LA CRÈME DE LA CRÈME DES ‘ESSAYS OF MICHEL DE MONTAIGNE’

Tradução ao inglês de Charles Cotton, editor William Carew Hazlitt, 1877.

Texto integral em http://www.gutenberg.org/files/3600/3600-h/3600-h.htm#link2H_PREF

PREFACE

His Essays, which are at once the most celebrated and the most permanent of his productions, form a magazine out of which such minds as those of Bacon and Shakespeare did not disdain to help themselves; and, indeed, as Hallam observes, the Frenchman’s literary importance largely results from the share which his mind had in influencing other minds, coeval and subsequent.”

He was, without being aware of it, the leader of a new school in letters and morals. His book was different from all others which were at that date in the world. It diverted the ancient currents of thought into new channels. It told its readers, with unexampled frankness, what its writer’s opinion was about men and things, and threw what must have been a strange kind of new light on many matters but darkly understood. Above all, the essayist uncased himself, and made his intellectual and physical organism public property. He took the world into his confidence on all subjects.” “Of all egotists, Montaigne, if not the greatest, was the most fascinating, because, perhaps, he was the least affected and most truthful.”

The text of these volumes is taken from the first edition of Cotton’s version, printed in 3 vols. 8vo, 1685-6, and republished in 1693, 1700, 1711, 1738, and 1743, in the same number of volumes and the same size. In the earliest impression the errors of the press are corrected merely as far as page 240 of the 1st volume, and all the editions follow one another. That of 1685-6 was the only one which the translator lived to see. He died in 1687, leaving behind him an interesting and little-known collection of poems, which appeared posthumously, 8vo, 1689.

It was considered imperative to correct Cotton’s translation by a careful collation with the ‘variorum’ edition of the original, Paris, 1854, 4 vols. 8vo or 12mo, and parallel passages from Florin[ou Florio?]’s earlier undertaking have occasionally been inserted at the foot of the page. A Life of the Author and all his recovered Letters, 16 in number, have also been given; but, as regards the correspondence, it can scarcely be doubted that it is in a purely fragmentary state.”

* * *

ALGUNS EXCERTOS DE CARTAS

they say that a sensible person may take a wife indeed, but that to espouse her is to act like a fool.”

Let us live, my wife, you and I, in the old French method. Now, you may recollect that the late M. de la Boétie, my brother and inseparable companion, gave me, on his death-bed, all his books and papers, which have remained ever since the most precious part of my effects. I do not wish to keep them niggardly to myself alone, nor do I deserve to have the exclusive use of them; so that I have resolved to communicate them to my friends; and because I have none, I believe, more particularly intimate than you, I send you the Consolatory Letter written by Plutarch to his Wife, translated by him into French”

* * *

(Ao rei Henrique IV, que, como, a parecer, todos os reis do período, se encontrava em contínuas campanhas de conquista…)

If there is to be severity and punishment, let it be deferred till success has been assured. A great conqueror of past times boasts that he gave his enemies as great an inducement to love him, as his friends. And here we feel already some effect of the favourable impression produced upon our rebellious towns by the contrast between their rude treatment, and that of those which are loyal to you.”

* * *

FIRST BOOK

CHAPTER I——THAT MEN BY VARIOUS WAYS ARRIVE AT THE SAME END.

The Emperor Conrad III having besieged Guelph, Duke of Bavaria, [In 1140, in Weinsberg, Upper Bavaria.] would not be prevailed (…) to condescend to milder conditions than that the ladies and gentlewomen only who were in the town with the duke might go out without violation of their honour, on foot, and with so much only as they could carry about them. Whereupon they, out of magnanimity of heart, presently contrived to carry out, upon their shoulders, their husbands and children, and the duke himself; a sight at which the emperor was so pleased, that, ravished with the generosity of the action, he wept for joy, and immediately extinguishing in his heart the mortal and capital hatred he had conceived against this duke, he from that time forward treated him and his with all humanity.” Algo parecido com o conto do Barão de Munchhausen!

And yet pity is reputed a vice amongst the Stoics, who will that we succour the afflicted, but not that we should be so affected with their sufferings as to suffer with them.”

Man (in good earnest) is a marvellous vain, fickle, and unstable subject, and on whom it is very hard to form any certain and uniform judgment. For Pompey could pardon the whole city of the Mamertines, though furiously incensed against it, upon the single account of the virtue and magnanimity of one citizen, Zeno, who took the fault of the public wholly upon himself; neither entreated other favour, but alone to undergo the punishment for all. And yet Sylla’s host, having in the city of Perugia manifested the same virtue, obtained nothing by it, either for himself or his fellow-citizens.

And, directly contrary to my first examples, the bravest of all men, and who was reputed so gracious to all those he overcame, Alexander, having, after many great difficulties, forced the city of Gaza, and, entering, found Betis, who commanded there, and of whose valour in the time of this siege he had most marvellous manifest proof, alone, forsaken by all his soldiers, his armour hacked and hewed to pieces, covered all over with blood and wounds, and yet still fighting in the crowd of a number of Macedonians, who were laying on him on all sides, he said to him, nettled at so dear-bought a victory (for, in addition to the other damage, Alexander had two wounds newly received in his own person), <Thou shalt not die, Betis, as thou dost intend; be sure thou shall suffer all the torments that can be inflicted on a captive.> To which menace the other returning no other answer, but only a fierce and disdainful look; <What,> says Alexander, observing his haughty and obstinate silence, <is he too stiff to bend a knee! Is he too proud to utter one suppliant word! Truly, I will conquer this silence; and if I cannot force a word from his mouth, I will, at least, extract a groan from his heart.> And thereupon converting his anger into fury, presently commanded his heels to be bored through [atravessados], causing him, alive, to be dragged, mangled, and dismembered at a cart’s tail.(Quintus Curtius, 4. 6. This act of cruelty has been doubted, notwithstanding the statement of Curtius.)—Was it that the height of courage was so natural and familiar to this conqueror, that because he could not admire, he respected it the less? Or was it that he conceived valour to be a virtue so peculiar to himself, that his pride could not, without envy, endure it in another? Or was it that the natural impetuosity of his fury was incapable of opposition? Certainly, had it been capable of moderation, it is to be believed that in the sack and desolation of Thebes, to see so many valiant men, lost and totally destitute of any further defence, cruelly massacred before his eyes, would have appeased it: where there were above 6,000 put to the sword, of whom not one was seen to fly, or heard to cry out for quarter; but, on the contrary, every one running here and there to seek out and to provoke the victorious enemy to help them to an honourable end. Not one was seen who, however weakened with wounds, did not in his last gasp yet endeavour to revenge himself, and with all the arms of a brave despair, to sweeten his own death in the death of an enemy. Yet did their valour create no pity, and the length of one day was not enough to satiate the thirst of the conqueror’s revenge, but the slaughter continued to the last drop of blood that was capable of being shed, and stopped not till it met with none but unarmed persons, old men, women, and children, of them to carry away to the number of 30,000 slaves.” Discordo dos devaneios morais de Montaigne. Todo essa massacre, toda essa matança, que ele atribui à empáfia alexandrina, poderiam ter sido evitados se esses homens simplesmente se rendessem, o que é nobre, pois que contra o mesmo orgulho invencível que Montaigne tanto ataca no parágrafo.

CHAPTER II——OF SORROW

The Italians have more fitly baptized by this name—(La tristezza)—malignity; for ‘tis a quality always hurtful, always idle and vain; and as being cowardly, mean, and base, it is by the Stoics expressly and particularly forbidden to their sages.”

Quem mais pranteia no enterro é quem menos sofre.

Petrified with her misfortunes.—Ovid, Met., vi. 304.Penso que li isso em algum outro lugar – Virginia Woolf cita, talvez? Agora entendo o contexto: a mãe que, de tanto perder filhos, não podendo expressar externamente sua tristeza, converteu-se súbito em pedra.

oppressed with accidents greater than we are able to bear.”

He who can say how he burns with love, has little fire”

Petrarca, Sonetto 137.

hence that frigidity which by the force of an immoderate ardour seizes him even in the very lap of fruition”

Light griefs can speak: deep sorrows are dumb.”

Seneca, Hippolytus, act ii. scene 3.

Besides the examples of the Roman lady, who died for joy to see her son safe returned from the defeat of Cannae; and of Sophocles (…) who died [laughing, reportedly]” Suspeito quando se fala do obituário de alguém famoso, mas demos crédito quando a pessoa é anônima!

And for a more notable testimony of the imbecility of human nature, it is recorded by the ancients—(Pliny)—that Diodorus the dialectician died upon the spot, out of an extreme passion of shame, for not having been able in his own school, and in the presence of a great auditory, to disengage himself from a nice argument that was propounded to him. I, for my part, am very little subject to these violent passions; I am naturally of a stubborn apprehension, which also, by reasoning, I everyday harden and fortify.”

(…)

CHAPTER IV——THAT THE SOUL EXPENDS ITS PASSIONS UPON FALSE OBJECTS, WHERE THE TRUE ARE WANTING

So it seems that the soul, being transported and discomposed, turns its violence upon itself, if not supplied with something to oppose it, and therefore always requires an object at which to aim, and whereon to act. Plutarch says of those who are delighted with little dogs and monkeys, that the amorous part that is in us, for want of a legitimate object, rather than lie idle, does after that manner forge and create one false and frivolous. And we see that the soul, in its passions, inclines rather to deceive itself, by creating a false and fantastical a subject, even contrary to its own belief, than not to have something to work upon. After this manner brute beasts direct their fury to fall upon the stone or weapon that has hurt them”

And the philosopher Bion said pleasantly of the king, who by handsful pulled his hair off his head for sorrow, <Does this man think that baldness is a remedy for grief?>—(Cicero, Tusc. Quest., iii. 26.)—Who has not seen peevish gamesters chew and swallow the cards, and swallow the dice, in revenge for the loss of their money? Xerxes whipped the sea, and wrote a challenge to Mount Athos; Cyrus employed a whole army several days at work, to revenge himself of the river Gyndas, for the fright it had put him into in passing over it; and Caligula demolished a very beautiful palace for the pleasure his mother had once enjoyed there.”

I remember there was a story current, when I was a boy, that one of our neighbouring kings—(Probably Alfonso XI. of Castile)—having received a blow from the hand of God, swore he would be revenged, and in order to it, made proclamation that for 10 years to come no one should pray to Him, or so much as mention Him throughout his dominions, or, so far as his authority went, believe in Him; by which they meant to paint not so much the folly as the vainglory of the nation of which this tale was told. They are vices that always go together, but in truth such actions as these have in them still more of presumption than want of wit. Augustus Caesar, having been tossed with a tempest at sea, fell to defying Neptune, and in the pomp of the Circensian games, to be revenged, deposed his statue from the place it had amongst the other deities. Wherein he was still less excusable than the former, and less than he was afterwards when, having lost a battle under Quintilius Varus in Germany, in rage and despair he went running his head against the wall, crying out, <O Varus! give me back my legions!> for these exceed all folly, forasmuch as impiety is joined therewith, invading God Himself, or at least Fortune, as if she had ears that were subject to our batteries; like the Thracians, who when it thunders or lightens, fall to shooting against heaven with Titanian vengeance, as if by flights of arrows they intended to bring God to reason.” Fantástico!

CHAPTER V——WHETHER THE GOVERNOR OF A PLACE BESIEGED OUGHT HIMSELF TO GO OUT TO PARLEY

Astúcia: um longo enredo de Tróia ao leão de Zaratustra.

Orgulho ferido, mas nada amputado.

In the kingdom of Ternate, amongst those nations which we so broadly call barbarians, they have a custom never to commence war, till it be first proclaimed; adding withal an ample declaration of what means they have to do it with, with what and how many men, what ammunitions, and what, both offensive and defensive, arms; but also, that being done, if their enemies do not yield and come to an agreement, they conceive it lawful to employ without reproach in their wars any means which may help them to conquer.” So?

The ancient Florentines were so far from seeking to obtain any advantage over their enemies by surprise, that they always gave them a month’s warning before they drew their army into the field, by the continual tolling of a bell they called Martinella.”

Where the lion’s skin is too short, we must eke it out with a bit from that of a fox”

(…)

CHAPTER VII——THAT THE INTENTION IS JUDGE OF OUR ACTIONS

Death discharges us of all our obligations.”

Henry VII, King of England, articled with Don Philip, son to Maximilian the emperor, or (to place him more honourably) father to the Emperor Charles V, that the said Philip should deliver up the Duke of Suffolk of the White Rose, his enemy, who was fled into the Low Countries, into his hands; which Philip accordingly did, but upon condition, nevertheless, that Henry should attempt nothing against the life of the said Duke; but coming to die, the king in his last will commanded his son to put him to death immediately after his decease. (…) Unjust judges, who defer judgment to a time wherein they can have no knowledge of the cause!”

(…)

CHAPTER IX——OF LIARS

above all, old men who retain the memory of things past, and forget how often they have told them, are dangerous company”

It is not without good reason said <that he who has not a good memory should never take upon him the trade of lying.> I know very well that the grammarians distinguish betwixt an untruth and a lie, and say that to tell an untruth is to tell a thing that is false, but that we ourselves believe to be true; and that the definition of the word to lie in Latin, from which our French is taken, is to tell a thing which we know in our conscience to be untrue; and it is of this last sort of liars only that I now speak.”

I see that parents commonly, and with indiscretion enough, correct their children for little innocent faults, and torment them for wanton tricks, that have neither impression nor consequence; whereas, in my opinion, lying only, and, which is of something a lower form, obstinacy, are the faults which are to be severely whipped out of them, both in their infancy and in their progress, otherwise they grow up and increase with them; and after a tongue has once got the knack of lying, ‘tis not to be imagined how impossible it is to reclaim it whence it comes to pass that we see some, who are otherwise very honest men, so subject and enslaved to this vice.”

a dog we know is better company than a man whose language we do not understand.”

CHAPTER X——OF QUICK OR SLOW SPEECH

All graces were never yet given to any one man.”

