 after she had put her papers in final order and taken leave of the world.”


Inclusive as were her cultural concerns, her concerns were that exclusively cultural: nowhere do her own ample annals disclose that, for instance, her life in Germany began under Bismarck and ended under Hitler.” Uma imbecil fora do tempo, mas não atemporal.

a moral monstrosity”

distraught fabler”

post-elaborated beyond recognition”


Lou changed off fictionalizing techniques continually, but I could not grasp the sense of the changes.”

The stock subjects of intellectual history were extraneous to Lou, who went the Zeitgeist’s way with no guidance from the Zeitgeist. Commonly ideas and their ilk are chronicled as if they developed somehow one from the other or else in response to conditions and events of public life; they developed neither way, however”

* * *


How I would deal with a man who spoke that way about me to my sister there is no doubt. For I am a soldier and always will be, I can handle weapons. But a girl! And Lou! I did not at all doubt but that she would at some time cleanse herself of those ignominious deeds in a heavenly way. Dirt! Any other man would have turned away from such a girl with disgust: I too felt disgust, but overcame it again and again. It moved me to pity to see a nobly endowed nature in its momentary degeneration; and, to tell the truth, I spilled countless tears in Tautenburg—not on my own account, but on Lou’s. This trick pity played on me. I lost the little I still possessed: my good name, the confidence of a few people—perhaps I shall yet lose a friend: you (…) Dear friend, I call Lou my sirocco incarnate: not one minute have I had with her that clear sky that I need above me, with or without people. She combines all the human qualities repulsive and hateful to me, and since Tautenburg I have for that very reason put myself to the torture of loving her! (…) I thought you had persuaded her to come to my help: now I see that she is out for amusement and good mental entertainment. And when I think that questions of morality come in there too I am, to put it mildly, revolted.”

Listen, friend, to how I see things today! She is an utter misfortune—and I am its victim. In the spring I thought I had found someone able to help me: for which not only a good intellect but a first-rate morality is needed. I discovered instead a being who wants to have fun and is shameless enough to believe that the most distinguished minds on Earth are just good enough for her fun. As a result of this mistake I more than ever lack the means of finding such a person. I am writing this in clearest weather: do not confuse my sense with the nonsense of my recent opium letter. I am certainly not crazy, nor do I suffer from delusions of grandeur. But I should have friends who warn me in good time about such desperate things as those of last summer. Who could suspect that her talk of ‘heroism’, of ‘fighting for a principle’, her poem ‘To Pain’, her tales of struggles for knowledge, are simply fraud?”

It was a completely futile waste of love and heart—though in truth I can afford it. . . . Lou debases the whole dignity of our striving: she should have nothing further to do with your name and mine. I no longer understand you, dear friend. How can you stand being near such a creature? For heaven’s sake, pure air and highest mutual esteem!”

THE PHILOSOPHY OF [EUROPEAN] HISTORY – Hegel (trad. e notas de J. Sibree)



La primera edición fue hecha en 1837 por Eduard Gans. La segunda, en 1840 por Karl Hegel; esta fue reimpresa -con muchas erratas- en 1848. La segunda edición ha sido siempre considerada como la canónica, por las grandes adiciones que contiene respecto de la primera. Ha sido reeditada en 1907 por Fritz Brunstad en la conocida colección Reclam. Los 2 editores primeros, E. Gans y Karl Hegel, partieron del propósito equivocado de convertir en un ‘libro’ lo que era una serie de ‘lecciones’. Esto les llevó no sólo a pulir acaso excesivamente el estilo de los manuscritos que les sirvieron de base, sino a refundir realmente partes enteras y a suprimir lo que juzgaban repeticiones o pasajes sin interés. Todo ello con el buen deseo de convertir en un libro los materiales que tenían a mano.”

Karl Hegel asegura que las adiciones de su edición proceden todas no de cuadernos de apuntes, sino de manuscritos de la propia mano de su padre. Pero estos manuscritos no los ha visto nadie. Es posible que Karl Hegel dé este nombre a las notas volanderas, sin redactar, compuestas de palabras sueltas, que Hegel utilizaba en sus clases. En tal caso, las páginas de los apuntes resultarían más auténticas aún, puesto que Hegel no daba realmente forma plena a su pensamiento sino en la improvisación oral. Por todas estas razones puede considerarse la edición nueva de Lasson como la primera que refleja con exactitud bastante aproximada la forma que tuvieron las lecciones de Hegel sobre filosofía de la historia universal.”


Esta traducción de la Filosofía de la historia, de Hegel, puede considerarse prácticamente como la primera que se hace a idiomas latinos.” “En italiano existen 2: 1°. Hegel. Filosofía della Storia, trad. G.P. Passerini (Capolago, 1840); 2°. Hegel. Filosofía della Storia, org. Eduardo Gans, 3° edizione fatta per cura di C. Hegel, traduzione dall’originale per A. Novelli, 1864.

La primera es la traducción de la edición de Gans, que quedó totalmente anulada por la edición de Karl Hegel con sus numerosas adiciones. La segunda, la traducción de Novelli, está juzgada por Benedetto Croce, en la introducción a su traducción italiana de la Enciclopedia de las ciencias filosóficas, en palabras duramente condenatorias, abonadas por una muestra a 2 columnas.”

La terminología de Hegel ha sido para nosotros causa, a veces, de perplejidades no todas satisfactoriamente resueltas y que comunicamos al lector.”

Hegel distingue entre Moralität y Sittlichkeit. Ambos términos tienen una sola traducción en español: moralidad. La palabra alemana Sittlichkeit es el derivado de Site que significa costumbre, como moralidad es el derivado de mos, la voz latina que también significa costumbre. La diferencia de sentido que Hegel establece entre Moralität y Sittlichkeit es que Moralität se refiere a la moralidad subjetiva, a la calidad o valor moral de una voluntad que obra por respeto al deber, mientras que Sittlichkeit señala más bien la moralidad objetiva, la moral como conjunto de normas, costumbres, leyes objetivas que constituyen la manera de obrar de un pueblo. Esta diferencia de sentido ha sido destacada en las traducciones italianas de Hegel por el uso de los 2 términos Moralitá y Eticitá. Podríamos -y en esto consiste nuestra perplejidad- haber empleado en nuestra traducción las palabras moralidad y eticidad. Pero la introducción de este neologismo nos resultaba algo dura y poco conforme con el espíritu de nuestro idioma, que parece más bien otorgar a la voz moralidad los 2 sentidos, el objetivo y el subjetivo. Acaso la mejor traducción de Sittlichkeit fuera: civilidad, dando a este término su sentido prístino de vida humana social sujeta a normas de convivencia, esto es, distinta de la vida animal o natural. En general puede decirse que lo que Hegel entiende por Estado (Staat) no tiene el sentido precisamente jurídico-político que tiene para nosotros, sino más bien el de sociedad humana. Pero esta distinción, ya vislumbrada por Hegel, que insiste en diferenciar el Estado de su constitución, etcétera, no se ha practicado hasta después. Por estas razones -y repetimos que en esto consiste nuestra perplejidad- hemos usado solamente el término de moralidad, confiando en que el contexto dará al lector facilidad para discernir el sentido en cada caso. De todos modos sírvale de guía nuestra advertencia de que el término está tomado en su sentido subjetivo.”

Otro problema terminológico nos ha planteado la expresión Volksgeist. Su traducción literal es espíritu del pueblo. Podría traducirse espíritu nacional. Hemos preferido la primera expresión, que tiene algún abolengo en nuestro idioma, habiendo sido usada por los filósofos y juristas españoles que en el pasado siglo tuvieron contacto con el pensamiento alemán (Hegel, Krause, etcétera). Pero también aquí tienen los términos nación y pueblo para Hegel el mismo sentido más amplio que hemos indicado para el término Estado.”

Hemos traducido Bildung casi siempre por cultura. Solamente en algún caso hemos puesto educación por tratarse de pasajes en donde se insiste principalmente sobre la noción de formación, de paso de un estado a otro, de una situación inculta a otra culta.”

Por último, no necesitamos decir que la palabra idea no ha sido empleada por nosotros nada más que para traducir la voz alemana Idee, cuyo valor terminológico en Hegel es conocido. Acaso hubiera sido mejor escribirla siempre con mayúscula.”

J.G., Madrid, 1928



Hegel’s Lectures on the Philosophy of History are recognized in Germany as a popular introduction to his system; their form is less rigid than the generality of metaphysical treatises, and the illustrations, which occupy a large proportion of the work, are drawn from a field of observation more familiar perhaps than any other, to those who have not devoted much time to metaphysical studies.”

A few words however have necessarily been used in a rather unusual sense; and one of them is of very frequent occurrence. The German Geist, in Hegel’s nomenclature, includes both intelligence and will, the latter even more expressly than the former.” “It is pertinent to remark here, that the comparative disuse of this term in English metaphysical literature is one result of that alienation of theology from philosophy with which continental writers of the most opposite schools agree in taxing the speculative genius of Britain — an alienation which mainly accounts for the gulf separating English from German speculation, and which will, it is feared, on other accounts also be the occasion of communicating a somewhat uninviting aspect to the following pages.”

The word ‘moment’ is, as readers of German philosophy are aware, a veritable crux to the translator. In Mr. J.R. Morell’s very valuable edition of Johnson’s Translation of Tennemann’s Manual of the History of Philosophy, the following explanation is given: ‘This term was borrowed from mechanics by Hegel (see his Wissenschaft der Logik, Vol. 3, P. 104, Ed. 1841). He employs it to denote the contending forces which are mutually dependent, and whose contradiction forms an equation. Hence his formula, Esse = Nothing. Here Esse and Nothing are momentums, giving birth to Werden, i.e., Existence. Thus the momentum contributes to the same oneness of operation in contradictory forces that we see in mechanics, amidst contrast and diversity, in weight and distance, in the case of the balance.’ But in several parts of the work before us this definition is not strictly adhered to, and the translator believes he has done justice to the original in rendering the word by ‘successive’ or ‘organic phase’. In the chapter on the Crusades another term occurs which could not be simply rendered into English. The definite, positive, and present embodiment of essential being is there spoken of as ‘ein Dieses’, ‘das Dieses’, etc., literally ‘a This’, ‘the This’, for which repulsive combination a periphrasis has been substituted, which, it is believed, is not only accurate but expository.”

The translator would remark, in conclusion, that the ‘Introduction’ will probably be found the most tedious and difficult part of the treatise; he would therefore suggest a cursory reading of it in the 1st instance, and a 2nd perusal as a resume of principles which are more completely illustrated in the body of the work.

J. Sibree”


In proceeding to treat of China and India, he wished, as he said himself, only to show by example how philosophy ought to comprehend the character of a nation; and this could be done more easily in the case of the stationary nations of the East, than in that of peoples which have a bona fide history and a historical development of character.”

Had Hegel pursued the plan which most professors adopt, in adapting notes for use in the lecture room, of merely appending emendations and additions to the original draught, it would be correct to suppose that his latest readings would be also the most matured. But as, on the contrary, every delivery was with him a new act of thought, each gives only the expression of that degree of philosophical energy which animates his mind at the time” Hegel, o Filósofo da Síntese, não conseguia sintetizar suas próprias aulas!


O imbecil se julgava superior a um Tucídides!

Legends, Balladstories, Traditions, must be excluded from such original history. These are but dim and hazy forms of historical apprehension, and therefore belong to nations whose intelligence is but half awakened.”

Reflections are none of his business, for he lives in the spirit of his subject; he has not attained an elevation above it.”

Such speeches as we find in Thucydides (for example) of which we can positively assert that they are not bona fide reports, would seem to make against our statement that a historian of his class presents us no reflected picture; that persons and people appear in his works in propria persona.” Imagine o ataque cardíaco que Hegel teria ao se deparar postumamente com o materialismo histórico!

ESSA ESTRANHA VENERAÇÃO PELA PERSONALIDADE DE PÉRICLES ADVIRIA DA PRÓPRIA LEITURA VICIADA DE HEGEL DE HISTORIADORES EM SUA FORMAÇÃO? “Granted that such orations as those of Pericles — that most profoundly accomplished, genuine, noble statesman — were elaborated by Thucydides, it must yet be maintained that they were not foreign to the character of the speaker.” Ao mesmo tempo, contradiz a passagem acima!

Xenophon’s Retreat of the Ten Thousand, is a work equally original.” Pois essa obra não é nada falada hoje em dia…

Caesar’s Commentaries are the simple masterpiece of a mighty spirit.”

Our culture is essentially comprehensive, and immediately changes all events into historical representations.” Hoje chegamos ao absurdo de verificar isso no ao vivo televisivo + novas mídias. Eu não escrevo essas linhas conforme meu presente, mas pensando num futuro leitor – num futuro leitor distante, muito depois de minha morte… E por quê? Porque é o espírito do tempo, eu não posso evitar esse preconceito ridículo.

In Germany such masters are rare. Frederick the Great (Histoire de Mon Temps) is an illustrious exception.” Puxa-saco descarado.

Instead of writing history, we are always beating our brains to discover how history ought to be written.”

Johannes von Müller has given a stiff, formal, pedantic aspect to his history, in the endeavor to remain faithful in his portraiture to the times he describes. We much prefer the narratives we find in old Tschudy. All is more naive and natural than it appears in the garb of a fictitious and affected archaism.”

But what experience and history teach is this — that peoples and governments never have learned anything from history, or acted on principles deduced from it.”

Looked at in this light, nothing can be shallower than the oft-repeated appeal to Greek and Roman examples during the French Revolution.”

It is only a thorough, liberal, comprehensive view of historical relations (such e.g., as we find in Montesquieu’s Ésprit des Lois) that can give truth and interest to reflections of this order.”

Disgusted by such reflective histories, readers have often returned with pleasure to a narrative adopting no particular point of view.”

The third form of Reflective History is the Critical. This deserves mention as pre-eminently the mode of treating history now current in Germany. It is not history itself that is here presented. We might more properly designate it as a History of History

Among us, the so-called ‘higher criticism’, which reigns supreme in the domain of philology, has also taken possession of our historical literature. This ‘higher criticism’ has been the pretext for introducing all the anti-historical monstrosities that a vain imagination could suggest.”

In this science it would seem as if Thought must be subordinate to what is given, to the realities of fact; that this is its basis and guide: while Philosophy dwells in the region of self-produced ideas, without reference to actuality.” “we seem to have in Philosophy a process diametrically opposed to that of the historiographer.”

The only Thought which Philosophy brings with it to the contemplation of History, is the simple conception of Reason; that Reason is the Sovereign of the World; that the history of the world, therefore, presents us with a rational process. This conviction and intuition is a hypothesis in the domain of history as such.”

Reason is the substance of the Universe”

[Reason] having its place outside reality, nobody knows where; something separate and abstract, in the heads of certain human beings.” Critica a coisa-em-si de Kant, que ele ‘deixa de fora’, mas o ‘fora’ de Hegel é ainda mais escandaloso, i.e., é dentro da cabeça de vento dos agentes históricos!

developing it not only in the phenomena of the Natural, but also of the Spiritual Universe — the History of the World. That this ‘Idea’ or ‘Reason’ is the True, the Eternal, the absolutely powerful essence; that it reveals itself in the World, and that in that World nothing else is revealed but this and its honor and glory — is the thesis which, as we have said, has been proved in Philosophy, and is here regarded as demonstrated.”

It is only an inference from the history of the World, that its development has been a rational process; that the history in question has constituted the rational necessary course of the World-Spirit — that Spirit whose nature is always one and the same, but which unfolds this its one nature in the phenomena of the World’s existence. This must, as before stated, present itself as the ultimate result of History.”

The movement of the solar system takes place according to unchangeable laws. These laws are Reason, implicit in the phenomena in question. But neither the sun nor the planets, which revolve around it according to these laws, can be said to have any consciousness of them.”

Aristotle says of Anaxagoras, as the originator of the thought in question, that he appeared as a sober man among the drunken. Socrates adopted the doctrine from Anaxagoras, and it forthwith became the ruling idea in Philosophy — except in the school of Epicurus, who ascribed all events to chance.” “the world is not abandoned to chance and external contingent causes, but (…) a Providence controls it.” “for Divine Providence is Wisdom, endowed with an infinite Power, which realizes its aim, viz., the absolute rational design of the World.”

The ignorance of Anaxagoras, as to how intelligence reveals itself in actual existence, was ingenuous. Neither in his consciousness, nor in that of Greece at large, had that thought been farther expanded.”

in recent times Philosophy has been obliged to defend the domain of religion against the attacks of several theological systems.”

Our mode of treating the subject is, in this aspect, a Theodicaea — a justification of the ways of God — which Leibnitz attempted metaphysically, in his method, i.e., in indefinite abstract categories — so that the ill that is found in the World may be comprehended, and the thinking Spirit reconciled with the fact of the existence of evil.” “Reason, whose sovereignty over the World has been maintained, is as indefinite a term as Providence, supposing the term to be used by those who are unable to characterize it distinctly” “The German nations, under the influence of Christianity, were the first to attain the consciousness that man, as man, is free: that it is the freedom of Spirit which constitutes its essence.”

The epoch when a State attains this harmonious condition, marks the period of its bloom, its virtue, its vigor, and its prosperity. But the history of mankind does not begin with a conscious aim of any kind, as it is the case with the particular circles into which men form themselves of set purpose.” Fala logo do Apocalipse ou de sua Apocatástase, idiota! Solta sua língua!

The History of the World is not the theatre of happiness. Periods of happiness are blank pages in it, for they are periods of harmony — periods when the antithesis is in abeyance.”

Their whole life was labor and trouble; their whole nature was nought else but their master-passion. When their object is attained they fall off like empty hulls from the kernel. They die early, like Alexander; they are murdered, like Caesar; transported to St. Helena, like Napoleon.”

Síndrome de Cleópatra

it has been demonstrated ad nauseam that princes are generally unhappy on their thrones; in consideration of which the possession of a throne is tolerated, and men acquiesce in the fact that not themselves but the personages in question are its occupants.”

Alexander of Macedon partly subdued Greece, and then Asia; therefore he was possessed by a morbid craving for conquest. He is alleged to have acted from a craving for fame, for conquest; and the proof that these were the impelling motives is that he did that which resulted in fame. What pedagogue has not demonstrated of Alexander the Great — of Julius Caesar — that they were instigated by such passions, and were consequently immoral men? — whence the conclusion immediately follows that he, the pedagogue, is a better man than they, because he has not such passions; a proof of which lies in the fact that he does not conquer Asia — vanquish Darius and Porus — but while he enjoys life himself, lets others enjoy it too.”

Man must eat and drink; he sustains relations to friends and acquaintances; he has passing impulses and ebullitions of temper. ‘No man is a hero to his valet-de-chambre’ is a well-known proverb; I have added — and Goethe repeated it ten years later [hmmm!] — ‘but not because the former is no hero, but because the latter is a valet.’ He takes off the hero’s boots, assists him to bed, knows that he prefers champagne, etc.” Os heróis de antigamente (digo, da modernidade quasi-recente!) tinham alguns luxos derivados do tempo da escravidão grega, certo, meu germânico amigo?

Nenhum homem é herói, porque nenhum homem tem um valet-de-chambre.

Provérbio atualizado com sucesso! A ironia é que heróis precisavam de valets-de-chambre para existirem com autonomia e tempo no mundo, muito embora seus próprios valets-de-chambre fossem uns ignaros. Quando ninguém tem valets-de-chambre, todos são valets-de-chambre, e portanto não poderiam reconhecer um herói, nem que ele desembarcasse de Marte!

Ser o empregado de alguém para desmoralizá-lo. Ser o secretário do seu pior inimigo! Até conhecer os podres tão podres que seria podre até divulgá-los – não são grandes podres, são comezinhos…

A PERSONALITY OF ‘NO CONSEQUENCE’: “The Thersites¹ of Homer who abuses the kings is a standing figure for all times. Blows — that is beating with a solid cudgel — he does not get in every age, as in the Homeric one; but his envy, his egotism, is the thorn which he has to carry in his flesh; and the undying worm that gnaws him is the tormenting consideration that his excellent views and vituperations remain absolutely without result in the world. But our satisfaction at the fate of Thersitism also may have its sinister side.” Tersites, a térmite.

¹ WIKI: “The Iliad does not mention his father’s name, which may suggest that he should be viewed as a commoner rather than an aristocratic hero. However, a quotation from another lost epic in the Trojan cycle, the Aethiopis, names his parents as Agrius of Calydon and Dia, a daughter of King Porthaon. (…) Homer described him in detail in the Iliad, Book II, even though he plays only a minor role in the story. He is said to be bow-legged and lame, to have shoulders that cave inward, and a head which is covered in tufts of hair and comes to a point. Vulgar, obscene, and somewhat dull-witted, Thersites disrupts the rallying of the Greek army (…) He is not mentioned elsewhere in the Iliad, but it seems that in the lost Aethiopis Achilles eventually killed him ‘for having torn out the eyes of the Amazon Penthesilea that the hero had just killed in combat.’ § In his Introduction to The Anger of Achilles, Robert Graves speculates that Homer might have made Thersites a ridiculous figure as a way of dissociating himself from him, because his remarks seem entirely justified. This was a way of letting these remarks, along with Odysseus’ brutal act of suppression, remain in the record. (…) The Alexander Romance refers to Thersites when Alexander the Great is claimed to have said that it would be a greater honor to be immortalized in the poetry of Homer, even if only as a minor and detestable character like Thersites, than by the poets of his own day: ‘I would sooner be a Thersites in Homer than an Agamemnon in your writing’. Other recensions replace Agamemnon with Achilles in the comparison. § Along with many of the major figures of the Trojan War, Thersites was a character in Shakespeare’s Troilus and Cressida (1602) in which he is described as ‘a deformed and scurrilous Grecian’ and portrayed as a comic servant, in the tradition of the Shakespearian fool, but unusually given to abusive remarks to all he encounters. He begins as Ajax’s slave, telling Ajax, ‘I would thou didst itch from head to foot and I had the scratching of thee; I would make thee the loathsomest scab in Greece.’ Thersites soon leaves Ajax and puts himself into the service of Achilles (portrayed by Shakespeare as a kind of bohemian figure), who appreciates his bitter, caustic humor. Shakespeare mentions Thersites again in his later play Cymbeline, when Guiderius says, ‘Thersites’ body is as good as Ajax’ / When neither are alive.’ (…) The role of Thersites as a social critic has been advanced by several philosophers and literary critics, including Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Friedrich Nietzsche, Edward Said, Thomas Woods and Kenneth Burke.”


Quem é o parasita do parasita?

Quem é o cupim da casa dos cupins?

A expiação de todo bode velho?

This may be called the cunning of reason — that it sets the passions to work for itself, while that which develops its existence through such impulsion pays the penalty, and suffers loss.”

Age generally makes men more tolerant; youth is always discontented. The tolerance of age is the result of the ripeness of a judgment which, not merely as the result of indifference, is satisfied even with what is inferior”

God governs the world; the actual working of his government — the carrying out of his plan — is the History of the World. This plan philosophy strives to comprehend; for only that which has been developed as the result of it, possesses bona fide reality.”

The patriarchal condition is one of transition, in which the family has already advanced to the position of a race or people” “The Spirit of the Family — the Penates — form one substantial being, as much as the Spirit of a People in the State” “The head of the patriarchal clan is also its priest. If the Family in its general relations, is not yet separated from civic society and the state, the separation of religion from it has also not yet taken place”

The natural inference from this principle is that no law can be valid without the approval of all. This difficulty is attempted to be obviated by the decision that the minority must yield to the majority; the majority therefore bear the sway. But long ago J.J. Rousseau remarked that in that case there would be no longer freedom, for the will of the minority would cease to be respected. At the Polish Diet each single member had to give his consent before any political step could be taken; and this kind of freedom it was that ruined the State.” “It is only by a Constitution that the abstraction — the State — attains life and reality; but this involves the distinction between those who command and those who obey.”

Ideals of the Education of Princes (Fénelon, 1651-1715),¹ or of the governing body — the aristocracy at large (Plato)” Nunca foi isso que disse Platão.

¹ “Upon Beauvilliers’ recommendation, Fénelon was named the tutor of the Dauphin’s eldest son, the 7-year-old Duke of Burgundy, who was 2nd in line for the throne. This brought him a good deal of influence at court. (…) He wrote several important works specifically to guide his young charge. These include his Fables and his Dialogues des Morts. But by far the most lasting of his works that Fénelon composed for the duke was his Les Aventures de Télémaque (…) It also more directly supplied the plot for Mozart’s opera, Idomeneo (1781).” O anti-Bossuet. A revolução francesa é a comprovação empírica de que a virtude não pode ser ensinada. Pois vemos que tentaram fazer com que ela fosse ensinada!

Two phases of royalty, therefore, must be distinguished — a primary and a secondary one.”

The so-called Representative Constitution is that form of government with which we connect the idea of a free constitution; and this notion has become a rooted prejudice.”

HEGEL & A BANCADA EVANGÉLICA: “Obedience to King and Law naturally follows in the train of reverence for God. This reverence, indeed, since it exalts the general over the special, may even turn upon the latter — become fanatical — and work with incendiary and destructive violence against the State, its institutions and arrangements. Religious feeling, therefore, it is thought, should be sober — kept in a certain degree of coolness — that it may not storm against and bear down that which should be defended and preserved by it. The possibility of such a catastrophe is at least latent in it.”

For in affirming that the State is based on Religion — that it has its roots in it — we virtually assert that the former has proceeded from the latter; and that this derivation is going on now and will always continue; i.e., the principles of the State must be regarded as valid in and for themselves, which can only be in so far as they are recognized as determinate manifestations of the Divine Nature.” “so that, in fact, the Athenian or the Roman State was possible only in connection with the specific form of Heathenism existing among the respective peoples; just as a Catholic State has a spirit and constitution different from that of a Protestant one.” “Another and opposite folly which we meet with in our time, is that of pretending to invent and carry out political constitutions independently of religion. The Catholic confession, although sharing the Christian name with the Protestant, does not concede to the State an inherent Justice and Morality — a concession which in the Protestant principle is fundamental.”

The remark next in order is that each particular National genius is to be treated as only One Individual in the process of Universal History. For that history is the exhibition of the divine, absolute development of Spirit in its highest forms — that gradation by which it attains its truth and consciousness of itself. The forms which these grades of progress assume are the characteristic ‘National Spirits’ of History; the peculiar tenor of their moral life, of their Government, their Art, Religion, and Science. To realize these grades is the boundless impulse of the World-Spirit — the goal of its irresistible urging; for this division into organic members, and the full development of each, is its Idea.” “in Nature there happens ‘nothing new under the sun’, and the multiform play of its phenomena so far induces a feeling of ennui; only in those changes which take place in the region of Spirit does anything new arise.”

The principle of perfectibility indeed is almost as indefinite a term as mutability in general; it is without scope or goal, and has no standard by which to estimate the changes in question: the improved, more perfect, state of things towards which it professedly tends is altogether undetermined.”

There are many considerable periods in History in which this development seems to have been intermitted; in which, we might rather say, the whole enormous gain of previous culture appears to have been entirely lost; after which, unhappily, a new commencement has been necessary, made in the hope of recovering — by the assistance of some remains saved from the wreck of a former civilization, and by dint of a renewed incalculable expenditure of strength and time — one of the regions which had been an ancient possession of that civilization.” “This view takes up the idea of the primitive paradisiacal condition of man, which had been previously expanded by the Theologians, after their fashion — involving, e.g., the supposition that God spoke with Adam in Hebrew — but remodelled to suit other requirements.” “The biblical account by no means justifies us in imagining a people, and a historical condition of such people, existing in that primitive form” “the assertion that such a condition occurred at the very beginning of History — or that the religions of various nations were traditionally derived from it, and have developed themselves in degeneracy and depravation (as is represented in the rudely-conceived so-called ‘Emanation System’)” “blessed ignorance is itself not a subject of History.” “The Family therefore, is excluded from that process of development in which History takes its rise.”

It is a great discovery in history — as of a new world — which has been made within rather more than the last 20 years, [~1800] respecting the Sanskrit and the connection of the European languages with it. In particular, the connection of the German and Indian peoples has been demonstrated, with as much certainty as such subjects allow of.” Já sabemos onde isso vai dar…

Even at the present time we know of peoples which scarcely form a society, much less a State, but that have been long known as existing” Desmente por completo a assunção do tradutor de que State significaria sempre sociedade no idioleto hegeliano.

A VENDETA DO ORIENTE ESTÁ PRÓXIMA: “which proves the diffusion of those nations from Asia as a centre, and the so dissimilar development of what had been originally related, as an incontestable fact; not as an inference deduced by that favorite method of combining, and reasoning from, circumstances grave and trivial, which has already enriched and will continue to enrich history with so many fictions given out as facts.” “It strikes every one, in beginning to form an acquaintance with the treasures of Indian literature, that a land so rich in intellectual products, and those of the profoundest order of thought, has no History; and in this respect contrasts most strongly with China — an empire possessing one so remarkable, one going back to the most ancient times. India has not only ancient books relating to religion, and splendid poetical productions, but also ancient codes; the existence of which latter kind of literature has been mentioned as a condition necessary to the origination of History — and yet History itself is not found. But in that country the impulse of organization, in beginning to develop social distinctions, was immediately petrified in the merely natural classification according to castes (…) Consequently, the element of morality is banished from the pomp of Indian life and from its political institutions.”

moreover, that the extension and organic growth of the empire of articulate sounds has itself remained voiceless and dumb — a stealthy, unnoticed advance.”

It is a fact revealed by philological monuments that languages, during a rude condition of the nations that have spoken them, have been very highly developed; that the human understanding occupied this theoretical region with great ingenuity and completeness. For Grammar, in its extended and consistent form, is the work of thought, which makes its categories distinctly visible therein. It is, moreover, a fact, that with advancing social and political civilization, this systematic completeness of intelligence suffers attrition, and language thereupon becomes poorer and ruder”

Speech is the act of theoretic intelligence in a special sense; it is its external manifestation. Exercises of memory and imagination, without language, [?] are direct, (non-speculative) manifestations. But this act of theoretic intelligence itself, as also its subsequent development, and the more concrete class of facts connected with it — viz. the spreading of peoples over the earth, their separation from each other, their comminglings and wanderings — remain involved in the obscurity of a voiceless past.”

ASSOPRA, MAS DEPOIS MORDE (ELOGIA, MAS DEPOIS MENOSCABA): “The rapid growth of language, and the progress and dispersion of Nations (sic), assume importance and interest for concrete Reason (sic), only when they have come in contact with States, or begin to form political constitutions themselves.”

This it must and is also destined to accomplish; but the accomplishment is at the same time its dissolution, and the rise of another spirit, another world-historical people, another epoch of Universal History.” Elaborate on that, please!

What traveller among the ruins of Carthage, of Palmyra, Persepolis, or Rome, has not been stimulated to reflections on the transiency of kingdoms and men, and to sadness at the thought of a vigorous and rich life now departed — a sadness which does not expend itself on personal losses and the uncertainty of one’s own undertakings, but is a disinterested sorrow at the decay of a splendid and highly cultured national life!”

This is a grand conception; one which the Oriental thinkers attained, and which is perhaps the highest in their metaphysics. In the idea of Metempsychosis we find it evolved in its relation to individual existence; but a myth more generally known, is that of the Phoenix as a type of the Life of Nature; eternally preparing for itself its funeral pyre, and consuming itself upon it; but so that from its ashes is produced the new, renovated, fresh life. But this image is only Asiatic; oriental not occidental.”

The Nation can still accomplish much in war and peace at home and abroad; but the living substantial soul itself may be said to have ceased its activity.” “The nation lives the same kind of life as the individual when passing from maturity to old age — in the enjoyment of itself — in the satisfaction of being exactly what it desired and was able to attain.”

Custom is activity without opposition, for which there remains only a formal duration; in which the fullness and zest that originally characterized the aim of life are out of the question — a merely external sensuous existence which has ceased to throw itself enthusiastically into its object.” “a political nullity and tedium.” Com certeza são esses excertos hegelianos que mais encantaram um Nietzche.

A people can only die a violent death when it has become naturally dead in itself, as, e.g., the German Imperial Cities, the German Imperial Constitution.”

Thus, it was first Chronos — Time — that ruled; the Golden Age, without moral products; and what was produced — the offspring of that Chronos — was devoured by it. It was Jupiter — from whose head Minerva sprang, and to whose circle of divinities belong Apollo and the Muses — that first put a constraint upon Time, and set a bound to its principle of decadence. He is the Political god, who produced a moral work — the State.”

If we wish to gain the general idea and conception of what the Greeks were, we find it in Sophocles and Aristophanes, in Thucydides and Plato. In these individuals the Greek spirit conceived and thought itself. This is the profounder kind of satisfaction which the Spirit of a people attains” “At such a time, therefore, we are sure to see a people finding satisfaction in the idea of virtue”

OUTONO [E] DA[-]NAÇÃO: “seeking to impeach the authority of duty generally, as destitute of a sound foundation.”

Zeus, therefore, who is represented as having put a limit to the devouring agency of Time, and stayed this transiency by having established something inherently and independently durable — Zeus and his race are themselves swallowed up, and that by the very power that produced them — the principle of thought, perception, reasoning, insight derived from rational grounds, and the requirement of such grounds.

Time is the negative element in the sensuous world. Thought is the same negativity, but it is the deepest, the infinite form of it, in which therefore all existence generally is dissolved; first finite existence — determinate, limited form: but existence generally, in its objective character, is limited; it appears therefore as a mere datum — something immediate — authority; — and is either intrinsically finite and limited, or presents itself as a limit for the thinking subject, and its infinite reflection on itself (unlimited abstraction).”

For Thought is that Universal — that Species which is immortal, which preserves identity with itself. The particular form of Spirit not merely passes away in the world by natural causes in Time, but is annulled in the automatic self-mirroring activity of consciousness.”

FLUSLERÍA: “Its principle is no longer that immediate import and aim which it was previously, but the essence of that import and aim.”

The individual traverses as a unity various grades of development, and remains the same individual; in like manner also does a people, till the Spirit which it embodies reaches the grade of universality. In this point lies the fundamental, the Ideal necessity of transition. This is the soul — the essential consideration — of the philosophical comprehension of History.”

A velha analogia porca (!) da semente de planta blá-blá-blá que depois vira erva daninha…

philosophy, as occupying itself with the True, has to do with the eternally present.” Taí UMA Verdade…


It is not our concern to become acquainted with the land occupied by nations as an external locale, but with the natural type of the locality, as intimately connected with the type and character of the people which is the offspring of such a soil.”

In the Frigid and in the Torrid zone the locality of World-historical peoples cannot be found.” “In the extreme zones man cannot come to free movement; cold and heat are here too powerful to allow Spirit to build up a world for itself.” “The true theatre of History is therefore the temperate zone; or, rather, its northern half, because the earth there presents itself in a continental form, and has a broad breast, as the Greeks say.”

The World is divided into Old and New; the name of New having originated in the fact that America and Australia have only lately become known to us. But these parts of the world are not only relatively new, but intrinsically so in respect of their entire physical and psychical constitution.”

the Archipelago between South America and Asia shows a physical immaturity. The greater part of the islands are so constituted, that they are, as it were, only a superficial deposit of earth over rocks, which shoot up from the fathomless deep, and bear the character of novel origination. New Holland shows a not less immature geographical character; for in penetrating from the settlements of the English farther into the country, we discover immense streams, which have not yet developed themselves to such a degree as to dig a channel for themselves, but lose themselves in marshes. Of America and its grade of civilization, especially in Mexico and Peru, we have information, but it imports nothing more than that this culture was an entirely national one, which must expire as soon as Spirit approached it. America has always shown itself physically and psychically powerless, and still shows itself so. For the aborigines, after the landing of the Europeans in America, gradually vanished at the breath of European activity. In the United States of North America all the citizens are of European descent, with whom the old inhabitants could not amalgamate, but were driven back. The aborigines have certainly adopted some arts and usages from the Europeans, among others that of brandy-drinking, which has operated with deadly effect. In the South the natives were treated with much greater violence, and employed in hard labors to which their strength was by no means competent. A mild and passionless disposition, want of spirit, and a crouching submissiveness towards a Creole, and still more towards a European, are the chief characteristics of the native Americans; and it will be long before the Europeans succeed in producing any independence of feeling in them.” “The weakness of the American physique was a chief reason for bringing the negroes to America, to employ their labor in the work that had to be done in the New World”

America, as is well known, is divided into 2 parts, connected indeed by an isthmus, but which has not been the means of establishing intercourse between them. Rather, these 2 divisions are most decidedly distinct from each other. North America shows us on approaching it, along its eastern shore a wide border of level coast, behind which is stretched a chain of mountains — the blue mountains or Appalachians; further north the Alleghanies. Streams issuing from them water the country towards the coast, which affords advantages of the most desirable kind to the United States, whose origin belongs to this region. Behind that mountain-chain the St. Lawrence river flows (in connection with huge lakes), from south to north, and on this river lie the northern colonies of Canada. Farther west we meet the basin of the vast Mississippi, and the basins of the Missouri and Ohio, which it receives, and then debouches into the Gulf of Mexico. On the western side of this region we have in like manner a long mountain chain, running through Mexico and the Isthmus of Panama, and under the names of the Andes or Cordillera, cutting off an edge of coast along the whole west side of South America. The border formed by this is narrower and offers fewer advantages than that of North America. There lie Peru and Chili. On the east side flow eastward the monstrous streams of the Orinoco and Amazons; they form great valleys, not adapted however for cultivation, since they are only wide desert steppes. Towards the south flows the Rio de la Plata, whose tributaries have their origin partly in the Cordilleras, partly in the northern chain of mountains which separates the basin of the Amazon from its own. To the district of the Rio de la Plata belong Brazil, and the Spanish Republics. Colombia is the northern coast-land of South America, at the west of which, flowing along the Andes, the Magdalena debouches into the Caribbean Sea.