So we see in the gift of eloquence, wherein some have such a facility and promptness, and that which we call a present wit so easy, that they are ever ready upon all occasions, and never to be surprised; and others more heavy and slow, never venture to utter anything but what they have long premeditated, and taken great care and pains to fit and prepare.”

O PADRE E O ADVOGADO: “If I were worthy to advise, the slow speaker, methinks, should be more proper for the pulpit, and the other for the bar: and that because the employment of the first does naturally allow him all the leisure he can desire to prepare himself, and besides, his career is performed in an even and unintermitted line, without stop or interruption; whereas the pleader’s business and interest compels him to enter the lists upon all occasions, and the unexpected objections and replies of his adverse party jostle him out of his course, and put him, upon the instant, to pump for new and extempore answers and defences.”

But he who remains totally silent, for want of leisure to prepare himself to speak well, and he also whom leisure does noways benefit to better speaking, are equally unhappy.”

I know, experimentally, the disposition of nature so impatient of tedious and elaborate premeditation, that if it do not go frankly and gaily to work, it can perform nothing to purpose.”

I am always worst in my own possession, and when wholly at my own disposition: accident has more title to anything that comes from me than I; occasion, company, and even the very rising and falling of my own voice, extract more from my fancy than I can find, when I sound and employ it by myself. By which means, the things I say are better than those I write, if either were to be preferred, where neither is worth anything.”

when I come to speak, I am already so lost that I know not what I was about to say, and in such cases a stranger often finds it out before me.”

CHAPTER XI——OF PROGNOSTICATIONS

Socrates’ demon might, perhaps, be no other but a certain impulsion of the will, which obtruded itself upon him without the advice or consent of his judgment; and in a soul so enlightened as his was, and so prepared by a continual exercise of wisdom and virtue, ‘tis to be supposed those inclinations of his, though sudden and undigested, were very important and worthy to be followed. Every one finds in himself some image of such agitations, of a prompt, vehement, and fortuitous opinion; and I may well allow them some authority, who attribute so little to our prudence, and who also myself have had some, weak in reason, but violent in persuasion and dissuasion, by which I have suffered myself to be carried away so fortunately, and so much to my own advantage, that they might have been judged to have had something in them of a divine inspiration.”

CHAPTER XII——OF CONSTANCY

there is no supple [flexível] motion of body, nor any movement in the handling of arms, how irregular or ungraceful soever, that we need condemn, if they serve to protect us from the blow that is made against us.”

Neither do the Stoics pretend that the soul of their philosopher need be proof against the first visions and fantasies that surprise him; but, as to a natural subjection, consent that he should tremble at the terrible noise of thunder, or the sudden clatter of some falling ruin, and be affrighted even to paleness and convulsion; and so in other passions, provided his judgment remain sound and entire, and that the seat of his reason suffer no concussion nor alteration, and that he yield no consent to his fright and discomposure.”

CHAPTER XIII——THE CEREMONY OF THE INTERVIEW OF PRINCES

To what end do we avoid the servile attendance of courts, if we bring the same trouble home to our own private houses?”

CHAPTER XV——OF THE PUNISHMENT OF COWARDICE

But as to cowardice, it is certain that the most usual way of chastising it is by ignominy and it is supposed that this practice brought into use by the legislator Charondas; and that, before his time, the laws of Greece punished those with death who fled from a battle; whereas he ordained only that they be for 3 days exposed in the public dressed in woman’s attire, hoping yet for some service from them, having awakened their courage by this open shame:

Suffundere malis hominis sanguinem, quam effundere. //

Rather bring the blood into a man’s cheek than let it out of his body. (Tertullian in his Apologetics.)” Não sei como isso pode infundir coragem, entretanto…

CHAPTER XVI——A PROCEEDING OF SOME AMBASSADORS [O PERIGO DE QUERER-SER-POLÍMATA-TENDO-APENAS-UM-GRANDE-TALENTO-QUE-EXCEDE-TODOS-OS-OUTROS-DE-DILETANTE – PRINCIPALMENTE NO QUE CONCERNE AO MONARCA, PARA NÃO SE TORNAR MAU GOVERNANTE OU MESMO DÉSPOTA]

I observe in my travels this custom, ever to learn something from the information of those with whom I confer (which is the best school of all others), and to put my company upon those subjects they are the best able to speak of:—

Basti al nocchiero ragionar de’ venti,

Al bifolco dei tori; et le sue piaghe

Conti’l guerrier; conti’l pastor gli armenti.

Let the sailor content himself with talking of the winds; the cowherd of his oxen; the soldier of his wounds; the shepherd of his flocks.—An Italian translation of Propertius, ii. i, 43

For it often falls out that, on the contrary, every one will rather choose to be prating of another man’s province than his own, thinking it so much new reputation acquired; witness the jeer Archidamus put upon Pertander, <that he had quitted the glory of being an excellent physician to gain the repute of a very bad poet>.—And do but observe how large and ample Caesar is to make us understand his inventions of building bridges and contriving engines of war,—and how succinct and reserved in comparison, where he speaks of the offices of his profession, his own valour, and military conduct. His exploits sufficiently prove him a great captain, and that he knew well enough; but he would be thought an excellent engineer to boot; a quality something different, and not necessary to be expected in him.”

By this course a man shall never improve himself, nor arrive at any perfection in anything. He must, therefore, make it his business always to put the architect, the painter, the statuary, every mechanic artisan, upon discourse of their own capacities.”

I have, in my time, known men of command checked for having rather obeyed the express words of the king’s letters, than the necessity of the affairs they had in hand. Men of understanding do yet, to this day, condemn the custom of the kings of Persia to give their lieutenants and agents so little rein, that, upon the least arising difficulties, they must fain have recourse to their further commands; this delay, in so vast an extent of dominion, having often very much prejudiced their affairs; and Crassus, writing to a man whose profession it was best to understand those things, and pre-acquainting him to what use this mast was designed, did he not seem to consult his advice, and in a manner invite him to interpose his better judgment?”

CHAPTER XVII——OF FEAR

So much does fear dread even the means of safety.”—Quint. Curt., ii. II.

And the many people who, impatient of the perpetual alarms of fear, have hanged or drowned themselves, or dashed themselves to pieces, give us sufficiently to understand that fear is more importunate and insupportable than death itself.”

CHAPTER XVIII——THAT MEN ARE NOT TO JUDGE OF OUR HAPPINESS TILL AFTER DEATH.

And, in this sense, this good advice of Solon may reasonably be taken; but he, being a philosopher (with which sort of men the favours and disgraces of Fortune stand for nothing, either to the making a man happy or unhappy, and with whom grandeurs and powers are accidents of a quality almost indifferent) I am apt to think that he had some further aim, and that his meaning was, that the very felicity of life itself, which depends upon the tranquillity and contentment of a well-descended spirit, and the resolution and assurance of a well-ordered soul, ought never to be attributed to any man till he has first been seen to play the last, and, doubtless, the hardest act of his part.”

To death do I refer the assay of the fruit of all my studies: we shall then see whether my discourses came only from my mouth or from my heart. I have seen many by their death give a good or an ill repute to their whole life.”

that I may die well—that is, patiently and tranquilly.”

CHAPTER XIX——THAT TO STUDY PHILOSOPY IS TO LEARN TO DIE

The reason of which is, because study and contemplation do in some sort withdraw from us our soul, and employ it separately from the body, which is a kind of apprenticeship and a resemblance of death; or, else, because all the wisdom and reasoning in the world do in the end conclude in this point, to teach us not to fear to die.”

All the opinions of the world agree in this, that pleasure is our end, though we make use of divers means to attain it: they would, otherwise, be rejected at the first motion; for who would give ear to him that should propose affliction and misery for his end?”

Let the philosophers say what they will, the thing at which we all aim, even in virtue is pleasure. (…) This pleasure, for being more gay, more sinewy, more robust and more manly, is only the more seriously voluptuous, and we ought give it the name of pleasure, as that which is more favourable, gentle, and natural, and not that from which we have denominated it.”

The felicity and beatitude that glitters in Virtue, shines throughout all her appurtenances and avenues, even to the first entry and utmost limits. Now, of all the benefits that virtue confers upon us, the contempt of death is one of the greatest, as the means that accommodates human life with a soft and easy tranquillity, and gives us a pure and pleasant taste of living, without which all other pleasure would be extinct.”

Xenophilus the musician, who lived 106 years in a perfect and continual health”

The end of our race is death; ‘tis the necessary object of our aim, which, if it fright us, how is it possible to advance a step without a fit of ague? The remedy the vulgar use is not to think on’t; but from what brutish stupidity can they derive so gross a blindness?”

They affright people with the very mention of death, and many cross themselves, as it were the name of the devil. And because the making a man’s will is in reference to dying, not a man will be persuaded to take a pen in hand to that purpose, till the physician has passed sentence upon and totally given him over, and then betwixt and terror, God knows in how fit a condition of understanding he is to do it.”

Young and old die upon the same terms; no one departs out of life otherwise than if he had but just before entered into it; neither is any man so old and decrepit, who, having heard of Methuselah, does not think he has yet 20 good years to come. Fool that thou art! who has assured unto thee the term of life? Thou dependest upon physicians’ tales: rather consult effects and experience.”

thou wilt find more who have died before than after 35 years of age.” “He ended His life at 33 years. The greatest man, that was no more than a man, Alexander, died also at the same age.”

Aeschylus, threatened with the fall of a house, was to much purpose circumspect to avoid that danger, seeing that he was knocked on the head by a tortoise falling out of an eagle’s talons in the air.” “Ésquilo, com sua vida ameaçada pelo soterramento de uma casa, foi circunspecto o bastante para se prevenir desse perigo, mas não para deixar de ser atingido na cabeça por uma tartaruga que caiu das garras duma águia – e assim ele morreu.”

Se, porém, devo completar os casos com um de meu próprio sangue, meu irmão, Capitão St. Martin, muito jovem ainda, 23 anos, que já havia dado provas de seu valor, jogando um duelo de tênis, recebeu uma bolada um pouco acima da orelha direita; sem nada sentir da gravidade da lesão no momento, ele nem sequer achou prudente interromper a partida. Cinco ou seis horas depois ele faleceu de uma apoplexia causada por essa mesma contusão.”

But ‘tis folly to think of doing anything that way. They go, they come, they gallop and dance, and not a word of death. All this is very fine; but withal, when it comes either to themselves, their wives, their children, or friends, surprising them at unawares and unprepared, then, what torment, what outcries, what madness and despair! Did you ever see anything so subdued, so changed, and so confounded? A man must, therefore, make more early provision for it; and this brutish negligence, could it possibly lodge in the brain of any man of sense (which I think utterly impossible), sells us its merchandise too dear.”

Let him hide beneath iron or brass in his fear, death will pull his head out of his armour.” Propertius

let us converse and be familiar with him, and have nothing so frequent in our thoughts as death. Upon all occasions represent him to our imagination in his every shape; at the stumbling of a horse, at the falling of a tile, at the least prick with a pin, let us presently consider, Well, and what if it had been death itself?

The Egyptians were wont to do after this manner, who in the height of their feasting and mirth, caused a dried skeleton of a man to be brought into the room to serve for a memento to their guests:

Omnem crede diem tibi diluxisse supremum

Grata superveniet, quae non sperabitur, hora.

Think each day when past is thy last; the next day, as unexpected, will be the more welcome.—Hor., Ep., i. 4, 13.”

he who has learned to die has unlearned to serve. There is nothing evil in life for him who rightly comprehends that the privation of life is no evil: to know how to die delivers us from all subjection and constraint.”

In truth, in all things, if nature do not help a little, it is very hard for art and industry to perform anything to purpose. I am in my own nature not melancholic, but meditative; and there is nothing I have more continually entertained myself withal than imaginations of death, even in the most wanton time of my age” “In the company of ladies, and at games, some have perhaps thought me possessed with some jealousy, or the uncertainty of some hope, whilst I was entertaining myself with the remembrance of some one, surprised, a few days before, with a burning fever of which he died, returning from an entertainment like this, with his head full of idle fancies of love and jollity, as mine was then, and that, for aught I knew, the same destiny was attending me.” “Every minute, methinks, I am escaping, and it eternally runs in my mind, that what may be done to-morrow, may be done to-day.” “A friend of mine the other day turning over my tablets, found therein a memorandum of something I would have done after my decease, whereupon I told him, as it was really true, that though I was no more than a league’s distance only from my own house, and merry and well, yet when that thing came into my head, I made haste to write it down there, because I was not certain to live till I came home. As a man that am eternally brooding over my own thoughts, and confine them to my own particular concerns, I am at all hours as well prepared as I am ever like to be, and death, whenever he shall come, can bring nothing along with him I did not expect long before. We should always, as near as we can, be booted and spurred, and ready to go, and, above all things, take care, at that time, to have no business with anyone but one’s self” Montaigne era um hipocondríaco.

Why for so short a life tease ourselves with so many projects?” Hor.

LADRAR O CÃO SABIA: “One man complains, more than of death, that he is thereby prevented of a glorious victory; another, that he must die before he has married his daughter, or educated his children; a third seems only troubled that he must lose the society of his wife; a fourth, the conversation of his son, as the principal comfort and concern of his being. For my part, I am, thanks be to God, at this instant in such a condition, that I am ready to dislodge, whenever it shall please Him, without regret for anything whatsoever. I disengage myself throughout from all worldly relations; my leave is soon taken of all but myself. Never did any one prepare to bid adieu to the world more absolutely and unreservedly, and to shake hands with all manner of interest in it, than I expect to do. The deadest deaths are the best”

We are to discharge ourselves from these vulgar and hurtful humours. To this purpose it was that men first appointed the places of sepulture adjoining the churches, and in the most frequented places of the city, to accustom, says Lycurgus, the common people, women, and children, that they should not be startled at the sight of a corpse, and to the end, that the continual spectacle of bones, graves, and funeral obsequies should put us in mind of our frail condition”

It was formerly the custom to enliven banquets with slaughter, and to combine with the repast the dire spectacle of men contending with the sword, the dying in many cases falling upon the cups, and covering the tables with blood.”Silius Italicus, xi. 51.

If I were a writer of books, I would compile a register, with a comment, of the various deaths of men: he who should teach men to die would at the same time teach them to live.”

The vigour wherein I now am, the cheerfulness and delight wherein I now live, make the contrary estate appear in so great a disproportion to my present condition, that, by imagination, I magnify those inconveniences by one-half, and apprehend them to be much more troublesome than I find them really to be, when they lie the most heavy upon me; I hope to find death the same.”

Caesar, to an old weather-beaten soldier of his guards, who came to ask him leave that he might kill himself, taking notice of his withered body and decrepit motion, pleasantly answered, <Thou fanciest, then, that thou art yet alive.>

Should a man fall into this condition on the sudden, I do not think humanity capable of enduring such a change: but nature, leading us by the hand, an easy and, as it were, an insensible pace, step by step conducts us to that miserable state, and by that means makes it familiar to us, so that we are insensible of the stroke when our youth dies in us, though it be really a harder death than the final dissolution of a languishing body, than the death of old age; forasmuch as the fall is not so great from an uneasy being to none at all, as it is from a sprightly and flourishing being to one that is troublesome and painful.” Esse luto eu já atravessei há muito tempo…

I will keep thee in fetters and chains, in custody of a savage keeper.—A god will when I ask Him, set me free. This god I think is death. Death is the term of all things.” —Hor.

why should we fear to lose a thing, which being lost, cannot be lamented?”

To him that told Socrates, <The 30 tyrants have sentenced thee to death>; <And nature them>, said he.—(CORRECTION: Socrates was not condemned to death by the 30, but by the Athenians. As in Diogenes Laertius, ii.35.)”

to lament that we shall not be alive 100 years hence, is the same folly as to be sorry we were not alive 100 years ago. Death is the beginning of another life. So did we weep, and so much it cost us to enter into this, and so did we put off our former veil in entering into it. Nothing can be a grievance that is but once.”

Long life, and short, are by death made all one; for there is no long, nor short, to things that are no more. Aristotle tells us that there are certain little beasts upon the banks of the river Hypanis, that never live above a day: they which die at 8 of the clock in the morning, die in their youth, and those that die at 5 in the evening, in their decrepitude: which of us would not laugh to see this moment of continuance put into the consideration of weal or woe? The most and the least, of ours, in comparison with eternity, or yet with the duration of mountains, rivers, stars, trees, and even of some animals, is no less ridiculous.”

Your death is a part of the order of the universe, ‘tis a part of the life of the world.”

Shall I exchange for you this beautiful contexture of things? ‘Tis the condition of your creation; death is a part of you, and whilst you endeavour to evade it, you evade yourselves. This very being of yours that you now enjoy is equally divided betwixt life and death. The day of your birth is one day’s advance towards the grave”

The first hour that gave us life took away also an hour.”

Seneca

Why not depart from life as a sated guest from a feast?”

Lucretius

But: “If you have not known how to make the best use of it, if it was unprofitable to you, what need you care to lose it, to what end would you desire longer to keep it?”

Life in itself is neither good nor evil; it is the scene of good or evil as you make it.”

if you have lived a day, you have seen all”

There is no other light, no other shade; this very sun, this moon, these very stars, this very order and disposition of things, is the same your ancestors enjoyed, and that shall also entertain your posterity” Eu gostaria de ver o sol alaranjado ou vermelho de meio-dia: o crepúsculo da civilização ocidental!

Your grandsires saw no other thing; nor will your posterity.”

Manilius

And, come the worst that can come, the distribution and variety of all the acts of my comedy are performed in a year. If you have observed the revolution of my 4 seasons, they comprehend the infancy, the youth, the virility, and the old age of the world: the year has played his part, and knows no other art but to begin again; it will always be the same thing”

We are turning in the same circle, ever therein confined.”

Lucretius

I am not prepared to create for you any new recreations”

Give place to others, as others have given place to you. Equality is the soul of equity. Who can complain of being comprehended in the same destiny, wherein all are involved? Besides, live as long as you can, you shall by that nothing shorten the space you are to be dead; ‘tis all to no purpose; you shall be every whit as long in the condition you so much fear, as if you had died at nurse”

Know you not that, when dead, there can be no other living self to lament you dead, standing on your grave?”

Death is less to be feared than nothing, if there could be anything less than nothing.”

Make use of time while it is present with you. It depends upon your will, and not upon the number of days, to have a sufficient length of life. Is it possible you can imagine never to arrive at the place towards which you are continually going?”

No night has followed day, no day has followed night, in which there has not been heard sobs and sorrowing cries, the companions of death and funerals.”

To what end should you endeavour to draw back, if there be no possibility to evade it? you have seen examples enough of those who have been well pleased to die, as thereby delivered from heavy miseries; but have you ever found any who have been dissatisfied with dying? It must, therefore, needs be very foolish to condemn a thing you have neither experimented in your own person, nor by that of any other. Why dost thou complain of me and of destiny? Do we do thee any wrong? Is it for thee to govern us, or for us to govern thee? Though, peradventure, thy age may not be accomplished, yet thy life is: a man of low stature is as much a man as a giant; neither men nor their lives are measured by the ell. Chiron refused to be immortal, when he was acquainted with the conditions under which he was to enjoy it, by the god of time itself and its duration, his father Saturn. Do but seriously consider how much more insupportable and painful an immortal life would be to man than what I have already given him. If you had not death, you would eternally curse me for having deprived you of it”

It was I that taught Thales, the most eminent of your sages, that to live and to die were indifferent; which made him, very wisely, answer him, ‘Why then he did not die?’ ‘Because,’ said he, ‘it is indifferent.’

Why dost thou fear thy last day? it contributes no more to thy dissolution, than every one of the rest” “Every day travels towards death; the last only arrives at it.”

* * * “These are the good lessons our mother Nature teaches.” * * *

I believe, in truth, that it is those terrible ceremonies and preparations wherewith we set it out, that more terrify us than the thing itself (…) our beds environed with physicians and divines; in sum, nothing but ghostliness and horror round about us; we seem dead and buried already.”

Children are afraid even of those they are best acquainted with, when disguised in a visor; and so ‘tis with us; the visor must be removed as well from things as from persons, that being taken away, we shall find nothing underneath but the very same death that a mean servant or a poor chambermaid died a day or two ago, without any manner of apprehension. Happy is the death that deprives us of leisure for preparing such ceremonials.” Die young!

CHAPTER XX——OF THE FORCE OF IMAGINATION [OU SOBRE HERMAFRODITAS]

A imaginação não precisa de eventos, mas os eventos sempre precisam de imaginação…

A perpetual cough in another tickles my lungs and throat. (…) Simon Thomas was a great physician of his time: I remember, that happening one day at Toulouse to meet him at a rich old fellow’s house, who was troubled with weak lungs, and discoursing with the patient about the method of his cure, he told him, that one thing which would be very conducive to it, was to give me such occasion to be pleased with his company, that I might come often to see him, by which means, and by fixing his eyes upon the freshness of my complexion, and his imagination upon the sprightliness and vigour that glowed in my youth, and possessing all his senses with the flourishing age wherein I then was, his habit of body might, peradventure, be amended; but he forgot to say that mine, at the same time, might be made worse. Gallus Vibius so much bent his mind to find out the essence and motions of madness, that, in the end, he himself went out of his wits, and to such a degree, that he could never after recover his judgment, and might brag that he was become a fool by too much wisdom.”

We start, tremble, turn pale, and blush, as we are variously moved by imagination; and, being a-bed, feel our bodies agitated with its power to that degree, as even sometimes to expiring.”

Although it be no new thing to see horns grown in a night on the forehead of one that had none when he went to bed, notwithstanding, what befell Cippus, King of Italy, is memorable; who having one day been a very delighted spectator of a bullfight, and having all the night dreamed that he had horns on his head, did, by the force of imagination, really cause them to grow there. Passion gave to the son of Croesus the voice which nature had denied him. And Antiochus fell into a fever, inflamed with the beauty of Stratonice, too deeply imprinted in his soul. Pliny pretends to have seen Lucius Cossitius, who from a woman was turned into a man upon her very wedding-day. Pontanus and others report the like metamorphosis to have happened in these latter days in Italy.”

Myself passing by Vitry le François, saw a man the Bishop of Soissons had, in confirmation, called Germain, whom all the inhabitants of the place had known to be a girl till 22 years of age, called Mary. He was, at the time of my being there, very full of beard, old, and not married. He told us, that by straining himself in a leap his male organs came out; and the girls of that place have, to this day, a song, wherein they advise one another not to take too great strides, for fear of being turned into men, as Mary Germain was.” HAHAHAHAHA!

to the end it may not so often relapse into the same thought and violence of desire, it were better, once for all, to give these young wenches the things they long for.”

St. Augustine makes mention of another, who, upon the hearing of any lamentable or doleful cries, would presently fall into a swoon, and be so far out of himself, that it was in vain to call, bawl in his ears, pinch or burn him, till he voluntarily came to himself; and then he would say, that he had heard voices as it were afar off, and did feel when they pinched and burned him; and, to prove that this was no obstinate dissimulation in defiance of his sense of feeling, it was manifest, that all the while he had neither pulse nor breathing.”

I am not satisfied whether those pleasant ligatures—(Les nouements d’aiguillettes, as they were called, knots tied by some one, at a wedding, on a strip of leather, cotton, or silk, and which, especially when passed through the wedding-ring, were supposed to have the magical effect of preventing a consummation of the marriage until they were untied. See Louandre, La Sorcellerie, 1853, p. 73. The same superstition and appliance existed in England. – NT)—with which this age of ours is so occupied, that there is almost no other talk, are not mere voluntary impressions of apprehension and fear; for I know, by experience, in the case of a particular friend of mine, one for whom I can be as responsible as for myself, and a man that cannot possibly fall under any manner of suspicion of insufficiency, and as little of being enchanted, who having heard a companion of his make a relation of an unusual frigidity that surprised him at a very unseasonable time; being afterwards himself engaged upon the same account, the horror of the former story on a sudden so strangely possessed his imagination, that he ran the same fortune the other had done; and from that time forward, the scurvy remembrance of his disaster running in his mind and tyrannising over him, he was subject to relapse into the same misfortune. He found some remedy, however, for this fancy in another fancy, by himself frankly confessing and declaring beforehand to the party with whom he was to have to do, this subjection of his, by which means, the agitation of his soul was, in some sort, appeased; and knowing that, now, some such misbehaviour was expected from him, the restraint upon his faculties grew less. And afterwards, at such times as he was in no such apprehension, when setting about the act (his thoughts being then disengaged and free, and his body in its true and natural estate) he was at leisure to cause the part to be handled and communicated to the knowledge of the other party, he was totally freed from that vexatious infirmity. After a man has once done a woman right, he is never after in danger of misbehaving himself with that person, unless upon the account of some excusable weakness. Neither is this disaster to be feared, but in adventures, where the soul is overextended with desire or respect, and, especially, where the opportunity is of an unforeseen and pressing nature; in those cases, there is no means for a man to defend himself from such a surprise, as shall put him altogether out of sorts. I have known some, who have secured themselves from this mischance, by coming half-sated elsewhere, purposely to abate the ardour of the fury, and others, who, being grown old, find themselves less impotent by being less able; and one, who found an advantage in being assured by a friend of his, that he had a counter-charm of enchantments that would secure him from this disgrace.” Quanto jogo de esconde para falar de impotência sexual, a.k.a. pinto mole! Será que o termo frígido era unissex, pois?

Amasis, King of Egypt, having married Laodice, a very beautiful Greek virgin, though noted for his abilities elsewhere, found himself quite another man with his wife, and could by no means enjoy her; at which he was so enraged, that he threatened to kill her, suspecting her to be a witch. As ‘tis usual in things that consist in fancy, she put him upon devotion, and having accordingly made his vows to Venus, he found himself divinely restored the very first night after his oblations and sacrifices. Now women are to blame to entertain us with that disdainful, coy, and angry countenance, which extinguishes our vigour, as it kindles our desire; which made the daughter-in-law of Pythagoras—(Theano, the lady in question was the wife, not the daughter-in-law of Pythagoras.)— say, <That the woman who goes to bed to a man, must put off her modesty with her petticoat, and put it on again with the same.>

Married people, having all their time before them, ought never to compel or so much as to offer at the feat, if they do not find themselves quite ready”

8=====D “The indocile liberty of this member is very remarkable, [HAHAHAHA] so importunately unruly in its tumidity and impatience, when we do not require it, and so unseasonably disobedient, when we stand most in need of it: so imperiously contesting in authority with the will, and with so much haughty obstinacy denying all solicitation, both of hand and mind. (…) For let any one consider, whether there is any one part of our bodies that does not often refuse to perform its office at the precept of the will, and that does not often exercise its function in defiance of her command.” “The same cause that animates this member, does also, without our knowledge, animate the lungs, pulse, and heart, the sight of a pleasing object imperceptibly diffusing a flame through all our parts, with a feverish motion. Is there nothing but these veins and muscles that swell and flag without the consent, not only of the will, but even of our knowledge also? We do not command our hairs to stand on end, nor our skin to shiver either with fear or desire; the hands often convey themselves to parts to which we do not direct them; the tongue will be interdict, and the voice congealed, when we know not how to help it. When we have nothing to eat, and would willingly forbid it, the appetite does not, for all that, forbear to stir up the parts that are subject to it, no more nor less than the other appetite we were speaking of, and in like manner, as unseasonably leaves us, when it thinks fit. The vessels that serve to discharge the belly have their own proper dilatations and compressions, without and beyond our concurrence, as well as those which are destined to purge the reins; and that which, to justify the prerogative of the will, St. Augustine urges, of having seen a man who could command his rear to discharge as often together as he pleased, Vives, his commentator, yet further fortifies with another example in his time,—of one that could break wind in tune; but these cases do not suppose anymore pure obedience in that part; for is anything commonly more tumultuary or indiscreet? To which let me add, that I myself knew one so rude and ungoverned, as for 40 years together made his master vent with one continued and unintermitted outbursting, and ‘tis like will do so till he die of it.”