With the exception of Brazil, republics have come to occupy South as well as North America. In comparing South America (reckoning Mexico as part of it) with North America, we observe an astonishing contrast.

In North America we witness a prosperous state of things; an increase of industry and population civil order and firm freedom; the whole federation constitutes but a single state, and has its political centres. In South America, on the contrary, the republics depend only on military force; their whole history is a continued revolution; federated states become disunited; others previously separated become united; and all these changes originate in military revolutions.”

A segunda parte é verdade, mas a potência ultramilitarista que arruinou o mundo se tornou um superlativo desse quadro precário!

South America, where the Spaniards settled and asserted supremacy, is Catholic; North America, although a land of sects of every name, is yet fundamentally, Protestant.”

The North American States were, on the other hand, entirely colonised, by Europeans, since in England Puritans, Episcopalians, and Catholics were engaged in perpetual conflict, and now one party, now the other, had the upper hand, many emigrated to seek religious freedom on a foreign shore.”

for in the Protestant Church the entire life — its activity generally — is the field for what it deems religious works. Among Catholics, on the contrary, the basis of such a confidence cannot exist; for in secular matters only force and voluntary subservience are the principles of action; and the forms which are called Constitutions are in this case only a resort of necessity, and are no protection against mistrust.” Historicamente correto, atualmente um trapo velho de ideologia mal-costurada.

A subjective unity presents itself; for there is a President at the head of the State, who, for the sake of security against any monarchical ambition, is chosen only for 4 years.” Os EUA são hoje duas monarquias; duas castas; uma oligarquia dual petrificada.

We find, certainly, legal relations — a formal code of laws; but respect for law exists apart from genuine probity, and the American merchants commonly lie under the imputation of dishonest dealings under legal protection. If, on the one side, the Protestant Church develops the essential principle of confidence, as already stated, it thereby involves on the other hand the recognition of the validity of the element of feeling to such a degree as gives encouragement to unseemly varieties of caprice. Those who adopt this standpoint maintain, that, as everyone may have his peculiar way of viewing things generally, so he may have also a religion peculiar to himself. Thence the splitting up into so many sects, which reach the very acme of absurdity; many of which have a form of worship consisting in convulsive movements, and sometimes in the most sensuous extravagances. This complete freedom of worship is developed to such a degree, that the various congregations choose ministers and dismiss them according to their absolute pleasure; for the Church is no independent existence — having a substantial spiritual being, and correspondingly permanent external arrangement — but the affairs of religion are regulated by the good pleasure for the time being of the members of the community. In North America the most unbounded license of imagination in religious matters prevails, and that religious unity is wanting which has been maintained in European States, where deviations are limited to a few confessions. As to the political condition of North America, the general object of the existence of this State is not yet fixed and determined, and the necessity for a firm combination does not yet exist; for a real State and a real Government arise only after a distinction of classes has arisen, when wealth and poverty become extreme, and when such a condition of things presents itself that a large portion of the people can no longer satisfy its necessities in the way in which it has been accustomed so to do. But America is hitherto exempt from this pressure, for it has the outlet of colonization constantly and widely open, and multitudes are continually streaming into the plains of the Mississippi. By this means the chief source of discontent is removed, and the continuation of the existing civil condition is guaranteed. A comparison of the United States of North America with European lands is therefore impossible; for in Europe, such a natural outlet for population, notwithstanding all the emigrations that take place, does not exist. Had the woods of Germany been in existence, the French Revolution would not have occurred. North America will be comparable with Europe only after the immeasurable space which that country presents to its inhabitants shall have been occupied, and the members of the political body shall have begun to be pressed back on each other.” Bastante certeiro aqui. Imagino que Hegel via nisso uma virtude, entretanto!

Canada and Mexico are not objects of fear, and England has had 50 years’ experience, that free America is more profitable to her than it was in a state of dependence. The militia of the North American Republic proved themselves quite as brave in the War of Independence as the Dutch under Philip II; but generally, where Independence is not at stake, less power is displayed, and in the year 1814 the militia held out but indifferently against the English.

America is therefore the land of the future, where, in the ages that lie before us, the burden of the World’s History shall reveal itself — perhaps in a contest between North and South America.¹ It is a land of desire for all those who are weary of the historical [s]lumber-room [sala cheia – excelente metáfora!] of old Europe.”

¹ Arranhou a verdade se considerarmos Cuba e a Guerra Fria. Porém, ignorou totalmente a Eurásia, e por isso seu prognóstico falhou.

What has taken place in the New World up to the present time is only an echo of the Old World — the expression of a foreign Life; and as a Land of the Future, it has no interest for us here, for, as regards History, our concern must be with that which has been and that which is. In regard to Philosophy, on the other hand, we have to do with that which (strictly speaking) is neither past nor future, but with that which is, which has an eternal existence — with Reason”

The 3 Continents that compose it have an essential relation to each other, and constitute a totality.” “rivers and seas are not to be regarded as disjoining, but as uniting. England and Brittany, Norway and Denmark, Sweden and Livonia, have been united. For the ¾ of the globe the Mediterranean Sea is similarly the uniting element, and the centre of World-History.”

The extensive tract of eastern Asia is severed from the process of general historical development, and has no share in it; so also Northern Europe, which took part in the World’s History only at a later date, and had no part in it while the Old World lasted”

Eastern Asia and that trans-Alpine country are the extremes of this agitated focus of human life around the Mediterranean — the beginning and end of History — its rise and decline.”

The peculiarity of the inhabitants of this elevated region, which is watered sometimes only by rain, or by the overflowing of a river (as are the plains of the Orinoco) — is the patriarchal life, the division into single families. The region which these families occupy is unfruitful or productive only temporarily”

They are careless and provide nothing for the winter, on which account therefore, half of the herd is frequently cut off. Among these inhabitants of the upland there exist no legal relations, and consequently there are exhibited among them the extremes of hospitality and rapine; the last more especially when they are surrounded by civilized nations, as the Arabians, who are assisted in their depredations by their horses and camels. The Mongolians feed on mares’ milk, and thus the horse supplies them at the same time with appliances for nourishment and for war.”

Such an agitation was excited among those tribes under Genghis Khan and Tamerlane: they destroyed all before them; then vanished again, as does an overwhelming Forest-torrent — possessing no inherent principle of vitality. From the uplands they rush down into the dells: there dwell peaceful mountaineers — herdsmen who also occupy themselves with agriculture, as do the Swiss. Asia has also such a people: they are however on the whole a less important element.”

nothing unites so much as water, for countries are nothing else than districts occupied by streams.” Tales é o homem mais sábio da História!

Only Mountains separate. Thus the Pyrenees decidedly separate Spain from France.”

The sea gives us the idea of the indefinite, the unlimited, and infinite; and in feeling his own infinite in that Infinite, man is stimulated and emboldened to stretch beyond the limited: the sea invites man to conquest, and to piratical plunder, but also to honest gain and to commerce. The land, the mere Valley-plain attaches him to the soil; it involves him in an infinite multitude of dependencies, but the sea carries him out beyond these limited circles of thought and action. Those who navigate the sea, have indeed gain for their object, but the means are in this respect paradoxical, inasmuch as they hazard both property and life to attain it. The means therefore are the very opposite to that which they aim at. This is what exalts their gain and occupation above itself, and makes it something brave and noble. Courage is necessarily introduced into trade, daring is joined with wisdom. For the daring which encounters the sea must at the same time embrace wariness — cunning — since it has to do with the treacherous, the most unreliable and deceitful element. This boundless plain is absolutely yielding — withstanding no pressure, not even a breath of wind. It looks boundlessly innocent, submissive, friendly, and insinuating; and it is exactly this submissiveness which changes the sea into the most dangerous and violent element. To this deceitfulness and violence man opposes merely a simple piece of wood; confides entirely in his courage and presence of mind; and thus passes from a firm ground to an unstable support, taking his artificial ground with him. The Ship — that swan of the sea, which cuts the watery plain in agile and arching movements or describes circles upon it — is a machine whose invention does the greatest honor to the boldness of man as well as to his understanding. This stretching out of the sea beyond the limitations of the land, is wanting to the splendid political edifices of Asiatic States, although they themselves border on the sea — as for example, China. For them the sea is only the limit, the ceasing of the land; they have no positive relation to it. The activity to which the sea invites, is a quite peculiar one: thence arises the fact that the coast-lands almost always separate themselves from the states of the interior although they are connected with these by a river. Thus Holland has severed itself from Germany, Portugal from Spain.”

Africa must be divided into 3 parts: one is that which lies south of the desert of Sahara — Africa proper — the Upland almost entirely unknown to us, with narrow coast-tracts along the sea; the second is that to the north of the desert — European Africa (if we may so call it) — a coastland; the third is the river region of the Nile, the only valley-land of Africa, and which is in connection with Asia.”

Africa proper, as far as History goes back, has remained — for all purposes of connection with the rest of the World — shut up; it is the Gold-land compressed within itself — the land of childhood, which lying beyond the day of self-conscious history, is enveloped in the dark mantle of Night. Its isolated character originates, not merely in its tropical nature, but essentially in its geographical condition. The triangle which it forms (if we take the West Coast — which in the Gulf of Guinea makes a strongly indented angle — for one side, and in the same way the East Coast to Cape Gardafu for another) is on 2 sides so constituted for the most part, as to have a very narrow Coast Tract, habitable only in a few isolated spots. Next to this towards the interior, follows to almost the same extent, a girdle of marsh land with the most luxuriant vegetation, the especial home of ravenous beasts, snakes of all kinds — a border tract whose atmosphere is poisonous to Europeans. This border constitutes the base of a cincture of high mountains, which are only at distant intervals traversed by streams, and where they are so, in such a way as to form no means of union with the interior; for the interruption occurs but seldom below the upper part of the mountain ranges, and only in individual narrow channels, where are frequently found innavigable waterfalls and torrents crossing each other in wild confusion. During the 300 or 350 years that the Europeans have known this border-land and have taken places in it into their possession, they have only here and there (and that but for a short time) passed these mountains, and have nowhere settled down beyond them. The land surrounded by these mountains is an unknown Upland, from which on the other hand the Negroes have seldom made their way through. In the 16th century occurred at many very distant points outbreaks of terrible hordes which rushed down upon the more peaceful inhabitants of the declivities. Whether any internal movement had taken place, or if so, of what character, we do not know. What we do know of these hordes, is the contrast between their conduct in their wars and forays themselves — which exhibited the most reckless inhumanity and disgusting barbarism — and the fact that afterwards, when their rage was spent, in the calm time of peace, they showed themselves mild and well disposed towards the Europeans, when they became acquainted with them. This holds good of the Fullahs and of the Mandingo tribes, who inhabit the mountain terraces of the Senegal and Gambia.”

EGITO, CARACTERIZADO COMO ALIENÍGENA NO CONTINENTE NEGRO ENSIMESMADO: “the French have lately made a successful effort in this direction: like Hither-Asia, it looks Europe-wards. Here in their turn have Carthaginians, Romans, and Byzantines, Mussulmans, Arabians had their abode, and the interests of Europe have always striven to get a footing in it.”

In Negro life the characteristic point is the fact that consciousness has not yet attained to the realization of any substantial objective existence — as for example, God, or Law — in which the interest of man’s volition is involved and in which he realizes his own being.” “The Negro, as already observed, exhibits the natural man in his completely wild and untamed state. We must lay aside all thought of reverence and morality — all that we call feeling — if we would rightly comprehend him; there is nothing harmonious with humanity to be found in this type of character.” “Religion begins with the consciousness that there is something higher than man. But even Herodotus called the Negroes sorcerers: — now in Sorcery we have not the idea of a God, of a moral faith; it exhibits man as the highest power, regarding him as alone occupying a position of command over the power of Nature.” Quer dizer que agora você virou fã de Heródoto, né, Hegel?!

For the soul of man, God must be more than a thunderer, whereas among the Negroes this is not the case.”

they exalt to the dignity of a ‘Genius’; it may be an animal, a tree, a stone, or a wooden figure. This is their Fetich — a word to which the Portuguese first gave currency, and which is derived from feitizo, magic.”

CERNE DO AMOR ROMÂNTICO: “Such a Fetich has no independence as an object of religious worship; still less has it aesthetic independence as a work of art; it is merely a creation that expresses the arbitrary choice of its maker, and which always remains in his hands.”

There is however one feature that points to something beyond — the Worship of the Dead — in which their deceased forefathers and ancestors are regarded by them as a power influencing the living.” “Yet the power of the dead is not held superior to that of the living, for the Negroes command the dead and lay spells upon them.”

The undervaluing of humanity among them reaches an incredible degree of intensity. Tyranny is regarded as no wrong, and cannibalism is looked upon as quite customary and proper.” “to the sensual Negro, human flesh is but an object of sense — mere flesh. At the death of a King hundreds are killed and eaten; prisoners are butchered and their flesh sold in the markets; the victor is accustomed to eat the heart of his slain foe. When magical rites are performed, it frequently happens that the sorcerer kills the first that comes in his way and divides his body among the bystanders. Another characteristic fact in reference to the Negroes is Slavery. Negroes are enslaved by Europeans and sold to America. Bad as this may be, their lot in their own land is even worse, since there a slavery quite as absolute exists; for it is the essential principle of slavery, that man has not yet attained a consciousness of his freedom, and consequently sinks down to a mere Thing — an object of no value. Among the Negroes moral sentiments are quite weak, or more strictly speaking, non-existent. Parents sell their children, and conversely children their parents, as either has the opportunity. Through the pervading influence of slavery all those bonds of moral regard which we cherish towards each other disappear, and it does not occur to the Negro mind to expect from others what we are enabled to claim. The polygamy of the Negroes has frequently for its object the having many children, to be sold, everyone of them, into slavery; and very often naïve complaints on this score are heard, as for instance in the case of a Negro in London, who lamented that he was now quite a poor man because he had already sold all his relations. In the contempt of humanity displayed by the Negroes, it is not so much a despising of death as a want of regard for life that forms the characteristic feature.”

Among the Ashantees the King inherits all the property left by his subjects at their death. In other places all unmarried women belong to the King, and whoever wishes a wife, must buy her from him.”

AS ETERNAS MENTIRAS QUE OS HOMENS CONTAM: “Tradition alleges that in former times a state composed of women made itself famous by its conquests: it was a state at whose head was a woman. She is said to have pounded her own son in a mortar, to have besmeared herself with the blood, and to have had the blood of pounded children constantly at hand. She is said to have driven away or put to death all the males, and commanded the death of all male children. These furies destroyed everything in the neighborhood, and were driven to constant plunderings, because they did not cultivate the land. Captives in war were taken as husbands: pregnant women had to betake themselves outside the encampment; and if they had born a son, put him out of the way. This infamous state, the report goes on to say, subsequently disappeared.”

the English who have done most for abolishing the slave-trade and slavery, are treated by the Negroes themselves as enemies. (…) the essence of humanity is Freedom; but for this man must be matured. The gradual abolition of slavery is wiser and more equitable than its sudden removal.” “At this point we leave Africa, not to mention it again. For it is no historical part of the World; it has no movement or development to exhibit. Historical movements in it — that is in its northern part — belong to the Asiatic or European World.” “Egypt will be considered in reference to the passage of the human mind from its Eastern to its Western phase, but it does not belong to the African Spirit. What we properly understand by Africa, is the Unhistorical, Undeveloped Spirit, still involved in the conditions of mere nature, and which had to be presented here only as on the threshold of the World’s History.”

Asia is, characteristically, the Orient quarter of the globe — the region of origination. It is indeed a Western world for America; but as Europe presents on the whole, the centre and end of the old world, and is absolutely the West — so Asia is absolutely the East.” Now we are the old and Asia is the new.

First, the northern slope, Siberia, must be eliminated. This slope, from the Altai chain, with its fine streams, that pour their waters into the northern Ocean, does not at all concern us here; because the Northern Zone, as already stated, lies out of the pale of History.”

the Hoang-Ho and Yang-tse-Kiang (the yellow and blue streams) — next that of India, formed by the Ganges — less important is the Indus, which in the north, gives character to the Punjaub, and in the south flows through plains of sand. Farther on, the lands of the Tigris and Euphrates, which rise in Armenia and hold their course along the Persian mountains. The Caspian Sea has similar river valleys; in the East those formed by the Oxus and Jaxartes (Gihon and Sihon) which pour their waters into the Sea of Aral; on the West those of the Cyrus and Araxes (Kur and Aras).”

and although they have not attained an historical character, the beginning of History may be traced to them.”

Poucas passagens são tão grotescas na história da literatura universal… Hegel fazendo História com H maiúsculo!

It presents the origination of all religious and political principles, but Europe has been the scene of their development.”

The second portion is the heart of Europe, [TALVEZ UMBIGO SEJA MELHOR] which Caesar opened when conquering Gaul. This achievement was one of manhood on the part of the Roman General, and more productive than that youthful one of Alexander, who undertook to exalt the East to a participation in Greek life; and whose work, though in its purport the noblest and fairest for the imagination, soon vanished, as a mere Ideal, in the sequel. — In this centre of Europe, France, Germany and England are the principal countries.”


In the geographical survey, the course of the World’s History has been marked out in its general features. The Sun — the Light — rises in the East. Light is a simply self-involved existence; but t[r?]hough possessing thus in itself universality, it exists at the same time as an individuality in the Sun. Imagination has often pictured to itself the emotions of a blind man suddenly becoming possessed of sight, beholding the bright glimmering of the dawn, the growing light, and the flaming glory of the ascending Sun. The boundless forgetfulness of his individuality in this pure splendor, is his first feeling — utter astonishment. But when the Sun is risen, this astonishment is diminished; objects around are perceived, and from them the individual proceeds to the contemplation of his own inner being, and thereby the advance is made to the perception of the relation between the two. Then inactive contemplation is quitted for activity; by the close of day man has erected a building constructed from his own inner Sun; and when in the evening he contemplates this, he esteems it more highly than the original external Sun. For now he stands in a conscious relation to his Spirit, and therefore a free relation. If we hold this image fast in mind, we shall find it symbolizing the course of History, the great Day’s work of Spirit. The History of the World travels from East to West, for Europe is absolutely the end of History, Asia the beginning.”


EAST-ória do mundo

O-OU! “The East knew and to the present day knows only that One is Free; the Greek and Roman world, that some are free; the German World knows that All are free. The first political form therefore which we observe in History, is Despotism, the second Democracy and Aristocracy, the third Monarchy.”


If we compare these kingdoms in the light of their various fates, we find the empire of the 2 Chinese rivers the only durable kingdom in the World.” “The Chinese traditions ascend to 3000 years before Christ; and the Shu-King, their canonical document, beginning with the government of Yao, places this 2357 years before Christ.” “The Y-King consists of figures, which have been regarded as the bases of the Chinese written character, and this book is also considered the groundwork of the Chinese Meditation.” “Lastly, the Shi-King is the book of the oldest poems in a great variety of styles.” “Besides these 3 books of archives which are specially honored and studied, there are besides 2 others, less important, viz. the Li-Ki (or Li-King) which records the customs and ceremonial observances pertaining to the Imperial dignity and that of the State functionaries (with an appendix, Yo-King, treating of music); and the Tshun-tsin, the chronicle of the kingdom Lu, where Confucius appeared.”

In the 13th century a Venetian (Marco Polo) explored it for the first time, but his reports were deemed fabulous. In later times, everything that he had said respecting its extent and greatness was entirely confirmed.”

The long wall built by Shi-hoang-ti — and which has always been regarded as a most astounding achievement — was raised as a barrier against the inroads of the northern Nomades.”

Similarly they admitted the Manchus with whom they engaged in war in the 16th and 17th centuries, which resulted in the present dynasty’s obtaining possession of the throne.” Os Manchus foram os últimos forasteiros de relevo incorporados ao povo chinês, e chegaram, de forma talvez inaudita, ao poder. “The Manchus that live in China have to conform to Chinese laws, and study Chinese sciences.” Assimilação unilateral.

China has therefore succeeded in getting the greatest and best governors, to whom the expression ‘Solomonian Wisdom’ might be applied; and the present Manchu dynasty has especially distinguished itself by abilities of mind and body.”

ANTÍPODAS DA FRANÇA: “The deportment of the Emperor is represented to us as in the highest degree simple, natural, noble and intelligent. Free from a proud taciturnity or repelling hauteur in speech or manners, he lives in the consciousness of his own dignity and in the exercise of imperial duties to whose observance he has been disciplined from his earliest youth.”

In the instance of the revolution that occurred in the middle of the 17th century, the last Emperor of the dynasty was very amiable and honorable; but through the mildness of his character, the reins of government were relaxed, and disturbances naturally ensued. The rebels called the Manchus into the country. The Emperor killed himself to avoid falling into the hands of his enemies, and with his blood wrote on the border of his daughter’s robe a few words, in which he complained bitterly of the injustice of his subjects. A Mandarin, who was with him, buried him, and then killed himself on his grave. The Empress and her attendants followed the example. The last prince of the imperial house, who was besieged in a distant province, fell into the hands of the enemy and was put to death. All the other attendant Mandarins died a voluntary death.”

Their consciousness of moral abandonment shows itself also in the fact that the religion of Fo is so widely diffused; a religion which regards as the Highest and Absolute — as God — pure Nothing; which sets up contempt for individuality, for personal existence, as the highest perfection.”

religion is in China essentially State-Religion. The distinction between it and Lamaism [mongóis] must be observed, since the latter is not developed to a State, but contains religion as a free, spiritual, disinterested consciousness. That Chinese religion, therefore, cannot be what we call religion. For to us religion means the retirement of the Spirit within itself, in contemplating its essential nature, its inmost Being. In these spheres, then, man is withdrawn from his relation to the State, and betaking himself to this retirement, is able to release himself from the power of secular government.”

The Jesuits indeed, yielded to Chinese notions so far as to call the Christian God, HeavenTien; but they were on that account accused to the Pope by other Christian Orders. The Pope consequently sent a Cardinal to China, who died there. A bishop who was subsequently despatched, enacted that instead of Heaven, the term Lord of Heaven should be adopted. The relation to Tien is supposed to be such, that the good conduct of individuals and of the Emperor brings blessing; their transgressions on the other hand cause want and evil of all kinds.”

Each of the 5 Elements has its genius, distinguished by a particular color. The sovereignty of the dynasty that occupies the throne of China also depends on a Genius, and this one has a yellow color. Not less does every province and town, every mountain and river possess an appropriate Genius. All these Spirits are subordinate to the Emperor, and in the Annual Directory of the Empire are registered the functionaries and genii to whom such or such a brook, river, etc., has been intrusted. If a mischance occurs in any part, the Genius is deposed as a Mandarin would be. The genii have innumerable temples (in Pekin nearly 10,000) to which a multitude of priests and convents are attached. These ‘Bonzes’ live unmarried, and in all cases of distress are applied to by the Chinese for counsel. In other respects, however, neither they nor the temples are much venerated. Lord Macartney’s Embassy was even quartered in a temple — such buildings beings used as inns. The Emperor has sometimes thought fit to secularize many thousands of these convents; to compel the Bonzes to return to civil life; and to impose taxes on the estates appertaining to the foundations. The Bonzes are soothsayers and exorcists”

One of the highest Governmental Boards is the Academy of Sciences. The Emperor himself examines its members; they live in the palace, and perform the functions of Secretaries, Historians of the Empire, Natural Philosophers and Geographers. Should a new law be proposed, the Academy must report upon it. By way of introduction to such report it must give the history of existing enactments; or if the law in question affects foreign countries, a description of them is required. The Emperor himself writes the prefaces to the works thus composed. Among recent Emperors Kien-long especially distinguished himself by his scientific acquirements. He himself wrote much, but became far more remarkable by publishing the principal works that China has produced. At the head of the commission appointed to correct the press, was a Prince of the Empire; and after the work had passed through the hands of all, it came once more back to the Emperor, who severely punished every error that had been committed.”

They have, as is well known, beside a Spoken Language, a Written Language; which does not express, as our does, individual sounds — does not present the spoken words to the eye, but represents the ideas themselves by signs. This appears at first sight a great advantage, and has gained the suffrages of many great men — among others, of Leibniz.”

Although every Chinaman is at liberty to study these philosophical works, a particular sect, calling itself Tao-tse, Honorers of Reason, makes this study its special business. Those who compose it are isolated from civil life; and there is much that is enthusiastic and mystic intermingled with their views.”

Suicide, the result of revenge, and the exposure of children, as a common, even daily occurrence, show the little respect in which they hold themselves individually, and humanity in general.” Quem sabe eles exportaram para o Ocidente, que aperfeiçoou cada uma dessas artes inimaginavelmente!

The spread of Indian culture is prehistorical, for History is limited to that which makes an essential epoch in the development of Spirit.”

From the most ancient times downwards, all nations have directed their wishes and longings to gaining access to the treasures of this land of marvels, the most costly which the Earth presents” “pearls, diamonds, perfumes, rose-essences, elephants, lions, etc.” HAHAHAHA

there is scarcely any great nation of the East, nor of the Modern European West, that has not gained for itself a smaller or larger portion of it.”

The English, or rather the East India Company, are the lords of the land; for it is the necessary fate of Asiatic Empires to be subjected to Europeans; and China will, some day or other, be obliged to submit to this fate.”

Since the country of the Mahrattas was conquered by the English, no part of India has asserted its independence of their sway. They have already gained a footing in the Burman Empire, and passed the Brahmaputra, which bounds India on the east.” E depois um homem que não esmagaria um besouro deitou por terra todo esse ‘Império’…

India Proper is the country which the English divide into 2 large sections: the Deccan — the great peninsula which has the Bay of Bengal on the east, and the Indian Sea on the west — and Hindostan, formed by the valley of the Ganges, and extending in the direction of Persia. To the northeast, Hindostan is bordered by the Himalaya, which has been ascertained by Europeans to be the highest mountain range in the world, for its summits are about 26,000 feet above the level of the sea. On the other side of the mountains the level again declines; the dominion of the Chinese extends to that point, and when the English wished to go to Lassa to the Dalai-Lama, they were prevented by the Chinese.”

Prenda-me nas cadeias do Himalaia

Prende-me se fores um deus

PAQUISTÃO? “The dominion of the English does not extend to the Indus; the sect of the Sikhs inhabits that district, whose constitution is thoroughly democratic, and who have broken off from the Indian as well as from the Mohammedan religion, and occupy an intermediate ground — acknowledging only one Supreme Being. They are a powerful nation, and have reduced to subjection Cabul and Cashmere.”

A ÍNDIA E AS ÍNDIAS: “We call the inhabitants of the great country which we have now to consider Indians, from the river Indus (the English call them Hindoos). They themselves have never given a name to the whole, for it has never become one Empire, and yet we consider it as such.”

The distinctions in question are the Castes. In every rational State there are distinctions which must manifest themselves.”

The highest class therefore will be the one by which the Divine is presented and brought to bear on the community — the class of Brahmins. The second element or class will represent subjective power and valor. Such power must assert itself, in order that the whole may stand its ground, and retain its integrity against other such totalities or states. This class is that of the Warriors and Governors — the CshatriyasH. não deve ter percebido a incrível semelhança com os dois estratos superiores d’A República! “The third order of occupation recognized is that which is concerned with the specialities of life — the satisfying of its necessities — and comprehends agriculture, crafts and trade; the class of the Vaisyas.” De novo, o paralelo se mantém. “Lastly, the 4th element is the class of service, the mere instrument for the comfort of others, whose business it is to work for others for wages affording a scanty subsistence — the caste of Sudras. This servile class — properly speaking — constitutes no special organic class in the state, because its members only serve individuals: their occupations are therefore dispersed among them and are consequently attached to that of the previously mentioned castes.”

Yet even Arrian (Ind. 11) reckoned 7 castes, and in later times more than 30 have been made out; which, notwithstanding all obstacles, have arisen from the union of the various classes. Polygamy necessarily tends to this. A Brahmin, e.g., is allowed 3 wives from the 3 other castes, provided he has first taken one from his own. The offspring of such mixtures originally belonged to no caste, but one of the kings invented a method of classifying these casteless persons, which involved also the commencement of arts and manufactures. The children in question were assigned to particular employments; one section became weavers, another wrought in iron, and thus different classes arose from these different occupations. The highest of these mixed castes consists of those who are born from the marriage of a Brahmin with a wife of the Warrior caste; the lowest is that of the Chandâlas, who have to remove corpses, to execute criminals, and to perform impure offices generally.” Nenhuma autoridade deve ser creditada a essa teoria espúria da gênese das outras castas.

The Chandâlas are obliged to move out of the way for their superiors, and a Brahmin may knock down any that neglect to do so. [Mas se eles são intocáveis, i.e., estão poluídos!…] If a Chandâla drinks out of a pond it is defiled, and requires to be consecrated afresh.”

DEFENDENDO O INDEFENSÁVEL: “In the feudalism of mediaeval times, individuals were also confined to a certain station in life; but for all there was a Higher Being, superior to the most exalted earthly dignity, and admission to holy orders was open to all.” Logo, logo veremos quão sombria, taciturna e repulsiva era toda essa ordem “divina” européia…

To gain a more accurate idea of what the Brahmins are, and in what the Brahminical dignity consists, we must investigate the Hindoo religion and the conceptions it involves, to which we shall have to return further on; for the respective rights of castes have their basis in a religious relation.” Isso tudo linhas depois de dizer que na Índia a moral é tão primitiva que lá não existe religião…

A large number of the non-Brahminical population strive to attain Regeneration. They are called Yogis.”

The employment of the Brahmins consists principally in the reading of the Vêdas: they only have a right to read them.”

How minute these directions are may be especially judged of from the observances binding on the Brahmins in regard to satisfying the calls of nature. This is forbidden to them in a great thoroughfare, on ashes, on ploughed land, on a hill, a nest of white ants, on wood destined for fuel, in a ditch, walking or standing, on the bank of a river, etc. At such a time they may not look at the sun, at water, or at animals.” “The English wished to introduce trial by jury into India — the jury to consist half of Europeans, half of Hindoos — and submitted to the natives, whose wishes on the subject were consulted, the powers with which the panel would be intrusted. The Hindoos were for making a number of exceptions and limitations. They said, among other things, that they could not consent that a Brahmin should be condemned to death; not to mention other objections, e.g., that looking at and examining a corpse was out of the question. Although in the case of a Warrior the rate of interest may be as high as 3%, in that of a Vaisya 4%, a Brahmin is never required to pay more than 2%.”

In Manu’s Code it is said: ‘If anyone presumes to teach a Brahmin his duty, the King must order that hot oil be poured into the ears and mouth of such an instructor. If one who is only once-born, loads one who is twice-born with reproaches, a red-hot iron bar 10 inches long shall be thrust into his mouth.’

If a Brahmin or a member of any other Caste transgresses the above cited laws and precepts, he is himself excluded from his caste, and in order to be received back again, he must have a hook bored through the hips, and be swung repeatedly backwards and forwards in the air. There are also other forms of restoration. A Rajah who thought himself injured by an English Governor sent 2 Brahmins to England to detail his grievances. But the Hindoos are forbidden to cross the sea, and these envoys on their return were declared excommunicated from their caste, and in order to be restored to it they had to be born again from a golden cow. The imposition was so far lightened, that only those parts of the cow out of which they had to creep were obliged to be golden; the rest might consist of wood. These various usages and religious observances to which every caste is subject have occasioned great perplexity to the English, especially in enlisting soldiers. At first these were taken from the Sudra-Caste, which is not bound to observe so many ceremonies; but nothing could be done with them, they therefore betook themselves to the Cshatriya class. These however have an immense number of regulations to observe — they may not eat meat, touch a dead body, drink out of a pool in which cattle or Europeans have drunk, not eat what others have cooked, etc. Each Hindoo assumes one definite occupation, and that only, so that one must have an infinity of servants; — a Lieutenant has 30, a Major 60.”

Cases of theft are exceptional; in this case the higher the caste the heavier is the penalty”

All political revolutions, therefore, are matters of indifference to the common Hindoo, for his lot is unchanged.”

Brahma is distinct from Brahm — the former constituting one personality in contrasted relation to Vishnu and Siva. Many therefore call the Supreme Existence who is over the first mentioned deity, Para-brahma. The English have taken a good deal of trouble to find out what Brahm properly is. Wilford has asserted that Hindoo conceptions recognize 2 Heavens: the first, the earthly paradise, the second, Heaven in a spiritual sense.”

O BURRO DA HISTÓRIA É O EUROPEU: “if one asks a Hindoo whether he worships Idols, everyone says ‘Yes!’, but to the question ‘Do you worship the Supreme Being?’ everyone answers ‘No’.”

We are not conscious to ourselves of being Brahm, by reason of Maya (the delusion occasioned by the outward world). It is forbidden to pray to him, and to offer sacrifices to him in his own nature; for this would be to adore ourselves.”

No temples are consecrated to him, and he receives no worship. Similarly, in the Catholic religion, the churches are not dedicated to God, but to the saints.” Sério? Eu não sabia disso.

In the embodiment Vishnu are presented those incarnations in which God has appeared as man, and which are always historical personages, who effected important changes and new epochs.” Historical personages de um povo sem-história, querido Hegel?

When the English had become masters of the country, the work of restoring to light the records of Indian culture was commenced, and William Jones first disinterred the poems of the Golden Age. The English exhibited plays at Calcutta: this led to a representation of dramas on the part of the Brahmins, e.g., the Sacontala of Calidasa, etc. In the enthusiasm of discovery the Hindoo culture was very highly rated; and as, when new beauties are discovered, the old ones are commonly looked down upon with contempt, Hindoo poetry and philosophy were extolled as far superior to the Greek. For our purpose the most important documents are the ancient and canonical books of the Hindoos, especially the Vedas. They comprise many divisions, of which the 4th is of more recent origin. They consist partly of religious prayers, partly of precepts to be observed. Some manuscripts of these Vedas have come to Europe, though in a complete form they are exceedingly rare. The writing is on palm leaves, scratched in with a needle. The Vedas are very difficult to understand, since they date from the most remote antiquity, and the language is a much older Sanskrit. Colebrooke has indeed translated a part, but this itself is perhaps taken from a commentary, of which there are very many. Two great epic poems, Ramayana and Mahabharata, have also reached Europe.” “Besides these works, the Puranas must be particularly noticed. The Puranas contain the history of a god or of a temple.”

This Hindoo lawgiver has been compared with the Cretan Minos — a name which also occurs among the Egyptians; and certainly this extensive occurrence of the same name is noteworthy and cannot be ascribed to chance. Manu’s code of morals, (published at Calcutta with an English translation by Sir W. Jones) forms the basis of Hindoo legislation. It begins with a Theogony, which is not only entirely different from the mythological conceptions of other peoples (as might be expected), but also deviates essentially from the Hindoo traditions themselves. For in these also there are only some leading features that pervade the whole.” “The time when Manu’s code was composed, is also entirely unknown and undetermined. The traditions reach beyond 23 centuries before the birth of Christ: a dynasty of the Children of the Sun is mentioned, on which followed one of the Children of the Moon. Thus much, however, is certain, that the code in question is of high antiquity; and an acquaintance with it is of the greatest importance to the English, as their knowledge of Hindoo Law is derived from it.”

QUE SE DANE O ESTADO: “if China may be regarded as nothing else but a State, Hindoo political existence presents us with a people, but no State.”

There is indeed, a common character pervading the whole of India; but its several states present at the same time the greatest variety; so that in one Indian State we meet with the greatest effeminacy — in another, on the contrary, we find prodigious vigor and savage barbarity.”

The Religion of these peoples is Buddhism, which is the most widely extended religion on our globe. In China Buddha is reverenced as Fo; in Ceylon as Gautama; in Thibet and among the Mongols this religion has assumed the phase of Lamaism.”

Nothingness is the principle of all things” “The connection of this with the metempsychosis can be thus explained: All (that we see) is but a change of Form. The inherent infinity of Spirit — infinite concrete self-dependence — is entirely separate from this Universe of phenomena. Abstract Nothingness is properly that which lies beyond Finite Existence — what we may call the Supreme Being. This real principle of the Universe is, it is said, in eternal repose, and in itself unchangeable. Its essence consists in the absence of activity and volition. For Nothingness is abstract Unity with itself. To obtain happiness, therefore, man must seek to assimilate himself to this principle by continual victories over himself; and for the sake of this, do nothing, wish nothing, desire nothing.”

The Mongols — a race extending through the whole of central Asia as far as Siberia, where they are subject to the Russians — worship the Lama; and with this form of worship a simple political condition, a patriarchal life is closely united; for they are properly a nomad people, and only occasionally are commotions excited among them, when they seem to be beside themselves, and eruptions and inundations of vast hordes are occasioned. Of the Lamas there are 3: the best known is the Dalai-Lama, who has his seat at Lassa in the kingdom of Thibet. A second is the Teshoo-Lama, who under the title of Bantshen Rinbot-shee resides at Teshoo-Lomboo; there is also a third in Southern Siberia. The first 2 Lamas preside over 2 distinct sects, of which the priests of one wear yellow caps, those of the other, red. The wearers of the yellow caps — at whose head is the Dalai-Lama, and among whose adherents is the Emperor of China — have introduced celibacy among the priests, while the red sect allow their marriage. The English have become considerably acquainted with the Teshoo-Lama and have given us descriptions of him.”

The idea of a man being worshipped as God — especially a living man — has in it something paradoxical and revolting; but the following considerations must be examined before we pronounce judgment respecting it.” “It is not the individuality of the subject that is revered, but that which is universal in him; and which among the Thibetans, Hindoos, and Asiatics generally, is regarded as the essence pervading all things. This substantial Unity of Spirit is realized in the Lama, who is nothing but the form in which Spirit manifests itself; and who does not hold this Spiritual Essence as his peculiar property, but is regarded as partaking in it only in order to exhibit it to others, that they may attain a conception of Spirituality and be led to piety and blessedness. The Lama’s personality as such — his particular individuality — is therefore subordinate to that substantial essence which it embodies. The second point which constitutes an essential feature in the conception of the Lama is the disconnection from Nature. The Imperial dignity of China involved a supremacy over the powers of Nature; while here spiritual power is directly separated from the vis Natures.”