A woman fancying she had swallowed a pin in a piece of bread, cried and lamented as though she had an intolerable pain in her throat, where she thought she felt it stick; but an ingenious fellow that was brought to her, seeing no outward tumour nor alteration, supposing it to be only a conceit taken at some crust of bread that had hurt her as it went down, caused her to vomit, and, unseen, threw a crooked pin into the basin, which the woman no sooner saw, but believing she had cast it up, she presently found herself eased of her pain.”

witness dogs, who die of grief for the loss of their masters; and bark and tremble and start in their sleep; so horses will kick and whinny in their sleep.”

When we look at people with sore eyes, our own eyes become sore.

Many things are hurtful to our bodies by transition.”

Ovid

Tortoises and ostriches hatch their eggs with only looking on them, which infers that their eyes have in them some ejaculative virtue. And the eyes of witches are said to be assailant and hurtful”

There was at my house, a little while ago, a cat seen watching a bird upon the top of a tree: these, for some time, mutually fixing their eyes one upon another, the bird at last let herself fall dead into the cat’s claws, either dazzled by the force of its own imagination, or drawn by some attractive power of the cat.”

For my part, I think it less hazardous to write of things past, than present, by how much the writer is only to give an account of things every one knows he must of necessity borrow upon trust.” Não foi o que vimos em vários relatos de médicos e de noivos logo acima!

there is nothing so contrary to my style as a continued narrative; I so often interrupt and cut myself short in my writing for want of breath; I have neither composition nor explanation worth anything, and am ignorant, beyond a child, of the phrases and even the very words proper to express the most common things; and for that reason it is, that I have undertaken to say only what I can say, and have accommodated my subject to my strength.” “Plutarch would say of what he has delivered to us, that it is the work of others: that his examples are all and everywhere exactly true: that they are useful to posterity, and are presented with a lustre that will light us the way to virtue, is his own work. It is not of so dangerous consequence, as in a medicinal drug, whether an old story be so or so.”

CHAPTER XXI——THAT THE PROFIT OF ONE MAN IS THE DAMAGE OF ANOTHER

Demades the Athenian—(Seneca, De Beneficiis, 6:38, whence nearly the whole of this chapter is taken.)—condemned one of his city, whose trade it was to sell the necessaries for funeral ceremonies, upon pretence that he demanded unreasonable profit, and that that profit could not accrue to him, but by the death of a great number of people. A judgment that appears to be ill grounded, forasmuch as no profit whatever can possibly be made but at the expense of another, and that by the same rule he should condemn all gain of what kind soever. The merchant only thrives by the debauchery of youth, the husband man by the dearness of grain, the architect by the ruin of buildings, lawyers and officers of justice by the suits and contentions of men: nay, even the honour and office of divines are derived from our death and vices. A physician takes no pleasure in the health even of his friends, says the ancient Greek comic writer, nor a soldier in the peace of his country, and so of the rest. And, which is yet worse, let every one but dive into his own bosom, and he will find his private wishes spring and his secret hopes grow up at another’s expense. Upon which consideration it comes into my head, that nature does not in this swerve from her general polity; for physicians hold, that the birth, nourishment, and increase of everything is the dissolution and corruption of another”

CHAPTER XXII——OF CUSTOM, AND THAT WE SHOULD NOT EASILY CHANGE A LAW RECEIVED

He seems to me to have had a right and true apprehension of the power of custom, who first invented the story of a country-woman who, having accustomed herself to play with and carry a young calf in her arms, and daily continuing to do so as it grew up, obtained this by custom, that, when grown to be a great ox, she was still able to bear it. For, in truth, custom is a violent and treacherous schoolmistress. She, by little and little, slily and unperceived, slips in the foot of her authority, but having by this gentle and humble beginning, with the benefit of time, fixed and established it, she then unmasks a furious and tyrannic countenance, against which we have no more the courage or the power so much as to lift up our eyes. We see her, at every turn, forcing and violating the rules of nature”

I refer to her Plato’s cave in his Republic, and the physicians, who so often submit the reasons of their art to her authority; as the story of that king, who by custom brought his stomach to that pass, as to live by poison, and the maid that Albertus reports to have lived upon spiders. In that new world of the Indies, there were found great nations, and in very differing climates, who were of the same diet, made provision of them, and fed them for their tables; as also, they did grasshoppers, mice, lizards, and bats; and in a time of scarcity of such delicacies, a toad was sold for 6 crowns, all which they cook, and dish up with several sauces. There were also others found, to whom our diet, and the flesh we eat, were venomous and mortal”

The power of custom is very great: huntsmen will lie out all night in the snow, or suffer themselves to be burned up by the sun on the mountains; boxers, hurt by the caestus [a luva romana, de ferro e couro], never utter a groan.”—Cicero

NOISE – ACQUIRED TASTE: “what philosophers believe of the music of the spheres, that the bodies of those circles being solid and smooth, and coming to touch and rub upon one another, cannot fail of creating a marvellous harmony, the changes and cadences of which cause the revolutions and dances of the stars; but that the hearing sense of all creatures here below, being universally, like that of the Egyptians, deafened, and stupefied with the continual noise, cannot, how great soever, perceive it(This passage is taken from Cicero, Dream of Scipio; see his De Republica, 6:2. The Egyptians were said to be stunned by the noise of the Cataracts.)— Smiths, millers, pewterers, forgemen, and armourers could never be able to live in the perpetual noise of their own trades, did it strike their ears with the same violence that it does ours.” Schopenhauer e Goethe discordam.

I myself lie at home in a tower, where every morning and evening a very great bell rings out the Ave Maria: the noise shakes my very tower, and at first seemed insupportable to me; but I am so used to it, that I hear it without any manner of offence, and often without awaking at it.”

Mothers are mightily pleased to see a child writhe off the neck of a chicken, or to please itself with hurting a dog or a cat; and such wise fathers there are in the world, who look upon it as a notable mark of a martial spirit, when they hear a son miscall, or see him domineer over a poor peasant, or a lackey, that dares not reply, nor turn again; and a great sign of wit, when they see him cheat and overreach his playfellow by some malicious treachery and deceit. Yet these are the true seeds and roots of cruelty, tyranny, and treason; they bud and put out there, and afterwards shoot up vigorously, and grow to prodigious bulk, cultivated by custom. And it is a very dangerous mistake to excuse these vile inclinations upon the tenderness of their age, and the triviality of the subject: first, it is nature that speaks, whose declaration is then more sincere, and inward thoughts more undisguised, as it is more weak and young; secondly, the deformity of cozenage does not consist nor depend upon the difference betwixt crowns and pins; but I rather hold it more just to conclude thus: why should he not cozen in crowns since he does it in pins, than as they do, who say they only play for pins, they would not do it if it were for money?”

I know very well, for what concerns myself, that from having been brought up in my childhood to a plain and straightforward way of dealing, and from having had an aversion to all manner of juggling and foul play in my childish sports and recreations (and, indeed, it is to be noted, that the plays of children are not performed in play, but are to be judged in them as their most serious actions), there is no game so small wherein from my own bosom naturally, and without study or endeavour, I have not an extreme aversion from deceit.”

I saw the other day, at my own house, a little fellow, a native of Nantes, born without arms, who has so well taught his feet to perform the services his hands should have done him, that truly these have half forgotten their natural office; and, indeed, the fellow calls them his hands; with them he cuts anything, charges and discharges a pistol, threads a needle, sews, writes, puts off his hat, combs his head, plays at cards and dice, and all this with as much dexterity as any other could do who had more, and more proper limbs to assist him. The money I gave him—for he gains his living by showing these feats—he took in his foot, as we do in our hand. I have seen another who, being yet a boy, flourished a 2-handed sword, and, if I may so say, handled a halberd with the mere motions of his neck and shoulders for want of hands; tossed them into the air, and caught them again, darted a dagger, and cracked a whip as well as any coachman in France.”

Is it not a shame for a natural philosopher, that is, for an observer and hunter of nature, to seek testimony of the truth from minds prepossessed by custom?”

A French gentleman was always wont to blow his nose with his fingers (a thing very much against our fashion), and he justifying himself for so doing, and he was a man famous for pleasant repartees, he asked me, what privilege this filthy excrement had, that we must carry about us a fine handkerchief to receive it, and, which was more, afterwards to lap it carefully up, and carry it all day about in our pockets, which, he said, could not but be much more nauseous and offensive, than to see it thrown away, as we did all other evacuations. I found that what he said was not altogether without reason, and by being frequently in his company, that slovenly action of his was at last grown familiar to me; which nevertheless we make a face at, when we hear it reported of another country.”

There are peoples, where, his wife and children excepted, no one speaks to the king but through a tube. In one and the same nation, the virgins discover those parts that modesty should persuade them to hide, and the married women carefully cover and conceal them. To which, this custom, in another place, has some relation, where chastity, but in marriage, is of no esteem, for unmarried women may prostitute themselves to as many as they please, and being got with child, may lawfully take physic, in the sight of every one, to destroy their fruit. And, in another place, if a tradesman marry, all of the same condition, who are invited to the wedding, lie with the bride before him; and the greater number of them there is, the greater is her honour, and the opinion of her ability and strength: if an officer marry, ‘tis the same, the same with a labourer, or one of mean condition; but then it belongs to the lord of the place to perform that office; and yet a severe loyalty during marriage is afterward strictly enjoined. There are places where brothels of young men are kept for the pleasure of women; where the wives go to war as well as the husbands, and not only share in the dangers of battle, but, moreover, in the honours of command. Others, where they wear rings not only through their noses, lips, cheeks, and on their toes, but also weighty gimmals of gold thrust through their paps and buttocks; where, in eating, they wipe their fingers upon their thighs, genitories, and the soles of their feet: where children are excluded, and brothers and nephews only inherit; and elsewhere, nephews only, saving in the succession of the prince: where, for the regulation of community in goods and estates, observed in the country, certain sovereign magistrates have committed to them the universal charge and overseeing of the agriculture, and distribution of the fruits, according to the necessity of everyone where they lament the death of children, and feast at the decease of old men: where they lie 10 or 12 in a bed, men and their wives together: where women, whose husbands come to violent ends, may marry again, and others not: where the condition of women is looked upon with such contempt, that they kill all the native females, and buy wives of their neighbours to supply their use; where husbands may repudiate their wives, without showing any cause, but wives cannot part from their husbands, for what cause soever; where husbands may sell their wives in case of sterility; where they boil the bodies of their dead, and afterward pound them to a pulp, which they mix with their wine, and drink it; where the most coveted sepulture is to be eaten by dogs, and elsewhere by birds; where they believe the souls of the blessed live in all manner of liberty, in delightful fields, furnished with all sorts of delicacies, and that it is these souls, repeating the words we utter, which we call Echo; where they fight in the water, and shoot their arrows with the most mortal aim, swimming; where, for a sign of subjection, they lift up their shoulders, and hang down their heads; where they put off their shoes when they enter the king’s palace; where the eunuchs, who take charge of the sacred women, have, moreover, their lips and noses cut off, that they may not be loved; where the priests put out their own eyes, to be better acquainted with their demons, and the better to receive their oracles; where every one makes to himself a deity of what he likes best; the hunter of a lion or a fox, the fisher of some fish; idols of every human action or passion; in which place, the sun, the moon, and the earth are the principal deities, and the form of taking an oath is, to touch the earth, looking up to heaven; where both flesh and fish is eaten raw; where the greatest oath they take is, to swear by the name of some dead person of reputation, laying their hand upon his tomb; where the new-year’s gift the king sends every year to the princes, his vassals, is fire, which being brought, all the old fire is put out, and the neighbouring people are bound to fetch of the new, every one for themselves, upon pain of high treason; where, when the king, to betake himself wholly to devotion, retires from his administration (which often falls out), his next successor is obliged to do the same, and the right of the kingdom devolves to the 3rd in succession: where they vary the form of government, according to the seeming necessity of affairs: depose the king when they think good, substituting certain elders to govern in his stead, and sometimes transferring it into the hands of the commonality: where men and women are both circumcised and also baptized: where the soldier, who in one or several engagements, has been so fortunate as to present 7 of the enemies’ heads to the king, is made noble: where they live in that rare and unsociable opinion of the mortality of the soul: where the women are delivered without pain or fear: where the women wear copper leggings upon both legs, and if a louse [piolho] bite them, are bound in magnanimity to bite them again, and dare not marry, till first they have made their king a tender of their virginity, if he please to accept it: where the ordinary way of salutation is by putting a finger down to the earth, and then pointing it up toward heaven: where men carry burdens upon their heads, and women on their shoulders; where the women make water standing, and the men squatting: where they send their blood in token of friendship, and offer incense to the men they would honour, like gods: where, not only to the 4th, but in any other remote degree, kindred are not permitted to marry: where the children are 4 years at nurse, and often 12; in which place, also, it is accounted mortal to give the child suck the 1st day after it is born: where the correction of the male children is peculiarly designed to the fathers, and to the mothers of the girls; the punishment being to hang them by the heels in the smoke: where they circumcise the women: (DV) where they eat all sorts of herbs, without other scruple than of the badness of the smell: where all things are open the finest houses, furnished in the richest manner, without doors, windows, trunks, or chests to lock, a thief being there punished double what they are in other places: where they crack lice with their teeth like monkeys, and abhor to see them killed with one’s nails: where in all their lives they neither cut their hair nor pare their nails; and, in another place, pare those of the right hand only, letting the left grow for ornament and bravery: where they suffer the hair on the right side to grow as long as it will, and shave the other; and in the neighbouring provinces, some let their hair grow long before, and some behind, shaving close the rest: where parents let out their children, and husbands their wives, to their guests to hire: where a man may get his own mother with child, and fathers make use of their own daughters or sons, without scandal: [fake news] where, at their solemn feasts, they interchangeably lend their children to one another, without any consideration of nearness of blood. In one place, men feed upon human flesh; in another, ‘tis reputed a pious office for a man to kill his father at a certain age; elsewhere, the fathers dispose of their children, whilst yet in their mothers’ wombs, some to be preserved and carefully brought up, and others to be abandoned or made away. Elsewhere the old husbands lend their wives to young men; and in another place they are in common without offence; in one place particularly, the women take it for a mark of honour to have as many gay fringed tassels at the bottom of their garment, as they have lain with several men. Moreover, has not custom made a republic of women separately by themselves? has it not put arms into their hands, and made them raise armies and fight battles? And does she not, by her own precept, instruct the most ignorant vulgar, and make them perfect in things which all the philosophy in the world could never beat into the heads of the wisest men? For we know entire nations, where death was not only despised, but entertained with the greatest triumph; where children of 7 years old suffered themselves to be whipped to death, without changing countenance; where riches were in such contempt, that the meanest citizen would not have deigned to stoop to take up a purse of crowns. And we know regions, very fruitful in all manner of provisions, where, notwithstanding, the most ordinary diet, and that they are most pleased with, is only bread, cresses, [agrião] and water. Did not custom, moreover, work that miracle in Chios that, in 700 years, it was never known that ever maid or wife committed any act to the prejudice of her honour?”