Those who have become acquainted with the Teshoo-Lama depict him as a most excellent person, of the calmest temper and most devoted to meditation. Thus also do the Lama-worshippers regard him. They see in him a man constantly occupied with religion, and who when he directs his attention to what is human, does so only to impart consolation and encouragement by his blessing, and by the exercise of mercy and the bestowal of forgiveness. These Lamas lead a thoroughly isolated life and have a feminine rather than masculine training.Nietzsche apelidava sua irmã de Lama. Talvez por ver nela a consumação do eterno-feminino…

Early torn from the arms of his parents the Lama is generally a well-formed and beautiful child. He is brought up amid perfect quiet and solitude, in a kind of prison: he is well catered for, and remains without exercise or childish play, so that it is not surprising that a feminine susceptible tendency prevails in his character. The Grand Lamas have under them inferior Lamas as presidents of the great fraternities. In Thibet every father who has 4 sons is obliged to dedicate one to a conventual life.”

Since Buddhism and Lamaism have taken the place of the Shaman Religion, the life of the Mongols has been simple, prescriptive and patriarchal. Where they take any part in History, we find them occasioning impulses that have only been the groundwork of historical development. (…) A Vizier has charge of the secular dominion and reports everything to the Lama”

With the Persian Empire we first enter on continuous History. The Persians are the first Historical People; Persia was the first Empire that passed away.” “Zoroaster’s ‘Light’ belongs to the World of Consciousness”

The elements of the Persian Empire are the Zend race — the old Parsees; next the Assyrian, Median and Babylonian Empire in the region mentioned; but the Persian Empire also includes Asia Minor, Egypt, and Syria, with its line of coast; and thus combines the Upland, the Valley Plains and the Coast region.”

Their national existence was put an end to by the Mahometans. The great Zerdusht — called Zoroaster by the Greeks — wrote his religious books in the Zend language. Until nearly the last third of the 18th century, this language and all the writings composed in it were entirely unknown to Europeans; when at length the celebrated Frenchman, Anquetil-Duperron, disclosed to us these rich treasures. Filled with an enthusiasm for the Oriental World, which his poverty did not allow him to gratify, he enlisted in a French corps that was about to sail for India. He thus reached Bombay, where he met with the Parsees, and entered on the study of their religious ideas. With indescribable difficulty he succeeded in obtaining their religious books; making his way into their literature, and thus opening an entirely new and wide field of research, but which, owing to his imperfect acquaintance with the language, still awaits thorough investigation.”

Zoroaster himself calls it the pure Aryan: we find a similar name in Herodotus, for he says that the Medes were formerly called Arii — a name with which the designation Iran is connected.” “Here in Bactriana appears to have been the seat of the Zend people. In the time of Cyrus we find the pure and original faith, and the ancient political and social relations such as they are described in the Zend books, no longer perfect.”

It is essential to note, that we find here no Castes, but only Classes, and that there are no restrictions on marriage between these different Classes; though the Zend writings announce civil laws and penalties, together with religious enactments.”

Ormuzd creates of his own free will; but also according to the decree of Zeruane-Akerene (the representation wavers)”

As the Zend Race was the higher spiritual element of the Persian Empire, so in Assyria and Babylonia we have the element of external wealth, luxury and commerce. Traditions respecting them ascend to the remotest periods of History; but in themselves they are obscure, and partly contradictory; and this contradiction is the less easy to be cleared up, as they have no canonical books or indigenous works.” “the accounts in the Bible are also valuable and remarkable in the highest degree, for the Hebrews were immediately connected with the Babylonians.”

The celebrated Epic just mentioned has the old heroic traditions of Iran (that is of West Persia proper) for its subject; but it has not the value of a historical authority, since its contents are poetical and its author a Mahometan. The contest of Iran and Turan is described in this heroic poem. Iran is Persia Proper — the Mountain Land on the south of the Oxus; Turan denotes the plains of the Oxus and those lying between it and the ancient Jaxartes. A hero, Rustan, plays the principal part in the poem; but its narrations are either altogether fabulous, or quite distorted.”

Nineveh is said to have been built 2050 years before Christ; consequently the founding of the Assyrian Kingdom is of no later date. Ninus reduced under his sway also Babylonia, Media and Bactriana; the conquest of which latter country is particularly extolled as having displayed the greatest energy; for Ctesias [historiador grego] reckons the number of troops that accompanied Ninus, at 1,700,000 infantry and a proportionate number of cavalry. Bactra was besieged for a very considerable time, and its conquest is ascribed to Semiramis; who with a valiant host is said to have ascended the steep acclivity of a mountain. The personality of Semiramis wavers between mythological and historical representations. To her is ascribed the building of the Tower of Babel, respecting which we have in the Bible one of the oldest of traditions.”

As to the religion of the Medes, the Greeks call all the oriental Priests Magi, which is therefore a perfectly indefinite name. But all the data point to the fact that among the Magi we may look for a comparatively close connection with the Zend religion; but that, although the Magi preserved and extended it, it experienced great modifications in transmission to the various peoples who adopted it. Xenophon says that Cyrus was the first that sacrificed to God according to the fashion of the Magi. The Medes therefore acted as a medium for propagating the Zend Religion.”

The Assyrian-Babylonian Empire, which held so many peoples in subjection, is said to have existed for 1,000 or 1,500 years. The last ruler was Sardanapalus — a great voluptuary, according to the descriptions we have of him.” “After this catastrophe the empire was entirely broken up: it was divided into an Assyrian, a Median, and a Babylonian Empire, to which also belonged the Chaldeans — a mountain people from the north which had united with the Babylonians. These several Empires had in their turn various fortunes; though here we meet with a confusion in the accounts which has never been cleared up. Within this period of their existence begins their connection with the Jews and Egyptians. The Jewish people succumbed to superior force; the Jews were carried captive to Babylon, and from them we have accurate information respecting the condition of this Empire. According to Daniel’s statements there existed in Babylon a carefully appointed organization for government business.” “the transmission of the sovereignty to the Persians makes no essential difference; for Cyrus was himself a relation of the Median King, and the names of Persia and Media melt into one.” “We recognize here a system of States, consisting of Lydia, Media, and Babylon. The latter had become predominant and had extended its dominion to the Mediterranean Sea. Lydia stretched eastward as far as the Halys; and the border of the western coast of Asia Minor, the fair Greek colonies, were subject to it; a high degree of culture was thus already present in the Lydian Empire. Art and poetry were blooming there as cultivated by the Greeks. These colonies also were subjected to Persia. Wise men, such as Bias, and still earlier, Thales, advised them to unite themselves in a firm league, or to quit their cities and possessions, and to seek out for themselves other habitations (Bias meant Sardinia).”

After the Lydian conquest Cyrus subjugated Babylon. With it he came into possession of Syria and Palestine; freed the Jews from captivity, and allowed them to rebuild their temple. Lastly, he led an expedition against the Massagetae; engaged with them in the steppes between the Oxus and the Jaxartes, but sustained a defeat, and died the death of a warrior and conqueror.” “The Persian Empire is an Empire in the modern sense — like that which existed in Germany, and the great imperial realm under the sway of Napoleon; for we find it consisting of a number of states, which are indeed dependent, but which have retained their own individuality, their manners, and laws.” “Thereby a stop is put to that barbarism and ferocity with which the nations had been wont to carry on their destructive feuds, and which the Book of Kings and the Book of Samuel sufficiently attest.”

Thus they invaded Egypt, Scythia, Thrace, and at last Greece; where their vast power was destined to be shattered. A march of this kind looked almost like an emigration: their families accompanied them. Each people exhibited its national features and warlike accoutrements, and poured forth en masse.” “Each had its own order of march and mode of warfare. Herodotus sketches for us a brilliant picture of this variety of aspect as it presented itself in the vast march of nations under Xerxes (2 millions of human beings are said to have accompanied him). Yet, as these peoples were so unequally disciplined — so diverse in strength and bravery — it is easy to understand how the small but well-trained armies of the Greeks, animated by the same spirit, and under matchless leadership, could withstand those innumerable but disorderly hosts of the Persians. The provinces had to provide for the support of the Persian cavalry, which were quartered in the centre of the kingdom. Babylon had to contribute the third part of the supplies in question, and consequently appears to have been by far the richest district. As regards other branches of revenue, each people was obliged to supply the choicest of the peculiar produce which the district afforded. Thus Arabia gave frankincense, Syria purple, etc.”

Quite free from passion, and without exhibiting any ambition, they agree that monarchy is the only form of government adapted to the Persian Empire. The Sun, and the horse which first salutes them with a neigh, decide the succession in favor of Darius. The magnitude of the Persian dominion occasioned the government of the provinces by viceroys — Satraps; and these often acted very arbitrarily to the provinces subjected to their rule, and displayed hatred and envy towards each other; a source of much evil. These satraps were only superior presidents of the provinces, and generally left the subject kings of the countries in possession of regal privileges. All the land and all the water belonged to the Great King of the Persians.”

Uniform taxes first make their appearance under the government of Darius Hystaspes. On the occasion of a royal progress the districts of the empire visited had to give presents to the King; and from the amount of these gifts we may infer the wealth of the unexhausted provinces. Thus the dominion of the Persians was by no means oppressive, either in secular or religious respects. The Persians, according to Herodotus, had no idols — in fact ridiculed anthropomorphic representations of the gods; but they tolerated every religion, although there may be found expressions of wrath against idolatry. Greek temples were destroyed, and the images of the gods broken in pieces.”

Through its intercourse with so many nations, Syria soon attained a high degree of culture. There the most beautiful fabrications in metals and precious stones were prepared, and there the most important discoveries, e.g., of Glass and of Purple, were made. Written language there received its first development, [dúbio] for in their intercourse with various nations the need of it was soon felt. (So, to quote another example, Lord Macartney observes that in Canton itself the Chinese had felt and expressed the need of a more pliable written language.)”

OVERRATED MOVEMENT (AND OVERRATED GOD, WITH CAPITAL ‘I’): “This opens to us an entirely new principle. Inactivity ceases, as also mere rude valor; in their place appears the activity of Industry, and that considerate courage which, while it dares the perils of the deep, rationally bethinks itself of the means of safety.”

The Prophets give the most terrible pictures of this — though their repulsive character must be partly laid to the account of the hatred of Jews against neighboring peoples. Such representations are particularly ample in the Book of Wisdom. Not only was there a worship of natural objects, but also of the Universal Power of Nature — Astarte, Cybele, Diana of Ephesus. The worship paid was a sensuous intoxication, excess, and revelry: sensuality and cruelty are its 2 characteristic traits. ‘When they keep their holy days they act as if mad’, (‘they are mad when they be merry’ — English Version) says the Book of Wisdom (14:28).” “Thus we see children sacrificed — priests of Cybele subjecting themselves to mutilation — men making themselves eunuchs — women prostituting themselves in the temple.”

Herodotus tells us that at Tyre Hercules was worshipped. If the divinity in question is not absolutely identical with the Greek demigod, there must be understood by that name one whose attributes nearly agree with his. This worship is particularly indicative of the character of the people; for it is Hercules of whom the Greeks say that he raised himself to Olympus by dint of human courage and daring. The idea of the Sun perhaps originated that of Hercules as engaged in his 12 labors; but this basis does not give us the chief feature of the myth, which is that Hercules is that scion of the gods who, by his virtue and exertion, made himself a god by human spirit and valor; and who, instead of passing his life in idleness, spends it in hardship and toil.”

The feast of Adonis was very similar to the worship of Osiris — the commemoration of his death — a funeral festival, at which the women broke out into the most extravagant lamentations over the departed god.”

While among the Phoenician people the Spiritual was still limited by Nature, in the case of the Jews we find it entirely purified — the pure product of Thought.” “Jehovah — the purely One. This forms the point of separation between the East and the West; Spirit descends into the depths of its own being, and recognizes the abstract fundamental principle as the Spiritual.”

the s(t)age of 6 ways

The Persian Empire is one that has passed away, and we have nothing but melancholy relics of its glory. Its fairest and richest towns — such as Babylon, Susa, Persepolis — are razed to the ground; and only a few ruins mark their ancient site. Even in the more modern great cities of Persia — Ispahan and Shiraz — half of them has become a ruin; and they have not — as is the case with ancient Rome — developed a new life, but have lost their place almost entirely in the remembrance of the surrounding nations. Besides the other lands already enumerated as belonging to the Persian Empire, Egypt claims notice — characteristically the Land of Ruins; a land which from hoar antiquity has been regarded with wonder, and which in recent times also has attracted the greatest interest. Its ruins, the final result of immense labor, surpass in the gigantic and monstrous, all that antiquity has left us.”

Egypt was always the Land of Marvels, and has remained so to the present day. It is from the Greeks especially that we get information respecting it, and chiefly from Herodotus. This intelligent historiographer himself visited the country of which he wished to give an account, and at its chief towns made acquaintance with the Egyptian priests. Of all that he saw and heard, he gives an accurate record; but the deeper symbolism of the Egyptian mythology he has refrained from unfolding. This he regards as something sacred, and respecting which he cannot so freely speak as of merely external objects. Besides him Diodorus Siculus is an authority of great importance; and among the Jewish historians, Josephus.”

It was found at a later date that a great part of the hieroglyphics are phonetic, that is, express sounds. Thus the figure of an eye denotes first the eye itself, but secondly the first letter of the Egyptian word that means ‘eye’ (as in Hebrew the figure of a house denotes the letter b, with which the word for house begins).”

European literati have eagerly investigated the lists given by Manetho and have relied upon them, and several names of kings have been confirmed by the recent discoveries. Herodotus says that according to the statements of the priests, gods had formerly reigned over Egypt, and that from the first human king down to the King Setho 341 generations, or 11,340 years, had passed away; but that the first human ruler was Menes (the resemblance of the name to the Greek Minos and the Hindoo Manu is striking).”

As the Dutch have gained their territory from the sea, and have found means to sustain themselves upon it; so the Egyptians first acquired their country, and maintained its fertility by canals and lakes. An important feature in the history of Egypt is its descent from Upper to Lower Egypt — from the South to the North. With this is connected the consideration that Egypt probably received its culture from Ethiopia; principally from the island Meroe, which, according to recent hypotheses, was occupied by a sacerdotal people. Thebes in Upper Egypt was the most ancient residence of the Egyptian kings. Even in Herodotus’ time it was in a state of dilapidation. The ruins of this city present the most enormous specimens of Egyptian architecture that we are acquainted with. Considering their antiquity they are remarkably well preserved: which is partly owing to the perpetually cloudless sky. The centre of the kingdom was then transferred to Memphis, not far from the modern Cairo; and lastly to Sais, in the Delta itself. The structures that occur in the locality of this city are of very late date and imperfectly preserved. Herodotus tells us that Memphis was referred to so remote a founder as Menes. Among the later kings must be especially noticed Sesostris, who, according to Champollion, is Rameses the Great.”

these 2 nations {Egypt and the Colchians[?]} and the Ethiopians were the only ones that had always practised circumcision.”

After the death of Setho, the Egyptians (Herodotus tells us) regarded themselves as free, and chose themselves 12 kings, who formed a federal union — as a symbol of which they built the Labyrinth, consisting of an immense number of rooms and halls above and below ground. In the year 650 B.C. one of these kings, Psammitichus, with the help of the Ionians and Carians (to whom he promised land in Lower Egypt), expelled the 11 other kings.”

From this point the history becomes clearer, because it is based on Greek accounts.” Presunção.

Cyrus desired an oculist from the Egyptians; for at that time the Egyptian oculists were very famous, their skill having been called out by the numerous eye-diseases prevalent in Egypt. This oculist, to revenge himself for having been sent out of the country, advised Cambyses to ask for the daughter of Amasis in marriage; knowing well that Amasis would either be rendered unhappy by giving her to him, or on the other hand incur the wrath of Cambyses by refusing. Amasis would not give his daughter to Cambyses, because the latter desired her as an inferior wife (for his lawful spouse must be a Persian); but sent him, under the name of his own daughter, that of Apries, who afterwards discovered her real name to Cambyses. The latter was so incensed at the deception, that he led an expedition against Egypt, conquered that country, and united it with the Persian Empire.”

Herodotus mentions the 7 following castes: the priests, the warriors, the neatherds, the swineherds, the merchants (or trading population generally), the interpreters — who seem only at a later date to have constituted a separate class — and, lastly, the seafaring class. Agriculturists are not named here, probably because agriculture was the occupation of several castes, as, e.g., the warriors, to whom a portion of the land was given. Diodorus and Strabo give a different account of these caste-divisions.”

But the several occupations did not remain so stereotyped as among the Hindoos; for we find the Israelites, who were originally herdsmen, employed also as manual laborers: and there was a king — as stated above — who formed an army of manual laborers alone.” Dois erros: levar em conta a Bíblia como fonte histórica; não considerar que a lei pode ser diferente para os forasteiros.

The castes are not rigidly fixed, but struggle with and come into contact with one another” Qual seria o sentido de chamar de castas então?

The Nile and the Sun constitute the divinities, conceived under human forms; and the course of nature and the mythological history is the same. In the winter solstice the power of the sun has reached its minimum, and must be born anew. Thus also Osiris appears as born; but he is killed by Typhon — his brother and enemy — the burning wind of the desert. Isis, the Earth — from whom the aid of the Sun and of the Nile has been withdrawn — yearns after him: she gathers the scattered bones of Osiris, and raises her lamentation for him, and all Egypt bewails with her the death of Osiris, in a song which Herodotus calls Maneros. Maneros he reports to have been the only son of the first king of the Egyptians, and to have died prematurely; this song being also the Linus-Song of the Greeks, and the only song which the Egyptians have.” Quão ridícula pode ser uma asserção como essa?

my favorite son(g)

Hermes then embalms Osiris; and his grave is shown in various places. Osiris is now judge of the dead, and lord of the kingdom of the Shades. These are the leading ideas.”

the symbol is changed into signification, and this latter becomes symbol of that symbol, which itself then becomes signification.”

CAPOEIRA DO MESTRE HEGEL: “o símbolo é trocado em significação, e esta se torna símbolo desse símbolo, que por sua vez se torna significação.”

Thus there arises one pregnant conception, composed of many conceptions, in which each fundamental nodus retains its individuality, so that they are not resolved into a general idea.”

In the first class, Fire and its use appears as Phtha, also as Knef, who is besides represented as the Good Genius; but the Nile itself is held to be that Genius, and thus abstractions are changed into concrete conceptions. Amman is regarded as a great divinity, with whom is associated the determination of the equinox; it is he, moreover, who gives oracles. But Osiris is similarly represented as the founder of oracular manifestations. So the Procreative Power, banished by Osiris, is represented as a particular divinity. But Osiris is himself this Procreative Power. Isis is the Earth, the Moon, the receptive fertility of Nature. As an important element in the conception Osiris, Anubis (Thoth) — the Egyptian Hermes — must be specially noticed.” “And thus the Egyptians had also specific divinities, conceived as spiritual activities and forces; but partly intrinsically limited” Hm.

According to Jamblichus, the Egyptian priests immemorially prefixed to all their inventions the name Hermes: Eratosthenes, therefore, called his book, which treated of the entire science of Egypt — Hermes. Anubis is called the friend and companion of Osiris. To him is ascribed the invention of writing, and of science generally — of grammar, astronomy, mensuration, music, and medicine.”

He is represented with a dog’s head, as an imbruted god; and besides this mask, a particular natural object is bound up with the conception of this divinity; for he is at the same time Sirius, the Dog-Star. He is thus as limited in respect of what he embodies, as sensuous in the positive existence ascribed to him.”

All astrological and sympathetic superstition may be traced to Egypt.”

Egyptian Worship is chiefly Zoolatry.”

We also, when we contemplate the life and action of brutes, are astonished at their instinct — the adaptation of their movements to the object intended — their restlessness, excitability, and liveliness; for they are exceedingly quick and discerning in pursuing the ends of their existence, while they are at the same time silent and shut up within themselves.”

A black tom-cat, with its glowing eyes and its now gliding, now quick and darting movement, has been deemed the presence of a malignant being — a mysterious reserved spectre: the dog, the canary-bird, on the contrary, appear friendly and sympathizing.” E parece que, se não é do Egito que vem toda a zoolatria, o sr. Hegel, pelo menos, mostra-se bastante egípcio!!

A pirâmide externa é só o chifre do corpo morto que jaz no subsolo.

It is related, that once when a Roman in Alexandria killed a cat, an insurrection ensued, in which the Egyptians murdered the aggressor. They would let human beings perish by famine, rather than allow the sacred animals to be killed” O mundo gira, meu amigo.

I refer here to the innumerable figures on the Egyptian monuments, of sparrow-hawks or falcons, dung-beetles, scarabaei, etc. It is not known what ideas such figures symbolized, and we can scarcely think that a satisfactory view of this very obscure subject is attainable. The dung-beetle is said to be the symbol of generation — of the sun and its course”

The refined art of Greece is able to attain a specific expression through the spiritual character given to an image in the form of beauty, and does not need to deform the human face in order to be understood.” Com certeza. Não existem minotauros, tampouco grifos… E que diabos seria uma Medusa – uma planta?!?

They are of two kinds — hieroglyphs proper, designed rather to express language, and having reference to subjective conception; and a class of hieroglyphs of a different kind, viz., those enormous masses of architecture and sculpture, with which Egypt is covered.”

These are the enormous excavations in the hills along the Nile at Thebes, whose passages and chambers are entirely filled with mummies — subterranean abodes as large as the largest mining works of our time: next, the great field of the dead in the plain of Sais, with its walls and vaults: thirdly, those Wonders of the World, the Pyramids, whose destination, though stated long ago by Herodotus and Diodorus, has been only recently expressly confirmed — to the effect, viz., that these prodigious crystals, with their geometrical regularity, contain dead bodies: and lastly, that most astonishing work, the Tombs of the Kings, of which one has been opened by Belzoni in modern times.”

The idea that Spirit is immortal, involves this — that the human individual inherently possesses infinite value. The merely Natural appears limited — absolutely dependent upon something other than itself — and has its existence in that other; but Immortality involves the inherent infinitude of Spirit. This idea is first found among the Egyptians. But it must be added, that the soul was known to the Egyptians previously only as an atom — that is, as something concrete and particular. For with that view is immediately connected the notion of Metempsychosis — the idea that the soul of man may also become the tenant of the body of a brute. Aristotle too speaks of this idea, and despatches it in few words. Every subject, he says, has its particular organs, for its peculiar mode of action: so the smith, the carpenter, each for his own craft. In like manner the human soul has its peculiar organs, and the body of a brute cannot be its domicile. Pythagoras adopted the doctrine of Metempsychosis; but it could not find much support among the Greeks, who held rather to the concrete. The Hindoos have also an indistinct conception of this doctrine, inasmuch as with them the final attainment is absorption in the universal Substance. But with the Egyptians the Soul — the Spirit — is, at any rate, an affirmative being, although only abstractedly affirmative. The period occupied by the soul’s migrations was fixed at 3,000 years; they affirmed, however, that a soul which had remained faithful to Osiris was not subject to such a degradation — for such they deem it.”

It is well known that the Egyptians embalmed their dead; and thus imparted such a degree of permanence, that they have been preserved even to the present day, and may continue as they are for many centuries to come. This indeed seems inconsistent with their idea of immortality; for if the soul has an independent existence, the permanence of the body seems a matter of indifference. But on the other hand it may be said, that if the soul is recognized as a permanent existence, honor should be shown to the body, as its former abode. The Parsees lay the bodies of the dead in exposed places to be devoured by birds; but among them the soul is regarded as passing forth into universal existence. Where the soul is supposed to enjoy continued existence, the body must also be considered to have some kind of connection with this continuance.”

CADA QUAL COM SEU GALO A ESCULÁPIO: “Many mummies have been found with a roll of papyrus under their arm, and this was formerly regarded as a remarkable treasure. But these rolls contain only various representations of the pursuits of life — together with writings in the Demotic character. They have been deciphered, and the discovery has been made that they are all deeds of purchase, relating to pieces of ground and the like; in which everything is most minutely recorded — even the duties that had to be paid to the royal chancery on the occasion. What, therefore, a person bought during his life is made to accompany him — in the shape of a legal document — in death. In this monumental way we are made acquainted with the private life of the Egyptians, as with that of the Romans through the ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum.” “If Death thus haunted the minds of the Egyptians during life, it might be supposed that their disposition was melancholy. But the thought of death by no means occasioned depression. At banquets they had representations of the dead (as Herodotus relates), with the admonition: ‘Eat and drink — such a one wilt thou become, when thou art dead.’

Of Anubis-Hermes the myth says, that he embalmed the body of Osiris: this Anubis sustained also the office of leader of the souls of the dead; and in the pictorial representations he stands, with a writing tablet in his hand, by the side of Osiris. The reception of the dead into the Kingdom of Osiris had also a profounder import, viz., that the individual was united with Osiris. On the lids of the sarcophagi, therefore, the defunct is represented as having himself become Osiris”

HEGEL THE NAÏVE: “It is stated that, in a public market-place, sodomy was committed by a woman with a goat.”

These features are combined in the stories which Herodotus relates to us of the Egyptians. They much resemble the tales of the Thousand and One Nights; and although these have Bagdad as the locality of their narration, their origin is no more limited to this luxurious court than to the Arabian people, but must be partly traced to Egypt — as Von Hammer also thinks.” Hegel confiaria toda sua fortuna e status a um estranho – a Heródoto, no caso.

Love, Martial Daring, the Horse, the Sword, are the darling subjects of the poetry peculiar to the Arabians.” Devíamos copiá-los: cavalo não tem chifre, então já seria um ganho.

I am that which is, that which was, and that which will be; no one has lifted my veil.”

China and India, as already mentioned, have remained — Persia has not. The transition to Greece is, indeed, internal; but here it shows itself also externally, as a transmission of sovereignty — an occurrence which from this time forward is ever and anon repeated.” “the proper Emergence, the true Palingenesis of Spirit must be looked for in Greece first.” “Achilles, the ideal youth of poetry, commenced it: Alexander the Great, the ideal youth of reality, concluded it.”

Thus, Athens owes its origin to Cecrops, an Egyptian, whose history, however, is involved in obscurity. The race of Deucalion, the son of Prometheus, is brought into connection with the various Greek tribes. Pelops of Phrygia, the son of Tantalus, is also mentioned; next, Danaus, from Egypt: from him descend Acrisius, Danae and Perseus. Pelops is said to have brought great wealth with him to the Peloponnesus, and to have acquired great respect and power there. Danaus settled in Argos. Especially important is the arrival of Cadmus, of Phoenician origin, with whom phonetic writing is said to have been introduced into Greece; Herodotus refers it to Phoenicia, and ancient inscriptions then extant are cited to support the assertion. Cadmus, according to the legend, founded Thebes.” “Cadmus is said to have founded Thebes about 1490 B.C. — a date with which the Exodus of Moses from Egypt (1500 B.C.) nearly coincides.”

In Argolis, the walls of which the ancient fortresses consisted, were called Cyclopian; some of them have been discovered even in recent times, since, on account of their solidity, they are indestructible.” “Even now the gate with the lions, at Mycenas, can be recognized by the description of Pausanias. It is stated of Proetus [Proteus?], who ruled in Argos, that he brought with him from Lycia the Cyclopes who built these walls. It is, however, supposed that they were erected by the ancient Pelasgi.” “These fortresses, then, were the nuclei of small states; they gave a greater security to agriculture; they protected commercial intercourse against robbery. They were, however, as Thucydides informs us, not placed in the immediate vicinity of the sea, on account of piracy; maritime towns being of later date.”

Their subjects obeyed them, not as distinguished from them by conditions of caste, nor as in a state of serfdom, nor in the patriarchal relation — according to which the chief is only the head of the tribe or family to which all belong — nor yet as the result of the express necessity for a constitutional government; but only from the need, universally felt, of being held together, and of obeying a ruler accustomed to command — without envy and ill-will towards him. The Prince has just so much personal authority as he possesses the ability to acquire and to assert; but as this superiority is only the individually heroic, resting on personal merit, it does not continue long.”

In Homer’s Iliad we find a King of Kings, a generalissimo in the great national undertaking — but the other magnates environ him as a freely deliberating council; the prince is honored, but he is obliged to arrange everything to the satisfaction of the others; he indulges in violent conduct towards Achilles, but, in revenge, the latter withdraws from the struggle. Equally lax is the relation of the several chiefs to the people at large, among whom there are always individuals who claim attention and respect. The various peoples do not fight as mercenaries of the prince in his battles, nor as a stupid serf-like herd driven to the contest, nor yet in their own interest; but as the companions of their honored chieftain — as witnesses of his exploits, and his defenders in peril. A perfect resemblance to these relations is also presented in the Greek Pantheon.”

The occasion of that united expedition is said to have been the violation of the laws of hospitality by the son of an Asiatic prince, in carrying off the wife of his host. Agamemnon assembles the princes of Greece through the power and influence which he possesses. Thucydides ascribes his authority to his hereditary sovereignty, combined with naval power (Hom. II. ii. 108), in which he was far superior to the rest. It appears, however, that the combination was effected without external compulsion, and that the whole armament was convened simply on the strength of individual consent. [não era um protocapitalista de merda] The Hellenes were then brought to act unitedly, to an extent of which there is no subsequent example. The result of their exertions was the conquest and destruction of Troy, though they had no design of making it a permanent possession. No external result, therefore, in the way of settlement ensued, any more than an enduring political union, as the effect of the uniting of the nation in the accomplishment of this single achievement. But the poet supplied an imperishable portraiture of their youth and of their national spirit, to the imagination of the Greek people; and the picture of this beautiful human heroism hovered as a directing ideal before their whole development and culture.”

The people appears separated from the royal houses, and these are regarded as an alien body — a higher race, fighting out the battles and undergoing the penalties of their fate, for themselves alone. Royalty having performed that which it had to perform thereby rendered itself superfluous. The several dynasties are the agents of their own destruction, or perish not as the result of animosity, or of struggles on the side of the people: rather the families of the sovereigns are left in calm enjoyment of their power — a proof that the democratic government which followed is not regarded as something absolutely diverse.”

The Peloponnesus was conquered by the Heraclidae, who introduced a calmer state of things, which was not again interrupted by the incessant migrations of races. The history now becomes more obscure; and though the several occurrences of the Trojan war are very circumstantially described to us, we are uncertain respecting the important transactions of the time immediately following, for a space of many centuries. [talvez porque nenhuma transação tenha sido de fato importante!] No united undertaking distinguishes them, unless we regard as such that of which Thucydides speaks, viz., the war between the Chalcidians and Eretrians in Euboea, in which many nations took part. The towns vegetate in isolation, or at most distinguish themselves by war with their neighbors. Yet, they enjoy prosperity in this isolated condition, by means of trade; a kind of progress to which their being rent by many party-struggles offers no opposition.”

AS GRANDES COLONIZAÇÕES: SINTOMA DE DÉCADENCE: “This sending out of colonies — especially during the period between the Trojan war and Cyrus — presents us with a remarkable phenomenon. It can be thus explained. In the several towns the people had the governmental power in their hands, since they gave the final decision in political affairs. In consequence of the long repose enjoyed by them, the population and the development of the community advanced rapidly; and the immediate result was the amassing of great riches, contemporaneously with which fact great want and poverty make their appearance. Industry, in our sense, did not exist; and the lands were soon occupied. Nevertheless a part of the poorer classes would not submit to the degradations of poverty, for everyone felt himself a free citizen. The only expedient, therefore, that remained, was colonization. In another country, those who suffered distress in their own, might seek a free soil, and gain a living as free citizens by its cultivation. Colonization thus became a means of maintaining some degree of equality among the citizens; but this means is only a palliative, and the original inequality, founded on the difference of property, immediately reappears. The old passions were rekindled with fresh violence, and riches were soon made use of for securing power: thus Tyrants gained ascendancy in the cities of Greece.”

On the same principle the Greeks listened to the murmuring of the fountains, and asked what might be thereby signified; but the signification which they were led to attach to it was not the objective meaning of the fountain, but the subjective — that of the subject itself, which further exalts the Naiad to a Muse. The Naiads, or Fountains, are the external, objective origin of the Muses. Yet the immortal songs of the Muses are not that which is heard in the murmuring of the fountains; they are the productions of the thoughtfully listening Spirit — creative while observant.”

It has been long a much vexed question whether the arts and the religion of the Greeks were developed independently or through foreign suggestion. Under the conduct of a one-sided understanding the controversy is interminable; for it is no less a fact of history that the Greeks derived conceptions from India, Syria, and Egypt than that the Greek conceptions are peculiar to themselves, and those others alien.” “Just as in Art the Greeks may have acquired a mastery of technical matters from others — from the Egyptians especially — so in their religion the commencement might have been from without; but by their independent spirit they transformed the one as well as the other.” “All issue in works of art, and we may arrange under 3 heads: the subjective work of art, that is, the culture of the man himself — the objective work of art, i.e., the shaping of the world of divinities — lastly, the political work of art — the form of the Constitution, and the relations of the Individuals who compose it.”

In the notice of Agamemnon’s sceptre, its origin is given in detail: mention is made of doors which turn on hinges, and of accoutrements and furniture, in a way that expresses satisfaction. The honor of human invention in subjugating Nature is ascribed to the gods. But, on the other hand, man uses Nature for ornament, which is intended only as a token of wealth and of that which man has made of himself. We find Ornament, in this interest, already very much developed among the Homeric Greeks. It is true that both barbarians and civilized nations ornament themselves; but barbarians content themselves with mere ornament; they intend their persons to please by an external addition. But ornament by its very nature is destined only to beautify something other than itself, viz. the human body, which is man’s immediate environment, and which, in common with Nature at large, he has to transform. The spiritual interest of Primary importance is, therefore, the development of the body to a perfect organ for the Will — an adaptation which may on the one hand itself be the means for ulterior objects, and on the other hand, appear as an object per se. Among the Greeks, then, we find this boundless impulse of individuals to display themselves, and to find their enjoyment in so doing. Sensuous enjoyment does not become the basis of their condition when a state of repose has been obtained, any more than the dependence and stupor of superstition which enjoyment entails. They are too powerfully excited, too much bent upon developing their individuality, absolutely to adore Nature, as it manifests itself in its aspects of power and beneficence. That peaceful condition which ensued when a predatory life had been relinquished, and liberal nature had afforded security and leisure, turned their energies in the direction of self-assertion — the effort to dignify themselves. But while on the one side they have too much independent personality to be subjugated by superstition, that sentiment has not gone to the extent of making them vain”

Homer gives a noble description of the games conducted by Achilles, in honor of Patroclus; but in all his poems there is no notice of statues of the gods, though he mentions the sanctuary at Dodona, and the treasure-house of Apollo at Delphi. The games in Homer consist in wrestling and boxing, running, horse and chariot races, throwing the discus or javelin, and archery. With these exercises are united dance and song, to express and form part of the enjoyment of social exhilaration, and which arts likewise blossomed into beauty. On the shield of Achilles, Hephaestus represents, among other things, how beautiful youths and maidens move as quickly ‘with well-taught feet’, as the potter turns his wheel. The multitude stand round enjoying the spectacle; the divine singer accompanies the song with the harp, and 2 chief dancers perform their evolutions in the centre of the circle.” “Besides the Olympic games in the sacred district of Elis, there were also held the Isthmian, the Pythian, and Nemean, at other places.”

The transition from the Oriental to the Occidental Spirit is therein represented, for the Titans are the merely Physical — natural existences, from whose grasp sovereignty is wrested. It is true that they continue to be venerated, but not as governing powers; for they are relegated to the verge (the limbus) of the world.”

For Apollo is the prophesying and discerning god — Light, that makes everything clear. He is, moreover, the healer and strengthener; as also the destroyer, for he kills men. He is the propitiating and purifying god, e.g., in contravention of the Eumenides — the ancient subterrene divinities — who exact hard, stern justice. He himself is pure; he has no wife, but only a sister, and is not involved in various disgusting adventures, like Zeus; moreover, he is the discerner and declarer, the singer and leader of the dances — as the sun leads the harmonious dance of stars. — In like manner the Naiads became the Muses. The mother of the gods, Cybele — continuing to be worshipped at Ephesus as Artemis — is scarcely to be recognized as the Artemis of the Greeks — the chaste huntress and destroyer of wild beasts.”

While the gods remained more human,

The men were more divine.”

But why did God not appear to the Greeks in the flesh? Because man was not duly estimated, did not obtain honor and dignity, till he had more fully elaborated and developed himself in the attainment of the Freedom implicit in the aesthetic manifestation in question” Pequena porção de um dos trechos mais escusos de Hegel (ou de seus desastrados discípulos), sem dúvida.

Another circumstance that demands special attention here is the element of Slavery. This was a necessary condition of an aesthetic democracy, where it was the right and duty of every citizen to deliver or to listen to orations respecting the management of the State in the place of public assembly, to take part in the exercise of the Gymnasia, and to join in the celebration of festivals. It was a necessary condition of such occupations, that the citizens should be freed from handicraft occupations; consequently, that what among us is performed by free citizens — the work of daily life — should be done by slaves.”

At the beginning of the Median wars, Lacedaemon was in possession of the Hegemony, partly as the result of having subjugated and enslaved the free nation of the Messenians, partly because it had assisted many Greek States to expel their Tyrants. Provoked by the part the Greeks had taken in assisting the Ionians against him, the Persian King sent heralds to the Greek cities to require them to give Water and Earth, i.e. to acknowledge his supremacy. The Persian envoys were contemptuously sent back, and the Lacedaemonians went so far as to throw them into a well — a deed, however, of which they afterwards so deeply repented, as to send 2 Lacedaemonians to Susa in expiation. The Persian King then despatched an army to invade Greece. With its vastly superior force the Athenians and Plataeans, without aid from their compatriots, contended at Marathon under Miltiades, and gained the victory. Afterwards, Xerxes came down upon Greece with his enormous masses of nations (Herodotus gives a detailed description of this expedition); and with the terrible array of land-forces was associated the not less formidable fleet. Thrace, Macedon, and Thessaly were soon subjugated; but the entrance into Greece Proper — the Pass of Thermopylae — was defended by 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians, whose fate is well known. Athens, voluntarily deserted by its inhabitants, was ravaged; the images of the gods which it contained were ‘an abomination’ to the Persians, who worshipped the Amorphous, the Unformed. In spite of the disunion of the Greeks, the Persian fleet was beaten at Salamis; and this glorious battle-day presents the 3 greatest tragedians of Greece in remarkable chronological association: for Æschylus was one of the combatants, and helped to gain the victory, Sophocles danced at the festival that celebrated it, and on the same day Euripides was born. The host that remained in Greece, under the command of Mardonius, was beaten at Plataea by Pausanias, and the Persian power was consequently broken at various points.”

For these are World-Historical victories; they were the salvation of culture and Spiritual vigor, and they rendered the Asiatic principle powerless. How often, on other occasions, have not men sacrificed everything for one grand object!”

Never in History has the superiority of spiritual power over material bulk — and that of no contemptible amount — been made so gloriously manifest.”

The Athenians continued their wars of conquest for a considerable time, and thereby attained a high degree of prosperity; while the Lacedaemonians, who had no naval power, remained quiet. The antagonism of Athens and Sparta now commences — a favorite theme for historical treatment.” “The polity of the State was wavering between Aristocracy and Democracy. Solon effected, by his division into 4 property-classes, a medium between these opposites. All these together formed the popular assembly for deliberation and decision on public affairs; but the offices of government were reserved for the 3 superior classes.” “Lastly, Pericles rendered the constitution yet more democratic by diminishing the essential dignity of the Areopagus, and bringing causes that had hitherto belonged to it, before the Demos and the ordinary tribunals.” “It was Pericles who originated the production of those eternal monuments of sculpture whose scanty remains astonish posterity; it was before this people that the dramas of Æschylus and Sophocles were performed; and later on those of Euripides — which, however, do not exhibit the same plastic moral character, and in which the principle of corruption is more manifest.”

the Helots [hilotas] were doubtless aborigines. The fate that had befallen the Helots was suffered at a later epoch by the Messenians; for inhuman severity of this order was innate in Spartan character. While the Athenians had a family-life, and slaves among them were inmates of the house, the relation of the Spartans to the subjugated race was one of even greater harshness than that of the Turks to the Greeks; a state of warfare was constantly kept up in Lacedaemon. In entering upon office, the Ephors made an unreserved declaration of war against the Helots, and the latter were habitually given up to the younger Spartans to be practised upon in their martial exercises. The Helots were on some occasions set free, and fought against the enemy; moreover, they displayed extraordinary valor in the ranks of the Spartans; but on their return they were butchered in the most cowardly and insidious way. As in a slave-ship the crew are constantly armed, and the greatest care is taken to prevent an insurrection, so the Spartans exercised a constant vigilance over the Helots, and were always in a condition of war, as against enemies.” “As daughters were capable of inheriting, many estates had come by marriage into the possession of a few families, and at last all the landed property was in the hands of a limited number; as if to show how foolish it is to attempt a forced equality — an attempt which, while ineffective in realizing its professed object, is also destructive of a most essential point of liberty — the free disposition of property.” Um olhar MUITO crítico de H. em relação a Esparta. Mas se sustenta na bibliografia atual?

It was with an especial view to promote similarity of manners, and a more intimate acquaintance of the citizens with each other, that the Spartans had meals in common — a community, however, which disparaged family life; for eating and drinking is a private affair, and consequently belongs to domestic retirement.” “Lastly, one of the highest magistracies was that of the Ephors, respecting whose election we have no definite information; Aristotle says that the mode of choice was exceedingly childish. We learn from Aristotle that even persons without nobility or property could attain this dignity. The Ephors had full authority to convoke popular assemblies, to put resolutions to the vote, and to propose laws, almost in the same way as the tribuni plebis in Rome. Their power became tyrannical, like that which Robespierre and his party exercised for a time in France.” Comparações indevidas…

In their intercourse at home, they were, on the whole, honorable; but as regarded their conduct towards other nations, they themselves plainly declared that they held their own good pleasure for the Commendable, and what was advantageous for the Right.”

The perfect bloom of Greek life lasted only about 60 years”

In the Peloponnesian War, the struggle was essentially between Athens and Sparta. Thucydides has left us the history of the greater part of it, and his immortal work is the absolute gain which humanity has derived from that contest. Athens allowed herself to be hurried into the extravagant projects of Alcibiades; and when these had already much weakened her, she was compelled to succumb to the Spartans, who were guilty of the treachery of applying for aid to Persia, and who obtained from the King supplies of money and a naval force. They were also guilty of a still more extensive treason, in abolishing democracy in Athens and in the cities of Greece generally, and in giving a preponderance to factions that desired oligarchy, but were not strong enough to maintain themselves without foreign assistance. Lastly, in the peace of Antalcidas, Sparta put the finishing stroke to her treachery, by giving over the Greek cities in Asia Minor to Persian dominion.

Lacedaemon had therefore, both by the oligarchies which it had set up in various countries, and by the garrisons which it maintained in some cities — as, e.g., Thebes — obtained a great preponderance in Greece. But the Greek States were far more incensed at Spartan oppression than they had previously been at Athenian supremacy. With Thebes at their head, they cast off the yoke, and the Thebans became for a moment the most distinguished people in Hellas. But it was to 2 distinguished men among its citizens that Thebes owed its entire power — Pelopidas and Epaminondas

Weakened and distracted, Greece could no longer find safety in itself, and needed an authoritative prop. In the towns there were incessant contests; the citizens were divided into factions, as in the Italian cities of the Middle Ages. The victory of one party entailed the banishment of the other; the latter then usually applied to the enemies of their native city, to obtain their aid in subjugating it by force of arms. The various States could no longer co-exist peaceably: they prepared ruin for each other, as well as for themselves.”

A leading principle of the Sophists was that <Man is the measure of all things>; but in this, as in all their apophthegms, lurks an ambiguity, since the term <Man> may denote Spirit in its depth and truth, or in the aspect of mere caprice and private interest.” “This Sophistic principle appears again and again, though under different forms, in various periods of History; thus even in our own times subjective opinion of what is right — mere feeling — is made the ultimate ground of decision.”

Socrates is celebrated as a Teacher of Morality, but we should rather call him the Inventor of Morality.”

ZEUS FALLS: “The Phocians were then to be punished by the Thebans; but by an egregious piece of violence — by desecrating and plundering the temple at Delphi — the former attained momentary superiority. This deed completes the ruin of Greece; the sanctuary was desecrated, the god so to speak, killed; the last support of unity was thereby annihilated; reverence for that which in Greece had been as it were always the final arbiter — its monarchical principle — was displaced, insulted, and trodden under foot.”

The charge of littleness, harshness, violence, and political treachery — all those hateful characteristics with which Philip has so often been reproached — did not extend to the young Alexander, when he placed himself at the head of the Greeks.”

Though his generals were devoted to him, they had been the long tried servants of his father; and this made his position difficult: for his greatness and youth was a humiliation to them, as inclined to regard themselves and the achievements of the past as a complete work; so that while their envy, as in Clitus’ case, arose to blind rage, Alexander also was excited to great violence.” “He was great as a commander in battles, wise in conducting marches and marshalling troops, and the bravest soldier in the thick of the fight.”

Alexander had the good fortune to die at the proper time; i.e. it may be called good fortune, but it is rather a necessity. That he may stand before the eyes of posterity as a youth, an early death must hurry him away. Achilles, as remarked above, begins the Greek world, and his autotype Alexander concludes it: and these youths not only supply a picture of the fairest kind in their own persons, but at the same time afford a complete and perfect type of Hellenic existence.”

Thence the Greeks came into connection with India, and even with China. The Greek dominion spread itself over northern India, and Sandrokottus (Chandraguptas) is mentioned as the first who emancipated himself from it. The same name presents itself indeed among the Hindoos, but for reasons already stated, we can place very little dependence upon such mention. Other Greek Kingdoms arose in Asia Minor, in Armenia, in Syria and Babylonia. But Egypt especially, among the kingdoms of the successors of Alexander, became a great centre of science and art; for a great number of its architectural works belong to the time of the Ptolemies, as has been made out from the deciphered inscriptions.” Exagero da importância alexandrina.

Those who had been Alexander’s Generals, now assuming an independent appearance on the stage of history as Kings, carried on long wars with each other, and experienced, almost all of them, the most romantic revolutions of fortune. Especially remarkable and prominent in this respect is the life of Demetrius Poliorcetes.” Nada fala dele, entretanto.

In our times we can neither endure our faults nor the means of correcting them.” Livy

The distinction between the Roman and the Persian principle is exactly this — that the former stifles all vitality, while the latter allowed of its existence in the fullest measure. Through its being the aim of the State, that the social units in their moral life should be sacrificed to it, the world is sunk in melancholy: its heart is broken, and it is all over with the Natural side of Spirit, which has sunk into a feeling of unhappiness. Yet only from this feeling could arise the supersensuous, the free Spirit in Christianity.” Para Hegel o Império Romano era Roma, onde o estrangeiro não podia perpetuar sua própria cultura – é assimilado ou morre [quase o anagrama de Rome]. Qualquer um que lê como os romanos respeitaram as idiossincrasias dos povos que subjugaram e tornaram províncias do Império é capaz de refutar essa leitura bidimensional do período.

Erudition has regarded the Roman History from various points of view, and has adopted very different and opposing opinions: this is especially the case with the more ancient part of the history, which has been taken up by 3 different classes of literatiHistorians, Philologists, and Jurists. The Historians hold to the grand features, and show respect for the history as such; [empty expression nonetheless] so that we may after all see our way best under their guidance, since they allow the validity of the records in the case of leading events. It is otherwise with the Philologists, by whom generally received traditions are less regarded, and who devote more attention to small details which can be combined in various ways. These combinations gain a footing first as historical hypotheses, but soon after as established facts. To the same degree as the Philologists in their department, have the Jurists in that of Roman law, instituted the minutest examination and involved their inferences with hypothesis. The result is that the most ancient part of Roman History has been declared to be nothing but fable; so that this department of inquiry is brought entirely within the province of learned criticism, which always finds the most to do where the least is to be got for the labor. While on the one side the poetry and the myths of the Greeks are said to contain profound historical truths, and are thus transmuted into history, the Romans on the contrary have myths and poetical views affiliated upon them; [the Greeks] and epopees are affirmed to be at the basis of what has been hitherto taken for prosaic and historical.” Eneida, etc.

Niebuhr has prefaced his Roman history by a profoundly erudite treatise on the peoples of Italy; but from which no connection between them and the Roman History is visible. In fact, Niebuhr’s History can only be regarded as a criticism of Roman History, for it consists of a series of treatises which by no means possess the unity of history.”

As to the particular sections of the Roman History, the common division is that into the Monarchy, the Republic, and the Empire — as if in these forms different principles made their appearance; but the same principle — that of the Roman Spirit — underlies their development.” Esse idiota divide a História Romana em 3 e coloca as campanhas de César já no princípio da 3a!

Rome arose outside recognised countries, viz., in an angle where 3 different districts met — those of the Latins, Sabines and Etruscans” “but Rome was from the very beginning, of artificial and violent, not spontaneous growth.” Pura especulação

It is related that the descendants of the Trojans, led by Æneas to Italy, founded Rome; for the connection with Asia was a much cherished tradition, and there are in Italy, France, and Germany itself (Xanten) many towns which refer their origin, or their names, to the fugitive Trojans. Livy speaks of the ancient tribes of Rome, the Ramnenses, Titienses, and Luceres. Now if we look upon these as distinct nations, and assert that they were really the elements from which Rome was formed — a view which in recent times has very often striven to obtain currency — we directly subvert the historical tradition.”

SANOZAMA: “It is equally historical that in the newly formed State there were no women, and that the neighboring states would enter into no connubia with it: both circumstances characterize it as predatory union, with which the other States wished to have no connection.”

They also refused the invitation to their religious festivals; and only the Sabines — a simple agricultural people, among whom, as Livy says, prevailed a tristis atque tetrica superstitio — partly from superstition, partly from fear, presented themselves at them.”

A State which had first to form itself, and which is based on force, must be held together by force.” Que ingênuo. Trata-se de todas as configurações sociais conhecidas!

Remus was buried on the Aventine mount; this is consecrated to the evil genii, and to it are directed the Secessions of the Plebs. The question comes, then, how this distinction originated?” Pergunte ao Dühring!

the protected are called clientes.” Hoje são os mais desprotegidos. Essa relação de clientela entre plebe e aristocracia podia muito bem ser avaliada assim por um conservador: o povo não havia degradado tanto a ponto de se unir contra o alto e sublime, congregando-se numa confederação de irmãos esfarrapados (movimento socialista). Pois aqui o que temos são facções renitentes e eternas dissidências entre algumas famílias aristocratas e seus rábulas de aluguel. “How often in insurrection and in anarchical disorder was the plebs brought back into a state of tranquillity by a mere form, and cheated of the fulfilment of its demands, righteous or unrighteous! How often was a Dictator, e.g., chosen by the senate, when there was neither war nor danger from an enemy, in order to get the plebeians into the army, and to bind them to strict obedience by the military oath! It took Licinius 10 years to carry laws favorable to the plebs; the latter allowed itself to be kept back by the mere formality of the veto on the part of other tribunes, and still more patiently did it wait for the long-delayed execution of these laws. It may be asked: By what were such a disposition and character produced? Produced it cannot be, but it is essentially latent in the origination of the State from that primal robber-community, as also in the idiosyncrasy of the people who composed it, and lastly, in that phase of the World-Spirit which was just ready for development.” Racista com os latinos.

The laws of the Twelve Tables still contained much that was undefined; very much was still left to the arbitrary will of the judge — the Patricians alone being judges; the antithesis, therefore, between Patricians and Plebeians, continues till a much later period. Only by degrees do the Plebeians scale all the heights of official station, and attain those privileges which formerly belonged to the Patricians alone.”

The husband acquired a power over his wife, such as he had over his daughter, nor less over her property” Como se fosse diferente entre os gregos…

Of the spirit, the character, and the life of the ancient Italian peoples we know very little — thanks to the non-intelligent character of Roman historiography!” Mas pelo parágrafo acima Hegel assume que tudo sabe

We are accustomed to regard Greek and Roman religion as the same, and use the names Jupiter, Minerva, etc. as Roman deities, often without distinguishing them from those of Greeks. This is admissible inasmuch as the Greek divinities were more or less introduced among the Romans; but as the Egyptian religion is by no means to be regarded as identical with the Greek, merely because Herodotus and the Greeks form to themselves an idea of the Egyptian divinities under the names Latona, Pallas, etc., so neither must the Roman be confounded with the Greek.”

The Roman had always to do with something secret; in everything he believed in and sought for something concealed; and while in the Greek religion everything is open and clear, present to sense and contemplation — not pertaining to a future world, but something friendly, and of this world — among the Romans everything exhibits itself as mysterious, duplicate: they saw in the object first itself, and then that which lies concealed in it: their history is pervaded by this duplicate mode of viewing phenomena.” “The knowledge of these sacra is utterly uninteresting and wearisome, affording fresh material for learned research as to whether they are of Etruscan, Sabine, or other origin. On their account the Roman people have been regarded as extremely pious, both in positive and negative observances; though it is ridiculous to hear recent writers speak with unction and respect of these sacra.” “After the royal dignity had been done away with, there still remained a Rex Sacrorum; but he, like all the other priests, was subject to the Pontifex Maximus, who presided over all the <sacra>, and gave them such a rigidity and fixity as enabled the patricians to maintain their religious power so long.”

The Romans worshipped Pax, Tranquillitas, Vacuna (Repose), Angeronia (Sorrow and Grief), as divinities; they consecrated altars to the Plague, to Hunger, to Mildew (robigo [mofo!]), to Fever, and to the Dea Cloacina [Deusa da Limpeza dos Esgotos e do ‘Sexo Seguro’ (puro, sem doenças venéreas), associada à Vênus grega]. Juno appears among the Romans not merely as Lucina, the obstetric goddess, but also as Juno Ossipagina, the divinity who forms the bones of the child, and as Juno Unxia, who anoints the hinges of the doors at marriages (a matter which was also reckoned among the sacra).” “On the other hand, Jupiter as Jupiter Capitolinus represents the generic essence of the Roman Empire, which is also personified in the divinities Roma and Fortuna Publica.”

Among the Roman poets — especially Virgil — the introduction of the gods is the product of a frigid Understanding and of imitation. The gods are used in these poems as machinery, and in a merely superficial way; regarded much in the same way as in our didactic treatises on the belles-lettres, where among other directions we find one relating to the use of such machinery in epics — in order to produce astonishment.”

Nero’s deepest degradation was his appearing on a public stage as a singer, lyrist and combatant. As the Romans were only spectators, these diversions were something foreign to them; they did not enter into them with their whole souls. With increasing luxury the taste for the baiting of beasts and men became particularly keen. Hundreds of bears, lions, tigers, elephants, crocodiles, and ostriches, were produced, and slaughtered for mere amusement. A body consisting of hundreds, nay thousands of gladiators, when entering the amphitheatre at a certain festival to engage in a sham sea-fight, addressed the Emperor with the words: <Those who are devoted to death salute thee>, to excite some compassion. In vain! the whole were devoted to mutual slaughter. In place of human sufferings in the depths of the soul and spirit, occasioned by the contradictions of life, and which find their solution in Destiny, the Romans instituted a cruel reality of corporeal sufferings: blood in streams, the rattle in the throat which signals death, and the expiring gasp were the scenes that delighted them.”

each has it own political character, which it always preserves: strict, aristocratic severity distinguished the Claudii; benevolence towards the people, the Valerii; nobleness of spirit, the Cornelii.”

The Roman principle admits of aristocracy alone as the constitution proper to it, but which directly manifests itself only in an antithetical form — internal inequality. Only from necessity and the pressure of adverse circumstances is this contradiction momentarily smoothed over; for it involves a duplicate power, the sternness and malevolent isolation of whose components can only be mastered and bound together by a still greater sternness, into a unity maintained by force.”

As regards the accounts of the first Roman kings, every datum has met with flat contradiction as the result of criticism; but it is going too far to deny them all credibility. Seven kings in all, are mentioned by tradition; and even the <Higher Criticism> is obliged to recognize the last links in the series as perfectly historical.”

To the 2nd king, Numa, is ascribed the introduction of the religious ceremonies. This trait is very remarkable from its implying that religion was introduced later than political union, while among other peoples religious traditions make their appearance in the remotest periods and before all civil institutions. The king was at the same time a priest (rex is referred by etymologists to sacrifice).”

Livy says that as Numa established all divine matters, so Servius Tullius introduced the different Classes, and the Census, according to which the share of each citizen in the administration of public affairs was determined. The patricians were discontented with this scheme, especially because Servius Tullius abolished a part of the debts owed by the plebeians, and gave public lands to the poorer citizens, which made them possessors of landed property.” “With Servius the history becomes more distinct; and under him and his predecessor, the elder Tarquinius, traces of prosperity are exhibited.”

Almost all the Kings were foreigners — a circumstance very characteristic of the origin of Rome. Numa, who succeeded the founder of Rome, was according to the tradition, one of the Sabines — a people which under the reign of Romulus, led by Tatius, is said to have settled on one of the Roman hills. At a later date however the Sabine country appears as a region entirely separated from the Roman State.” “Tarquinius Priscus sprang from a Corinthian family, as we had occasion to observe above. Servius Tullius was from Corniculum, a conquered Latin town; Tarquinius Superbus was descended from the elder Tarquinius. Under this last king Rome reached a high degree of prosperity: even at so early a period as this, a commercial treaty is said to have been concluded with the Carthaginians; and to be disposed to reject this as mythical would imply forgetfulness of the connection which Rome had, even at that time, with the Etrurians and other bordering peoples whose prosperity depended on trade and maritime pursuits.”

The last king, Tarquinius Superbus, consulted the senate but little in state affairs; he also neglected to supply the place of its deceased members, and acted in every respect as if he aimed at its utter dissolution. Then ensued a state of political excitement which only needed an occasion to break out into open revolt. An insult to the honor of a matron — the invasion of that sanctum sanctorum — by the son of the king, supplied such an occasion. The kings were banished in the year 244 of the City and 510 [B.C.] of the Christian Era (that is, if the building of Rome is to be dated 753 B.C.) and the royal dignity abolished forever.

The Kings were expelled by the patricians, not by the plebeians; if therefore the patricians are to be regarded as possessed of <divine right> as being a sacred race, it is worthy of note that we find them here contravening such legitimation; for the King was their High Priest.” Quando se tratar do Rei da Inglaterra Hegel não usará aspas em divine right! Veja que não precisou-se de dois séculos e meio para os reis perderem sua dignidade no austero povo romano!

cum etiam in edicto praetoris hujusmodi viri infamia notati sunt”

Possessed by the same feeling, the plebs at a later date rose against the patricians, and the Latins and the Allies against the Romans; until the equality of the social units was restored through the whole Roman dominion (a multitude of slaves, too, being emancipated) and they were held together by simple Despotism.

Livy remarks that Brutus hit upon the right epoch for the expulsion of the kings, for that if it had taken place earlier, the state would have suffered dissolution. What would have happened, he asks, if this homeless crowd had been liberated earlier, when living together had not yet produced a mutual conciliation of dispositions? — The constitution now became in name republican.”

In the war against Porsena the Romans lost all their conquests, and even their independence: they were compelled to lay down their arms and to give hostages; according to an expression of Tacitus [antinomia!] (Hist. 3, 72) it seems as if Porsena had even taken Rome.”

Romulus is said to have founded the senate, consisting then of 100 members; the succeeding kings increased this number, and Tarquinius Priscus fixed it at 300. Junius Brutus restored the senate, which had very much fallen away, de novo.” “In the second Punic War, A.U.C. 538, a dictator was chosen, who nominated 177 new senators: he selected those who had been invested with curule dignities, the plebeian Ædiles, Tribunes of the People and Quaestors, citizens who had gained spolia opima or the corona civica. Under Caesar the number of the senators was raised from 177 to 800” “It has been regarded as great negligence on the part of the Roman historians that they give us so little information respecting the composition and reintegration of the senate. But this point which appears to us to be invested with infinite importance was not of so much moment to the Romans at large; they did not attach so much weight to formal arrangements, for their principal concern was how the government was conducted.” Franceses antes da letra.

The severity of the patricians their creditors, the debts due to whom they had to discharge by slave-work, drove the plebs to revolts. At first it demanded and received only what it had already enjoyed under the kings — landed property and protection against the powerful. It received assignments of land, and Tribunes of the People — functionaries that is to say, who had the power to put a veto on every decree of the senate. When this office commenced, the number of tribunes was limited to 2: later there were 10 of them; which however was rather injurious to the plebs, since all that the senate had to do was to gain over 1 of the tribunes, in order to thwart the purpose of all the rest by his single opposition. The plebs obtained at the same time the provocatio ad populum: that is, in every case of magisterial oppression, the condemned person might appeal to the decision of the people — a privilege of infinite importance to the plebs, and which especially irritated the patricians.”

after the decemviral epoch the clientes are less and less prominent and are merged in the plebs, which adopts resolutions (plebiscita); the senate by itself could only issue senatus consulta, and the tribunes, as well as the senate, could now impede the comitia and elections. By degrees the plebeians effected their admissibility to all dignities and offices; but at first a plebeian consul, aedile, censor, etc., was not equal to the patrician one, on account of the sacra which the latter kept in his hands; and a long time intervened after this concession before a plebeian actually became a consul. It was the tribunus plebis, Licinius, who established the whole cycle of these political arrangements — in the 2nd half of the 4th century, A.U.C. 387. It was he also who chiefly commenced the agitation for the lex agraria, respecting which so much has been written and debated among the learned of the day.” “How often does Livy, as well as Cicero and others, speak of the Agrarian laws, while nothing definite can be inferred from their statements!” “The Licinian law was indeed carried, but soon transgressed and utterly disregarded. Licinius Stolo himself, who had first <agitated> for the law, was punished because he possessed a larger property in land than was allowed, and the patricians opposed the execution of the law with the greatest obstinacy.” “The contradiction that existed could not but break out again fearfully at a later period; but previously to this time the greatness of Rome had to display itself in war and the conquest of the world.”

The Roman legions also present a close array, but they had at the same time an articulated organization: they united the 2 extremes of massiveness on the one hand, and of dispersion into light troops on the other hand: they held firmly together, while at the same time they were capable of ready expansion. Archers and slingers [lingadores; catapulteiros] preceded the main body of the Roman army when they attacked the enemy — afterwards leaving the decision to the sword.”

It is singular in regard to these transactions that the Romans, who have the justification conceded by World-History on their side, should also claim for themselves the minor justification in respect to manifestoes and treaties on occasion of minor infringements of them, and maintain it as it were after the fashion of advocates.” Conquistadores fora de casa, reis da pequena-intriga no lar!

The Romans had long and severe contests to maintain with the Samnites, the Etruscans, the Gauls, the Marsi, the Umbrians and the Bruttii, before they could make themselves masters of the whole of Italy. Their dominion was extended thence in a southerly direction; they gained a secure footing in Sicily, where the Carthaginians had long carried on war; then they extended their power towards the west: from Sardinia and Corsica they went to Spain. They thus soon came into frequent contact with the Carthaginians, and were obliged to form a naval power in opposition to them. This transition was easier in ancient times than it would perhaps be now, when long practice and superior knowledge are required for maritime service. The mode of warfare at sea was not very different from that on land.” O negócio era desembarcar na nave alheia e usar o fio da espada!

Italy and Rome remained the centre of their great far-stretching empire, but this centre was, as already remarked, not the less an artificial, forced and compulsory one. This grand period of the contact of Rome with other States, and of the manifold complications thence arising, has been depicted by the noble Achaean, Polybius, whose fate it was to observe the fall of his country through the disgraceful passions of the Greeks and the baseness and inexorable persistency of the Romans.”

The second Punic War laid the might of Carthage prostrate in the dust. The proper element of that state was the sea; but it had no original territory, formed no nation, had no national army; its hosts were composed of the troops of subjugated and allied peoples. In spite of this, the great Hannibal with such a host, formed from the most diverse nations, brought Rome near to destruction.”

After the conquest of Macedonia both that country and Greece were declared free by the Romans — a declaration whose meaning we have already investigated, in treating of the preceding Historical nation. It was not till this time that the Third Punic War commenced, for Carthage had once more raised its head and excited the jealousy of the Romans.” “the Romans were eager for war, destroyed Corinth in the same year as Carthage, and made Greece a province. The fall of Carthage and the subjugation of Greece were the central points from which the Romans gave its vast extent to their sovereignty.” “But after the danger from Carthage and Macedon was over, the subsequent wars were more and more the mere consequences of victories, and nothing else was needed than to gather in their fruits.”

The armies were used for particular expeditions, suggested by policy, or for the advantages of individuals — for acquiring wealth, glory, sovereignty in the abstract.”

A net of such fiscal farmers (publicani) was thus drawn over the whole Roman world.”

Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam”

The Roman State, drawing its resources from rapine, came to be rent in sunder by quarrels about dividing the spoil.”

The enormous corruption of Rome displays itself in the war with Jugurtha, who had gained the senate by bribery, and so indulged himself in the most atrocious deeds of violence and crime. Rome was pervaded by the excitement of the struggle against the Cimbri and Teutones, who assumed a menacing position towards the State.”

at the command of Mithridates, 80,000 Romans had been put to death in Asia Minor. Mithridates was King of Pontus, governed Colchis and the lands of the Black Sea, as far as the Tauric peninsula, and could summon to his standard in his war with Rome the populations of the Caucasus, of Armenia, Mesopotamia, and a part of Syria, through his son-in-law Tigranes.” “Sulla then returned to Rome, reduced the popular faction, headed by Marius and Cinna, became master of the city, and commenced systematic massacres of Roman citizens of consideration. Forty senators and 600 knights were sacrificed to his ambition and lust of power.” “At the same time, Sertorius, a banished Roman, arose in revolt in Spain, carried on a contest there for 8 years, and perished only through treachery. The war against Mithridates was terminated by Pompey; the King of Pontus killed himself when his resources were exhausted. The Servile War in Italy is a contemporaneous event. A great number of gladiators and mountaineers had formed a union under Spartacus, but were vanquished by Crassus. To this confusion was added the universal prevalence of piracy, which Pompey rapidly reduced by a large armament. We thus see the most terrible and dangerous powers arising against Rome; yet the military force of this State is victorious over all.”

The biographies of Plutarch are here also of the deepest interest. It was from the disruption of the State, which had no longer any consistency or firmness in itself, that these colossal individualities arose, instinctively impelled to restore that political unity which was no longer to be found in men’s dispositions. It was their misfortune that they could not maintain a pure morality, for their course of action contravened things as they are, and was a series of transgressions. Even the noblest — the Gracchi — were not merely the victims of injustice and violence from without, but were themselves involved in the corruption and wrong that universally prevailed. But that which these individuals purpose and accomplish has on its side the higher sanction of the World-Spirit, and must eventually triumph.”

We should refer to Cicero to see how all affairs of State were decided in riotous fashion, and with arms in hand, by the wealth and power of the grandees on the one side, and by a troop of rabble on the other.” “Thus we see in Pompey and Caesar the 2 foci of Rome’s splendour coming into hostile opposition: on the one side, Pompey with the Senate, and therefore apparently the defender of the Republic — on the other, Caesar with his legions and a superiority of genius. This contest between the 2 most powerful individualities could not be decided at Rome in the Forum. Caesar made himself master, in succession, of Italy, Spain, and Greece, utterly routed his enemy at Pharsalia, 48 years before Christ, made himself sure of Asia, and so returned victor to Rome. In this way the world-wide sovereignty of Rome became the property of a single possessor.”

Aqui estou eu, mais ou menos, na leitura do 1º volume de Romans Under the Empire de Merivale (a ser publicado futuramente). Spoilers ahead!

The democratic constitution could no longer be really maintained in Rome, but only kept up in appearance. Cicero, who had procured himself great respect through his high oratorical talent, and whose learning acquired him considerable influence, always attributes the corrupt state of the republic to individuals and their passions. Plato, whom Cicero professedly followed, [imperfeitamente] had the full consciousness that the Athenian state, as it presented itself to him, could not maintain its existence, and therefore sketched the plan of a perfect constitution accordant with his views.” “The nature of the State, and of the Roman State in particular, transcends his comprehension. Cato, too, says of Caesar: <His virtues be execrated, for they have ruined my country!>

Elegance — Culture — was foreign to the Romans per se; they sought to obtain it from the Greeks, and for this purpose a vast number of Greek slaves were brought to Rome. Delos was the centre of this slave trade, and it is said that sometimes on a single day, 10,000 slaves were purchased there. To the Romans, Greek slaves were their poets, their authors, the superintendents of their manufactories, the instructors of their children.”

Caesar, who may be adduced as a paragon of Roman adaptation of means to ends — who formed his resolves with the most unerring perspicuity, and executed them with the greatest vigor and practical skill, without any superfluous excitement of mind — Caesar, judged by the great scope of history, did the Right; since he furnished a mediating element, and that kind of political bond which men’s condition required. Caesar effected 2 objects: he calmed the internal strife, and at the same time originated a new one outside the limits of the empire. For the conquest of the world had reached hitherto only to the circle of the Alps, but Caesar opened a new scene of achievement: he founded the theatre which was on the point of becoming the centre of History.” Hoje falar em teatro da História Universal ou das conquistas geopolíticas gera náusea no falante e nos ouvintes indistintamente.

His position was indeed hostile to the republic, but, properly speaking, only to its shadow; for all that remained of that republic was entirely powerless. Pompey, and all those who were on the side of the senate, exalted their dignitas auctoritas — their individual rule — as the power of the republic; and the mediocrity which needed protection took refuge under this title. Caesar put an end to the empty formalism of this title, made himself master, and held together the Roman world by force, in opposition to isolated factions. Spite of this we see the noblest men of Rome supposing Caesar’s rule to be a merely adventitious thing, and the entire position of affairs to be dependent on his individuality. So thought Cicero, so Brutus and Cassius. They believed that if this one individual were out of the way, the Republic would be ipso facto restored. Possessed by this remarkable hallucination, Brutus, a man of highly noble character, and Cassius, endowed with greater practical energy than Cicero, assassinated the man whose virtues they appreciated. But it became immediately manifest that only a single will could guide the Roman State, and now the Romans were compelled to adopt that opinion; since in all periods of the world a political revolution is sanctioned in men’s opinions, when it repeats itself. Thus Napoleon was twice defeated, and the Bourbons twice expelled. By repetition that which at first appeared merely a matter of chance and contingency becomes a real and ratified existence.”

the Roman government was so abstracted from interest, that the great transition to that rule hardly changed anything in the constitution. The popular assemblies alone were unsuited to the new state of things, and disappeared. The emperor was princeps senatus, Censor, Consul, Tribune: he united all their nominally continuing offices in himself; and the military power — here the most essentially important — was exclusively in his hands. The constitution was an utterly unsubstantial form, from which all vitality, consequently all might and power, had departed; and the only means of maintaining its existence were the legions which the Emperor constantly kept in the vicinity of Rome. Public business was indeed brought before the senate, and the Emperor appeared simply as one of its members; but the senate was obliged to obey, and whoever ventured to gainsay his will was punished with death, and his property confiscated. Those therefore who had certain death in anticipation, killed themselves, that if they could do nothing more, they might at least preserve their property to their family. Tiberius was the most odious to the Romans on account of his power of dissimulation: he knew very well how to make good use of the baseness of the senate, in extirpating those among them whom he feared.” “But the legions, and especially the Pretorians, soon became conscious of their importance, and arrogated to themselves the disposal of the imperial throne. At first they continued to show some respect for the family of Caesar Augustus, but subsequently the legions chose their own generals; such, viz., as had gained their good will and favor, partly by courage and intelligence, partly also by bribes, and indulgence in the administration of military discipline.

The Emperors conducted themselves in the enjoyment of their power with perfect simplicity, and did not surround themselves with pomp and splendor in Oriental fashion. We find in them traits of simplicity which astonish us. Thus, e.g., Augustus writes a letter to Horace, in which he reproaches him for having failed to address any poem to him, and asks him whether he thinks that that would disgrace him with posterity. Sometimes the Senate made an attempt to regain its consequence by nominating the Emperor: but their nominees were either unable to maintain their ground, or could do so only by bribing the Pretorians.”

The freedmen who surrounded the Emperor were often the mightiest in the empire; for caprice recognizes no distinction. In the person of the Emperor isolated subjectivity has gained a perfectly unlimited realization. Spirit has renounced its proper nature, inasmuch as Limitation of being and of volition has been constituted an unlimited absolute existence.”

Nero, e.g., died a death which may furnish an example for the noblest hero, as for the most resigned of sufferers. Individual subjectivity thus entirely emancipated from control, has no inward life, no prospective nor retrospective emotions, no repentance, nor hope, nor fear — not even thought; for all these involve fixed conditions and aims, while here every condition is purely contingent. The springs of action are none other than desire, lust, passion, fancy — in short, caprice absolutely unfettered.”

The concrete element in the character of the Emperors is therefore of itself of no interest, because the concrete is not of essential importance. Thus there were Emperors of noble character and noble nature, and who highly distinguished themselves by mental and moral culture. Titus, Trajan, the Antonines, are known as such characters, rigorously strict in self-government; yet even these produced no change in the state.” “they were only a kind of happy chance”

EXATAMENTE COMO NO SISTEMA HEGELIANO… “For these persons find themselves here in a position in which they cannot be said to act, since no object confronts them in opposition; they have only to will — well or ill — and it is so.”

The praiseworthy emperors Vespasian and Titus were succeeded by that coarsest and most loathsome tyrant, Domitian: yet the Roman historian tells us that the Roman world enjoyed tranquillizing repose under him.” Nada paradoxal; lógico, até.

Italy was depopulated; the most fertile lands remained untilled: and this state of things lay as a fate on the Roman world.”

Private Right, viz., is this, that the social unit as such enjoys consideration in the State, in the reality which he gives to himself — viz., in property.” Esse ponto é inconciliável com a acima citada onipotência do imperador! “Such a condition is Roman life at this epoch: on the one side, Fate and the abstract universality of sovereignty; on the other, the individual abstraction.”

The Emperor domineered only, and could not be said to rule” ???

He either recognized his destiny in the task of acquiring the means of enjoyment through the favor of the Emperor, or through violence, testamentary frauds, and cunning; or he sought repose in philosophy, which alone was still able to supply something firm and independent” Ora, mas até hoje isso é um resumo da vida humana!

Vejo agora claramente o motivo da superioridade atribuída a essas lições hegelianas sobre as de HISTÓRIA DA filosofia: quando não tem mais o que dizer, ele logo abrevia, encerra o capítulo. Nos outros fastidiosos 3 volumes, era justamente o contrário! Perdia seu tempo nas minúcias dos estóicos, céticos e epicuristas…

It has been remarked that Caesar inaugurated the Modern World on the side of reality, while its spiritual and inward existence was unfolded under Augustus.”

Tanto quanto o Império Romano é destituído de vida para Hegel, o Espírito do Mundo hegeliano o é no mundo real, ou nosso mundo. Vemos que tudo nele é perfeito mas só falta uma coisa, que nos incomoda e angustia até sabermos o que é: tudo! E tudo isso por odiar bacanais!