Darius asking certain Greeks what they would take to assume the custom of the Indians, of eating the dead bodies of their fathers (for that was their use, believing they could not give them a better nor more noble sepulture than to bury them in their own bodies), they made answer, that nothing in the world should hire them to do it; but having also tried to persuade the Indians to leave their custom, and, after the Greek manner, to burn the bodies of their fathers, they conceived a still greater horror at the motion. (Herodotus, 3:38)”

testemunhai Crísipo (Sextus Empiricus, Pyyrhon. Hypotyp., 1:14), quem, em tantos de seus escritos, espargiu sua soberana indiferença frente a conjunções incestuosas, não importa quão próximo fosse o grau de parentesco entre os partícipes.”

I shall ask him, what can be more strange than to see a people obliged to obey laws they never understood; bound in all their domestic affairs, as marriages, donations, wills, sales, and purchases, to rules they cannot possibly know, being neither written nor published in their own language, and of which they are of necessity to purchase both the interpretation and the use? Not according to the ingenious opinion of Isocrates,—(Discourse to Nicocles)—who counselled his king to make the traffics and negotiations of his subjects, free, frank, and of profit to them, and their quarrels and disputes burdensome, and laden with heavy impositions and penalties; but, by a prodigious opinion, to make sale of reason itself, and to give to laws a course of merchandise. I think myself obliged to fortune that, as our historians report, it was a Gascon gentleman, a countryman of mine, who first opposed Charlemagne, when he attempted to impose upon us Latin and imperial laws.”

there are double laws, those of honour and those of justice, in many things altogether opposite one to another; the nobles as rigorously condemning a lie taken, as the other do a lie revenged: by the law of arms, he shall be degraded from all nobility and honour who puts up with an affront; and by the civil law, he who vindicates his reputation by revenge incurs a capital punishment: he who applies himself to the law for reparation of an offence done to his honour, disgraces himself; and he who does not, is censured and punished by the law. Yet of these 2 so different things, both of them referring to one head, the one has the charge of peace, the other of war; those have the profit, these the honour; those the wisdom, these the virtue; those the word, these the action; those justice, these valour; those reason, these force; those the long robe, these the short;—divided betwixt them.”

for the most fantastic, in my opinion, that can be imagined, I will instance amongst others, our flat caps, that long tail of velvet that hangs down from our women’s heads, with its party-coloured trappings; and that vain and futile model of a member we cannot in modesty so much as name, which, nevertheless, we make show and parade of in public.” Curiosamente análogo ao trecho narrado por Dolgoruki em O Adolescente

The Ephoros who so rudely cut the 2 strings that Phrynis had added to music never stood to examine whether that addition made better harmony, or that by its means the instrument was more full and complete; it was enough for him to condemn the invention, that it was a novelty, and an alteration of the old fashion. Which also is the meaning of the old rusty sword carried before the magistracy of Marseilles.” Não entendeu o mundo grego.

O QUE AGUARDA JAIR BOLSONARO: “Alas! The wounds were made by my own weapons.

Ovid, Ep. Phyll. Demophoonti, vers. 48.

They who give the first shock to a state, are almost naturally the first overwhelmed in its ruin; the fruits of public commotion are seldom enjoyed by him who was the first motor; he beats and disturbs the water for another’s net.”

CHAPTER XXIII——VARIOUS EVENTS FROM THE SAME COUNSEL

What then, is it possible that I am to live in perpetual anxiety and alarm, and suffer my would-be assassin, meantime, to walk abroad at liberty? Shall he go unpunished, after having conspired against my life, a life that I have hitherto defended in so many civil wars, in so many battles by land and by sea? And after having settled the universal peace of the whole world, shall this man be pardoned, who has conspired not only to murder, but to sacrifice me?” Júlio (ou Augusto?) César

<Why livest thou, if it be for the good of so many that thou shouldst die? must there be no end of thy revenges and cruelties? Is thy life of so great value, that so many mischiefs must be done to preserve it?> His wife Livia, seeing him in this perplexity: <Will you take a woman’s counsel?> said she. <Do as the physicians do, who, when the ordinary recipes will do no good, make trial of the contrary. By severity you have hitherto prevailed nothing; Lepidus has followed Salvidienus; Murena, Lepidus; Caepio, Murena; Egnatius, Caepio. Begin now, and try how sweetness and clemency will succeed. Cinna is convict; forgive him, he will never henceforth have the heart to hurt thee, and it will be an act to thy glory.> Augustus was well pleased that he had met with an advocate of his own humour; wherefore, having thanked his wife, and, in the morning, countermanded his friends he had before summoned to council, he commanded Cinna all alone to be brought to him; who being accordingly come, and a chair by his appointment set him, having ordered all the rest out of the room, he spake to him after this manner: <In the first place, Cinna, I demand of thee patient audience; do not interrupt me in what I am about to say, and I will afterwards give thee time and leisure to answer. Thou knowest, Cinna, that having taken thee prisoner in the enemy’s camp, and thou an enemy, not only so become, but born so, I gave thee thy life, restored to thee all thy goods, and, finally, put thee in so good a posture, by my bounty, of living well and at thy ease, that the victorious envied the conquered. The sacerdotal office which thou madest suit to me for, I conferred upon thee, after having denied it to others, whose fathers have ever borne arms in my service. After so many obligations, thou hast undertaken to kill me.” At which Cinna crying out that he was very far from entertaining any so wicked a thought: <Thou dost not keep thy promise, Cinna, that thou wouldst not interrupt me. Yes, thou hast undertaken to murder me in such a place, on such a day, in such and such company, and in such a manner.> At which words, seeing Cinna astounded and silent, not upon the account of his promise so to be, but interdict with the weight of his conscience: <Why, to what end wouldst thou do it? Is it to be emperor? Believe me, the Republic is in very ill condition, if I am the only man betwixt thee and the empire. Thou art not able so much as to defend thy own house, and but t’other day was baffled in a suit, by the opposed interest of a mere manumitted slave. What, hast thou neither means nor power in any other thing, but only to undertake Caesar? I quit the throne, if there be no other than I to obstruct thy hopes. Canst thou believe that Paulus, that Fabius, that the Cossii and the Servilii, and so many noble Romans, not only so in title, but who by their virtue, honour and their nobility, would suffer or endure thee?> After this, and a great deal more that he said to him (for he was 2 long hours in speaking), <Now go, Cinna, go thy way: I give thee that life as traitor and parricide, which I before gave thee in the quality of an enemy. Let friendship from this time forward begin betwixt us, and let us show whether I have given, or thou hast received thy life with the better faith>; and so departed from him. Some time after, he preferred him to the consular dignity, complaining that he had not the confidence to demand it; had him everafter for his very great friend, and was, at last, made by him sole heir to all his estate. Now, from the time of this accident which befell Augustus in the 40th year of his age, he never had any conspiracy or attempt against him, and so reaped the due reward of this his so generous clemency. But—so vain and futile a thing is human prudence; throughout all our projects, counsels and precautions, Fortune will still be mistress of events. “

The poetic raptures, the flights of fancy, that ravish and transport the author out of himself, why should we not attribute them to his good fortune, since he himself confesses that they exceed his sufficiency and force, and acknowledges them to proceed from something else than himself, and that he has them no more in his power than the orators say they have those extraordinary motions and agitations that sometimes push them beyond their design? It is the same in painting, where touches shall sometimes slip from the hand of the painter, so surpassing both his conception and his art, as to beget his own admiration and astonishment. But Fortune does yet more evidently manifest the share she has in all things of this kind, by the graces and elegances we find in them, not only beyond the intention, but even without the knowledge of the workman: a competent reader often discovers in other men’s writings other perfections than the author himself either intended or perceived, a richer sense and more quaint expression.”

all that our wisdom can do alone is no great matter; the more piercing, quick, and apprehensive it is, the weaker it finds itself, and is by so much more apt to mistrust itself. I am of Sylla’s opinion (<Who freed his great deeds from envy by ever attributing them to his good fortune, and finally by surnaming himself Faustus, the Lucky.>—Plutarch, How far a Man may praise Himself, IX); and when I closely examine the most glorious exploits of war, I perceive, methinks, that those who carry them on make use of counsel and debate only for custom’s sake, and leave the best part of the enterprise to Fortune, and relying upon her aid, transgress, at every turn, the bounds of military conduct and the rules of war.”

You will read in history, of many who have been in such apprehension, that the most part have taken the course to meet and anticipate conspiracies against them by punishment and revenge; but I find very few who have reaped any advantage by this proceeding; witness so many Roman emperors. Whoever finds himself in this danger, ought not to expect much either from his vigilance or power; for how hard a thing is it for a man to secure himself from an enemy, who lies concealed under the countenance of the most assiduous friend we have, and to discover and know the wills and inward thoughts of those who are in our personal service.”

whosoever despises his own life, is always master of that of another man.” Sêneca

And moreover, this continual suspicion, that makes a prince jealous of all the world, must of necessity be a strange torment to him. Therefore it was, that Dion, being advertised that Callippus watched all opportunities to take away his life, had never the heart to inquire more particularly into it, saying, that he had rather die than live in that misery, that he must continually stand upon his guard, not only against his enemies, but his friends also”

Those who preach to princes so circumspect and vigilant a jealousy and distrust, under colour of security, preach to them ruin and dishonour: nothing noble can be performed without danger. Those who preach to princes so circumspect and vigilant a jealousy and distrust, under colour of security, preach to them ruin and dishonour: nothing noble can be performed without danger.”

Courage, the reputation and glory of which men seek with so greedy an appetite, presents itself, when need requires, as magnificently in cuerpo, as in full armour; in a closet, as in a camp; with arms pendant, as with arms raised.” E tudo aquilo foi como se não fôra nada… Quando olhei para trás, em retrospecto, já havia sido corajoso!

Confiança obriga à fidelidade. O que é uma verdade tanto para o senhor quanto para o súdito.

The most mistrustful of our kings—Louis XI—established his affairs principally by voluntarily committing his life and liberty into his enemies’ hands, by that action manifesting that he had absolute confidence in them, to the end they might repose as great an assurance in him.”

Só merece ser temido quem escolhe não temer.

to represent a pretended resolution with a pale and doubtful countenance and trembling limbs, for the service of an important reconciliation, will effect nothing to purpose.”

There is nothing so little to be expected or hoped for from this many-headed monster, in its fury, as humanity and good nature”

I look upon Julius Caesar’s way of winning men to him as the best and finest that can be put in practice. First, he tried by clemency to make himself beloved even by his very enemies, contenting himself, in detected conspiracies, only publicly to declare, that he was pre-acquainted with them; which being done, he took a noble resolution to await without solicitude or fear, whatever might be the event, wholly resigning himself to the protection of the gods and fortune: for, questionless, in this state he was at the time when he was killed.”

A stranger having publicly said, that he could teach Dionysius, the tyrant of Syracuse, an infallible way to find out and discover all the conspiracies his subjects could contrive against him, if he would give him a good sum of money for his pains, Dionysius hearing of it, caused the man to be brought to him, that he might learn an art so necessary to his preservation. The man made answer, that all the art he knew was that he should give him a talent, and afterwards boast that he had obtained a singular secret from him. Dionysius liked the invention, and accordingly caused 600 crowns to be counted out to him. It was not likely he should give so great a sum to a person unknown, but upon the account of some extraordinary discovery, and the belief of this served to keep his enemies in awe. Princes, however, do wisely to publish the informations they receive of all the practices against their lives, to possess men with an opinion they have so good intelligence that nothing can be plotted against them, but they have present notice of it.”

To invite a man’s enemies to come and cut his throat, seems a resolution a little extravagant and odd; and yet I think he did better to take that course, than to live in continual feverish fear of an accident for which there was no cure. But seeing all the remedies a man can apply to such a disease are full of unquietness and uncertainty, ‘tis better with a manly courage to prepare one’s self for the worst that can happen, and to extract some consolation from this, that we are not certain the thing we fear will ever come to pass.”

CHAPTER XXIV——OF PEDANTRY

as plants are suffocated and drowned with too much nourishment, and lamps with too much oil, so with too much study and matter is the active part of the understanding which, being embarrassed, and confounded with a great diversity of things, loses the force and power to disengage itself, and by the pressure of this weight, is bowed, subjected, and doubled up.”

the philosopher is so ignorant of what his neighbour does, that he scarce knows whether he is a man, or some other animal” Plato – Montaigne pensa que isso é uma crítica, mas é um elogio ao filósofo.