God is thus recognized as Spirit, only when known as the Triune. This new principle is the axis on which the History of the World turns. This is the goal and the starting point of History. <When the fulness of the time was come, God sent his Son>, is the statement of the Bible.”

Eu preferiria ser comandado por um Déspota Mundial que por uma plutocracia inconsciente regida por um sistema de satélites autoimpostos…

the Person of Persons”

Quando os reis perderam o respeito na Antiguidade, veio Jesus. Quando os reis perderam o respeito na modernidade, veio a bomba A. Ou veio o espectro do Cristianismo. Somos o(s) mais miserável(is) de todos os tempos!

Zucht (discipline) is derived from Ziehen (to draw). This <drawing> must be towards something; there must be some fixed unity in the background in whose direction that drawing takes place, and for which the subject of it is being trained, in order that the standard of attainment may be reached.” “But it is reserved for us of a later period to regard this as a training” O ápice da conveniência!

Ontem foi César. Hic salta (0-2021): “The state of feeling in question we find expressed most purely and beautifully in the Psalms of David, and in the Prophets; the chief burden of whose utterances is the thirst of the soul after God, its profound sorrow for its transgressions, and the desire for righteousness and holiness.”

DOS FATOS AOS FASTIOS: “Knowledge, as the disannulling of the unity of mere Nature, is the ‘Fall’, which is no casual conception, but the eternal history of Spirit.”

ZOOTOPIA: “Paradise is a park, where only brutes, not men, can remain.” O homem & seu cão

The Fall is therefore the eternal Mythus of Man — in fact, the very transition by which he becomes man.”

Gên.: “The serpent’s head shall be bruised” Bruised is but not enough: take it off by a bite! T-H-E bite…

But that mundane satisfaction in the Chosen Family, and its possession of Canaan, was taken from the Jewish people in the chastisement inflicted by the Roman Empire. The Syrian kings did indeed oppress it, but it was left for the Romans to annul its individuality. The Temple of Zion is destroyed; the God-serving nation is scattered to the winds. Here every source of satisfaction is taken away, and the nation is driven back to the standpoint of that primeval mythus”

But what are you talking about? Get back to the Romans NOW!

All that remains to be done is that this fundamental idea should be expanded to an objective universal sense, and be taken as the concrete existence of man — as the completion of his nature.” “The Oriental antithesis of Light and Darkness is transferred to Spirit, and the Darkness becomes Sin.” “Sin is the discerning of Good and Evil as separation; but this discerning likewise heals the ancient hurt, and is the fountain of infinite reconciliation.” “The infinite loss is counterbalanced only by its infinity, and thereby becomes infinite gain. The recognition of the identity of the Subject and God was introduced into the World when the fulness of Time was come: the consciousness of this identity is the recognition of God in his true essence.” Haja metafísica!

But what is Spirit? It is the one immutably homogeneous infinite — pure Identity — which in its second phase separates itself from itself and makes this second aspect its own polar opposite, viz. as existence for-and-in-itself as contrasted with the Universal.”

Pregarão os que foram pregados, sem o perdão da redundância, que não há.

Christ has appeared — a Man who is God — God who is Man; and thereby peace and reconciliation have accrued to the World.”

The appearance of the Christian God involves further its being unique in its kind; it can occur only once, for God is realized as Subject, and as manifested Subjectivity is exclusively One Individual. The Lamas are ever and anon chosen anew; because God is known in the East as Substance, whose infinity of form is recognized merely in an unlimited multiplicity of outward and particular manifestations.” “Moreover the sensuous existence in which Spirit is embodied is only a transitional phase. Christ dies; only as dead, is he exalted to Heaven and sits at the right hand of God; only thus is he Spirit.” “What are we to make of his birth, his Father and Mother, his early domestic relations, his miracles, etc.? — i.e., What is he unspiritually regarded? Considered only in respect of his talents, character and morality — as a Teacher and so forth — we place him in the same category with Socrates and others, though his morality may be ranked higher.”

If Christ is to be looked upon only as an excellent, even impeccable individual, and nothing more, the conception of the Speculative Idea, of Absolute Truth is ignored.” And this would be asking too much already!

But this is the desideratum, the point from which we have to start. Make of Christ what you will, exegetically, critically, historically — demonstrate as you please, how the doctrines of the Church were […acho que a merda do PDF comeu 1 ou 2 linhas!…] and said, Behold my mother and my brethren! For he that doeth the will of my Father in heaven, the same is my brother, and sister and mother.”

We may say that nowhere are to be found such revolutionary utterances as in the Gospels; for everything that had been respected is treated as a matter of indifference — as worthy of no regard.”

Christ — man as man — in whom the unity of God and man has appeared, has in his death, and his history generally, himself presented the eternal history of Spirit — a history which every man has to accomplish in himself, in order to exist as Spirit, or to become a child of God, a citizen of his kingdom.” Essa tortura é no mínimo equivalente à de um Nero.

A Bíblia como um condutor química e fisicamente perfeito de niilismo…

Many will say to me at that day: Lord, Lord! have we not prophesied in thy name, have we not cast out devils in thy name, have we not in thy name done many wonderful deeds? Then will I profess unto them: I never knew you, depart from me all ye workers of iniquity.”

In the Roman World, the union of the East and West had taken place in the first instance by means of conquest: it took place now inwardly, psychologically, also — the Spirit of the East spreading over the West. The worship of Isis and that of Mithra had been extended through the whole Roman World; Spirit, lost in the outward and in limited aims, yearned after an Infinite.”

Whether a Christian doctrine stands exactly thus or thus in the Bible — the point to which the exegetical scholars of modern times devote all their attention — is not the only question. The Letter kills, the Spirit makes alive: this they say themselves, yet pervert the sentiment by taking the Understanding for the Spirit.” “It is thus adapted to every grade of culture, and yet satisfies the highest requirements.”


critical m@ss

E agora Hegel PULA para o Império Bizantino! Para dar tempo de chegar ao presente até a página 487, é lógico…

the ancient Byzantium, which received the name of Constantinople.”

The Roman Empire was divided between the 2 sons of Theodosius. The elder, Arcadius, received the Eastern Empire: — Ancient Greece, with Thrace, Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt; the younger, Honorius, the Western: — Italy, Africa, Spain, Gaul, Britain. Immediately after the death of Theodosius, confusion entered, and the Roman provinces were overwhelmed by alien peoples. Already, under the Emperor Valens, the Visigoths, pressed by the Huns, had solicited a domicile on the hither side of the Danube. This was granted them, on the condition that they should defend the border provinces of the empire. But maltreatment roused them to revolt. Valens was beaten and fell on the field. The later emperors paid court to the leader of these Goths. Alaric, the bold Gothic Chief, turned his arms against Italy. (…) Alaric now attacked Gaul and Spain, and on the fall of Stilicho [general romano] returned to Italy. Rome was stormed and plundered by him A.D. 410. Afterwards Attila advanced on it with the terrible might of the Huns — one of those purely Oriental phenomena, which, like a mere storm-torrent, rise to a furious height and bear down everything in their course, but in a brief space are so completely spent, that nothing is seen of them but the traces they have left in the ruins which they have occasioned. (…) Attila subsequently marched upon Italy and died in the year 453. Soon afterwards however Rome was taken and plundered by the Vandals under Genseric.” Ataques concertados não surtiriam melhor efeito que essa séria aleatória de investidas de diferentes etnias que acabou por derrubar o Império e realizar as Escrituras (apud Hegel!). “Finally, the dignity of the Western Emperors became a farce, and their empty title was abolished by Odoacer, King of the Heruli. § The Eastern Empire long survived, and in the West a new Christian population was formed from the invading barbarian hordes.”

the corpus juris compiled at the instance of the Emperor Justinian, still excites the admiration of the world.”

Right must become Custom — Habit; practical activity must be elevated to rational action; the State must have a rational organization, and then at length does the will of individuals become a truly righteous one. Light shining in darkness may perhaps give color, but not a picture animated by Spirit.” Ora, essa descrição abstrata do Império Romano do Oriente ou Império Bizantino poderia muito bem ser a síntese da República platônica!

violent civil wars arose, and everywhere might be witnessed scenes of murder, conflagration and pillage, perpetrated in the cause of Christian dogmas.” “The words read: Holy, Holy, Holy, is the Lord God of Zebaoth. To this, one party, in honor of Christ, added — who was crucified for us. Another party rejected the addition, and sanguinary struggles ensued. In the contest on the question whether Christ were of the same or of similar nature with God [two different things] — one letter [in Greek] cost many thousands of lives. Especially notorious are the contentions about Images, in which it often happened, that the Emperor declared for the images and the Patriarch against, or conversely.”

This city (Constantinople) is full of handicraftsmen and slaves, who are all profound theologians, and preach in their workshops and in the streets. If you want a man to change a piece of silver, he instructs you in what consists the distinction between the Father and the Son: if you ask the price of a loaf of bread, you receive for answer — that the Son is inferior to the Father; and if you ask whether the bread is ready, the rejoinder is that the genesis of the Son was from Nothing.” Gregory Nazianzen

To all these religious contentions was added the interest in the gladiators and their combats, and in the parties of the blue and green color, which likewise occasioned the bloodiest encounters; a sign of the most fearful degradation, as proving that all feeling for what is serious and elevated is lost, and that the delirium of religious passion is quite consistent with an appetite for gross and barbarous spectacles.”

SOBRE A ICONOLATRIA NO CATOLICISMO: “The Christians of the Byzantine Empire remained sunk in the dream of superstition — persisting in blind obedience to the Patriarchs and the priesthood. Image-Worship, to which we alluded above, occasioned the most violent struggles and storms. The brave Emperor Leo the Isaurian in particular, persecuted images with the greatest obstinacy, and in the year 754, Image-Worship was declared by a Council to be an invention of the devil. Nevertheless, in the year 787 the Empress Irene had it restored under the authority of a Nicene Council, and the Empress Theodora definitively established it — proceeding against its enemies with energetic rigor. The iconoclastic Patriarch received 200 blows, the bishops trembled, the monks exulted, and the memory of this orthodox proceeding was celebrated by an annual ecclesiastical festival. The West, on the contrary, repudiated Image-Worship as late as the year 794, in the Council held at Frankfort; and, though retaining the images, blamed most severely the superstition of the Greeks. Not till the later Middle Ages did Image-Worship meet with universal adoption as the result of quiet and slow advances.”

Depois que os turcos tomam Constantinopla, H. inicia o Império Germânico propriamente dito, não sem seus típicos preâmbulos!


The German Spirit is the Spirit of the new World. Its aim is the realization of absolute Truth as the unlimited self-determination of Freedom — that Freedom which has its own absolute form itself as its purport. The destiny of the German peoples is to be the bearers of the Christian principle. The principle of Spiritual Freedom — of Reconciliation, was introduced into the still simple, unformed minds of those peoples; and the part assigned them in the service of the World-Spirit was that of not merely possessing the Idea of Freedom as the substratum of their religious conceptions, but of producing it in free and spontaneous developments from their subjective self-consciousness.”

Thus their history presents an introversion — the attraction of alien forms of life and the bringing these to bear upon their own. In the Crusades, indeed, and in the discovery of America, the Western World directed its energies outwards. But it was not thus brought in contact with a World-Historical people that had preceded it; it did not dispossess a principle that had previously governed the world.”

For the Christian world is the world of completion; the grand principle of being is realized, consequently the end of days is fully come. The Idea can discover in Christianity no point in the aspirations of Spirit that is not satisfied. For its individual members, the Church is, it is true, a preparation for an eternal state as something future; since the units who compose it, in their isolated and several capacity, occupy a position of particularity: but the Church has also the Spirit of God actually present in it, it forgives the sinner and is a present kingdom of heaven. Thus the Christian World has no absolute existence outside its sphere, but only a relative one which is already implicitly vanquished, and in respect to which its only concern is to make it apparent that this conquest has taken place. Hence it follows that an external reference ceases to be the characteristic element determining the epochs of the modern world.”

The German World took up the Roman culture and religion in their completed form. There was indeed a German and Northern religion, but it had by no means taken deep root in the soul”

To the native tongue of the Germans, the Church likewise opposed one perfectly developed — the Latin.”

Gothic and other chiefs gave themselves the name of Roman Patricians, and at a later date the Roman Empire was restored. Thus the German world appears, superficially, to be only a continuation of the Roman.” ???

But there lived in it an entirely new Spirit, through which the World was to be regenerated”

Estamos cumulados de absurdos. Vou postar agora apenas o que tiver qualquer interesse – não passagens que colaborem com a dissolvência de nosso cérebro – ou que rivalizem com a verdura da Floresta Amazônica!

This third period of the German World extends from the Reformation to our own times.” “It is the time in which the world becomes clear and manifest to itself (Discovery of America).” Será que Hegel já ouviu falar da Oceania?

A great Visigothic kingdom was established, to which Spain, Portugal and a part of Southern France belonged. The second kingdom is that of the Franks — a name which, from the end of the 2nd century, was given in common to the Istaevonian races between the Rhine and the Weser.” “The third kingdom is that of the Ostrogoths in Italy, founded by Theodoric, and highly nourishing beneath his rule.” “But this Ostrogothic kingdom did not last long; it was destroyed by the Byzantines under Belisarius and Narses. In the 2nd half (568) of the 6th century, the Lombards invaded Italy and ruled for 200 years, till this kingdom also was subjected to the Frank sceptre by Charlemagne.” “Our attention is next claimed by the Burgundians, who were subjugated by the Franks, and whose kingdom forms a kind of partition wall between France and Germany. The Angles and Saxons entered Britain and reduced it under their sway. Subsequently, the Normans make their appearance here also.”

The whole mental and moral existence of such states exhibits a divided aspect; in their inmost being we have characteristics that point to an alien origin. This distinction strikes us even on the surface, in their language, which is an intermixture of the ancient Roman — already united with the vernacular — and the German. We may class these nations together as Romanic — comprehending thereby Italy, Spain, Portugal and France. Contrasted with these stand 3 others, more or less German-speaking nations, which have maintained a consistent tone of uninterrupted fidelity to native character — Germany itself, Scandinavia, and England. The last was, indeed, incorporated in the Roman empire, but was affected by Roman culture little more than superficially — like Germany itself — and was again Germanized by Angles and Saxons. Germany Proper kept itself pure from any admixture; only the southern and western border — on the Danube and the Rhine — had been subjugated by the Romans. The portion between the Rhine and the Elbe remained thoroughly national.” “Besides the Ripuarian Franks and those established by Clovis in the districts of the Maine, 4 leading tribes — the Alemanni, the Boioarians, the Thuringians, and the Saxons — must be mentioned. The Scandinavians retained in their fatherland a similar purity from intermixture; and also made themselves celebrated by their expeditions, under the name of Normans. They extended their chivalric enterprises over almost all parts of Europe. Part of them went to Russia, and there became the founders of the Russian Empire; part settled in Northern France and Britain; another established principalities in Lower Italy and Sicily. Thus a part of the Scandinavians founded States in foreign lands, another maintained its nationality by the ancestral hearth.” Me parece que os inferiores ficaram para trás! ‘Quem não se aventura não tem cultura’?

We find, moreover, in the East of Europe, the great Sclavonic nation,¹ whose settlements extended west of the Elbe to the Danube. The Magyars (Hungarians) settled in between them. In Moldavia, Wallachia and northern Greece appear the Bulgarians, Servians, and Albanians, likewise of Asiatic origin — left behind as broken barbarian remains in the shocks and counter-shocks of the advancing hordes.”

¹ Em algum momento, para nós, caiu o “c” de Sclavonic…

The Poles even liberated beleaguered Vienna from the Turks; and the Sclaves have to some extent been drawn within the sphere of Occidental Reason. Yet this entire body of peoples remains excluded from our consideration, because hitherto it has not appeared as an independent element in the series of phases that Reason has assumed in the World. Whether it will do so hereafter, is a question that does not concern us here; for in History we have to do with the Past.” Deus fecha 5 portões de aço e abre uma janelita.

The German Nation was characterized by the sense of Natural Totality — an idiosyncrasy which we may call Heart (Gemüth). Heart is that undeveloped, indeterminate totality of Spirit, in reference to the Will, in which satisfaction of soul is attained in a correspondingly general and indeterminate way.”

HEDONISTAS ORGANIZADOS?Character is a particular form of will and interest asserting itself; but the quality in question [Gemüthlichkeit] has no particular aim — riches, honor, or the like; in fact does not concern itself with any objective condition but with the entire condition of the soul — a general sense of enjoyment.”

PURA QUIMERA TEOLÓGICA, NEO-ADAMISMO MEDIEVO: “In the idiosyncrasy we term Heart, no such absorption of interest presents itself; it wears, on the whole, the appearance of ‘well-meaning’.” Os bárbaros ‘santinhos-do-pau-oco’.

Heart as purely abstract is dullness” Finalmente concorde. Os homens-massinha que receberão o Espírito Santo!

Of the Religion of the Germans we know little. — The Druids belonged to Gaul and were extirpated by the Romans. There was indeed, a peculiar northern mythology; but how slight a hold the religion of the Germans had upon their hearts, has been already remarked, and it is also evident from the fact that the Germans were easily converted to Christianity.” “Their religion had no profundity; and the same may be said of their ideas of law.” [!!]

Freedom has been the watchword in Germany down to the most recent times, and even the league of princes under Frederick II had its origin in the love of liberty.” Hegel não explica por que, então, o ‘vaso’ do ideal cristão não acabou sendo o caráter heleno, absolutamente idêntico a essa ‘intuída pureza’ de broncos…

for Fidelity is the second watchword of the Germans, as Freedom was the first.” Incompatibilidade absoluta.

This we find neither among the Greeks nor the Romans. The relation of Agamemnon and the princes who accompanied him was not that of feudal suit and service: it was a free association merely for a particular purpose — a Hegemony. But the German confederations have their being not in a relation to a mere external aim or cause, but in a relation to the spiritual self — the subjective inmost personality.” “The union of the 2 relations — of individual freedom in the community, and of the bond implied in association — is the main point in the formation of the State.” “But here we have the peculiarity of the German states, that contrary to the view thus presented, social relations do not assume the character of general definitions and laws, but are entirely split up into private rights and private obligations. They perhaps exhibit a social or communal mould or stamp, but nothing universal; the laws are absolutely particular, and the Rights are Privileges.”

Religion comes forward with a challenge to the violence of the passions, and rouses them to madness. The excess of passions is aggravated by evil conscience, and heightened to an insane rage; which perhaps would not have been the case, had that opposition been absent. We behold the terrible spectacle of the most fearful extravagance of passion in all the royal houses of that period. Clovis, the founder of the Frank Monarchy, is stained with the blackest crimes. Barbarous harshness and cruelty characterize all the succeeding Merovingians; the same spectacle is repeated in the Thuringian and other royal houses.” E que tem a ver as casas reais? Que tem elas a ver com o povo?

In short, while the West began to shelter itself in a political edifice of chance, entanglement and particularity, the very opposite direction necessarily made its appearance in the world, to produce the balance of the totality of spiritual manifestation. This took place in the Revolution of the East, which destroyed all particularity and dependence, and perfectly cleared up and purified the soul and disposition” “That speciality of relation was done away with in Mahometanism. In this spiritual universality, in this unlimited and indefinite purity and simplicity of conception, human personality has no other aim than the realization of this universality and simplicity. Allah has not the affirmative, limited aim of the Judaic God.” “Subjectivity is here living and unlimited — an energy which enters into secular life with a purely negative purpose, and busies itself and interferes with the world, only in such a way as shall promote the pure adoration of the One.” “To adore the One, to believe in him, to fast — to remove the sense of speciality and consequent separation from the Infinite, arising from corporeal limitation — and to give alms — that is, to get rid of particular private possession — these are the essence of Mahometan injunctions; but the highest meed is to die for the Faith. He who perishes for it in battle is sure of Paradise.”

in their deserts nothing can be brought into a firm consistent shape.”

They first came down upon Syria and conquered its capital Damascus in the year 634. They then passed the Euphrates and Tigris and turned their arms against Persia, which soon submitted to them. In the West they conquered Egypt, Northern Africa and Spain, and pressed into Southern France as far as the Loire, where they were defeated by Charles Martel near Tours, A.D. 732.” “Whoever became a convert to Islam gained a perfect equality of rights with all Mussulmans. Those who rejected it, were, during the earliest period, slaughtered. Subsequently, however, the Arabs behaved more leniently to the conquered; so that if they were unwilling to go over to Islam, they were only required to pay an annual poll-tax.” “It is the essence of fanaticism to bear only a desolating destructive relation to the concrete; but that of Mahometanism was, at the same time, capable of the greatest elevation — an elevation free from all petty interests, and united with all the virtues that appertain to magnanimity and valor. La religion et la terreur were the principles in this case, as with Robespierre la liberté et la terreur.” “But all this is only contingent and built on sand; it is today, and tomorrow is not.” “Whatever curls up into a form remains all the while transparent, and in that very instant glides away.”

PAUSA PARA A LOUCURA: “Never has enthusiasm, as such, performed greater deeds. Individuals may be enthusiastic for what is noble and exalted in various particular forms. The enthusiasm of a people for its independence, has also a definite aim. But abstract and therefore all-comprehensive enthusiasm — restrained by nothing, finding its limits nowhere, and absolutely indifferent to all beside — is that of the Mahometan East.”

At first we see the conquerors destroying everything connected with art and science. Omar is said to have caused the destruction of the noble Alexandrian library. ‘These books’, said he, ‘either contain what is in the Koran, or something else: in either case they are superfluous.’ But soon afterwards the Arabs became zealous in promoting the arts and spreading them everywhere. Their empire reached the summit of its glory under the Caliphs Al-Mansor and Haroun Al-Raschid. Large cities arose in all parts of the empire, where commerce and manufactures flourished, splendid palaces were built, and schools created. The learned men of the empire assembled at the Caliph’s court, which not merely shone outwardly with the pomp of the costliest jewels, furniture and palaces, but was resplendent with the glory of poetry and all the sciences. At first the Caliphs still maintained entire that simplicity and plainness which characterized the Arabs of the desert, (the Caliph Abubeker is particularly famous in this respect) and which acknowledged no distinction of station and culture. The meanest Saracen, the most insignificant old woman, approached the Caliph as an equal. Unreflecting naïveté does not stand in need of culture; and in virtue of the freedom of his Spirit, each one sustains a relation of quality to the ruler.”

The Osman race [Turkey] at last succeeded in establishing a firm dominion, by forming for themselves a firm centre in the Janizaries. Fanaticism having cooled down, no moral principle remained in men’s souls. In the struggle with the Saracens, European valor had idealized itself to a fair and noble chivalry.” Exceto o fanatismo de Dom Quixote: este é eterno!

The most hideous passions became dominant, and as sensual enjoyment was sanctioned in the first form which Mahometan doctrine assumed, and was exhibited as a reward of the faithful in Paradise, it took the place of fanaticism. At present, driven back into its Asiatic and African quarters, and tolerated only in one corner of Europe through the jealousy of Christian Powers, Islam has long vanished from the stage of history at large, and has retreated into Oriental ease and repose.”

At the head of the feudal array was the Major Domus. These Majores Domus [com certeza não sabiam declinar em latim, quem quer que tenha editado o livro] soon assumed the entire power and threw the royal authority into the shade, while the kings sank into a torpid condition and became mere puppets. From the former sprang the dynasty of the Carlovingians. Pepin le Bref, the son of Charles Martel, was in the year 752 raised to the dignity of King of the Franks. Pope Zacharias released the Franks from their oath of allegiance to the still living Childeric III — the last of the Merovingians — who received the tonsure, i.e. became a monk, and was thus deprived of the royal distinction of long hair. The last of the Merovingians were utter weaklings, who contented themselves with the name of royalty, and gave themselves up almost entirely to luxury — a phenomenon that is quite common in the dynasties of the East, and is also met with again among the last of the Carlovingians. The Majores Domus, on the contrary, were in the very vigor of ascendant fortunes, and were in such close alliance with the feudal nobility, that it became easy for them ultimately to secure the throne.” “The Roman Emperor was the born defender of the Roman Church, and this position of the Emperor towards the Pope seemed to declare that the Frank sovereignty was only a continuation of the Roman Empire.” “This great empire Charlemagne formed into a systematically organized State, and gave the Frank dominion settled institutions adapted to impart to it strength and consistency. This must however not be understood as if he first introduced the Constitution of his empire in its whole extent, but as implying that institutions, partly already in existence, were developed under his guidance, and attained a more decided and unobstructed efficiency.”

Not less remarkable is the management of the revenues of the State. There were no direct taxes, and few tolls on rivers and roads, of which several were farmed out to the higher officers of the empire. Into the treasury flowed on the one hand judicial fines, on the other hand the pecuniary satisfactions made for not serving in the army at the emperor’s summons. Those who enjoyed beneficia, lost them on neglecting this duty. The chief revenue was derived from the crown-lands, of which the emperor had a great number, on which royal palaces (Pfalzen) were erected. It had been long the custom for the kings to make progresses through the chief provinces, and to remain for a time in each palatinate; the due preparations for the maintenance of the court having been already made by Marshals, Chamberlains, etc.”

Moreover the clergy contrived subsequently to free themselves from the burdens of the State, and opened the churches and monasteries as asylums — that is, inviolable sanctuaries for all offenders. This institution was on the one hand very beneficial as a protection in cases of violence and oppression; but it was perverted on the other hand into a means of impunity for the grossest crimes.” “The universality of the power of the State disappeared through this reaction: individuals sought protection with the powerful, and the latter became oppressors. Thus was gradually introduced a condition of universal dependence, and this protecting relation is then systematized into the Feudal System.”

the culminating point of this period is the Crusades; for with them arises a universal instability, but one through which the states of Christendom first attain internal and external independence.” Absolutemente irrelevante na História Universal!

The First Reaction [against who or what?] is that of particular nationality against the universal sovereignty of the Franks. It appears indeed, at first sight, as if the Frank empire was divided by the mere choice of its sovereigns; but another consideration deserves attention, viz. that this division was popular, and was accordingly maintained by the peoples.”

Quanto mais se lê sobre os teutônicos e a Europa, mais parece que o papel de antagonista da humanidade desempenhado pela Alemanha há coisa de um século estava sendo preparado há mais de um milênio…

The western Franks had already identified themselves with the Gauls, and with them originated a reaction against the German Franks, as also at a later epoch one on the part of Italy against the Germans. By the treaty of Verdun, A.D. 843, a division of the empire among Charlemagne’s descendants took place; the whole Frank empire, some provinces excepted, was for a moment again united under Charles the Gross. It was, however, only for a short time that this weak prince was able to hold the vast empire together”

These were the Kingdom of Italy, which was itself divided, the 2 Burgundian sovereignties

Upper Burgundy, of which the chief centres were Geneva and the convent of St. Maurice in Valaise, and Lower Burgundy between the Jura, the Mediterranean and the Rhone — Lorraine, between the Rhine and the Meuse, Normandy, and Brittany. France Proper was shut in between these sovereignties; and thus limited did Hugh Capet find it when he ascended the throne. Eastern Franconia, Saxony, Thuringia, Bavaria, Swabia, remained parts of the German Empire. Thus did the unity of the Frank monarchy fall to pieces.”

In England 7 dynasties of Anglo-Saxon Kings were originally established, but in the year 827 Egbert united these sovereignties into a single kingdom. In the reign of his successor the Danes made very frequent invasions and pillaged the country. In Alfred the Great’s time they met with vigorous resistance, but subsequently the Danish King Canute conquered all England.”

Through Bavaria, Swabia, and Switzerland they penetrated into the interior of France and reached Italy. The Saracens pressed forward from the South. Sicily had been long in their hands: they thence obtained a firm footing in Italy, menaced Rome — which diverted their attack by a composition — and were the terror of Piedmont and Provence.”

France was devastated by the Normans as far as the Jura; the Hungarians reached Switzerland, and the Saracens Valaise. Calling to mind that organization of the arrière-ban, and considering it in juxtaposition with this miserable state of things, we cannot fail to be struck with the inefficiency of all those far-famed institutions, which at such a juncture ought to have shown themselves most effective. We might be inclined to regard the picture of the noble and rational constitution of the Frank monarchy under Charlemagne — exhibiting itself as strong, comprehensive, and well ordered, internally and externally — as a baseless figment. (…) It was superficially induced — an a priori constitution like that which Napoleon gave to Spain, and which disappeared with the physical power that sustained it.” “The brilliant administration of Charlemagne had vanished without leaving a trace, and the immediate consequence was the general defencelessness of individuals. The need of protection is sure to be felt in some degree in every well-organized State: each citizen knows his rights and also knows that for the security of possession the social State is absolutely necessary. Barbarians have not yet attained this sense of need — the want of protection from others. They look upon it as a limitation of their freedom if their rights must be guaranteed them by others. Thus, therefore, the impulse towards a firm organization did not exist: men must first be placed in a defenceless condition, before they were sensible of the necessity of the organization of a State.” Fala como se já não tivessem se passado milhares de anos de interações sociais sem o Estado-nação… Faz parecer, contrariamente a seu progresso linear e ininterrupto do Espírito do Mundo, que todos os desenvolvimentos greco-latinos foram desperdiçados…

Universal injustice, universal lawlessness is reduced to a system of dependence on and obligation to individuals, so that the mere formal side of the matter, the mere fact of compact constitutes its sole connection with the principle of Right.” Novamente: descrição atemporal de todos os sistemas de governo.

With these exceptions the free communities entirely disappeared, and became subject to the prelates or to the Counts and Dukes, thenceforth known as seigneurs and princes.” “The powerful Hugh Capet, Duke of France, was proclaimed king. The title of King, however, gave him no real power; his authority was based on his territorial possessions alone.” “France was divided into many sovereignties: the Duchy of Guienne, the Earldom of Flanders, the Duchy of Gascony, the Earldom of Toulouse, the Duchy of Burgundy, the Earldom of Vermandois; Lorraine too had belonged to France for some time. Normandy had been ceded to the Normans by the kings of France, in order to secure a temporary repose from their incursions. From Normandy Duke William passed over into England and conquered it in the year 1066.”

Germany was composed of the great duchies of Saxony, Swabia, Bavaria, Carinthia, Lorraine and Burgundy, the Margraviate of Thuringia, etc. with several bishoprics and archbishoprics. Each of those duchies again was divided into several fiefs, enjoying more or less independence.” “Germany was radically a free nation, and had not, as France had, any dominant family as a central authority; it continued an elective empire. Its princes refused to surrender the privilege of choosing their sovereign for themselves; and at every new election they introduced new restrictive conditions, so that the imperial power was degraded to an empty shadow.”

Italy was, like Germany, divided into many larger and smaller dukedoms, earldoms, bishoprics and seigneuries. The Pope had very little power, either in the North or in the South; which latter was long divided between the Lombards and the Greeks, until both were overcome by the Normans.”

Spain maintained a contest with the Saracens, either defensive or victorious, through the whole mediaeval period, till the latter finally succumbed to the more matured power of Christian civilization.”

Italy, the centre of Christendom, presented the most revolting aspect. Every virtue was alien to the times in question; consequently virtus had lost its proper meaning: in common use it denoted only violence and oppression, sometimes even libidinous outrage.” “Only bishops and abbots maintained themselves in possession, being able to protect themselves partly by their own power, partly by means of their retainers; since they were, for the most part, of noble families.” “Usurers who had lent money to the sovereign, received compensation by the bestowal of the dignities in question; the worst of men thus came into possession of spiritual offices.”

The Emperor Henry III put an end to the strife of factions, by nominating the Popes himself, and supporting them by his authority in defiance of the opposition of the Roman nobility. Pope Nicholas II decided that the Popes should be chosen by the Cardinals; but as the latter partly belonged to dominant families, similar contests of factions continued to accompany their election. Gregory VII (already famous as Cardinal Hildebrand) sought to secure the independence of the church in this frightful condition of things, by 2 measures especially. First, he enforced the celibacy of the clergy. From the earliest times, it must be observed, the opinion had prevailed that it was commendable and desirable for the clergy to remain unmarried. Yet the annalists and chroniclers inform us that this requirement was but indifferently complied with. Nicholas II had indeed pronounced the married clergy to be a new sect; but Gregory VII proceeded to enforce the restriction with extraordinary energy, excommunicating all the married clergy and all laymen who should hear mass when they officiated. In this way the ecclesiastical body was shut up within itself and excluded from the morality of the State. — His second measure was directed against simony, i.e. the sale of or arbitrary appointment to bishoprics and to the Papal See itself.” “The Church as a divinely constituted power, laid claim to supremacy over secular authority — founding that claim on the abstract principle that the Divine is superior to the Secular. The Emperor at his coronation — a ceremony which only the Pope could perform — was obliged to promise upon oath that he would always be obedient to the Pope and the Church. Whole countries and States, such as Naples, Portugal, England and Ireland came into a formal relation of vassalage to the Papal chair.”

It frequently happened that princes wished to be divorced from their wives; but for such a step they needed the permission of the Church. The latter did not let slip the opportunity of insisting upon the fulfilment of demands that might have been otherwise urged in vain, and thence advanced till it had obtained universal influence.” “Italy was the country where the authority of the Popes was least respected; and the worst usage they experienced was from the Romans themselves.” “This is the absolute schism in which the Church in the Middle Ages was involved: it arose from the recognition of the Holy as something external.” “Thus originated the adoration of the Saints, and with it that conglomerate of fables and falsities with which the Saints and their biographies have been invested.”

The individual has to confess — is bound to expose all the particulars of his life and conduct to the view of the Confessor — and then is informed what course he has to pursue to attain spiritual safety. Thus the Church took the place of Conscience: it put men in leading strings like children, and told them that man could not be freed from the torments which his sins had merited, by any amendment of his own moral condition, but by outward actions, opera operata — actions which were not the promptings of his own good-will, but performed by command of the ministers of the church; e.g., hearing mass, doing penance, going through a certain number of prayers, undertaking pilgrimages — actions which are unspiritual, stupefy the soul, and which are not only mere external ceremonies, but are such as can be even vicariously performed.” “In this way the 3 vows of Chastity, Poverty, and Obedience turned out the very opposite of what they assumed to be, and in them all social morality was degraded.”

But the highest purity of soul defiled by the most horrible barbarity; the Truth, of which a knowledge has been acquired, degraded to a mere tool by falsehood and self-seeking; that which is most irrational, coarse and vile, established and strengthened by the religious sentiment — this is the most disgusting and revolting spectacle that was ever witnessed, and which only Philosophy can comprehend and so justify.” “We have then contemplated the Church as the reaction of the Spiritual against the secular life of the time; but this reaction is so conditioned, that it only subjects to itself that against which it reacts — does not reform it.”

The inhabitants of various districts began to build enormous churches — Cathedrals, erected to contain the whole community. Architecture is always the first art, forming the inorganic phase, the domiciliation of the divinity; not till this is accomplished does Art attempt to exhibit to the worshippers the divinity himself — the Objective.”

Such centres of safety were castles (Burgen), churches and monasteries, round which were collected those who needed protection. These now became burghers (Burger), and entered into a cliental relation to the lords of such castles or to monastic bodies. Thus a firmly established community was formed in many places. Many cities and fortified places (Castelle) still existed in Italy, in the South of France, and in Germany on the Rhine, which dated their existence from the ancient Roman times, and which originally possessed municipal rights, but subsequently lost them under the rule of feudal governors (Vögte).”

Formerly artisans had been obliged to get permission from their liege lords to sell their work, and thus earn something for themselves: they were obliged to pay them a certain sum for this privilege of market, besides contributing a portion of their gains to the baronial exchequer. Those who had houses of their own were obliged to pay a considerable quit-rent for them; on all that was imported and exported, the nobility imposed large tolls, and for the security afforded to travelers they exacted safe-conduct money. When at a later date these communities became stronger, all such feudal rights were purchased from the nobles, or the cession of them compulsorily extorted: by degrees the towns secured an independent jurisdiction and likewise freed themselves from all taxes, tolls and rents. The burden which continued the longest was the obligation the towns were under to make provision for the Emperor and his whole retinue during his stay within their precincts, as also for seigneurs of inferior rank under the same circumstances. The trading class subsequently divided itself into guilds, to each of which were attached particular rights and obligations.”

Cologne threw off the yoke of its bishop; Mayence on the other hand remained subject. By degrees cities grew to be independent republics: first and foremost in Italy, then in the Netherlands, Germany, and France.”

But in the same way as the party of the nobility was divided into factions — especially those of Ghibellines and Guelfs, of which the former favored the Emperor, the latter the Pope — that of the citizens also was rent in sunder by intestine strife.”

The patrician nobility which supplanted the feudal aristocracy, deprived the common people of all share in the conduct of the state, and thus proved itself no less oppressive than the original noblesse. The history of the cities presents us with a continual change of constitutions, according as one party among the citizens or the other — this faction or that, got the upper hand.¹ Originally a select body of citizens chose the magistrates; but as in such elections the victorious faction always had the greatest influence, no other means of securing impartial functionaries was left, but the election of foreigners to the office of judge and podesta.”

¹ Gente, chega de polarização! Parem de brigar!! HAHAHAHA!!!

On the one hand, in individual characters marked by the most terrible or the most admirable features, an astonishingly interesting picture; on the other hand it repels us by assuming, as it unavoidably does, the aspect of mere chronicles.”

As, on the one hand, the German emperors sought to realize their title in Italy, so, on the other hand, Italy had its political centre in Germany. The interests of the 2 countries were thus linked together, and neither could gain political consolidation within itself. In the brilliant period of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, individuals of commanding character sustained the dignity of the throne; sovereigns like Frederick Barbarossa, in whom the imperial power manifested itself in its greatest majesty, and who by his personal qualities succeeded in attaching the subject princes to his interests. Yet brilliant as the history of the Hohenstaufen dynasty may appear, and stirring as might have been the contest with the Church, the former presents on the whole nothing more than the tragedy of this house itself, and the latter had no important result in the sphere of Spirit.”

The contest between the Emperors and the Popes regarding investitures was settled at the close of 1122 by Henry V and Pope Calixtus II on these terms: the Emperor was to invest with the sceptre; the Pope with the ring and crosier; the chapter were to elect the Bishops in the presence of the Emperor or of imperial commissioners; then the Emperor was to invest the Bishop as a secular feudatory with the temper alia, while the ecclesiastical investiture was reserved for the Pope. Thus the protracted contest between the secular and spiritual powers was at length set at rest.”

A LOW POINT: “The Church gained the victory in the struggle referred to in the previous chapter; and in this way secured as decided a supremacy in Germany, as she did in the other states of Europe by a calmer process. She made herself mistress of all the relations of life, and of science and art; and she was the permanent repository of spiritual treasures.”

but the approach to the hallowed localities is in the hands of the Infidels, and it is a reproach to Christendom that the Holy Places and the Sepulchre of Christ in particular are not in possession of the Church. In this feeling Christendom was united; consequently the Crusades were undertaken, whose object was not the furtherance of any special interests on the part of the several states that engaged in them, but simply and solely the conquest of the Holy Land.” “As in the expedition of the Greeks against Troy, so here the invading hosts were entirely composed of independent feudal lords and knights; though they were not united under a real individuality, as were the Greeks under Agamemnon or Alexander. Christendom, on the contrary, was engaged in an undertaking whose object was the securing of the definite and present existence of Deity — the real culmination of Individuality. This object impelled the West against the East, and this is the essential interest of the Crusades.” E uma coisa tão imbecil e asinina foi ter seu “desfecho” apenas no século XX com a torpe fundação de Israel, sobre e no fulcro da milenar Palestina, e o início de novas guerras infinitas!

The first and immediate commencement of the Crusades was made in the West itself. Many thousands of Jews were massacred, and their property seized; and after this terrible prelude Christendom began its march. The monk, Peter the Hermit of Amiens, led the way with an immense troop of rabble. This host passed in the greatest disorder through Hungary, and robbed and plundered as they went; but their numbers dwindled away, and only a few reached Constantinople. For rational considerations were out of the question; the mass of them believed that God would be their immediate guide and protector. The most striking proof that enthusiasm almost robbed the nations of Europe of their senses is supplied by the fact that at a later time troops of children ran away from their parents, and went to Marseilles, there to take ship for the Holy Land. Few reached it; the rest were sold by the merchants to the Saracens as slaves.”

At last, with much trouble and immense loss, more regular armies attained the desired object; they beheld themselves in possession of all the Holy Places of note — Bethlehem, Gethsemane, Golgotha, and even the Holy Sepulchre.” E o que tem de mais essa merda?

Still dripping with the blood of the slaughtered inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Christians fell down on their faces at the tomb of the Redeemer, and directed their fervent supplications to him.” “Jerusalem was made a kingdom, and the entire feudal system was introduced there — a constitution which, in presence of the Saracens, was certainly the worst that could be adopted. Another crusade in the year 1204 resulted in the conquest of Constantinople and the establishment of a Latin Empire there. Christendom, therefore, had appeased its religious craving; it could now veritably walk unobstructed in the footsteps of the Saviour. Whole shiploads of earth were brought from the Holy Land to Europe.”

the Sacred Handkerchief, the Cross, and lastly the Sepulchre, were the most venerated memorials.” Nenhuma chance de falsificações após 1200 anos, confia!

O MAIS PRÓXIMO DE UM ALTAR AO NADA QUE JÁ SE TENHA EDIFICADO SOBRE A TERRA: “there all is seriousness. In the negation of that definite and present embodiment — i.e., of the Sensuous — it is that the turning-point in question is found, and those words have an application” “Christendom was not to find its ultimatum of truth in the grave.” Any doubt?

At this sepulchre the Christian world received a 2nd time the response given to the disciples when they sought the body of the Lord there” Pensando bem, a hóstia é algo infinitamente grave e reverente – no sentido de que não mais me causa risos! –, desde que me inteirei de que realmente fizeram cruzadas NÃO SÓ simbolicamente, para reaver a Terra Sagrada, mas LITERALMENTE para olhar o fundo de um túmulo – além do mais! – forjado!

The West bade an eternal farewell to the East at the Holy Sepulchre, and gained a comprehension of its own principle of subjective infinite Freedom.”

The Christians had been shut up in a corner by the Arabs; but they gained upon their adversaries in strength, because the Saracens in Spain and Africa were engaged in war in various directions, and were divided among themselves. The Spaniards, united with Frank knights, undertook frequent expeditions against the Saracens; and in this collision of the Christians with the chivalry of the East — with its freedom and perfect independence of soul — the former became also partakers in this freedom. Spain gives us the fairest picture of the knighthood of the Middle Ages, and its hero is the Cid.”

Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (Burgos, Espanha, 1043 – Valência, 10 de julho de 1099) mais conhecido por El Cid (do mourisco sidi, ‘senhor’) e de Campeador (Campidoctor, Campeão), foi um nobre guerreiro castelhano que viveu no século XI, época em que a Hispânia estava dividida entre reinos rivais de cristãos e mouros (muçulmanos). Sua vida e feitos se tornaram, com as cores da lenda, sobretudo devido a uma canção de gesta (a Canción de Mio Cid), datada de 1207, transcrita no século XIV pelo copista Pedro Abád, cujo manuscrito se encontra na Biblioteca Nacional da Espanha, um referencial para os cavaleiros da idade média.”

Several Crusades, the records of which excite our unmixed loathing and detestation, were undertaken against the South of France also. There an aesthetic culture had developed itself: the Troubadours had introduced a freedom of manners similar to that which prevailed under the Hohenstaufen Emperors in Germany; but with this difference, that the former had in it something affected, while the latter was of a more genuine kind.” Claro, o alemão sempre mais autêntico!

But as in Upper Italy, so also in the South of France fanatical ideas of purity had been introduced; a Crusade was therefore preached against that country by Papal authority. St. Dominic entered it with a vast host of invaders, who, in the most barbarous manner, pillaged and murdered the innocent and the guilty indiscriminately, and utterly laid waste the fair region which they inhabited.” É evidente que o próximo passo seria a intra-cruzada contra as mulheres (levaria um pouco de tempo, nestas exposições de H.)…

Não me espanta a forma como o poder secular da Igreja Católica tombou, mas como raios isso levou tanto tempo: “In the Crusades the Pope stood at the head of the secular power: the Emperor appeared only in a subordinate position, like the other princes, and was obliged to commit both the initiative and the executive to the Pope, as the manifest generalissimo of the expedition.”

To counteract these evils, new monastic orders were founded, the chief of which was that of the Franciscans, or Mendicant Friars, whose founder, St. Francis of Assisi — a man possessed by an enthusiasm and ecstatic passion that passed all bounds — spent his life in continually striving for the loftiest purity.” “Contemporaneously with it arose the Dominican order, founded by St. Dominic; its special business was preaching. The mendicant friars were diffused through Christendom to an incredible extent; they were, on the one hand, the standing apostolic army of the Pope, while, on the other hand, they strongly protested against his worldliness. The Franciscans were powerful allies of Louis of Bavaria in his resistance of the Papal assumptions, and they are said to have been the authors of the position that a General Council was higher authority than the Pope; but subsequently they too sank down into a torpid and unintelligent condition.” Isso é falta de proteína na dieta!

In the same way the ecclesiastical Orders of Knighthood contemplated the attainment of purity of Spirit. (…) The Orders of Knighthood were divided into 3: that of St. John, that of the Temple, and the Teutonic Order.” “But their members sank down to the level of vulgar interests, and the Orders became in the sequel a provisional institute for the nobility generally, rather than anything else. The Order of the Temple was even accused of forming a religion of its own, and of having renounced Christ in the creed which, under the influence of the Oriental Spirit, it had adopted.”

When we have arrived at Faith, it is a piece of negligence to stop short of convincing ourselves, by the aid of Thought, of that to which we have given credence.” Anselmo

O que nasce errado termina errado. No que penso quando o digo? Na monarquia absoluta e na monarquia constitucional…

Germany had always embraced a great variety of stocks: — Swabians, Bavarians, Franks, Thuringians, Saxons, Burgundians: to these must be added the Sclaves of Bohemia, Germanized Sclaves in Mecklenburg, in Brandenburg, and in a part of Saxony and Austria; so that no such combination as took place in France was possible.” “After the interregnum the Count of Hapsburg was elected Emperor, and the House of Hapsburg continued to fill the imperial throne with but little interruption.”

IN THE HORIZON, THERE SHE IS, ALWAYS – CHINA! “The aim of all these confederations was resistance to the feudal lords; and even princes united with the cities, with a view to the subversion of the feudal condition and the restoration of a peaceful state of things throughout the country. What the state of society was under feudal sovereignty is evident from the notorious association formed for executing criminal justice: it was a private tribunal, which, under the name of the Vehmgericht, held secret sittings; its chief seat was the northwest of Germany. A peculiar peasant association was also formed. In Germany the peasants were bondmen; many of them took refuge in the towns, or settled down as freemen in the neighborhood of the towns (Pfahlbürger); but in Switzerland a peasant fraternity was established. The peasants of Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden were under imperial governors; for the Swiss governments were not the property of private possessors, but were official appointments of the Empire. These the sovereigns of the Hapsburg line wished to secure to their own house. The peasants, with club and iron-studded mace (Morgenstern), returned victorious from a contest with the haughty steel-clad nobles, armed with spear and sword, and practised in the chivalric encounters of the tournament. Another invention also tended to deprive the nobility of the ascendancy which they owed to their accoutrements — that of gunpowder.”

In that country, warfare in the hand of the Condottieri became a regular business.”

This book [O Príncipe] has often been thrown aside in disgust, as replete with the maxims of the most revolting tyranny; but nothing worse can be urged against it than that the writer, having the profound consciousness of the necessity for the formation of a State, has here exhibited the principles on which alone States could be founded in the circumstances of the times.”

MARX É MERAMENTE O MAQUIAVEL DOS NOVOS TEMPOS: “we must nevertheless confess that the feudal nobility, whose power was to be subdued, were assailable in no other way, since an indomitable contempt for principle, and an utter depravity of morals, were thoroughly engrained in them.”

In France we find the converse of that which occurred in Germany and Italy. For many centuries the Kings of France possessed only a very small domain, so that many of their vassals were more powerful than themselves: but it was a great advantage to the royal dignity in France that the principle of hereditary monarchy was firmly established there.”

—“The Dukes of Normandy had, however, become Kings of England; and thus a formidable power confronted France, whose interior lay open to it by way of Normandy. Besides this there were powerful Duchies still remaining; nevertheless, the King was not a mere feudal suzerain (Lehnsherr) like the German Emperors, but had become a territorial possessor (Landesherr): he had a number of barons and cities under him, who were subject to his immediate jurisdiction; and Louis IX succeeded in rendering appeals to the royal tribunal common throughout his kingdom. The towns attained a position of greater importance in the State. For when the king needed money, and all his usual resources — such as taxes and forced contributions of all kinds — were exhausted, he made application to the towns and entered into separate negotiations with them. It was Philip the Fair who, in the year 1302, first convoked the deputies of the towns as a Third Estate in conjunction with the clergy and the barons.” poderes espiritual + secular + da massa (burgos)

In the way we have indicated the kings of France very soon attained great power; while the flourishing state of the poetic art in the hands of the Troubadours, and the growth of the scholastic theology, whose especial centre was Paris, gave France a culture superior to that of the other European States”

When the oppressive rule and fiscal exactions of the Kings became intolerable, contentions and even war ensued: the barons compelled King John to swear to Magna Charta, the basis of English liberty, i.e., more particularly of the privileges of the nobility. [Second State]” Hegel foi um bom leitor de Montesquieu, i.e., fez o dever de casa.

The towns, also, favored by the Kings in opposition to the barons, soon elevated themselves into a Third Estate and to representation in the Commons’ House of Parliament.”

NÃO MAIS SENHORES DO QUE JÁ SÃO SERÃO: “We shall not pursue the minute and specifically historic details that concern the incorporation of principalities with States, or the dissensions and contests that accompanied such incorporations. We have only to add that the kings, when by weakening the feudal constitution, they had attained a higher degree of power, began to use that power against each other in the undisguised interest of their own dominion. Thus France and England carried on wars with each other for a century.”

AWOKE FROM THE LONG SLUMBER: “Princes and peoples were indifferent to papal clamor urging them to new crusades. The Emperor Louis set to work to deduce from Aristotle, the Bible, and the Roman Law a refutation of the assumptions of the Papal See; and the electors declared at the Diet held at Rense in 1338, and afterwards still more decidedly at the Imperial Diet held at Frankfort, that they would defend the liberties and hereditary rights of the Empire, and that to make the choice of a Roman Emperor or King valid, no papal confirmation was needed. So, at an earlier date, 1302, on occasion of a contest between Pope Boniface and Philip the Fair, the Assembly of the States convoked by the latter had offered opposition to the Pope.”

It was not so much from slavery as through slavery that humanity was emancipated. For barbarism, lust, injustice constitute evil: man, bound fast in its fetters, is unfit for morality and religiousness; and it is from this intemperate and ungovernable state of volition that the discipline in question emancipated him.”

Virgil was thought to be a great magician (in Dante he appears as the guide in Hell and Purgatory).”

We have now arrived at the 3rd period of the German World, and thus enter upon the period of Spirit conscious that it is free” “First, we have to consider the Reformation in itself — the all-enlightening Sun, following on that blush of dawn which we observed at the termination of the mediaeval period; next, the unfolding of that state of things which succeeded the Reformation; and lastly, the Modern Times, dating from the end of the last century.”

PELO MENOS, EM HEGEL, GANHA-SE JÁ EM IMORALIDADE” (reconhecer o mal no mundo contemporâneo como sintoma necessário do êxito do Cristianismo, e não a causa de sua ruína): “The Reformation resulted from the corruption of the Church. That corruption was not an accidental phenomenon; it was not the mere abuse of power and dominion. A corrupt state of things is very frequently represented as an ‘abuse’; it is taken for granted that the foundation was good — the system, the institution itself faultless — but that the passion, the subjective interest, in short the arbitrary volition of men has made use of that which in itself was good to further its own selfish ends, and that all that is required to be done is to remove these adventitious elements. On this showing the institute in question escapes obloquy, and the evil that disfigures it appears something foreign to it. But when accidental abuse of a good thing really occurs, it is limited to particularity. A great and general corruption affecting a body of such large and comprehensive scope as a Church, is quite another thing. — The corruption of the Church was a native growth; the principle of that corruption is to be looked for in the fact that the specific and definite embodiment of Deity which it recognizes, is sensuous“The element in question which is innate in the Ecclesiastical principle only reveals itself as a corrupting one when the Church has no longer any opposition to contend with” [TRIUNFOU, E POR ISSO MORREU] “Thus it is that externality in the Church itself which becomes evil and corruption, and develops itself as a negative principle in its own bosom. — The forms which this corruption assumes are coextensive with the relations which the Church itself sustains, into which consequently this vitiating element enters.”

a credulity of the most absurd and childish character in regard to Miracles, for the Divine is supposed to manifest itself in a perfectly disconnected and limited way, for purely finite and particular purposes”

But as that paragon of works of art, the Athene and her temple-citadel at Athens, was built with the money of the allies and issued in the loss of both allies and power; so the completion of this Church of St. Peter and Michael Angelo’s Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, were the Doomsday and the ruin of this proud spiritual edifice.”

Nor could Luther concede to the Calvinistic Church that Christ is a mere commemoration, a mere reminiscence”

At its commencement, the Reformation concerned itself only with particular aspects of the Catholic Church: Luther wished to act in union with the whole Catholic world, and expressed a desire that Councils should be convened. His theses found supporters in every country. In answer to the charge brought against Luther and the Protestants, of exaggeration — nay, even of calumnious misrepresentation in their descriptions of the corruption of the Church, we may refer to the statements of Catholics themselves, bearing upon this point, and particularly to those contained in the official documents of Ecclesiastical Councils. But Luther’s onslaught, which was at first limited to particular points, was soon extended to the doctrines of the Church; and leaving individuals, he attacked institutions at large — conventual life, the secular lordships of the bishops, etc. His writings now controverted not merely isolated dicta of the Pope and the Councils, but the very principle on which such a mode of deciding points in dispute was based — in fact, the Authority of the Church. Luther repudiated that authority, and set up in its stead the Bible and the testimony of the Human Spirit.”

the existence of a People’s Book presupposes as its primary condition an ability to read on the part of the People; an ability which in Catholic countries is not very commonly to be met with.” HAHAHAHAHA

Leibniz at a later time discussed with bishop Bossuet the question of the union of the Churches; but the Council of Trent remains the insurmountable obstacle.”

the fasts and holy days were abolished. Thus there was also a secular reform — a change affecting the state of things outside the sphere of ecclesiastical relations: in many places a rebellion was raised against the temporal authorities.” “But the world was not yet ripe for a transformation of its political condition as a consequence of ecclesiastical reformation.”

JESUÍTICAS CASUÍSTICAS: “Education was entrusted to the Jesuits. Thus does the Spirit of the Catholic world in general sink behind the Spirit of the Age.”

TUDO SE EXPLICA, EM HEGEL, POR UM PROFUNDO C[H]AUVINISMO: “The Reformation originated in Germany, and struck firm root only in the purely German nations; outside of Germany it established itself in Scandinavia and England.”

In Swabia, Franconia, and the Rhine countries there were many convents and bishoprics, as also many free imperial towns; and the reception or rejection of the Reformation very much depended on the influences which these ecclesiastical and civil bodies respectively exercised” “In Austria, in Bavaria, in Bohemia, the Reformation had already made great progress; and though it is commonly said that when truth has once penetrated men’s souls, it cannot be rooted out again, it was indisputably stifled in the countries in question, by force of arms, by stratagem or persuasion.”

The French call the Germans entiers, entire — i.e., stubborn”

the Psalms of David which exhibit a similar character were then introduced as hymns into the ritual of Protestant Churches. Protestantism took this turn of minute and painful introspection, possessed with the conviction of the importance of the exercise, and was for a long time characterized by a self-tormenting disposition and an aspect of spiritual wretchedness; which in the present day has induced many persons to enter the Catholic pale, that they might exchange this inward uncertainty for a formal broad certainty based on the imposing totality of the Church.” Para isso hoje existe a filosofia – para o auto-exame, quero dizer –; já para a Igreja temos sua gêmea, a Academia (aquela que dá uma segurança formal).

The Jesuits analyzed the first rudiments of volition (velleitas) with as painful minuteness as was displayed in the pious exercises of Protestantism; but they had a science of casuistry which enabled them to discover a good reason for everything, and so get rid of the burden of guilt which this rigid investigation seemed to aggravate.” Não muito distante do seu próprio panteísmo, H.!

Thus arose that famous legend of Faust, who in disgust at the unsatisfactory character of speculative science, is said to have plunged into the world and purchased all its glory at the expense of his salvation.” Realmente um católico faria o contrário!

Faust, if we may trust the poet, had the enjoyment of all that the world could give, in exchange for his soul’s weal; but those poor women who were called Witches were reputed to get nothing more by the bargain than the gratification of a petty revenge by making a neighbor’s cow go dry or giving a child the measles.”

OS DOIS SÃO UMA MERDA (SPOILER DO FINAL): “The belief in this abstract, special power whose dominion is the world — in the Devil and his devices — occasioned an incalculable number of trials for witchcraft both in Catholic and Protestant countries

The main impulse was suspicion. The principle of suspicion assumes a similarly terrible shape during the sway of the Roman Emperors, and under Robespierre’s Reign of Terror; when mere disposition, unaccompanied by any overt act or expression, was made an object of punishment.”

Among the Catholics, it was the Dominicans to whom (as was the Inquisition in all its branches) the trials for witchcraft were entrusted. Father Spee/Spec [o livro cita o nome duas vezes, uma delas é erro tipográfico], a noble Jesuit, wrote a treatise against them (he is also the author of a collection of fine poems bearing the title of Trutznachtigall)”

If the accused fainted under the torture it was averred that the Devil was giving them sleep: if convulsions supervened, it was said that the Devil was laughing in them; if they held out steadfastly, the Devil was supposed to give them power.” “But it was Thomasius, a Professor of Halle, who first opposed this prevalent superstition with very decided success. The entire phenomenon is in itself most remarkable when we reflect that we have not long been quit of this frightful barbarity (even as late as the year 1780 a witch was publicly burned at Glarus in Switzerland).” Ah, se os bolsominions pudessem erigir fogueiras e escapar a devidos processos legais… Muito homem – eu! – estaria condenado como bruxo!

[In Spain] The Grandees were no longer allowed to maintain troops of their own, and were also withdrawn from the command of the armies; destitute of power they had to content themselves as private persons with an empty title.”

Thus the Inquisition confirmed the despotic power of the King: it claimed supremacy even over bishops and archbishops, and could cite them before its tribunal. The frequent confiscation of property — one of the most customary penalties — tended to enrich the treasury of the State. Moreover, the Inquisition was a tribunal which took cognizance of mere suspicion; and while it consequently exercised a fearful authority over the clergy, it had a peculiar support in the national pride. For every Spaniard wished to be considered Christian by descent, and this species of vanity fell in with the views and tendency of the Inquisition. Particular provinces of the Spanish monarchy, as e.g., Aragon, still retained many peculiar rights and privileges; but the Spanish Kings from Philip II downwards proceeded to suppress them altogether.”

Polish Liberty too, meant nothing more than the freedom of the barons in contraposition to the King, the nation being reduced to a state of absolute serfdom.”

Italy especially had become such an object of desire, and was a prey to the rapacity of the French, the Spaniards, and at a later date, of the Austrians. In fact absolute disintegration and dismemberment has always been an essential feature in the national character of the inhabitants of Italy, in ancient as well as in modern times.”

But we have to observe also that the wars in which Germany engaged were not particularly honorable to it: it allowed Burgundy, Lorraine, Alsace, and other parts of the empire to be wrested from it.”

When this combination of States was just commencing, Charles V was aiming at universal monarchy; for he was Emperor of Germany and King of Spain to boot: the Netherlands and Italy acknowledged his sway, and the whole wealth of America flowed into his coffers. With this enormous power, which, like the contingencies of fortune in the case of private property, had been accumulated by the most felicitous combinations of political dexterity — among other things by marriage, — but which was destitute of an internal and reliable bond, he was nevertheless unable to gain any advantage over France, or even over the German princes; nay, he was even compelled to a peace by Maurice of Saxony.” “The balance of power in Europe was similarly threatened by Louis XIV.” “France, too, had the consciousness of its intellectual superiority in a refinement of culture surpassing anything of which the rest of Europe could boast. The pretensions of Louis were founded not on extent of dominion, (as was the case with Charles V) so much as on that culture which distinguished his people, and which at that time made its way everywhere with the language that embodied it, and was the object of universal admiration: they could therefore plead a higher justification than those of the German Emperor. But the very rock on which the vast military resources of Philip II had already foundered — the heroic resistance of the Dutch — proved fatal also to the ambitious schemes of Louis.”

An external relation in which the States of Europe had an interest in common was that sustained to the Turks — the terrible power which threatened to overwhelm Europe from the East. The Turks of that day had still a sound and vigorous nationality, whose power was based on conquest, and which was therefore engaged in constant warfare, or at least admitted only a temporary suspension of arms. As was the case among the Franks, the conquered territories were divided among their warriors as personal, not heritable possessions; when in later times the principle of hereditary succession was adopted, the national vigor was shattered. The flower of the Osman force, the Janizaries, were the terror of the Europeans. Their ranks were recruited from a body of Christian boys of handsome and vigorous proportions, brought together chiefly by means of annual conscriptions among the Greek subjects of the Porte, strictly educated in the Moslem faith, and exercised in arms from early youth. Without parents, without brothers or sisters, without wives, they were, like the monks, an altogether isolated and terrible corps. The Eastern European powers were obliged to make common cause against the Turks — viz.: Austria, Hungary, Venice and Poland. The battle of Lepanto saved Italy, and perhaps all Europe, from a barbarian inundation.”

in the State there must be government, and Cromwell knew what governing is. He, therefore, made himself ruler, and sent that praying parliament about their business.”

Through the Peace of Westphalia the Protestant Church had been acknowledged as an independent one — to the great confusion and humiliation of Catholicism.”

Bogislav Philipp von Chemnitz, Hippolytus à lapide

QUANTA MÁGOA, H.! “This constitution, which completely terminated the career of Germany as an Empire, was chiefly the work of Richelieu, by whose assistance — Romish Cardinal though he was — religious freedom in Germany was preserved. (…) His fate has consequently resembled that of many great statesmen, inasmuch as he has been cursed by his countrymen, while his enemies have looked upon the work by which he ruined them as the most sacred goal of their desires — the consummation of their rights and liberties.” Censura Richelieu porque, apesar de ter sido esta carta garantidora de uma liberdade civil importante, ela enfraqueceu politicamente a Alemanha, que seguiu por muito tempo ainda separada do Império Austro-Húngaro. A esse respeito, a propósito, procurar a biografia do Père Joseph, o braço direito de R., livro recomendado por Zizek como exemplificando a personalidade que mais parece ter antecipado, espiritualmente, Hitler (o cume da tirania e arbitrariedade). Porém, ao simples cidadão que só queria direitos individuais, o que lhe interessava que se ele “pensasse a longo prazo” seus netos poderiam viver num “grande império” (hipoteticamente)?! Reflexão hegeliana completamente disparatada.

Frederick II demonstrated the independent vigor of his power by resisting that of almost all Europe — the union of its leading states. He appeared as the hero of Protestantism, and that not individually merely, like Gustavus Adolphus, but as the ruler of a State. The Seven Years’ War was indeed in itself not a war of religion; but it was so in view of its ultimate issues, and in the disposition of the soldiers as well as of the potentates under whose banner they fought.” Não à toa um monarca detonado por Nietzsche.

It seemed to men as if God had but just created the moon and stars, plants and animals, as if the laws of the universe were now established for the first time; for only then did they feel a real interest in the universe”

What the nations acknowledge as international Right was deduced empirically from observation (as in the work of Grotius); then the source of the existing civil and political law was looked for, after Cicero’s fashion, in those instincts of men which Nature has planted in their hearts — e.g., the social instinct; next the principle of security for the person and property of the citizens, and of the advantage of the commonwealth — that which belongs to the class of <reasons of State>.”

The results of thought are thus posited as finite, and the Éclaircissement utterly banished and extirpated all that was speculative from things human and divine.” Já H. pecou pelo lado oposto…

O HOMEM-ESTANQUE: “we must know what the Will is in itself.” “What the Will is in itself can be known only when these specific and contradictory forms of volition have been eliminated. Then Will appears as Will, in its abstract essence.” “This is absolute Will — the volition to be free. Will making itself its own object is the basis of all Right and Obligation — consequently of all statutory determinations of Right, categorical imperatives, and enjoined obligations.” “nay, it is even that by which Man becomes Man, and is therefore the fundamental principle of Spirit. But the next question is: How does Will assume a definite form?” “But the metaphysical process by which this abstract Will develops itself, so as to attain a definite form of Freedom, and how Rights and Duties are evolved therefrom, this is not the place to discuss. It may however be remarked that the same principle obtained speculative recognition in Germany, in the Kantian Philosophy.” “Right purely for the sake of Right, Duty purely for the sake of Duty.” “Why did this principle of Freedom remain merely formal? and why did the French alone, and not the Germans, set about realizing it?” “As yet, nothing further is developed from it, for it still maintains an adverse position to Religion, i.e. to the concrete absolute substance of the Universe.” “the French are hot-headed”¹ HAHAHAHAHAA!

¹ Em francês essa expressão é traduzida literalmente assim: eles têm a cabeça muito perto do chapéu!

Cada século é um cavalo de pau que se dá!

TOCQUEVILLE NÃO DIRIA MELHOR: “Before the French Revolution, it must be allowed, the power of the Grandees had been diminished by Richelieu, and they had been deprived of privileges; but, like the clergy, they retained all the prerogatives which gave them an advantage over the lower class. The political condition of France at that time presents nothing but a confused mass of privileges altogether contravening Thought and Reason — an utterly irrational state of things, and one with which the greatest corruption of morals, of Spirit was associated — an empire characterized by Destitution of Right, and which, when its real state begins to be recognized, becomes shameless destitution of Right.”

a spiritual enthusiasm thrilled through the world, as if the reconciliation between the Divine and the Secular was now first accomplished.”

Plato in his Republic makes everything depend upon the Government, and makes Disposition the principle of the State; on which account he lays the chief stress on Education. The modern theory is diametrically opposed to this, referring everything to the individual will. But here we have no guarantee that the will in question has that right disposition which is essential to the stability of the State.”

The budget however is in its nature something diverse from law, for it is annually renewed, and the power to which it properly belongs is that of the Government. (…) The government was thus transferred to the Legislative Chamber, as in England to the Parliament. This constitution was also vitiated by the existence of absolute mistrust; the dynasty lay under suspicion, because it had lost the power it formerly enjoyed, and the priests refused the oath. Neither government nor constitution could be maintained on this footing, and the ruin of both was the result.”

This Virtue has now to conduct the government in opposition to the Many, whom their corruption and attachment to old interests, or a liberty that has degenerated into license, and the violence of their passions, render unfaithful to virtue. Virtue is here a simple abstract principle and distinguishes the citizens into 2 classes only — those who are favorably disposed and those who are not. But disposition can only be recognized and judged of by disposition. Suspicion therefore is in the ascendant; but virtue, as soon as it becomes liable to suspicion, is already condemned. Suspicion attained a terrible power and brought to the scaffold the Monarch, whose subjective will was in fact the religious conscience of a Catholic. Robespierre set up the principle of Virtue as supreme, and it may be said that with this man Virtue was an earnest matter. Virtue and Terror are the order of the day; for Subjective Virtue, whose sway is based on disposition only, brings with it the most fearful tyranny. It exercises its power without legal formalities, and the punishment it inflicts is equally simple — Death.

An organized government is introduced, analogous to the one that had been displaced; only that its chief and monarch is now a mutable Directory of Five, who may form a moral, but have not an individual unity (…) this constitution therefore experienced the same fate as its predecessor, for it had proved to itself the absolute necessity of a governmental power. Napoleon restored it as a military power, and followed up this step by establishing himself as an individual will at the head of the State: he knew how to rule, and soon settled the internal affairs of France.” Em momentos assim, basta alguém que saiba como governar. Situação análoga à nossa. O problema é quando o líder morre. Nós, por outro lado, não estamos aproveitando este potencial nem durante a curta vida de nosso maior político.

the sway of mistrust was exchanged for that of respect and fear. He then, with the vast might of his character turned his attention to foreign relations, subjected all Europe, and diffused his liberal institutions in every quarter. Greater victories were never gained, expeditions displaying greater genius were never conducted: but never was the powerlessness of Victory exhibited in a clearer light than then.” “and in France constitutional monarchy, with the Charte as its basis, was restored. But here again the antithesis of Disposition (good feeling) and Mistrust made its appearance.” “A 15 years’ farce was played. For although the Charte was the standard under which all were enrolled, and though both parties had sworn to it, yet on the one side the ruling disposition was a Catholic one, which regarded it as a matter of conscience to destroy the existing institutions.” O problema do rei: católico demais! Hahaha! Napoleão, com efeito, era muito mais realista: um überprotestante!

At length, after 40 years of war and confusion indescribable, [1780-1820?] a weary heart might fain congratulate itself on seeing a termination and tranquillization of all these disturbances.” “The will of the Many expels the Ministry from power, and those who had formed the Opposition fill the vacant places; but the latter having now become the Government, meet with hostility from the Many, and share the same fate. Thus agitation and unrest are perpetuated. This collision, this nodus, this problem is that with which history is now occupied, and whose solution it has to work out in the future.” Achava que esta aula iria desembocar direto no XVIII Brumário!

PELO MENOS ENSINA AO SÉC. XXI TODA A ILUSÃO DA CONCEPÇÃO ‘LIBERTÁRIA’ DO HOMEM MÉDIO: “Not satisfied with the establishment of rational rights, with freedom of person and property, with the existence of a political organization in which are to be found various circles of civil life each having its own functions to perform, and with that influence over the people which is exercised by the intelligent members of the community, and the confidence that is felt in them, <Liberalism> sets up in opposition to all this the atomistic principle, that which insists upon the sway of individual wills; maintaining that all government should emanate from their express power, and have their express sanction. Asserting this formal side of Freedom — this abstraction — the party in question allows no political organization to be firmly established. The particular arrangements of the government are forthwith opposed by the advocates of Liberty as the mandates of a particular will, and branded as displays of arbitrary power.”

ALWAYS HAS BEEN: “Particularly all the Romanic nations, and the Roman Catholic World in special — France, Italy, Spain — were subjected to the dominion of Liberalism.” Aqui, sem aspas, no sentido de Iluminismo ou Revolução Francesa, apenas! Política laica não-bávara, para os leigos em H.. Ou simplesmente quando o homem decide governar a si próprio, i.e., arranca a Coroa da cabeça de um dos seus: todos os países hoje, na prática – ah, como é difícil! –; muitos e muitos países hoje, nominalmente.

For it is a false principle that the fetters which bind Right and Freedom can be broken without the emancipation of conscience — that there can be a Revolution without a Reformation.” “Venice and Genoa, those ancient aristocracies, which could at least boast of legitimacy, vanished as rotten despotisms. Material superiority in power can achieve no enduring results: Napoleon could not coerce Spain into freedom any more than Philip II could force Holland into slavery.”

Austria and England were not drawn within the vortex of internal agitation, and exhibited great, immense proofs of their internal solidity. Austria is not a Kingdom, but an Empire, i.e., an aggregate of many political organizations. The inhabitants of its chief provinces are not German in origin and character, and have remained unaffected by ‘ideas’. Elevated neither by education nor religion, the lower classes in some districts have remained in a condition of serfdom, and the nobility have been kept down, as in Bohemia; in other quarters, while the former have continued the same, the barons have maintained their despotism, as in Hungary. Austria has surrendered that more intimate connection with Germany which was derived from the imperial dignity, and renounced its numerous possessions and rights in Germany and the Netherlands. It now takes its place in Europe as a distinct power, involved with no other.” A Áustria foi um verdadeiro Jurassic Park até o fim da II Guerra.

A OPACIDADE DA TRANSPARÊNCIA EXCESSIVA: “the English Constitution kept its ground amid the general convulsion, though it seemed so much the more liable to be affected by it, as a public Parliament, that habit of assembling in public meeting which was common to all orders of the State, and a free press, offered singular facilities for introducing the French principles of Liberty and Equality among all classes of the people.” Creio que Hegel, se é que não o fez em algum lugar, deveria ter chamado os ingleses, para manter os seus critérios, de criptoliberais, i.e., liberais inconscientes, já que, para ele, o Liberalismo foi uma invenção francesa. Os liberais políticos à revelia de si próprios calcados na mais elevada tirania despótica econômica (de si mesma sobre o mundo).

ANY FREEDOM, EXCEPT YOURS! “Or was the English constitution so entirely a Free Constitution — had those principles been already so completely realized in it, that they could no longer excite opposition or even interest? The English nation may be said to have approved of the emancipation of France; but it was proudly reliant on its own constitution and freedom, and instead of imitating the example of the foreigner it displayed its ancient hostility to its rival, and was soon involved in a popular war with France.”

the Government is essentially administrative — that is, conservative of the interests of all particular orders and classes; and each particular Church, parochial district, county, society, takes care of itself, so that the Government, strictly speaking, has nowhere less to do than in

England.” “Nowhere can people less tolerate free action on the part of others than in France: there the Ministry combines in itself all administrative power, to which, on the other hand, the Chamber of Deputies lays claim.”

By an inconsistency of the most startling kind, we find them contravening equity most grossly; and of institutions characterized by real freedom there are nowhere fewer than in England. In point of private right and freedom of possession they present an incredible deficiency: sufficient proof of which is afforded in the rights of primogeniture, involving the necessity of purchasing or otherwise providing military or ecclesiastical appointments for the younger sons of the aristocracy.

The Parliament governs, although Englishmen are unwilling to allow that such is the case. It is worthy of remark, that what has been always regarded as the period of the corruption of a republican people presents itself here; viz. election to seats in parliament by means of bribery. But this also they call freedom — the power to sell one’s vote, and to purchase a seat in parliament.

But this utterly inconsistent and corrupt state of things has nevertheless one advantage, that it provides for the possibility of a government — that it introduces a majority of men into parliament who are statesmen, who from their very youth have devoted themselves to political business and have worked and lived in it.” No new politics here, ma’am.

This is quite opposed to the appreciation of principles and abstract views which everyone can understand at once, and which are besides to be found in all Constitutions and Charters. It is a question whether the Reform in Parliament now on the tapis, consistently carried out, will leave the possibility of a Government.” Nada temesse, ó H.: a prosperidade britânica ainda duraria um século inteiro!

The material existence of England is based on commerce and industry, and the English have undertaken the weighty responsibility of being the missionaries of civilization to the world” Agora eles são nulidades mesmo em pautas consensuais como o aquecimento global.

A RODA COMEÇOU A GIRAR NA ALEMANHA LOGO QUE H. MORREU, QUE IRONIA! “The fiction of an Empire has utterly vanished. It is broken up into sovereign States. Feudal obligations are abolished, for freedom of property and of person have been recognized as fundamental principles. Offices of State are open to every citizen, talent and adaptation being of course the necessary conditions.”

It is certainly a very fortunate circumstance for a nation when a sovereign of noble character falls to its lot; yet in a great State even this is of small moment, since its strength lies in the Reason incorporated in it. Minor States have their existence and tranquility secured to them more or less by their neighbors: they are therefore, properly speaking, not independent, and have not the fiery trial of war to endure. [a Suíça é a prova viva] As has been remarked, a share in the government may be obtained by everyone who has a competent knowledge, experience, and a morally regulated will.”