For what concerns the philosophers, as I have said, if they were in science, they were yet much greater in action. And, as it is said of the geometrician of Syracuse (Archimedes), who having been disturbed from his contemplation, to put some of his skill in practice for the defence of his country, that he suddenly set on foot dreadful and prodigious engines, that wrought effects beyond all human expectation; himself, notwithstanding, disdaining all his handiwork, and thinking in this he had played the mere mechanic, and violated the dignity of his art, of which these performances of his he accounted but trivial experiments and playthings so they, whenever they have been put upon the proof of action, have been seen to fly to so high a pitch, as made it very well appear, their souls were marvellously elevated, and enriched by the knowledge of things.”

In plain truth, the cares and expense our parents are at in our education point at nothing but to furnish our heads with knowledge; but not a word of judgment and virtue.”

so our pedants go picking knowledge here and there, out of books, and hold it at the tongue’s end, only to spit it out and distribute it abroad. (…) do I not the same thing throughout almost this whole composition? I go here and there, culling out of several books the sentences that best please me, not to keep them (for I have no memory to retain them in), but to transplant them into this; where, to say the truth, they are no more mine than in their first places. (…) We can say, Cicero says thus; these were the manners of Plato; these are the very words of Aristotle: but what do we say ourselves? What do we judge? A parrot would say as much as that.”

I know one, who, when I question him what he knows, he presently calls for a book to show me, and dares not venture to tell me so much, as that he has piles in his posteriors, till first he has consulted his dictionary, what piles and what posteriors are.”

We are in this very like him who, having need of fire, went to a neighbour’s house to fetch it, and finding a very good one there, sat down to warm himself without remembering to carry any with him home.” Plutarch, How a Man should Listen

What good does it do us to have the stomach full of meat, if it do not digest, if it be not incorporated with us, if it does not nourish and support us?” Cicero

Would I fortify myself against the fear of death, it must be at the expense of Seneca: would I extract consolation for myself or my friend, I borrow it from Cicero. I might have found it in myself, had I been trained to make use of my own reason.”

Diogenes the cynic laughed at the grammarians, who set themselves to inquire into the miseries of Ulysses, and were ignorant of their own; at musicians, who were so exact in tuning their instruments, and never tuned their manners; at orators, who made it a study to declare what is justice, but never took care to do it. If the mind be not better disposed, if the judgment be no better settled, I had much rather my scholar had spent his time at tennis, for, at least, his body would by that means be in better exercise and breath. Do but observe him when he comes back from school, after 15 or 16 years that he has been there; there is nothing so unfit for employment; all you shall find he has got is that his Latin and Greek have only made him a greater coxcomb [dândi] than when he went from home.”

These pedants of ours, as Plato says of the Sophists, their cousin-germans, are, of all men, they who most pretend to be useful to mankind, and who not only do not better and improve that which is committed to them, as a carpenter or a mason would do, but make them much worse, and make us pay them for making them worse, to boot.”

you see the husbandman and the cobbler go simply and fairly about their business, speaking only of what they know and understand; whereas these fellows, to make parade and to get opinion, mustering this ridiculous knowledge of theirs, that floats on the superficies of the brain, are perpetually perplexing, and entangling themselves in their own nonsense.”

They are wonderfully well acquainted with Galen, but not at all with the disease of the patient; they have already deafened you with a long ribble-row of laws, but understand nothing of the case in hand; they have the theory of all things, let who will put it in practice.”

O you, of patrician blood, to whom it is permitted to live without eyes in the back of your head, beware of grimaces at you from behind.”

Whosoever shall narrowly pry into and thoroughly sift this sort of people, wherewith the world is so pestered, will, as I have done, find, that for the most part, they neither understand others, nor themselves; and that their memories are full enough, but the judgment totally void and empty; some excepted, whose own nature has of itself formed them into better fashion. As I have observed, for example, in Adrian Turnebus, who having never made other profession than that of mere learning only, and in that, in my opinion, he was the greatest man that has been these thousand years, had nothing at all in him of the pedant, but the wearing of his gown, and a little exterior fashion, that could not be civilised to courtier ways, which in themselves are nothing. I hate our people, who can worse endure an ill-contrived robe than an ill-contrived mind, and take their measure by the leg a man makes, by his behaviour, and so much as the very fashion of his boots, what kind of man he is.”

For it is not for knowledge to enlighten a soul that is dark of itself, nor to make a blind man see. Her business is not to find a man’s eyes, but to guide, govern, and direct them, provided he have sound feet and straight legs to go upon. Knowledge is an excellent drug, but no drug has virtue enough to preserve itself from corruption and decay, if the vessel be tainted and impure wherein it is put to keep.”

Plato’s principal institution in his Republic is to fit his citizens with employments suitable to their nature. Nature can do all, and does all. Cripples are very unfit for exercises of the body, and lame souls for exercises of the mind. Degenerate and vulgar souls are unworthy of philosophy. If we see a shoemaker with his shoes out at the toes, we say, ‘tis no wonder; for, commonly, none go worse shod than they. In like manner, experience often presents us a physician worse physicked, a divine less reformed, and (constantly) a scholar of less sufficiency, than other people.”

Old Aristo of Chios had reason to say that philosophers did their auditors harm, forasmuch as most of the souls of those that heard them were not capable of deriving benefit from instruction, which, if not applied to good, would certainly be applied to ill”

They proceeded effeminate debauchees from the school of Aristippus, cynics from that of Zeno.”

Cicero, De Natura Deor., iii., 31.

It is a thing worthy of very great consideration, that in that excellent and, in truth, for its perfection, prodigious form of civil regimen set down by Lycurgus, though so solicitous of the education of children, as a thing of the greatest concern, and even in the very seat of the Muses, he should make so little mention of learning; as if that generous youth, disdaining all other subjection but that of virtue, ought to be supplied, instead of tutors to read to them arts and sciences, with such masters as should only instruct them in valour, prudence, and justice; an example that Plato has followed in his laws.”

A great boy in our school, having a little short cassock, by force took a longer from another that was not so tall as he, and gave him his own in exchange: whereupon I, being appointed judge of the controversy, gave judgment, that I thought it best each should keep the coat he had, for that they both of them were better fitted with that of one another than with their own: upon which my master told me I had done ill, in that I had only considered the fitness of the garments, whereas I ought to have considered the justice of the thing, which required that no one should have anything forcibly taken from him that is his own.” Ciro, o rei persa

it is nothing strange if, when Antipater demanded of the spartans 50 children for hostages, they made answer, quite contrary to what we should do, that they would rather give him twice as many full-grown men, so much did they value the loss of their country’s education.”

The most potent empire that at this day appears to be in the whole world is that of the Turks, a people equally inured to the estimation of arms and the contempt of letters. I find Rome was more valiant before she grew so learned. The most warlike nations at this time in being are the most rude and ignorant: the Scythians, the Parthians, Tamerlane, serve for sufficient proof of this. When the Goths overran Greece, the only thing that preserved all the libraries from the fire was that some one possessed them with an opinion that they were to leave this kind of furniture entire to the enemy, as being most proper to divert them from the exercise of arms, and to fix them to a lazy and sedentary life. When our King Charles VIII, almost without striking a blow, saw himself possessed of the kingdom of Naples and a considerable part of Tuscany, the nobles about him attributed this unexpected facility of conquest to this, that the princes and nobles of Italy more studied to render themselves ingenious and learned than vigorous and warlike.”

CHAPTER XXV——OF THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN

I never seriously settled myself to the reading any book of solid learning but Plutarch and Seneca; and there, like the Danaides, I eternally fill, and it as constantly runs out; something of which drops upon this paper, but little or nothing stays with me.” Quem acompanha o blog há algum tempo sabe que Plutarco é um mentiroso patológico, mero criptomitólogo!

many words so dull, so insipid, so void of all wit or common sense, that indeed they were only French words!”

the greatest and most important difficulty of human science is the education of children.” “The symptoms of their inclinations in that tender age are so obscure, and the promises so uncertain and fallacious, that it is very hard to establish any solid judgment or conjecture upon them.” “we often take very great pains, and consume a good part of our time in training up children to things, for which, by their natural constitution, they are totally unfit.”

“‘Tis the custom of pedagogues to be eternally thundering in their pupil’s ears, as they were pouring into a funnel, whilst the business of the pupil is only to repeat what the others have said” “Socrates, and since him Arcesilaus, made first their scholars speak, and then they spoke to them”

Such as, according to our common way of teaching, undertake, with one and the same lesson, and the same measure of direction, to instruct several boys of differing and unequal capacities, are infinitely mistaken; and ‘tis no wonder, if in a whole multitude of scholars, there are not found above two or three who bring away any good account of their time and discipline. Let the master not only examine him about the grammatical construction of the bare words of his lesson, but about the sense and let him judge of the profit he has made, not by the testimony of his memory, but by that of his life.”

I was privately carried at Pisa to see a very honest man, but so great an Aristotelian, that his most usual thesis was: <That the touchstone and square of all solid imagination, and of all truth, was an absolute conformity to Aristotle’s doctrine; and that all besides was nothing but inanity and chimera; for that he had seen all, and said all.>“Who follows another, follows nothing, finds nothing, nay, is inquisitive after nothing.”

and no matter if he forget where he had his learning, provided he know how to apply it to his own use.”

Men that live upon pillage and borrowing expose their purchases and buildings to everyone’s view: but do not proclaim how they came by the money.”

I would that a boy should be sent abroad very young, and first, so as to kill two birds with one stone, into those neighbouring nations whose language is most differing from our own, and to which, if it be not formed betimes, the tongue will grow too stiff to bend.”

when wrestlers counterfeit the philosophers in patience, ‘tis rather strength of nerves than stoutness of heart.”

O trabalho enobrece ou termina de estragar.™

When the vines of my village are nipped with the frost, my parish priest presently concludes, that the indignation of God has gone out against all the human race, and that the cannibals have already got the pip. Who is it that, seeing the havoc of these civil wars of ours, does not cry out, that the machine of the world is near dissolution, and that the day of judgment is at hand; without considering, that many worse things have been seen, and that in the meantime, people are very merry in a thousand other parts of the earth for all this? For my part, considering the licence and impunity that always attend such commotions, I wonder they are so moderate, and that there is no more mischief done. To him who feels the hailstones patter about his ears, the whole hemisphere appears to be in storm and tempest; like the ridiculous Savoyard, who said very gravely, that if that simple king of France could have managed his fortune as he should have done, he might in time have come to have been steward of the household to the duke his master: the fellow could not, in his shallow imagination, conceive that there could be anything greater than a Duke of Savoy. And, in truth, we are all of us, insensibly, in this error, an error of a very great weight and very pernicious consequence. But whoever shall represent to his fancy, as in a picture, that great image of our mother nature, in her full majesty and lustre, whoever in her face shall read so general and so constant a variety, whoever shall observe himself in that figure, and not himself but a whole kingdom, no bigger than the least touch or prick of a pencil in comparison of the whole, that man alone is able to value things according to their true estimate and grandeur.”

So many humours, so many sects, so many judgments, opinions, laws, and customs, teach us to judge aright of our own, and inform our understanding to discover its imperfection and natural infirmity, which is no trivial speculation. So many mutations of states and kingdoms, and so many turns and revolutions of public fortune will make us wise enough to make no great wonder of our own. So many great names, so many famous victories and conquests drowned and swallowed in oblivion, render our hopes ridiculous of eternising our names by the taking of half-a-score of light horse, or a henroost, [galinheiro] which only derives its memory from its ruin.”

“‘Tis a great foolery to teach our children what influence Pisces have, or the sign of angry Leo, or Capricorn, washed by the Hesperian wave.”—Propertius

To what purpose should I trouble myself in searching out the secrets of the stars, having death or slavery continually before my eyes?” Anaximenes to Pythagoras

“‘Tis for such as are puzzled about inquiring whether the future tense of the verb ——— is spelt with a double A, or that hunt after the derivation of the comparatives ——- and ——-, and the superlatives —— and ———, to knit their brows whilst discoursing of their science: but as to philosophical discourses, they always divert and cheer up those that entertain them, and never deject them or make them sad.” Heracleon the Megarean

“‘Tis Baroco and Baralipton—(Two terms of the ancient scholastic logic.)—that render their disciples so dirty and ill-favoured, and not philosophy; they do not so much as know her but by hearsay. What! It is she that calms and appeases the storms and tempests of the soul, and who teaches famine and fevers to laugh and sing; and that, not by certain imaginary epicycles, but by natural and manifest reasons.”

If this pupil shall happen to be of so contrary a disposition, that he had rather hear a tale of a tub than the true narrative of some noble expedition or some wise and learned discourse; who at the beat of drum, that excites the youthful ardour of his companions, leaves that to follow another that calls to a morris [baile campesino] or the bears; who would not wish, and find it more delightful and more excellent, to return all dust and sweat victorious from a battle than from tennis or from a ball, with the prize of those exercises; I see no other remedy, but that he be bound prentice in some good town to learn to make minced pies, though he were the son of a duke; according to Plato’s precept, that children are to be placed out and disposed of, not according to the wealth, qualities, or condition of the father, but according to the faculties and the capacity of their own souls.”

They begin to teach us to live when we have almost done living.”

And how many have I seen in my time totally brutified by an immoderate thirst after knowledge? Carneades was so besotted with it, that he would not find time so much as to comb his head or to pare his nails.”

(*)Hobbes said that if he had been at college as long as other people he should have been as great a blockhead as they. And Bacon, before Hobbes’ time had discussed the futility of university teaching.” (nota do editor, séc. XIX.)

To our little monsieur, a closet, a garden, the table, his bed, solitude, and company, morning and evening, all hours shall be the same, and all places to him a study. Philosophy, who, as the formatrix of judgment and manners, shall be his principal lesson, has that privilege to have a hand in everything.”

As to the rest, this method of education ought to be carried on with a severe sweetness, quite contrary to the practice of our pedants, who, instead of tempting and alluring children to letters by apt and gentle ways, do in truth present nothing before them but rods and ferules, horror and cruelty.” “‘Tis a real house of correction of imprisoned youth. They are made debauched by being punished before they are so. Do but come in when they are about their lesson, and you shall hear nothing but the outcries of boys under execution, with the thundering noise of their pedagogues drunk with fury. A very pretty way this, to tempt these tender and timorous souls to love their book, with a furious countenance, and a rod in hand!”