BASICAMENTE UM EPÍLOGO: “We have confined ourselves to the consideration of that progress of the Idea (which has led to this consummation), and have been obliged to forego the pleasure of giving a detailed picture of the prosperity, the periods of glory that have distinguished the career of peoples, the beauty and grandeur of the character of individuals, and the interest attaching to their fate in weal or woe. Philosophy concerns itself only with the glory of the Idea mirroring itself in the History of the World. Philosophy escapes from the weary strife of passions that agitate the surface of society into the calm region of contemplation; that which interests it is the recognition of the process of development which the Idea has passed through in realizing itself”

Notas dos extravagantes editores e do tradutor

An incapacity for conspiracy has been remarked as a characteristic feature of the Teutonic portion of the inhabitants of the British Isles, as compared with their Celtic countrymen.”

The term CATHARI (grego). Purists [puritanos, hoje generalizado para todos os crentes] was one of the most general designations of the dissident sects in question. The German word Ketzer = heretic is by some derived from it.”

The primary meaning of the word IDEA and of the related terms EIDOS and species is <form>.”

There is no current term in English denoting that great intellectual movement which dates from the first quarter of the 18th century, [!!!] and which, if not the chief cause, was certainly the guiding genius of the French Revolution. The word Illuminati (signifying the members of an imaginary confederacy for propagating the open secret of the day), [HAHA] might suggest Illumination, as an equivalent for the German Aufklärung; but the French Éclaircissement conveys a more specific idea.” J. Sibree

The sensational conclusions of the ‘materialistic’ school of the 18th century are reached by the ‘axiom of Contradiction and Identity’, as applied in this simple dilemma: ‘In cognition, Man is either active or passive; he is not active (unless he is grossly deceiving himself), therefore he is passive; therefore all knowledge is derived ab extra. What this external objective being is of which this knowledge is the cognition, remains an eternal mystery — i.e., as Hegel says: ‘The results of thought are posited as finite.’ — J.S.

Language, the faithful conservator of metaphysical genealogies” J.S.

The radical correspondence of Gleichheit and Vergleichung is attempted to be rendered in English by the terms parity and comparison, and perhaps etymology may justify the expedient. The meaning of the derivative comparatio seems to point to the connection of its root paro with par.”

NOMES-DO-PAI OU OS NÃO-TOLOS ERRAM – Trad. André Telles (Jorge Zahar, 2005)

Les Noms-du-Perre et Les non-dupe errent

Sistema SIR (na verdade R.S.I.)


Ensaio de preposições e predisposições





eu resisto!”

a resistência política



mais en effet!




ergo ergo caio

sem tregar


Não é um livro que mereça todas as recomendações”


proibido acertar a tabuada



ele se tratou de novo


expansão social


tava demorando:

APARÊNCIA DA IDÉIA: “Ora, encontramos ali ilustrado algo que parece bem obscuro quando o lemos em Hegel, isto é, que o conceito é o tempo. Seria preciso uma conferência de uma hora para fazer a demonstração de que o conceito é o tempo. Coisa curiosa, o sr. Hyppolite, em sua tradução da Fenomenologia do espírito, contentou-se em colocar uma nota dizendo que esse era um dos pontos mais obscuros da teoria de Hegel.”


tô à toa qui

sempre compre




sem espaço, irmão





Chamo símbolo tudo o que tentei mostrar com a fenomenologia.”


malo es

ano malo





crista de galo

ESPERTINHO: “É preciso sempre apresentar uma pequena ilustração para o que se conta.” quadratura do círculo

Tudo começa com uma risada (Rs).

SR – sem rendimento volte mais tarde ou não

Como dizia Chaves quando leu Hegel (tríade): Isso-Isso-Isso!

Daí ser preferível e necessário que o analista tenha uma formação tão completa quanto possível na ordem cultural.”

O rR é seu trabalho, impropriamente designado pela famosa expressão ‘neutralidade benevolente’, [o finito mal] da qual se fala a torto e a direito, e que quer simplesmente dizer que, para um analista, todas as realidades são, em suma, equivalentes, que todas são realidades. Isso parte da idéia de que tudo o que é real é racional, e vice-versa.” VV amigo

Hegel está errado, logo a análise é uma fraude. Pseudanálise.

Era marxista da terapia – ainda não chegou – nem com Deleuze.

Mas Marx também erra (geografia geóide)

psicologia dos fudidos

AA arx

xra VV

o círculo sendo tragado

o círculo sendo comido

o círculo enquanto quadrado

o círculo qua quadrado

Deus está torto (é um quadro na parede).




sra. Marcus-Blajan

Ironicamente, o agorafóbico é o ansioso do espaço; e o ansioso o agorafóbico do tempo (agora).

Vie et Nam

Rien – Nein!

O Resgate do Soldado Nada

Spielberg the bloooooood

Portanto, a ansiedade é normal. Segue o gozojogo!

não estou mais tão sozinho, pois a culpa está Aguiar meus atos compulsórios.

Jeff Bezos circula fora do tempo terrestre, no espaço, o que quer dizer que ele não é um fudido pelo capitalismo (transcendeu a questão do paciente que não tem paciência, não precisa ser tratado, é dono dos meios de tratamento e produção)

é um sujeito realmente associal e exorbitante!

– Eu não sei do que chamar a interseção de duas retas, alguém pode me ajudar?

– Esse é um bom ponto!

– Acho que vou arranjar um nome para um dos lados do cubo!

– Esse é um bom plano!

– Vou comer a Terra!

– Esse não é um bom prato!

dr. Gessain

dr. Guest-alt

Para a criança, os adultos são transcendentes na medida em que são iniciados. O mais curioso é que as crianças não são menos transcendentes para os adultos.”

Serge Leclaire: SL: sujeito-lacan: Symbh0lyk0-l’Imaginaire


Tomo um exemplo totalmente concreto, o dos sonhos” Tá de sacanagem, porra!

Um ser completamente engaiolado na realidade, como o animal, não tem nenhuma idéia disso.” Hohohoho!

embasamento embaçado

embaçamento embasado

Octave Mannoni

Wladimir Granoff

Todos do encontro se tornaram grandes analistas, que coincidência!

porque estavam ali, e não por que estavam ali

dr. Pidoux

Didier Anzieu (não é doutor, mas Dr. Anzieu mesmo assim)

Françoise Dolto: “Mas você é um mestre tão extraordinário que podemos acompanhá-lo mesmo só o compreendendo depois.”

podemos apanhá-lo mesmo só prendendo-o depois

Club do Zinco

Club do Porrete

Hegel é um Kant sublimado que não sente. Nem pouco nem muito. Que mal educado!

Entra no olvido. Sai pelo outro. Que Outro?

8vio: “O problema é saber se a imagem é símbolo ou realidade. Isso é extremamente difícil.”


Tá me tirano, L.? “Peço que mantenham silêncio absoluto durante esta sessão.”

empata fodida, quero dizer…

preten-dia um dia

Angústia era do que Hegel era incapaz.

O que é o objeto a?” Me diz você!

Eu sou Engels e Lacan é o Sr. Dãring: “Fico tentado, no momento de deixá-los, a lembrar-lhes o caráter radical, totalmente reestruturante…”

Isso justifica essa psicologia de cartomante, que pode ser desenvolvida em lugares aparentemente os mais isentos, do alto das cátedras universitárias.” Do alto das associações psicanalíticas é possível ser também cartomante. Jogador de pôquer!

Isto é para fazê-los perceber sentir que os primeiros passos do meu ensino caminharam nas vias da dialética hegeliana. Era uma etapa necessária para investir contra o mundo dito da positividade.” O ruim da ‘dialética hegeliana’ é que uma vez dentro não se consegue sair dela – percebo sinto isso em você!

escansão é quando o poema perde a graça porque seu autor deixou de cantá-lo: ex-canção!

prestigiosa transmutação” de H.

a dialética hegeliana é falsa. É contradita tanto pela atestação das ciências da natureza quanto pelo progresso histórico da ciência fundamental, ou seja, a matemática.” É falsa sim, mas não por isso, seu nó cego!


DUHRINGUISMOS: “eis a falha que não nos permite tratar do desejo na imanência lógica exclusiva da violência como dimensão a forçar os impasses da lógica.”

os Padres da Igreja – permitam-me dizer-lhes que não os achei suficientes.”

Alguns sabem que pratico a leitura de santo Agostinho desde a idade pubertária. (…) Soube nos falar, claro, do Filho, e muito do Espírito Santo, porém temos, não diria a ilusão, mas a sensação de que uma espécie de fuga se produz sob sua pluma, por uma espécie de automaton, quando se trato do Pai.” Bom, pelo menos ele soube fazer música!!

seu protesto radical”

O Sou aquele que sou com que D. afirma-se idêntico ao Ser motiva um puro absurdo quando se trata do D. que fala a Moisés na sarça ardente.”

Na angústia, o objeto pequeno a cai. Essa queda é primitiva.” É o pinto de Adão depois da transa. Mas é apenas um levantamento (suspensão hegeliana), i.e., é temporário!!

Esse ato em que a criança, de certa maneira espantada, vira a cabeça ao se afastar do seio, mostra que apenas aparentemente esse seio pertence à mãe.”

Acredito que o homem sofre porque perdeu o seu seio!!

Com efeito, o seio é parte do complexo nutricional, que se estrutura diferentemente em outras espécies animais. No caso, ele tem uma parte profunda e uma parte chapada no tórax da mãe.”

objeto anal” “fenomenologia do presente” HÁ-HÁ-HÁ! “dom na efusão”

Ensaio sobre a dádiva ou ensaio sobre a borra de café.

A criança, ao soltar as fezes, concede-as ao que aparece pela 1ª vez como dominando a demanda do Outro”


Conrad Stein

Robertson Smith

Andrew Lang

Miticamente – e é o que quer dizer mítica mente –, o pai pode ser um animal.”

Prova disso é que Bertrand Russel se enganou quanto a isso” Conhecemos estranhas cabriolas de Bertrand Russell”

a cerâmica nunca teve oportunidade de tomar a palavra”


se posso me permitir duplicar assim o prefixo”

O misticismo está em todas as tradições, exceto na que vou introduzir”

Eu tinha estudado um pouco de hebraico o ano passado pensando em vocês, as férias que lhes dou evitarão que tenham de fazer esse mesmo esforço.”


Os gregos, que fizeram a tradução da Septuaginta, estavam muito mais bem-informados que nós.¹ Eles não traduziram Ehyeh acher ehyeh por ‘Eu sou aquele que sou’, como santo Agostinho, mas por ‘Eu sou aquele que é’, como’ – designando o ente, Emi to on, ‘Eu sou o Ente’, e não o Ser, einai.

¹ Eles eram bons tradutores, não é, L.?

Antes de nos emocionarmos como é praxe em ocasiões assim, poderíamos lembrar que sacrificar seu filhinho ao Eloim da esquina era corrente, e não apenas na época, pois isso continuou até tão tarde que foi preciso incessantemente que o anjo do Nome ou o profeta que fala em nome do Nome detivessem os israelitas prestes a recomeçar.” Dificilmente esse tarde era mesmo ‘tão tarde’ a ponto de ter qualquer coisa a ver com o Antigo Testamento, já muito posterior a essas práticas. Péssima antropologia, sr. Lacan!

Como Sem tinha tido seus filhos à idade de 30 anos, e viveu 500 anos, e, em toda a linhagem, eles tiveram filhos aos 30 anos, tinha-se tão-somente chegado próximo dos 400 anos de Sem no momento do nascimento de Isaac. Enfim, nem todos gostam da leitura como eu.”

É claro que a menopausa existia naquela época.” Na do ‘Era uma vez…’? Ali não existia, não!

Não me recriminem por ter feito pouco caso da sensibilidade de Abraão, pois ao abrirem um livrinho que data do final do século XI, do chamado Rachi, em outras palavras Rabbi Salomon ben Isaac, de Troyes, que é um asquenaze da França, vocês lerão estranhos comentários. Quando Abraão fica sabendo pelo anjo que ele não está ali para imolar Isaac, Rachi faz-lhe dizer: ‘E então? Quer dizer que eu vim para nada? Vou, mesmo assim, lhe fazer ao menos um leve ferimento, para sair um pouco de sangue. Isso te dará prazer, Eloim?’ Não sou eu quem está inventando, é um judeu devotíssimo, e cujos comentários são bastante estimados na tradição da Mishnah.”

Não lhes direi as passagens que consultei, seja na Mishnah, nomeadamente nos Pirké Avot, que são as sentenças, ou máximas, ou capítulos dos Pais – digo isso para aqueles a quem isso possa interessar, não é grande como o Talmude, podem se remeter a ele, foi traduzido em francês”

O hebraico odeia a prática dos ritos metafísico-sexuais que, na festa, unem a comunidade ao gozo de Deus. Valoriza, ao contrário, a hiância que separa desejo e gozo.”


Num desses debates confusos durante os quais um grupo, o nosso, mostrou-se verdadeiramente em sua função de grupo, [horda caótica e burra, bestial] arrastado, daqui, dali, por turbilhões cegos, um de meus alunos¹ – peço-lhe desculpas por ter depreciado seu esforço, que seguramente teria sido capaz de carregar um eco e reconduzir a discussão a um nível analítico – achou por bem dever dizer que o sentido do meu ensino seria que a verdade, sua verdadeira apreensão, é que não a agarraremos jamais. Inacreditável contra-senso! No melhor dos casos, que impaciência infantil! É preciso que eu tenha pessoas consideradas cultas não sei por que entre aqueles que estão mais imediatamente ao alcance de me seguir! Onde já se viu uma ciência, ainda que matemática, [caminhão de merda] em que cada capítulo não remeta ao capítulo seguinte?”(*)

¹ Dá nome ao cordeiro, vamos! Sê macho! Se tu não dizes, te cagüetam…

(*) “A declaração de um aluno (J.B. Pontalis, então membro do comitê de redação da revista de Jean-Paul Sartre) é estigmatizada no fim da lição”

Não vêem que, à medida que eu avançava, continuava a me aproximar de certo ponto de densidade¹ aonde vocês não poderiam chegar sem os passos precedentes?” Muito bem, oráculo de Delfos! Felizmente, para você e sua turba, a IPA possibilitou que você fugisse com o rabinho entre as pernas antes de recorrer a algum ilusionismo barato e que caísse em descrédito…

¹ No máximo uma flecha de Zenão.

Ouvindo uma réplica dessas, não dá vontade de invocar os atributos da vaidade e da tolice, espécie de espírito em forma de casca, que recolhemos em operação nos comitês de redação?” Ouvindo isso do seu perspicaz aluno, não dá vontade de mandar tomar no cu? – tradução do empolado.

Então, se minha marcha é progressiva, se é até mesmo prudente, não será porque devo lhes alertar contra o declive onde a análise arrisca-se sempre a escorregar, quer dizer, a via da impostura?” Definição de desonestidade intelectual.

Não estou aqui num libelo a meu favor. No entanto, devo dizer que, ao ter confiado a outros há dois anos o manejo, no seio do grupo, de uma política – para preservar o espaço e a pureza do que tenho a lhes dizer –, nunca, em momento algum, dei-lhes pretexto para acreditar que para mim não havia diferença entre o sim e o não.” Patético epílogo!

GENEALOGIA DA EXPRESSÃO LACRE ENTRE OS POSMOD NEOCON: “Nunca mais retomarei esse tema, vendo nisso o sinal de que esse lacre ainda não pode ser retirado para a psicanálise.” É bem costumeiro dos psicanalistas colocar suas ‘coisinhas’ em arquivos sigilosos por décadas, ou até mesmo séculos, não é?

DREAM YOGA: Illuminating your life through lucid dreaming and the Tibetan Yoga of sleep – Andrew Holecek


I have devoted my scientific career to the exploration of this extraordinary state of consciousness. Research done by my colleagues and me at Stanford University has proven the objective reality of lucid dreams, delineated their basic types and psychophysiological characteristics, and led to the development of new techniques and technology for more effectively inducing them. I have also learned how to voluntarily access lucid dreams and have found them wonderfully educational in the deepest sense. That is, as a means of bringing forth what is within.”

This process of integration is a form of dream yoga, and its practice leads to experiences of transcendence, which might be recognized as having similarities with the Tibetan dream yoga that is the subject of this book. That is no accident. I have had significant contacts with the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, starting with a workshop with Tibetan lama Tarthang Tulku at Esalen in 1972.”

Remember the story in which the character Nasrudin is under a streetlight outside his house searching for his lost key? A neighbor helps him look for a while — fruitlessly — then asks, ‘Where, exactly, did you lose your key?’ Nasrudin answers, ‘In my house.’ The neighbor exclaims, ‘Then why in the world are we looking out here!’ Coolly logical, Nasrudin replies, ‘Because there’s more light here.’”


I started a dream diary and within those 2 weeks had filled several notebooks. It was as if my deepest unconscious mind erupted and a volcano of dreams burst forth. Some of those dreams still guide my life today.” “I started reading everything I could about dreams. I read Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, and countless books from psychologists, scientists, mystics, and quacks.(*) They were helpful but also incomplete. I still couldn’t understand what happened. One day I started reading about Buddhism and was immediately struck that ‘buddha’ literally means ‘the awakened one’. What does that mean? Awake as opposed to what? What did the Buddha awaken from, and what did he awaken to?

(*) While Freud and Jung spent a great deal of time with dreams, they spent very little with lucid dreaming. The 1st edition of Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams (1899) has no overt reference to lucid dreaming, but the 2nd edition does. Jung had little interest in the topic, at least as we are defining it. However, Jung did work with dreams in very creative ways. Jung said that he did not dream, but was dreamed.”


Lucid dreaming is the ultimate in home entertainment. Your mind becomes the theater, and you are the producer, director, writer, and main actor.” “Going deeper, lucid dreaming can develop into dream yoga, and become a spiritual practice. This is not to say that lucid dreaming isn’t spiritual. It can be. But as a practice, and in contrast to dream yoga, lucid dreaming doesn’t have as many spiritually oriented methods. ‘Yoga’ is that which yokes, or unites. Dream yoga unites you with deeper aspects of your being; it is more concerned with self-transcendence.

Other traditions work with sleep and dreams for spiritual purposes, including Sufi and Taoist dream practice, aspects of Transcendental Meditation, and Yoga Nidra. I will focus principally on Tibetan Buddhist dream yoga because this is a specialty of this branch of Buddhism.” O prelúdio para o inútil só pode ser, por extensão, inútil.

The exact origin of dream yoga is opaque in Buddhism. Some scholars trace dream yoga back to the Buddha. Namkhai Norbu, a master of the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism, says it originated in the tantras (especially the Mahamaya Tantra), which are shrouded in mystery and authorship. [Não diga! Por que os 100% acordados não conseguiram traçar essa genealogia? Porque ela é um conto de fadas…] There are 4 main schools of Tibetan Buddhism. In order of emergence, they are the Nyingma, Kagyu, Sakya and Gelugpa traditions. Guru Rinpoche, the founder of the Nyingma tradition who brought Buddhism from India to Tibet, taught dream yoga as part of his cycle of teachings. In the Kagyu and Gelugpa traditions, dream yoga is taught mostly in the 6 Yogas of Naropa, which is perhaps the oldest certain source. Naropa gathered the 6 Yogas but was not their author. Lama Thubten Yeshe says, ‘The 6 Yogas of Naropa were not discovered by Naropa. They originated in the teachings of Lord Buddha, and were eventually transmitted to the great 11th-century Indian yogi Tilopa, who in turn transmitted them to his disciple Naropa.’ But the Indian master Lawapa (‘master of the blanket’, also known as Kambala) is the author of dream yoga as presented in the 6 Yogas. He passed the teachings on to Jalandhara, who passed them to Krishnacharya, who taught them to Naropa. Tilopa, who is the founder of the Kagyu tradition, attributes dream yoga specifically to Lawapa.”

Four of the 6 Yogas will be central to our journey in this book: illusory form yoga, dream yoga, sleep yoga, and bardo yoga. The other 2 yogas are chandali (inner heat) yoga and phowa (ejection of consciousness) yoga, which are beyond the scope of this book.”

Taking this practice further, dream yoga can develop into ‘sleep yoga’, an advanced meditation in which awareness spreads not only into dreams but into deep dreamless sleep. Staying awake during dreamless sleep is an age-old practice in Tibetan Buddhism. With sleep yoga, your body goes into sleep mode, but your mind stays awake. You drop consciously into the very core of your being, the most subtle formless awareness — into who you truly are.

If you want to go even further, there’s one final destination of the night. Dream yoga and sleep yoga can develop into ‘bardo yoga’, the famous Tibetan practices that use the darkness of the night to prepare for the darkness of death. ‘Bardo’ is a Tibetan word that means ‘gap, interval, transitional state, or in between’, and in this case it refers to the gap between lives. If you believe in rebirth and want to know what to do after you die, bardo yoga is for you.”

While I’ve never seen anyone get into trouble with dream yoga, as with any discipline it may not be for everyone. People with dissociation or depersonalization tendencies should consult with a mental health professional before undertaking lucid dreaming or dream yoga. Those with psychotic predispositions, or anyone suffering from a loss of a stable sense of reality, could potentially worsen those dissociative states of mind. As with any meditation, it’s always good to check your motivation. If you’re looking to escape from reality, the nighttime meditations are probably not for you.”

While lucid dreaming is more of a Western phenomenon, dream yoga, sleep yoga, and bardo yoga come mostly from Tibetan Buddhism. Our journey will unite both worlds, the best of the East and West. The Indian philosopher Mahadevan said that the main difference between Eastern and Western philosophy is that the West develops its view of reality from a single state of consciousness (the waking state), while the East draws from all states of consciousness, including that of dream and sleep.” “Like any good yoga, this book will stretch and then relax. And as with physical yoga, the best way to expand and grow is to feel the stretch, and let it work on you as you gently lean into it.”

Three Wisdom Tools

The Upanishads (arguably the first written map of the mind) articulate 4 states of consciousness: vaishvarana, the waking state; taijasa, the dream state; prajna, deep dreamless sleep; and turiya (‘the 4th), the super conscious state of illumination. It’s called ‘the 4th because it transcends the other 3. [George Lucas Productions] From a psychological point of view, it’s called turiya; from a philosophical point of view it’s called brahman. So turiya and brahman are Hindu correlates for the clear-light mind. In Buddhism, ‘the 4th is connected to ‘the 4th moment’, which is the timeless dimension that is beyond the other 3 moments of past, present, and future. In other words, the 4th moment refers to the experience of the clear-light mind.”

By reading and thinking about this material, you will be engaging the first 2 wisdom tools. In our voyage this is like filling the gas tank, getting a good map, and stocking up on all the necessities for a big trip. But the journey truly begins when you start to meditate, when you actually turn the ignition on and engage the yogas that take you within. This is when you’ll replace the map with the territory” Jamais o farei.

The 3 wisdom tools are the way we ingest, digest, and metabolize the teachings until they literally become us. If we remain at the level of hearing and contemplating alone, we’ll remain at the level of mere philosophy. The teachings may tickle your intellect or entertain you, but they won’t fundamentally change you.” I’m a mere philosopher!

I have had the good fortune of being around some of the most intelligent people on this planet, from famous scientists to world-renowned philosophers. I find them infinitely fascinating. But the ones who really touch me, who truly move me, who inspire me to change, are the most meditative people on this planet.” Na hora que filósofos e cientistas são úteis, você os utiliza – interessante!

The Tibetan word for ‘meditation’ is gom, which means ‘to become familiar with’. It is through meditation that you will become familiar with previously unfamiliar inner states of mind and body.”


“‘LUCID DREAM’ IS a term hinted at by the scholar Marquis d’Hervey de Saint-Denys (1822–1892), but which was coined by the Dutch psychiatrist Frederik van Eeden (1860–1932).” “Some scholars look at the popular definition of lucid dreaming as a Western term, because it assumes a (monophasic) culture where waking and dreaming are distinctly different states, an assumption that is not held by many indigenous (polyphasic) cultures.”

In the West, lucid dream accounts go back as far as Aristotle, with the first Western lucid dream report written in 415 by Saint Augustine. A lucid dream is when you wake up to the fact that you’re dreaming, but you still remain in the dream — that is, you’re dreaming and you know it.”

The 3 principal states of waking, sleeping, and dreaming are not mutually exclusive. Like everything else in reality, they interpenetrate. When you’re having a daydream, you’re dreaming in the waking state; when you’re awake in a dream, you’re lucid dreaming; when you’re awake in dreamless sleep, you’re lucid sleeping;¹ and of course from a spiritual perspective, when you’re ‘sleeping’ in waking life you’re a normal confused sentient being. Buddhas are simply those who remain awake in all states.”

¹ What the ACTUAL fuck?!

The validity of lucid dreaming was scientifically proven in 1975 by the psychologist Keith Hearne at Hull University, and then independently by Stephen LaBerge in l977 at Stanford.”

You can do whatever you want, and no one can see you. You can fly, have sex with a movie star, or rob Fort Knox.”

Flying and having sex are indeed the two most frequently engaged-in activities for lucid dreamers. See Bahar Gholipour, ‘What People Choose to Dream About: Sex and Flying’,, July 10, 2014, Other common adventures are doing things that are impossible in waking life: breathing underwater, talking with animals, time travel, and being someone else.”

One reason adolescents and young adults get into trouble is because the prefrontal cortex isn’t fully developed until age 25, which leads to bad decisions and poor social control.”

Lucid dreaming gives you a chance to live the myth of Gyges, and to learn from it.” Would there be a quota for evilness?

being barely lucid might involve acknowledging on some level that you’re having a dream, but not acting with full comprehension. You might still flee from perceived danger, or treat dream characters as if they were real. Hyper-lucid dreaming would be full comprehension of the dreamlike nature of your experience in the dream, recognizing that even the sense of self in the dream is being dreamt. Hyper-lucidity could also refer to colors and forms in the dream that seem more vibrant and real than anything in waking experience.”

Young children tend to have lucid dreams more frequently, an occurrence that drops off around age 16. Younger people in general are more likely to have lucid dreams than older folks. Lucidity occurs as early as age 3, but it seems most likely to happen around ages 12 to 14. On average, lucid dreamers have 3 to 4 lucid dreams each month, with the average length of lucidity being about 14 minutes. [Não faz qualquer sentido terem conseguido medir isso!] Some 58% to 70% of people will have at least one lucid dream during their life.”

Lucid dreaming is becoming the latest rage. People are using it to get an edge on their competition. Researchers are working with it to treat PTSD. Sleep scientists in Germany are using it to enhance focus and performance in athletes. Actors, inventors, artists, writers, and musicians are increasingly practicing lucid dreaming to enhance creativity.” Me pergunto se qualquer coisa (mesmo “budismo profundo”, como vou chamar provisoriamente) ainda tem qualquer valor se passa a ser idolatrado pelo Ocidente!

MINHA DUNGEON DE GELO: “Dreaming in general has been connected to creativity for eons, and the literature is replete with examples. The German chemist Friedrich Kekule discovered the molecular structure of benzene in a dream, James Cameron’s dream of a robot-man eventually became the movie The Terminator, Robert Louis Stevenson came up with the plot for his novella The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde in a dream, and Paul McCartney’s song Yesterday came to him in a dream.”

Relaxa o sphincter and just lerigo uidaflô

The current popularity of lucid dreaming is both a blessing and a curse. We’ll explore the blessings throughout this book. The curse is that dreams, as being unreal, are often not taken seriously. Cultures that honor dreams are often dismissed as primitive.”


Fear in a dream doesn’t always disappear at the onset of lucidity. It’s more the realization that no physical harm can come to us in that realm that provides an opportunity to continue exploring the dream despite a fearful reaction to its contents.”

In Buddhism, entire volumes (like the Dasabhumika Sutra) are devoted to the stages of awakening, and each of the 3 Turnings has its own description, as well as varying articulations of the stages. A common classification is the 10 bhumis (‘levels’ or ‘grounds’) of spiritual development.”

“‘Fear’ is etymologically connected to ‘fare’ [tax]. Fear is the fare, or toll, that must be paid in order to grow. If we really want to wake up, we need to follow our fear into and through the darkest aspects of our being, for that is where the brightest light abides.

When Joseph Campbell uttered his famous maxim, ‘Follow your bliss’, he was speaking a partial truth. It is important to follow your bliss, and it can take courage, but if that’s all you do, you’ll just get blissed out. From a spiritual perspective, it can be more valid to say, ‘Follow your fear’. But similarly, if that’s all you do, you’ll just get freaked out. The Buddhist concept of the ‘middle way’, or ‘not too tight, not too loose’, is the ideal guide. Don’t become an extremist and lose your way by getting either snared in bliss or scared away by fear.” A filosofia do pequeno-burguês.

In my spiritual community we talk about ‘klesha attacks’, where the Sanskrit word klesha means ‘emotional upheaval’. It’s basically when someone loses it. It’s easy to identify klesha attacks of passion, aggression, jealousy, or pride, for example, but I’ve never been able to say, ‘I’m having an ignorance attack’. This is an irony, because if I see the world as solid, lasting, and independent (dualistically), I’m under attack. It means I’m under attack right now, I just don’t see it. This blindness is particularly damaging because every other visible klesha, and therefore all our suffering, arises from this one, the stealth bomber of ignorance.”

Dark retreat is a specific practice associated with thögal, one of the most advanced practices of Dzogchen. This retreat is also associated with the bardo teachings, and is sometimes referred to as ‘the bardo retreat’. Traditionally (and only under the strict supervision of a meditation master), a meditator goes into total darkness for 49 days. [???] During this period the shine of the clear-light mind manifests in various ‘visions’, akin to what happens during the second phase of the luminous bardo of dharmata after death. […] If you take these visions to be real, instead of attaining enlightenment, you attain insanity. It’s a potentially dangerous retreat. To a lesser degree, we suffer from varying levels of insanity when we take our daily ‘visions’, the appearances of waking life, to be real. Dark retreat shows the meditator the roots of all this madness. See Chögyam Trungpa’s introduction to his translation of The Tibetan Book of the Dead (Boston: Shambhala, 1975); Tenzin Wangyal’s Wonders of the Natural Mind: The Essence of Dzogchen in the Native Bon Tradition of Tibet (Barrytown, NY: Station Hill Press, 1993); and Christopher Hatchell’s Naked Seeing: The Great Perfection, the Wheel of Time, and Visionary Buddhism in Renaissance Tibet (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014).”


WE TAKE SLEEP for granted, but it’s literally a lifesaver. Without sleep you would die. There’s a rare genetic disorder called ‘fatal familial insomnia’ that usually occurs in middle age, lasts about a year, and always ends in death. There is no cure” “Those suffering from sleep apnea have a significantly higher risk for heart disease, stroke, and a host of other illnesses. It’s a silent killer.” “there are over 70 sleep disorders” “Even if you don’t suffer from sleep apnea, sleep problems contribute to diabetes, obesity, anxiety, depression, immune suppression, substance abuse, strokes, heart disease, accidents, mood disorders and death.”

In a New York Times op-ed column titled ‘To Dream in Different Cultures’ (May 13, 2014), the anthropologist Tanya Luhrmann remarks on how our obsession with 8 hours of continuous sleep is a product of our electrified age, and artificial light. In pre-modern times, she says, people engaged in ‘punctuated sleep’, which is more akin to how our kindred animals sleep. She quotes Roger Ekrich, author of At Day’s Close: Night in Times Past, who writes that people went to bed for the ‘first sleep’ as the sun set, but then woke up throughout the night: ‘There is every reason to believe that segmented sleep, such as many wild animals exhibit, had long been the natural pattern of our slumber before the modern age, with a provenance as old as humankind’, says Ekrich. In many ancient societies, what happened during the night was important, and because people woke up frequently, they remembered more of their dreams. Luhrmann goes on to quote the anthropologist Eduardo Kohn, who writes, ‘Thanks to these continuous disruptions, dreams spill into wakefulness and wakefulness into dreams in a way that entangles them both.’

scientist William Dement says, ‘Sleep is one of the most important predictors of how long you will live — as important as whether you smoke, exercise, or have high blood pressure or cholesterol.’” K. já nos acréscimos.

Dream yoga may or may not help with sleep disorders. It’s not meant to be a medical treatment. But it can help people relate to their disorders in a new way”

To sleep well you must literally do nothing. For many of us that’s not easy. But doing nothing, and doing it well, is one aspect of meditation. So the preparatory meditations for dream yoga that we will introduce can help with things like insomnia.”

unwind: relaxar ou: tirar o vento da cabeça…

One way to work with insomnia, via the inner yogas, is to engage what the Mahamudra tradition evocatively calls ‘subterranean samadhi’. With this practice you visualize 2 black pearls at the soles of your feet, one on each sole. By bringing your mind so far down with the visualization, the winds and bindus that have gathered at the head chakra (resulting in the insomnia) are also pulled down, and your mind is seduced toward the heart chakra where sleep occurs. (Bindus are like drops of consciousness, and chakras are energy centers where bindus gather to create states of consciousness, as we will see in chapter 5.) It’s an application of the ‘extreme path to the middle’ approach, where the middle is your heart center, and the extreme is the bottom of your feet. I’ve tried this with mixed success.” “When I’m stressed and ‘windy’, I invariably get a cold and have to sleep. In Buddhism, wind is considered the most powerful element.”

Biographers state that the Buddha slept very little—one hour a night—and took the occasional nap. I have asked several meditation masters, including Khenpo Tsültrim Gyamtso Rinpoche, Sokse Rinpoche, and Choje Rinpoche, about buddhas and sleep, and they assert that buddhas do not sleep.” ???

Their body may go into sleep mode (they lie down at night), but their minds never black out.” Sei.

Meditar, numa palavra, seria como descansar após a idade adulta. Utopia?

SOCIALIZAÇÃO: “The first split is toward the truth of our experience, refusing to accept our immediate experience as it is. The second split is when we add a disconnect from our immediate embodied experience, which is an ongoing dissociation from the truth that we’re embodied beings. The third split is when we add a continuous stream of self-referential commentary to our experience; we have an experience and we instantly make up a story about how it has to do with us.¹ The fourth level of disconnection is when we link moments of experience to one another, creating an illusion of continuity.² And the fifth level of disconnect is when we work to ‘stabilize a state of chronic struggle by maintaining the claim that there’s something really important that has to be fixed³ about us or about life’.”4

¹ Consolidação normal do ego?

² Maturação – estágio “kantiano” – diagnóstico consciente da lei de causa-efeito e conceituação das percepções de espaço-tempo.

³ Jack Shepherd Syndrome; communism?

4 Há uma hipérbole das “barreiras que o praticante de meditação” precisa transcender ou, senão, essas ‘cisões’ não estão em ordem cronológica… Dissociações do corpo ou da experiência imediata têm mais a ver com o filosofar ocidental ou o uso de narcóticos ou a ocorrência de episódios místicos que com processos de socialização infantis que viessem antes da third, fourth e fifth splits!

spiritual chronic fatigue syndrome” – se ter sonhos ansiosos é o critério para tornar-se um paciente desta síndrome, entrei nessa aos 20…

According to the Dalai Lama, and every resource I could find, there is no explanation within Buddhism for why we dream. [Idiota!] Perhaps it’s purely soteriological, or ‘pertaining to deliverance’. Perhaps we dream, and wake up from our dreams, to show us how we can deliver ourselves from samsara.” Isso já é mais do que a neurofisiologia contemporânea permite concluir.

There are 2 main kinds of sleep: non-REM, or quiet sleep, and REM, or paradoxical sleep. REM sleep is called ‘paradoxical sleep’ because while the brain becomes more active during this stage, muscles become more relaxed. Non-REM sleep is associated with restoration, deep relaxation, and an idling brain. People who suffer from sleep apnea don’t spend enough time in non-REM sleep, and therefore don’t get the needed restoration. (REM sleep is the sleep stage used in lucid dreaming and dream yoga. Non-REM sleep is used in the stage associated with sleep yoga.)

REM sleep, which accounts for about 25% of sleep in most people, is associated with rapid eye movement (REM), muscle twitches, sleep paralysis, an active brain, and dreaming. Sleep paralysis (atonia), which is when voluntary muscles become temporarily paralyzed, usually goes unrecognized, but sometimes we can be aware of it. The awareness of sleep paralysis results from an ‘out of sequence’ REM state. We’re not supposed to be conscious of our body in REM sleep.” “In recognized sleep paralysis, REM encroaches into wakefulness; in lucid dreaming, wakefulness encroaches into REM.” Hm, me parece perigoso!

With certain disorders, such as REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), sleep paralysis doesn’t work, and folks do things like beat up their sleeping partners, completely unaware of doing so. People have been arrested and prosecuted for this bizarre form of domestic violence. When my dog is dreaming, I often see him twitching and semi-barking, and I wonder what he might be chasing in his dream.” “Sleepwalking and sleep talking are different, and occur in non-REM sleep when there is no paralysis.”

Until recent improvements in technology refined our understanding, scientists measured 4 principal brain-wave states — beta, alpha, theta, and delta — as determined by an EEG, or electroencephalogram. Waking consciousness is associated with beta and alpha, and sleep with theta and delta. With refined instruments come refined measurements. Two new states have been added to these classic 4. At the very low end, epsilon 0–05 hertz has been associated with intense meditative states. At the very high end, gamma 30–100+ hertz is associated with the coordination of signals across longer distances in the brain, and is connected to complex actions or associations that require the simultaneous use of multiple brain areas. Research is moving away from these fixed stages as more sophisticated measurements of the sleeping brain are developed. With neuroimaging techniques (fMRI, PET scans), high-density EEG, and spectral analysis (which measures the amplitude and phase of electrical activity over wider frequencies and time scales), new models are emerging.” O EEG clássico não serve pra porra nenhuma – nem pra determinar insônia no paciente!