“‘Tis marvellous to see how solicitous Plato is in his Laws concerning the gaiety and diversion of the youth of his city, and how much and often he enlarges upon the races, sports, songs, leaps, and dances: of which, he says, that antiquity has given the ordering and patronage particularly to the gods themselves, to Apollo, Minerva, and the Muses. He insists long upon, and is very particular in, giving innumerable precepts for exercises; but as to the lettered sciences, says very little, and only seems particularly to recommend poetry upon the account of music.” Misconception on poetry! E eu devo ter perdido essa parte tão ‘despojada’ d’As Leis! No máximo, a ênfase na ‘liberdade do exercício’ deve ser uma concessão à unilateralidade oposta (e também excessiva) d’A República

All singularity in our manners and conditions is to be avoided, as inconsistent with civil society.”

There is a vast difference betwixt forbearing to sin, and not knowing how to sin.”—Seneca

Uma coisa é verdade: deve-se comer pimenta entre os mexicanos, e não se deve ser um grande devasso no Tibete!

A Westfalia ham makes a man drink; drink quenches thirst: ergo a Westfalia ham quenches thirst. Why [what will our boy do?], let him laugh at it; it will be more discretion to do so, than to go about to answer it”

Most of those I converse with, speak the same language I here write; but whether they think the same thoughts I cannot say.”

Not that fine speaking is not a very good and commendable quality; but not so excellent and so necessary as some would make it; and I am scandalised that our whole life should be spent in nothing else. I would first understand my own language, and that of my neighbours, with whom most of my business and conversation lies.”

SOPA CONTRADITÓRIA DE IDÉIAS: “No doubt but Greek and Latin are very great ornaments, and of very great use, but we buy them too dear. (…) I was above 6 years of age before I understood either French or Perigordin, any more than Arabic; and without art, book, grammar, or precept, whipping, or the expense of a tear, I had, by that time, learned to speak as pure Latin as my master himself, for I had no means of mixing it up with any other. If, for example, they were to give me a theme after the college fashion, they gave it to others in French; but to me they were to give it in bad Latin, to turn it into that which was good.”

CHAPTER XXVI——THAT IT IS FOLLY TO MEASURE TRUTH AND ERROR BY OUR OWN CAPACITY

If we give the names of monster and miracle to everything our reason cannot comprehend, how many are continually presented before our eyes?”

CHAPTER XXVII——OF FRIENDSHIP

La Boétie escreveu sua Servidão voluntária antes dos 18 anos.

But he has left nothing behind him, save this treatise only (and that too by chance, for I believe he never saw it after it first went out of his hands), and some observations upon that edict of January (1562, which granted to the Huguenots the public exercise of their religion.) made famous by our civil wars, which also shall elsewhere, peradventure, find a place. These were all I could recover of his remains, I to whom with so affectionate a remembrance, upon his death-bed, he by his last will bequeathed his library and papers, the little book of his works only excepted, which I committed to the press. And this particular obligation I have to this treatise of his, that it was the occasion of my first coming acquainted with him; for it was showed to me long before I had the good fortune to know him; and the first knowledge of his name, proving the first cause and foundation of a friendship, which we afterwards improved and maintained, so long as God was pleased to continue us together, so perfect, inviolate, and entire, that certainly the like is hardly to be found in story, and amongst the men of this age, there is no sign nor trace of any such thing in use”

The father and the son may be of quite contrary humours, and so of brothers: he is my son, he is my brother; but he is passionate, ill-natured, or a fool.”

As the hunter pursues the hare, in cold and heat, to the mountain, to the shore, nor cares for it farther when he sees it taken, and only delights in chasing that which flees from him.”—Aristo of Cuios, x. 7.

O my friends, there is no friend” Aristotle

If two at the same time should call to you for succour, to which of them would you run? Should they require of you contrary offices, how could you serve them both? Should one commit a thing to your silence that it were of importance to the other to know, how would you disengage yourself? A unique and particular friendship dissolves all other obligations whatsoever: the secret I have sworn not to reveal to any other, I may without perjury communicate to him who is not another, but myself. ‘Tis miracle enough certainly, for a man to double himself, and those that talk of tripling, talk they know not of what.”

CHAPTER XXIX——OF MODERATION

Those who say there is never any excess in virtue, forasmuch as it is not virtue when it once becomes excess, only play upon words”

An immoderate zeal, even to that which is good, even though it does not offend, astonishes me, and puts me to study what name to give it.”

The archer that shoots over, misses as much as he that falls short, and ‘tis equally troublesome to my sight, to look up at a great light, and to look down into a dark abyss.”

Marriage is a solemn and religious tie, and therefore the pleasure we extract from it should be a sober and serious delight, and mixed with a certain kind of gravity; it should be a sort of discreet and conscientious pleasure.” “Aelius Verus, the emperor, answered his wife, who reproached him with his love to other women, that he did it upon a conscientious account, forasmuch as marriage was a name of honour and dignity, not of wanton and lascivious desire”

CHAPTER XXX——OF CANNIBALS

I am sorry that Lycurgus and Plato had no knowledge of them; for to my apprehension, what we now see in those nations does not only surpass all the pictures with which the poets have adorned the golden age, and all their inventions in feigning a happy state of man, but, moreover, the fancy and even the wish and desire of philosophy itself; so native and so pure a simplicity, as we by experience see to be in them, could never enter into their imagination, nor could they ever believe that human society could have been maintained with so little artifice and human patchwork. I should tell Plato that it is a nation wherein there is no manner of traffic, no knowledge of letters, no science of numbers, no name of magistrate or political superiority; no use of service, riches or poverty, no contracts, no successions, no dividends, no properties, no employments, but those of leisure, no respect of kindred, but common, no clothing, no agriculture, no metal, no use of corn or wine; the very words that signify lying, treachery, dissimulation, avarice, envy, detraction, pardon, never heard of.

(This is the famous passage which Shakespeare, through Florio’s version, 1603, or ed. 1613, p. 102, has employed in the Tempest, ii. 1.]” PLAGIÁRIO!

As to the rest, they live in a country very pleasant and temperate, so that, as my witnesses inform me, ‘tis rare to hear of a sick person, and they moreover assure me that they never saw any of the natives, either paralytic, bleareyed, toothless, or crooked with age. The situation of their country is along the sea-shore, enclosed on the other side towards the land, with great and high mountains, having about 100 leagues in breadth between. They have great store of fish and flesh, that have no resemblance to those of ours: which they eat without any other cookery, than plain boiling, roasting, and broiling. The first that rode a horse thither, though in several other voyages he had contracted an acquaintance and familiarity with them, put them into so terrible a fright, with his centaur appearance, that they killed him with their arrows before they could come to discover who he was. [HAHAHA] Their buildings are very long, and of capacity to hold 200 or 300 people, made of the barks of tall trees, reared with one end upon the ground, and leaning to and supporting one another at the top, like some of our barns, of which the covering hangs down to the very ground, and serves for the side walls. They have wood so hard, that they cut with it, and make their swords of it, and their grills of it to broil their meat. Their beds are of cotton, hung swinging from the roof, like our seamen’s hammocks, every man his own, for the wives lie apart from their husbands. They rise with the sun, and so soon as they are up, eat for all day, for they have no more meals but that; they do not then drink, as Suidas reports of some other people of the East that never drank at their meals; but drink very often all day after, and sometimes to a rousing pitch. Their drink is made of a certain root, and is of the colour of our claret, and they never drink it but lukewarm. It will not keep above 2 or 3 days; it has a somewhat sharp, brisk taste, is nothing heady, but very comfortable to the stomach; laxative to strangers, but a very pleasant beverage to such as are accustomed to it. They make use, instead of bread, of a certain white compound, like coriander seeds; I have tasted of it; the taste is sweet and a little flat. The whole day is spent in dancing. Their young men go a-hunting after wild beasts with bows and arrows; one part of their women are employed in preparing their drink the while, which is their chief employment. One of their old men, in the morning before they fall to eating, preaches to the whole family, walking from the one end of the house to the other, and several times repeating the same sentence, till he has finished the round, for their houses are at least 100 yards long. Valour towards their enemies and love towards their wives, are the two heads of his discourse, never failing in the close, to put them in mind, that ‘tis their wives who provide them their drink warm and well seasoned. The fashion of their beds, ropes, swords, and of the wooden bracelets they tie about their wrists, when they go to fight, and of the great canes, bored hollow at one end, by the sound of which they keep the cadence of their dances, are to be seen in several places, and amongst others, at my house. They shave all over, and much more neatly than we, without other razor than one of wood or stone. They believe in the immortality of the soul, and that those who have merited well of the gods are lodged in that part of heaven where the sun rises, and the accursed in the west.

They have I know not what kind of priests and prophets, who very rarely present themselves to the people, having their abode in the mountains. At their arrival, there is a great feast, and solemn assembly of many villages: each house, as I have described, makes a village, and they are about a French league distant from one another. This prophet declaims to them in public, exhorting them to virtue and their duty: but all their ethics are comprised in these 2 articles, resolution in war, and affection to their wives. He also prophesies to them events to come, and the issues they are to expect from their enterprises, and prompts them to or diverts them from war: but let him look to’t; for if he fail in his divination, and anything happens otherwise than he has foretold, he is cut into a thousand pieces, if he be caught, and condemned for a false prophet: [HAHAHA] for that reason, if any of them has been mistaken, he is no more heard of.”

They have continual war with the nations that live further within the mainland, beyond their mountains, to which they go naked, and without other arms than their bows and wooden swords, fashioned at one end like the head of our javelins. The obstinacy of their battles is wonderful, and they never end without great effusion of blood: for as to running away, they know not what it is. Every one for a trophy brings home the head of an enemy he has killed, which he fixes over the door of his house. After having a long time treated their prisoners very well, and given them all the regales they can think of, he to whom the prisoner belongs, invites a great assembly of his friends. They being come, he ties a rope to one of the arms of the prisoner, of which, at a distance, out of his reach, he holds the one end himself, and gives to the friend he loves best the other arm to hold after the same manner; which being done, they 2, in the presence of all the assembly, despatch him with their swords. After that, they roast him, eat him amongst them, and send some chops to their absent friends. They do not do this, as some think, for nourishment, as the Scythians anciently did, but as a representation of an extreme revenge; as will appear by this: that having observed the Portuguese, who were in league with their enemies, to inflict another sort of death upon any of them they took prisoners, which was to set them up to the girdle in the earth, to shoot at the remaining part till it was stuck full of arrows, and then to hang them, they thought those people of the other world (as being men who had sown the knowledge of a great many vices amongst their neighbours, and who were much greater masters in all sorts of mischief than they) did not exercise this sort of revenge without a meaning, and that it must needs be more painful than theirs, they began to leave their old way, and to follow this. [Querer imputar o costume da antropofagia aos portugueses é ir longe demais!] I am not sorry that we should here take notice of the barbarous horror of so cruel an action, but that, seeing so clearly into their faults, we should be so blind to our own. I conceive there is more barbarity in eating a man alive, than when he is dead; in tearing a body limb from limb by racks and torments, that is yet in perfect sense; in roasting it by degrees; in causing it to be bitten and worried by dogs and swine (as we have not only read, but lately seen, not amongst inveterate and mortal enemies, but among neighbours and fellow-citizens, and, which is worse, under colour of piety and religion), than to roast and eat him after he is dead.” Surpreendente apologia do canibalismo das Américas. Não esperava essa “mente aberta” do cristão e pudico Montaigne!

Chrysippus and Zeno, the 2 heads of the Stoic sect, were of opinion that there was no hurt in making use of our dead carcasses, in what way soever for our necessity, and in feeding upon them too; as our own ancestors, who being besieged by Caesar in the city Alexia, resolved to sustain the famine of the siege with the bodies of their old men, women, and other persons who were incapable of bearing arms.”

We may then call these people barbarous, in respect to the rules of reason: but not in respect to ourselves, who in all sorts of barbarity exceed them. Their wars are throughout noble and generous, and carry as much excuse and fair pretence, as that human malady is capable of; having with them no other foundation than the sole jealousy of valour. Their disputes are not for the conquest of new lands, for these they already possess are so fruitful by nature, as to supply them without labour or concern, with all things necessary, in such abundance that they have no need to enlarge their borders. And they are, moreover, happy in this, that they only covet so much as their natural necessities require: all beyond that is superfluous to them: men of the same age call one another generally brothers, those who are younger, children; and the old men are fathers to all. These leave to their heirs in common the full possession of goods, without any manner of division, or other title than what nature bestows upon her creatures, in bringing them into the world. If their neighbours pass over the mountains to assault them, and obtain a victory, all the victors gain by it is glory only, and the advantage of having proved themselves the better in valour and virtue: for they never meddle with the goods of the conquered, but presently return into their own country, where they have no want of anything necessary, nor of this greatest of all goods, to know happily how to enjoy their condition and to be content. And those in turn do the same; they demand of their prisoners no other ransom, than acknowledgment that they are overcome: but there is not one found in an age, who will not rather choose to die than make such a confession, or either by word or look recede from the entire grandeur of an invincible courage. There is not a man amongst them who had not rather be killed and eaten, than so much as to open his mouth to entreat he may not. They use them with all liberality and freedom, to the end their lives may be so much the dearer to them; but frequently entertain them with menaces of their approaching death, of the torments they are to suffer, of the preparations making in order to it, of the mangling their limbs, and of the feast that is to be made, where their carcass is to be the only dish. All which they do, to no other end, but only to extort some gentle or submissive word from them, or to frighten them so as to make them run away, to obtain this advantage that they were terrified, and that their constancy was shaken; and indeed, if rightly taken, it is in this point only that a true victory consists”

The Hungarians, a very warlike people, never pretend further than to reduce the enemy to their discretion; for having forced this confession from them, they let them go without injury or ransom, excepting, at the most, to make them engage their word never to bear arms against them again. We have sufficient advantages over our enemies that are borrowed and not truly our own; it is the quality of a porter, and no effect of virtue, to have stronger arms and legs; it is a dead and corporeal quality to set in array; ‘tis a turn of fortune to make our enemy stumble, or to dazzle him with the light of the sun; ‘tis a trick of science and art, and that may happen in a mean base fellow, to be a good fencer. The estimate and value of a man consist in the heart and in the will: there his true honour lies. Valour is stability, not of legs and arms, but of the courage and the soul; it does not lie in the goodness of our horse or our arms but in our own.”