As brain waves settle from beta into alpha, we enter a pre-sleep stage called the ‘hypnagogic’ phase, which is a kind of gap (bardo) between waking and sleeping (from the roots hypnos, ‘god of sleep’, and agogia, ‘leading to’ — a lovely image). During this stage it’s common to have feelings of falling, or hearing someone call your name, experiences called ‘hypnagogic hallucinations’.” “This sensation of falling is interesting from the point of view of the inner yogas, as we will see, because falling asleep is when the bindus (drops of consciousness) fall from the head chakra into the heart chakra. It’s also suggestive that ‘contraction’ is associated with this stage, which could be a defensive response against falling into space. For a thorough look at the hypnagogic state, see Thompson, Waking, Dreaming, Being, 107–138.”

The psychologist Matthew Walker at the University of California at Berkeley, who led one study, says, ‘It’s as though the email inbox in your hippocampus is full and, until you sleep and clear out those fact emails, you’re not going to receive any more mail. It’s just going to bounce until you sleep and move it into another folder. Sleep is sophisticated, it acts locally to give us what we need.’ See Yasmin Anwar, ‘An Afternoon Nap Markedly Boosts the Brain’s Learning Capacity’, Berkeley News, 02/22/10,” K. deve estar presa em 2015 ou até antes!

Stage 4 is our deepest sleep and lasts about 30min in the 1st sleep cycle. (We cycle through these 5 stages 4-5 times each night, as described below.) It’s characterized by profound muscle relaxation and rhythmic breathing. This is where we’re fully offline.” “We spend about 12-15% of total sleep at stage 4, but that percentage decreases dramatically as we age (from up to 20% as a young adult to 3% by midlife), and by age 65 this ‘slow wave’ sleep can disappear altogether.” Isso se chama ‘preparação para o sono da morte’, amiguinho!

The sleep scientist Penny Lewis at the University of Manchester talks about sleep engineering, which is designed to optimize sleep, and sustain slow wave sleep as we age. The aspiration of sleep engineering is to therefore sustain cognitive function, reduce the effects of aging, enhance creativity, and facilitate problem-solving abilities.”

After resting in deep dreamless sleep for about 30min, we briefly come back up to stage 2, but instead of coming all the way back up to stage 1, we enter a new stage, REM sleep, or stage 5. In other words, stage 1 is replaced with REM sleep. After REM, we go back down through the stages again. REM sleep is when we dream the most.”

You actually consume more oxygen during REM sleep than you do when awake, unless you’re doing something aerobic. People often worry that lucid dreaming and dream yoga could make them less rested. Since most of our restorative sleep occurs in delta wave sleep, and dreams mostly occur during REM sleep when the brain isn’t resting anyway, this worry is unfounded.”

We go through these 5 stages 4-5 times each night, in about 90min cycles. After each REM period, we have brief moments of awakening, up to 15 times a night, when we toss and turn. This creates an opportunity to bring awareness to our dreams before cycling back into stage 2 sleep”

Just before awakening we can be in REM sleep for 45-60min, which is why we mostly remember our morning dreams. This is prime-time dreamtime.”

Don’t waste your time trying to have lucid dreams in the early part of the night. Get your restorative sleep. Wait until REM sleep is at its peak. When I do dream yoga retreats and have the luxury of taking naps during the day, I often practice lucid dream induction techniques throughout the night. This means I set my alarm to go off every 90min, which is when I’m most likely to be in REM sleep. I don’t recommend this as a regular practice, unless you can take naps during the day.”

This is all we need to know about the science of sleep to launch us into the nighttime practices.” nightmare of practices


Dream yoga itself hasn’t changed much in hundreds of years. It was designed by beings so awake that perhaps they didn’t realize that mere mortals like ourselves might need some baby steps. The classic practice texts are pithy, and therefore steep. The great contribution of modern lucid dreaming is to provide a gradual on-ramp. Lucid dreaming has much to offer for practitioners of dream yoga, and dream yoga has a great deal to contribute to lucid dreaming. Together they make fantastic sleeping partners. In these 2 chapters I will introduce a variety of induction techniques. There is no need to master them all. Triggering lucidity is the point, not the technique that gets you there.”

The point in presenting all these techniques is that you will eventually find one that works for you. When you do, stick with that. No need to do any other unless you wish to explore more possibilities. The only danger in presenting so many methods is that you might try one for a night or 2, give up, and then skip to the next. I recommend staying with a technique for at least several weeks.”

If you find it’s too disruptive to practice lucid dreaming during the week, then just do it on weekends. While it’s helpful at first to do a technique the way it’s presented, don’t be afraid to play around with it. Maybe a blending of techniques works for you, or your own method. Experiment, and have fun. If you don’t enjoy lucid dreaming, you won’t do it. While motivation and ambition are important, don’t be hard on yourself.”

A central teaching in any meditation is ‘not too tight, not too loose’. If you’re too tight, or try too hard, you’ll tie yourself into knots and won’t fall asleep. If you don’t try enough, you’re too loose, and you’re not practicing dream yoga. The ‘middle way’ approach is always best. It’s like tuning a guitar. Tune it too tight and the strings snap; tune it too loose and it makes a saggy sound. With balance, perseverance, and humor, you will learn how to tune your mind to make beautiful night music.”

Have you ever had to get up early and not had an alarm clock? By setting a strong intention to get up at a certain time, we often wake up at that time despite not having an alarm. In the same way, we can set an internal alarm to wake us up within a dream by setting a strong intention.”

In the East, intention is referred to as ‘the power of resolution’, and refers to the power of karma. Karma is basically the law of cause and effect. In Tibetan, ‘karma’ is translated by the word leh, which means ‘action’, and action is all about cause and effect. Fully constituted karma has 4 aspects: intention, action, successful completion and rejoicing. These refer to the intention behind an action, the action itself, successful completion of the action, and a sense of satisfaction in having completed the act. (…) The point with dream yoga is that through the power of resolution, we’re planting karmic seeds that can ripen in the dream and spark lucidity.”

Luz não é nada sem trevas.

If you’re reading this book, you’ve already started to set your intent. Studying the view, or philosophy, behind lucid dreaming and dream yoga strengthens it. To actually practice intention, say to yourself throughout the day, ‘Tonight I will remember my dreams. I will have many dreams. I will have good dreams. I will wake up within my dreams.’

In lucid dreaming workshops, people often say, ‘My goal is to become lucid in my dreams!’ When they do, they often immediately wake up and feel disappointed because the lucid dream didn’t last.” “They got what they asked for, so the key is to ask for more. It’s therefore important to set a goal beyond becoming lucid, so that lucidity eventually becomes the natural state, the platform, that’s required to accomplish even higher goals.” “A second essential ingredient for lucid dreaming is good dream recall. Even though we have at least 6 dreams each night, many people don’t remember any of them. LaBerge says that until you can remember at least 2 dreams each night, it’s better not to try the lucidity techniques.” “Because Western society tends to dismiss dreams, we also dismiss the importance of good dream recall. Other cultures that support dream recall also support what occurs in the night. The Stanford anthropologist Tanya Luhrmann (‘To Dream in Different Cultures’, op. cit.) spent time in evangelical churches in Accra, Ghana, and Chennai, India, and writes, ‘One of the more startling differences is that Christians in Accra and Chennai say that God talks to them when they sleep, and in their dreams. He wakes them up by calling their names. American subjects, asked about odd events in the night, were more likely to say things like this: I see things, but it’s just sleep deprivation. It seems likely that the way our culture invites us to pay attention to that delicate space in which one trembles on the edge of sleep changes what we remember of it’.”

Pelo visto, essa prática não é mesmo pra mim!


Many of the methods in this chapter come from Vajrayana Buddhism, which is largely a Tibetan tradition. Vajrayana (‘diamond vehicle’) is the last of the 3 main schools of Buddhism, the other 2 being the Mahayana (‘great vehicle’) and Hinayana (‘narrow vehicle’). The Vajrayana methods are meditative techniques that can be learned, practiced, and developed. If you don’t have success with them initially, as your practice matures so will your success”

Countless books are available on the inner body. From a Kagyu perspective, Rangjung Dorje, The Profound Inner Principles, translated by Elizabeth Callahan (Boston: Shambhala, 2013), remains the classic. [Um clássico de menos de 10 anos? No way!] For East-West perspectives, see Anodea Judith, Eastern Body Western Mind: Psychology and the Chakra System as a Path to the Self (New York: Celestial Arts, 2004) and Maureen Lockhart, The Subtle Energy Body: The Complete Guide (Rochester, NY: Inner Traditions, 2010).”

LIBERAR OS NÓDULOS DO CHAKRA E DO NEN: “The intermediate level of the inner subtle body is targeted in Chinese medicine, Indian Ayurveda, and other Eastern medical systems (via techniques such as acupuncture, acupressure, and moxibustion) for physical health.”

And just as there are outer yogas that work with the outer gross body, there are inner yogas that work with the inner subtle body. The dream induction techniques from Tibetan Buddhism engage these inner yogas.”

QUADRIPARTITE: “The subtle body has a sophisticated anatomy and physiology; our discussion here will address the 4 main constituents — referred to as the channels, winds, drops, and wheels. These are called nadi, prana, bindu and chakra in Sanskrit, and tsa, lung, tigle and khorwa in Tibetan. Each of these 4 inner aspects has outer-body correlates that can help us understand them.”

Although the subtle body isn’t a material body like the outer gross body, that doesn’t make it less real. In a sense it’s more real, because it’s the foundation for the outer body. In the Tibetan Buddhist view, the outer is an expression of the inner. The best way to explore the subtle body, and discover the 4 main constituents for yourself is through the inner yogas. That’s when you can prove to yourself that the channels, winds, drops and wheels are real, because you feel them, and feeling is even more convincing than seeing.”

1. Channels. The channels are the easiest elements of the subtle body to understand. Depending on which system you use, there are around 72,000 channels in our subtle body. These are like arteries, veins or even nerves. For our purposes we only need to know about 3: the central channel (avadhuti in Sanskrit, uma in Tibetan), the right channel (pingala/rasana), and the left channel (ida/lalana). The central channel runs from the top of the head to the base of the spine. The left and right channels begin at the nostrils, curve up to meet the central channel near the top of the head, then run parallel to it to a distance about 4-finger widths below the navel, where they merge with the central channel.”

The current rage in neuroscience is neuroplasticity, which is the discovery that the circuits in our brains are not hardwired. By changing our mind, we can literally change our brain. In a similar fashion, by changing our mind we can change our nadis, what we could call nadiplasticity. Meditation changes the configuration and texture of our nadis. The inner yogas simply target this process more directly.” “the configuration of our nadis dictates our talent for lucidity. Some people are just hardwired for lucidity.”

2. Winds. Within the channels flow the subtle winds, or prana, also known as chi, life force energy, psycho-physical energy, subtle bioenergy, even Holy Spirit in esoteric Christianity. The outer body correlate is most obviously respiration, but other parallels would include the flow of blood or the conduction of nerve impulses. The wind that flows through the right channel is called the ‘sun poison prana’, which is a masculine, extroverted, ‘in the world’, and very active energy. The wind that flows through the left channel is called the ‘moon nectar prana’, which is more feminine, introverted, and receptive. The wind that flows through the central channel is called ‘wisdom wind’, and it only ‘breathes’ when the 2 outer channels, which carry confused or dualistic wind, stop breathing. This occurs in very deep meditation or death.” Cabeça aberta é uma coisa, mas isso…

3. Drops. The 3rd aspect of the subtle body are the drops (bindus), sometimes called ‘mind pearls’. These can be the hardest to understand. Outer body correlates would include sperm and ovum, neurotransmitters, hormones, or anything that represents the concentration of life force energy. In spiritual practice, the drops are often visualized as shimmering beads of light, the size of a sesame seed. [Isso são resquícios de luz na retina e há um nome específico para esse fenômeno…] (…) Think of them as drops of consciousness.”

4. Wheels. The final aspect of the subtle body is also the most famous — the wheels, or chakras. Chakras are energy distribution centers. Depending on the system, there are usually 5 or 7 chakras situated along the central channel: base of the spine, genitals, solar plexus, heart, throat, forehead, and top of the head. Outer body correlates are the endocrine centers, which are, respectively, the adrenal glands, the testes or ovaries, and the pancreas, thymus, thyroid, pituitary, and pineal glands.”

If you don’t do inner yoga, you can still get a feel for the subtle body when you’re touched by sound or music.” “The next time you’re really touched by music, it’s your subtle body that’s being touched.” Eu tenho um corpo sutil muito desenvolvido!

Mantra, which is obviously connected to sound, also works on the subtle body. Mantras work in a number of ways, but in terms of the subtle body they serve to ‘straighten out’ the channels through which prana flows.”

First calm your mind with 10 minutes or so of meditation (next chapter). Second, you can do a brief prana purification exercise, which removes the stale winds and energizes the subtle body.” “take 3 slow and deep cleansing breaths. As you inhale, imagine pure life force energy flooding your subtle body. As you exhale, imagine that all the stagnant winds are blown out. You can do a final vigorous push at the end of your exhalation, as a respiratory exclamation point, with the sense that every last wisp of stale air is being expelled.”



Mindfulness is the art of keeping your mind on the present moment. It’s set in contrast to mindlessness, which is when your mind drifts away from what’s happening. Mindlessness is virtually synonymous with distraction, and mindfulness is a synonym for non-distraction.”

We start with effortful mindfulness, which is a relatively coarse level of mindfulness that dissolves as we fall asleep. But with practice, this level refines into effortless and then spontaneous mindfulness, which do not dissolve at sleep. This means that these more advanced levels are qualities of mind that you can hold on to when you go to sleep, and that keep you aware of what’s happening with your mind (phenomenologically).”

If we just go along with the usual stream of mindlessness, which most people unwittingly do, we don’t feel its enormous pull. We’re going with the flow. But the minute we sit down and begin to practice mindfulness meditation, the torrent of mindlessness is finally felt.” “It may seem like we’re training the mind, redirecting the flow of our attention from mindlessness into mindfulness. This is provisionally true. But on a deeper level, mindfulness is the natural state of the mind. If we just left the mind alone, it would always be mindful.” “This means that the only thing we have to do to realize effortless and spontaneous mindfulness is simply relax.” !!!

Scientists talk about ‘inattentional blindness’, which is when you fail to notice something that is fully visible because your attention has been directed elsewhere. Inattentional blindness is a more intense form of distraction, or mindlessness, that can literally kill. How many times have you been distracted by something, and then bumped, or even crashed, into an object? Studies of inattentional blindness reveal that visual perception is more than just photons hitting your eyes and activating your brain.”

Distraction, as the expression of ignorance, is the sustenance of samsara. When we get lost in the sleep of ignorance — lost in thought, distraction, or dreams — our samsaric lives are fed. We’ve hit the refresh button on confusion.” Estou caindo de sono lendo isso. E não é tarde da noite nem nada do tipo.

Unrecognized (discursive) thought is just the way we go to sleep moment-to-moment. Estimates put the number of these thoughts at around 70,000 per day. A 16-hour day has 57,600 seconds. Look at your mind to see if you have one or more distracting thoughts each second. LONI website, ‘Brain Trivia’,” error 404

The basis of samsara is this: we just forgot.” “Sentient beings have forgotten that they’re buddhas; buddhas never forget. It’s a Zen-like conclusion — all this effort to learn, when all we really have to do is remember.” “This simple practice therefore has monumental repercussions. The spirit of re-membering starts with mindfulness, but ends with Buddhahood.”

With all our electronic gadgets, these clever weapons of mass distraction [destruction] (smartphones, tablets, and so forth), we only need to look at the world to see the truth of this maxim. Many traditions speak of our time as the ‘Dark Age’ (kali yuga in Hinduism), or in our terms, ‘The Age of Sleep’. This is the darkness of ignorance in its moment-to-moment expression as distraction. People often associate the darkness of this age with climate change, environmental destruction, religious and political chaos, and the like. But these are just overt manifestations of the covert origin of this darkness. Distraction is the real stealth bomber of our age. Technology is not the issue. Inappropriate relationship to technology is the issue.”

The return to Christ, or the Buddha within, begins when we return to the present moment. We start to heal the primordial dismemberment, the fracturing away of the psyche from the clear-light mind that results in duality, every time we come back to nowness.”

Every time you come back to your breath in mindfulness practice, or to the present moment in daily life, you are practicing enlightenment, and healing the primordial dismemberment that continues to reverberate in the mini-dismemberments that we call mindlessness.”

Detailed instructions and resources can be found in my book Meditation in the iGeneration: How to Meditate in a World of Speed and Stress (Lafayette, CO: Maitri, 2014). Pema Chödrön’s How to Meditate: A Practical Guide to Making Friends with Your Mind (Boulder, CO: Sounds True, 2013) is another valuable resource.” Tudo engodo. Se quiser leia, mas faça o favor de piratear!

There are 3 phases to the instruction: body, breath and mind. These 3 phases interpenetrate and therefore support each other. Together they create a stable tripod that reinforces lucidity.”

It is taught that simply by taking the proper posture, sooner or later you will find yourself meditating. An attentive posture invokes an attentive quality of mind. The posture itself is supported by an attitude (or mental posture) of dignity, nobility, even regality”

Sit in the middle of a meditation cushion, or a chair. If you’re sitting on a chair, don’t lean against the back. Cross your legs if you’re on a cushion, or plant your feet squarely on the ground if you’re on a chair. Feel your connection to the stability of the earth. Rest your hands on top of your thighs and keep your back firm, but not stiff. A stable back represents the quality of fearlessness, but it’s balanced with an open and receptive front, which represents gentleness. Fearless and gentleness are two key ingredients in good meditation, and your posture literally embodies that. Pull your shoulders back and expose your heart, which is perhaps the central instruction with posture. All the other physical aspects of posture hinge around opening your heart.

Align your head above your spine, which usually means tucking it back in. We’re often ‘heading’ out in the wrong direction, and this inclination is represented in bad posture. Rest your tongue on the back of your upper teeth, and part your lips as if you are whispering ‘ah’. Later we’ll discuss how to extend this practice into a lying down posture, which is when you close your eyes, but for now it’s best to practice lucidity with your eyes open. Keep your gaze down at a point about six feet in front of you, but don’t focus on anything. Let your visual field be open and receptive, like your mind and heart.”

Physical movement is like camouflage. It decreases the contrast that would otherwise allow you to detect the movement of your mind.” Sacrilégio contra o corpo!



frequent lucid dreamers were less tense, anxious, and neurotic, and more likely to have more ego strength, emotional and physical balance, creativity and risk taking ability.” Tholey, ‘A Model for Lucidity Training as a Means of Self-Healing and Psychological Growth’, in: Gackenbach and LaBerge, Conscious Mind, Sleeping Brain, 276–277.

Further advantages: “banish nightmares”, “test alternate behaviors in a safe environment”, “accelerate activity of the immune system”, “synthesize the personality” (Patricia Garfield).

See Mayer, Extraordinary Knowing: Science, Skepticism, and the Inexplicable Powers of the Human Mind, for an elegant discussion on relative siddhi (sadharanasiddhi in Sanskrit). [poderes psíquicos!!!] Ramana Maharshi, and many other masters, warned people repeatedly against attachment to relative siddhi. Vajrayana Buddhism lists 8 ordinary siddhis: (1) the sword that renders unconquerable, (2) the elixir for the eyes that make gods visible, (3) fleetness in running, (4) invisibility, (5) the life-essence that preserves youth, (6) the ability to fly, (7) the ability to make certain pills, (8) power over the world of spirits and demons. (Ingrid Fischer-Schreiber et al., eds., The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy and Religion (Boston: Shambhala, 1989). Many other powers are listed informally in the literature, things like clairvoyance, clairaudience, and the ability to read minds.”

It is possible to trust such accounts if you understand that the nature of samsara is indivisible appearance and emptiness like a dream or a magical illusion. Without such understanding, it will be hard to believe them.”

SENECÃO: “If we’re not careful, psychic mastery over the physical world can become a sorcerer’s trap. Many people get stuck at the level of relative siddhi, thinking that’s the point. The real point, however, is absolute siddhi — which is when the world no longer has power over you.”

Humor comes from a root that means ‘liquid’, as in the humors (fluids) of the body.”

DL: “The dream has no dreamer.” “Thoughts have no thinker.”


LECCIONES SOBRE LA HISTORIA DE LA FILOSOFÍA Vol. III/III – Hegel (trad. Wenceslao Roces ed. Elsa Cecilia Frost), Fondo de Cultura Económica (1833, 1955, México) /ePub r1.0 Titivillus 22.09.16

En este último tomo de las Lecciones sobre la historia de la filosofía se concentra el final de la filosofía griega, que unida a la revolución operada en el mundo por el cristianismo abre una época totalmente nueva, la filosofía medieval —cuyo espíritu, hay que reconocerlo, no fue comprendido por Hegel— [HAHAHA] y, por último, la filosofía moderna, que cierran las magníficas exposiciones¹ de Kant, Fichte y Schelling.

[¹ Assim espero – não me desaponte!…]

De acuerdo con la idea hegeliana que rige estas Lecciones, todos los milenios transcurridos desde el inicio de la filosofía con Tales de Mileto hasta el momento mismo en que Hegel dicta su curso, han sido necesarios para que pudiera llegar a producirse la filosofía alemana de esta época, pues el Espíritu del Mundo marcha siempre con paso lento y perezoso hacia su meta.”





La última fase con que nos habíamos encontrado —la que representaba el abandono de todo lo firme y objetivo, la huida a la abstracción pura e infinita de suyo, la absoluta pobreza de contenido determinado, con la consiguiente satisfacción subjetiva y el retorno a sí misma de la conciencia de sí— había encontrado su coronación y remate en el escepticismo, aunque ya el sistema estoico y el epicúreo marchasen hacia la misma meta.”

Esta idea inculcada en el hombre de que la esencia absoluta no es nada extraño para la conciencia de sí, de que para él no significa nada la esencia en que no vive su conciencia de sí inmediata, este principio se revela ahora como el principio general del Espíritu del Mundo, como la creencia y el saber generales de todos los hombres; con él se transforma de golpe todo el aspecto del universo, se destruye todo lo anterior y se produce un renacimiento del mundo.”

Cicerón pone de manifiesto como pocos filósofos un desconocimiento completo acerca de la naturaleza de su Estado y de la situación en que se encontraba”

El poder romano es el escepticismo verdadero. Pues bien, este carácter de la generalidad abstracta como despotismo absoluto, que va directamente unido en la desaparición de la vida del pueblo a la individualización de la atomística, como el retraimiento a los fines e intereses de la vida privada, es el que vemos llevarse a cabo con una correspondencia perfecta en el campo del pensamiento.”

En el mundo griego, sobre todo, vemos cómo se esfuma la alegría de la vida espiritual para dejar paso al dolor y la angustia producidos por esta ruptura.”

Esta fe en el milagro, que es al mismo tiempo la falta de fe en la naturaleza presente, lleva aparejada asimismo la incredulidad en cuanto al pasado o en cuanto al hecho de que la historia sólo haya sido lo que realmente fue. Toda la historia y la mitología verdaderas de los romanos, los griegos y los judíos, y hasta las palabras y las letras sueltas, cobran ahora otra significación: son algo roto de suyo, encierran un sentido interior que es su esencia y se manifiesta en forma de letras y signos vacíos de contenido, que son su fenómeno.” Não está exagerando?

Dios, el ser simple de los judíos, vivía para ellos fuera de la conciencia de sí; semejante Dios piensa, indudablemente, pero no es el pensamiento; se halla más allá de la realidad, es solamente la alteridad del mundo intuido a través de los sentidos.”

La idea en el pensamiento puro —la idea de que Dios no hace esto exteriormente como un sujeto, de que todo esto, por tanto, no acaece como una resolución casual de Dios y como producto de una ocurrencia suya, sino de que Dios produce este movimiento como una sucesión de momentos de su esencia que se manifiestan así como su eterna necesidad en sí mismo, que no forma parte para nada de las condiciones del acaecer— la encontramos expresada en algunos judíos filosofantes o platónicos determinados.”

Ya en la filosofía pitagórica se manifestaba la diferencia en forma de tríada; en Platón veíamos, después, la idea simple del espíritu como la unidad de la sustancia indivisible y de la alteridad, aunque solamente como una mezcla de ambas.”

FOSSILIZAÇÃO DO MUNDO-VERDADE CUJO AUGE SE DEU EM PLATÃO: “El punto de vista general de la filosofía neoplatónica o alejandrina consiste, por tanto, en crearse a base de la pérdida del universo un universo que sea, dentro de su exterioridad, un mundo interior y, por tanto, un mundo reconciliado; y este mundo es el de la espiritualidad, que comienza aquí.”

La misma libertad, bienaventuranza, imperturbabilidad que perseguían como fin el epicureísmo, el estoicismo y el escepticismo, sigue siendo ahora, es verdad, una aspiración para el sujeto; pero facilitadas esencialmente por la orientación hacia Dios, del interés por lo verdadero en y para sí, y no de la evasión de lo objetivo” Eis o maior erro: pressupor que as massas podem cumprir esse designio sábio imanente!

Ahora bien, en cuanto que la voluntad humana se determina como algo negativo frente a lo objetivo, surge el mal por oposición a lo afirmativo absoluto.”

La desventura del mundo romano estaba en abstraerse de aquello en que el hombre venía encontrando su satisfacción; esta satisfacción nacía precisamente de aquel panteísmo por virtud del cual el hombre veía la verdad y lo supremo en las cosas naturales, en el aire, el fuego, el agua, etc., y en sus propios deberes, en la vida política del Estado. Ahora, en cambio, sobreviene la desesperación en el dolor del mundo acerca de su presente, aparece la falta de fe en estas formas y manifestaciones del mundo natural finito y en el mundo moral de la vida del Estado”

Es falso lo que suele decirse de que no es necesario conocer a Dios para concebir esta relación. Por cuanto que Dios es lo primero, es Él quien determina la relación; por tanto, para llegar a saber qué es lo verdadero de la relación es necesario conocer a Dios.” Supondo que isso estivesse correto, também estaria correto que matar Deus é igualmente necessário ao final do processo…

diremos algunas palabras acerca de Filón, el judío, y señalaremos algunos momentos interesantes que se presentan en la historia de la Iglesia.”

Bajo el reinado de Calígula, Apión atacó duramente por escrito a los judíos, y Filón fue enviado a Roma como embajador de su pueblo, con la misión de inculcar a los romanos un concepto mejor del que de él tenían.”

Filón compuso una larga serie de obras, de las cuales se conservan todavía muchas, por ejemplo las que llevan por título Sobre la estructura del universo, Sobre las recompensas y los castigos, Sobre los sacrificios, Sobre la ley de las alegorías, Sobre los sueños, Sobre la inmutabilidad de Dios; las obras que de Filón se han conservado aparecieron en folio en 1691, en Francfort, y reeditadas más tarde por Pfeiffer en Erlangen. Filón era famoso por su multifacético saber y se hallaba muy familiarizado con los filósofos griegos.

Los dos rasgos que caracterizan a este pensador son: la asimilación de la filosofía platónica y su esfuerzo por poner de manifiesto la filosofía de las Sagradas Escrituras judaicas. Los relatos y descripciones de su historia del pueblo judío se distinguen porque en ellas el autor pierde todo el sentido inmediato de la realidad. A todo atribuye un significado mítico y alegórico, empeñándose por descubrir a Platón en Moisés.”

El espíritu de la filosofía obliga a los judíos a buscar en sus libros sagrados, como obligó a los paganos a buscar en Homero y en la religión popular, un profundo significado especulativo, y a presentar sus escritos religiosos como un sistema perfecto de sabiduría divina.”

En la historia, en el arte, en la filosofía, etc., lo importante es siempre que aparezca expresado lo que se quiere expresar”

Lo prosaico ha desaparecido; por eso, en los autores del siguiente período los milagros son algo usual y corriente”

Filón, De mundi opificio

como cuando decimos: «Dios Padre», es decir, este Uno no revelado, indeterminado de suyo, que aún no ha creado nada; lo otro es la determinación y la distinción con respecto a sí mismo, la creación. Lo creado es su otro, lo que a un tiempo es en él, lo que también le pertenece como suyo y es, por tanto, un momento de sí mismo, siempre y cuando concibamos a Dios como concreto y vivo”

La palabra ha sido considerada siempre como una manifestación de Dios, porque no es corporal; en cuanto sonido, desaparece inmediatamente; su existencia es pues inmaterial.” A música e a palavra como símiles eternos de Hegel para a transitoriedade e o efêmero, como a chave para entender, ao menos, sua Estética.

en realidad, cuando establecemos el ser, la nada del ser es el pensamiento, algo muy positivo.”Por mais boba e trivial que soe, esta frase é fundamental para compreender H..

Llámase cábala a la sabiduría secreta de los judíos, en la que se deslizan, sin embargo, muchos elementos turbios; y también sus orígenes aparecen envueltos entre nubes de fábula. Dícese que esta sabiduría se contenía en dos libros: el Jezirah (Creación) y el Zohar (Resplandor). El primero de estos dos libros, considerado como el principal y atribuido a un rabí llamado Akiba, espera en la actualidad una edición más completa que prepara el Sr. v. Mayer, en Francfort.(*)

(*) Apareció en 1894, traducido y anotado por Goldschmidt [E.].” E no entanto é basicamente só o segundo (e falo de pequenos trechos) que se encontra por aí hoje.

La cábala no tiene evidentemente un origen tan antiguo como el que sus adoradores le atribuyen, pues según ellos este libro divino le fue entregado a Adán para consolarlo del pecado original. Es una mescolanza de preceptos de astronomía, de magia, de medicina y de profecía. El rastro histórico revela que estas ciencias y estas prácticas eran cultivadas en Egipto. Akiba vivió poco después de la destrucción de Jerusalén y tomó parte en la revuelta de los judíos contra el emperador Adriano, en la que aquéllos lograron levantar un ejército de 200 mil hombres para proclamar como Mesías a Barcoquebas; pero la rebelión fue sofocada y el rabino desollado vivo. El segundo libro fue compuesto, al parecer, por un discípulo suyo, el rabí Simeón Ben Joachi, llamado la Gran Luz, la chispa de Moisés. (Brucker) Ambos libros fueron traducidos al latín en el siglo XVII. Un israelita especulativo, el rabí Abraham Cohen Irira, escribió también un libro titulado La puerta del cielo (Porta coelorum), pero éste es posterior, del siglo XV, y denota ya relaciones con los árabes y los escolásticos.”

Antiguamente, no se encontraba en los judíos nada que guarde relación con esas ideas en que se representa a Dios como una luz, en perpetua lucha con un ser hecho de sombra y que encarna el mal, nada de ángeles buenos y malos, de la caída de los ángeles malos, de su condenación, de su estancia en los infiernos, del juicio final en que habrán de ser juzgados los buenos y los malos y de la corrupción de la carne. En estos libros, los judíos empiezan a remontar sus pensamientos por encima de la realidad. Empieza a abrirse ante ellos un mundo espiritual o, por lo menos, un mundo de espíritus, ya que hasta ahora estos judíos no veían más allá de los horizontes de su propia vida, hundidos en la basura y las pretensiones de su existencia y entregados por entero a la conservación de su pueblo y de sus generaciones.

La cábala viene a ser, sobre poco más o menos, lo siguiente. Lo Uno aparece proclamado como el principio de todas las cosas, es también la fuente primigenia de todos los números. Pero, así como la unidad no es un número de tantos, otro tanto acontece con Dios, fundamento de todas las cosas, el Ensoph. La emanación relacionada con ello es el efecto de la primera causa, logrado mediante la restricción de aquel primer fundamento infinito al que aquélla sirve de límite.” “Primeramente se producen 10 emanaciones de éstas, Sephiroth, que forman el mundo puro, azilútico, a cuyo ser es ajeno todo cambio. Viene después el mundo briáhtico, sujeto a mudanzas. El tercer mundo es el mundo formado o jezirático (…) Viene, en cuarto lugar, el mundo hecho o asiáhtico, que es el mundo más bajo de todos, el mundo sensible y vegetativo.” Somos todos Asiáhticos!

Los gnósticos, que aparecen divididos en muchas sectas, tienen como fundamento determinaciones semejantes a las que ya hemos expuesto. El profesor Neander las ha reunido con gran acopio de erudición y las ha estudiado en detalle; algunas formas corresponden a las que hemos señalado más arriba. Su orientación era el conocimiento (γνῶσις), de donde esta corriente toma, además, el nombre.” TAL, Neander. Conhecimento primitivo, 120.000.000 a.C..

Uno de los gnósticos más destacados es Basílides. También él considera como lo primero al Dios indecible (θεὸἄς άρρητος), que es el Ensoph de la cábala”

Neander, Genetische Entwicklung der vornehmsten gnostischen Systeme «Evolución genética de los sistemas gnósticos más importantes»

La ciudad de Alejandría habíase convertido, en efecto, desde hacía mucho tiempo, sobre todo gracias a los Tolomeos, en la sede principal de las ciencias. Aquí entraban en contacto, se influían mutuamente y se entremezclaban, como en su verdadero centro, todas las religiones y mitologías de los pueblos de Oriente y Occidente, lo mismo que su historia, bajo las más diversas formas y manifestaciones. Las religiones eran comparadas las unas con las otras: en cada una de ellas se buscaba y acoplaba lo que contenían las otras; y, sobre todo, se atribuía a las representaciones religiosas un profundo significado y un sentido alegórico general.

Estas tendencias engendraron y tenían, evidentemente, que engendrar oscuros abortos, el más puro de los cuales es la filosofía alejandrina, ya que la fusión de las filosofías tenía que resultar más fácil que aquellas otras combinaciones de tipo religioso que no son sino turbios engendros de una razón que aún no ha llegado a comprenderse a sí misma.”

La modalidad de la filosofía cultivada en Alejandría no seguía, por tanto, las huellas de ninguna escuela filosófica anterior determinada, sino que en sus manifestaciones reconocía como una unidad los diversos sistemas de la filosofía, principalmente el pitagórico, el platónico y el aristotélico, lo cual hace que se la presente, muchas veces, como eclecticismo. Brucker (Hist. crit. phil. t. II, p. 193) es, según lo que yo he podido ver, el primero que ha emitido este juicio; le dio pie para ello, sin embargo, Diógenes Laercio” “Por otra parte, Diógenes es anterior a la escuela de Alejandría, y Pótamo fue, según Suidas (s.v. Ποταμών, t. III, p. 161), preceptor de los hijastros de Augusto: para un maestro de príncipes, hay que reconocer que el eclecticismo es una doctrina muy adecuada. [ironia?] Y como este Pótamo era alejandrino, Brucker se cree autorizado a extender la calificación de ecléctica a la filosofía alejandrina en su conjunto, lo cual ni es justo en cuanto a la cosa misma, ni refleja tampoco la verdad histórica.

El eclecticismo es algo muy malo si se le toma en el sentido de una mescolanza que se forma inconsecuentemente, tomando unas cosas de una filosofía y otras de otra, como esos vestidos hechos con retazos de distintas telas y diversos colores.” “las gentes listas que proceden así conscientemente, creen lograr lo mejor tomando lo bueno de cada sistema, como lo llaman, para formarse de este modo un acervo con los mejores pensamientos; con lo que reúnen indudablemente todo lo bueno, pero nunca la consecuencia del pensamiento ni, por tanto, el pensamiento mismo.” “En este sentido, también fue ecléctico Platón, ya que en su filosofía se unifican los principios de Pitágoras, Heráclito y Parménides; como son eclécticos los filósofos de Alejandría, en cuanto que tienen tanto de pitagóricos como de platónicos y aristotélicos. Lo que ocurre es que este calificativo de «ecléctico» lleva siempre consigo la idea de la mescolanza y la selección.”

La filosofía neoplatónica no formaba, pues, una escuela filosófica propia y especial como las anteriores, sino que las reunía y unificaba todas, aunque consagrándose de un modo muy especial al estudio de Platón, Aristóteles y los pitagóricos.” “Estos comentarios de los filósofos antiguos se ofrecían en forma de cursos o por escrito; se han conservado muchos de ellos, algunos de los cuales son, hay que reconocerlo, excelentes.” “Los mejores comentarios proceden de esta época; la mayoría de las obras de Proclo son comentarios acerca de diálogos sueltos de Platón”

Ammonio Saccas, que quiere decir «cargador de sacos», aparece citado como uno de los primeros o más famosos maestros de esta escuela; murió el año 243 d.C.. Pero no poseemos ninguna obra de él, ni ha llegado tampoco a nosotros la menor noticia acerca de su filosofía. Entre los numerosos discípulos de Ammonio figuraban muchos hombres famosos en otras ciencias, por ejemplo Longino y más tarde Orígenes, aunque no se sabe con seguridad si sería éste, realmente, el famoso Padre de la Iglesia. Pero el más célebre de los discípulos de Ammonio, como filósofo, fue Plotino, cuyas obras son las que más han contribuido a dar a conocer la filosofía neoplatónica. La posteridad atribuye a Plotino, en realidad, todo el conjunto coherente de esta filosofía, considerándola, en rigor, como suya.

Los discípulos de Ammonio juramentábanse, según los deseos de su maestro, para no poner por escrito su filosofía en ninguna clase de obras; así se explica por qué Plotino no empezó a escribir hasta muy tarde; en realidad, las obras que de él se han conservado no fueron editadas sino hasta después de su muerte por uno de sus discípulos, Porfirio.”

Plotino era egipcio y nació hacia el año 205 d.C., en Licópolis, bajo el gobierno de Septimio Severo. Después de haber estudiado con muchos maestros filosóficos, fue formándose en él un carácter melancólico y cavilador; a los 28 años, conoció a Ammonio, en cuya enseñanza encontró, por fin, su espíritu la paz y la satisfacción que buscaba, habiendo permanecido por espacio de 11 años al lado del nuevo maestro.

Como por aquel entonces estaba en gran predicamento la sabiduría india y brahmánica, Plotino se enroló en el ejército del emperador Gordiano