The part that true conquering is to play lies in the encounter, not in the coming off; and the honour of valour consists in fighting, not in subduing.”

Those that paint these people dying after this manner, represent the prisoner spitting in the faces of his executioners and making wry mouths at them. And ‘tis most certain, that to the very last gasp, they never cease to brave and defy them both in word and gesture. In plain truth, these men are very savage in comparison of us; of necessity, they must either be absolutely so or else we are savages; for there is a vast difference betwixt their manners and ours.”

the same jealousy our wives have to hinder and divert us from the friendship and familiarity of other women, those employ to promote their husbands’ desires, and to procure them many spouses; for being above all things solicitous of their husbands’ honour, ‘tis their chiefest care to seek out, and to bring in the most companions they can, forasmuch as it is a testimony of the husband’s virtue. [Só na vontade da poligamia, né, pervertido!] Most of our ladies will cry out, that ‘tis monstrous; whereas in truth it is not so, but a truly matrimonial virtue, and of the highest form. In the Bible, Sarah, with Leah and Rachel, the 2 wives of Jacob, gave the most beautiful of their handmaids to their husbands” Mais um motivo para achar tal postura condenável.

To which it may be added, that their language is soft, of a pleasing accent, and something bordering upon the Greek termination.”

CHAPTER XXXI——THAT A MAN IS SOBERLY TO JUDGE OF THE DIVINE ORDINANCES

In a nation of the Indies, there is this commendable custom, that when anything befalls them amiss in any encounter or battle, they publicly ask pardon of the sun, who is their god, as having committed an unjust action, always imputing their good or evil fortune to the divine justice, and to that submitting their own judgment and reason.”

CHAPTER XXXIII——THAT FORTUNE IS OFTEN-TIMES OBSERVED TO ACT BY THE RULE OF REASON

(*) “The term Fortune, so often employed by Montaigne, and in passages where he might have used Providence, was censured by the doctors who examined his Essays when he was at Rome in 1581. See his Travels

The Duc de Valentinois,—(Caesar Borgia)—having resolved to poison Adrian, Cardinal of Corneto, with whom Pope Alexander VI his father and himself were to sup in the Vatican, he sent before a bottle of poisoned wine, and withal, strict order to the butler to keep it very safe. The Pope being come before his son, and calling for drink, the butler supposing this wine had not been so strictly recommended to his care but only upon the account of its excellency, presented it forthwith to the Pope, and the duke himself coming in presently after, and being confident they had not meddled with his bottle, took also his cup; so that the father died immediately upon the spot,(*) and the son, after having been long tormented with sickness, was reserved to another and a worse fortune.”

(*) “Other historians assign the Pope several days of misery prior to death.”

Constantine, son of Helen, founded the empire of Constantinople, and so many ages after, Constantine, the son of Helen, put an end to it.”

CHAPTER XXXV——OF THE CUSTOM OF WEARING CLOTHES

I was disputing with myself in this shivering season, whether the fashion of going naked in those nations lately discovered is imposed upon them by the hot temperature of the air, as we say of the Indians and Moors, or whether it be the original fashion of mankind. Men of understanding, forasmuch as all things under the sun, as the Holy Writ declares, are subject to the same laws, were wont in such considerations as these, where we are to distinguish the natural laws from those which have been imposed by man’s invention, to have recourse to the general polity of the world, where there can be nothing counterfeit. Now, all other creatures being sufficiently furnished with all things necessary for the support of their being it is not to be imagined that we only are brought into the world in a defective and indigent condition, and in such a state as cannot subsist without external aid.”

of those nations who have no manner of knowledge of clothing, some are situated under the same temperature that we are, and some in much colder climates. And besides, our most tender parts are always exposed to the air, as the eyes, mouth, nose, and ears; and our country labourers, like our ancestors in former times, go with their breasts and bellies open. Had we been born with a necessity upon us of wearing petticoats and breeches, there is no doubt but nature would have fortified those parts she intended should be exposed to the fury of the seasons with a thicker skin, as she has done the finger-ends and the soles of the feet. And why should this seem hard to believe? I observe much greater distance betwixt my habit and that of one of our country boors, than betwixt his and that of a man who has no other covering but his skin. How many men, especially in Turkey, go naked upon the account of devotion? Someone asked a beggar, whom he saw in his shirt in the depth of winter, as brisk and frolic as he who goes muffled up to the ears in furs, how he was able to endure to go so? ‘Why, sir,’ he answered, ‘you go with your face bare: I am all face.’

Herodotus tells us, that in the battles fought betwixt the Egyptians and the Persians, it was observed both by himself and by others, that of those who were left dead upon the field, the heads of the Egyptians were without comparison harder than those of the Persians, by reason that the last had gone with their heads always covered from their infancy, first with biggins, and then with turbans, and the others always shaved and bare. King Agesilaus continued to a decrepit age to wear always the same clothes in winter that he did in summer. Caesar, says Suetonius, marched always at the head of his army, for the most part on foot, with his head bare, whether it was rain or sunshine, and as much is said of Hannibal

and Plato very earnestly advises for the health of the whole body, to give the head and the feet no other clothing than what nature has bestowed. He whom the Poles have elected for their king,—Stephen Bathory—since ours came thence, who is, indeed, one of the greatest princes of this age, never wears any gloves, and in winter or whatever weather can come, never wears other cap abroad than that he wears at home. Whereas I cannot endure to go unbuttoned or untied; my neighbouring labourers would think themselves in chains, if they were so braced.”

Varro is of opinion, that when it was ordained we should be bare in the presence of the gods and before the magistrate, it was so ordered rather upon the score of health, and to inure us to the injuries of weather, than upon the account of reverence”

At the mouth of Lake Maeotis the frosts are so very sharp, that in the very same place where Mithridates’ lieutenant had fought the enemy dryfoot and given them a notable defeat, the summer following he obtained over them a naval victory. The Romans fought at a very great disadvantage, in the engagement they had with the Carthaginians near Piacenza, by reason that they went to the charge with their blood congealed and their limbs numbed with cold, whereas Hannibal had caused great fires to be dispersed quite through his camp to warm his soldiers, and oil to be distributed amongst them, to the end that anointing themselves, they might render their nerves more supple and active, and fortify the pores against the violence of the air and freezing wind, which raged in that season.” Gostaria de confirmar estes relatos futuramente. Bom, pelo menos não vêm de Plutarco, o que já é bom sinal!

But, so far as clothes go, the King of Mexico changed 4 times a day his apparel, and never put it on again, employing that he left off in his continual liberalities and rewards; and neither pot, dish, nor other utensil of his kitchen or table was ever served twice.”

CHAPTER XXXVI——OF CATO THE YOUNGER

These rare forms, that are culled out by the consent of the wisest men of all ages, for the world’s example, I should not stick to augment in honour, as far as my invention would permit, in all the circumstances of favourable interpretation; and we may well believe that the force of our invention is infinitely short of their merit.”

as Plutarch [ihhh…] complains that in his time some attributed the cause of the younger Cato’s death to his fear of Caesar, at which he seems very angry, and with good reason; and by this a man may guess how much more he would have been offended with those who have attributed it to ambition. Senseless people! He would rather have performed a noble, just, and generous action, and to have had ignominy for his reward, than for glory. That man was in truth a pattern that nature chose out to show to what height human virtue and constancy could arrive.”

we have far more poets than judges and interpreters of poetry”

But who is Cato (general romano//Merivale)? Pois é. Parece que até onde cheguei na História Romana do autor, só li sobre Cato the Old.

CHAPTER XXXVII——THAT WE LAUGH AND CRY FOR THE SAME THING

When Pompey’s head was presented to Caesar, the histories tell us that he turned away his face, as from a sad and unpleasing object.”

Who for seeing me onewhile cold and presently very fond towards my wife, believes the one or the other to be counterfeited, is an ass.”

“‘Tis said, that the light of the sun is not one continuous thing, but that he darts new rays so thick one upon another that we cannot perceive the intermission”

We have resolutely pursued the revenge of an injury received, and been sensible of a singular contentment for the victory; but we shall weep notwithstanding. ‘Tis not for the victory, though, that we shall weep: there is nothing altered in that but the soul looks upon things with another eye and represents them to itself with another kind of face; for everything has many faces and several aspects.”

When Timoleon laments the murder he had committed upon so mature and generous deliberation, he does not lament the liberty restored to his country, he does not lament the tyrant; but he laments his brother: one part of his duty is performed; let us give him leave to perform the other.”

CHAPTER XXXVIII——OF SOLITUDE

Let us tell ambition that it is she herself who gives us a taste of solitude; for what does she so much avoid as society? What does she so much seek as elbowroom?”

“‘Tis not that a wise man may not live everywhere content, and be alone in the very crowd of a palace; but if it be left to his own choice, the schoolman will tell you that he should fly the very sight of the crowd”

There is nothing so unsociable and sociable as man, the one by his vice, the other by his nature.”

there is little less trouble in governing a private family than a whole kingdom.”

One telling Socrates that such a one was nothing improved by his travels, he answered: I very well believe it, for he took himself along with him”

If a man do not first discharge both himself and his mind of the burden with which he finds himself oppressed, motion will but make it press the harder and sit the heavier, as the lading of a ship is of less encumbrance when fast and bestowed in a settled posture. You do a sick man more harm than good in removing him from place to place; you fix and establish the disease by motion, as stakes sink deeper and more firmly into the earth by being moved up and down in the place where they are designed to stand.”

Wives, children, and goods must be had, and especially health, by him that can get it; but we are not so to set our hearts upon them that our happiness must have its dependence upon them; we must reserve a backshop, wholly our own and entirely free, wherein to settle our true liberty, our principal solitude and retreat.” “as if without wife, children, goods, train, or attendance, to the end that when it shall so fall out that we must lose any or all of these, it may be no new thing to be without them.”

In our ordinary actions there is not one of a thousand that concerns ourselves. (…) our own affairs do not afford us anxiety enough; let us undertake those of our neighbours and friends, still more to break our brains and torment us” “We have lived enough for others; let us at least live out the small remnant of life for ourselves; let us now call in our thoughts and intentions to ourselves, and to our own ease and repose. ‘Tis no light thing to make a sure retreat; it will be enough for us to do without mixing other enterprises. Since God gives us leisure to order our removal, let us make ready, truss our baggage, take leave betimes of the company, and disentangle ourselves from those violent importunities that engage us elsewhere and separate us from ourselves.” Fala como um tonto que não entende a si mesmo. Não existe essa falsa oposição. Para quem eu escrevo senão para os outros?

CHAPTER XXXIX——A CONSIDERATION UPON CICERO

they both [Cicero and Pliny the younger], in the sight of all the world, solicit the historians of their time not to forget them in their memoirs; and fortune, as if in spite, has made the vanity of those requests live upon record down to this age of ours, while she has long since consigned the histories themselves to oblivion.”

as if a man should commend a king for being a good painter, a good architect, a good marksman, or a good runner at the ring: commendations that add no honour, unless mentioned altogether and in the train of those that are properly applicable to him, namely, justice and the science of governing and conducting his people both in peace and war.” Isso fica muito mal para “Cícero, o Orador”!

Demosthenes’ companions in the embassy to Philip, extolling that prince as handsome, eloquent, and a stout drinker, Demosthenes said that those were commendations more proper for a woman, an advocate, or a sponge, than for a king” Sobre essa embaixada, que buscava salvar Atenas quando ela – e a Grécia inteira – já estavam condenadas, ver o relato do principal oponente de Demóstenes, Ésquines.

Plutarch says, moreover, that to appear so excellent in these less necessary qualities is to produce witness against a man’s self, that he has spent his time and applied his study ill, which ought to have been employed in the acquisition of more necessary and more useful things. So that Philip, king of Macedon, having heard that great Alexander his son sung once at a feast to the wonder of the best musicians there: ‘Art thou not ashamed, said he to him, to sing so well?’ And to the same Philip a musician, with whom he was disputing about some things concerning his art: ‘Heaven forbid, sir, said he, that so great a misfortune should ever befall you as to understand these things better than I.’ A king should be able to answer as Iphicrates did the orator, who pressed upon him in his invective after this manner: ‘And what art thou that thou bravest it at this rate? art thou a man at arms, art thou an archer, art thou a pikeman?’‘I am none of all this; but I know how to command all these.’

And how many stories have I scattered up and down in this book that I only touch upon, which, should anyone more curiously search into, they would find matter enough to produce infinite essays.” Indeed. Not a good thing, though!

But returning to the speaking virtue: I find no great choice betwixt not knowing to speak anything but ill, and not knowing to speak anything but well.”

There is something like this in these 2 other philosophers, for they also promise eternity to the letters they write to their friends; but ‘tis after another manner, and by accommodating themselves, for a good end, to the vanity of another; for they write to them that if the concern of making themselves known to future ages, and the thirst of glory, do yet detain them in the management of public affairs, and make them fear the solitude and retirement to which they would persuade them, let them never trouble themselves more about it, forasmuch as they shall have credit enough with posterity to ensure them that were there nothing else but the letters thus written to them, those letters will render their names as known and famous as their own public actions could do.” Se isso é um elogio, eu não queria ser elogiado…

For to traffic with the wind, as some others have done, and to forge vain names to direct my letters to, in a serious subject, I could never do it but in a dream, being a sworn enemy to all manner of falsification. I should have been more diligent and more confident had I had a judicious and indulgent friend whom to address, than thus to expose myself to the various judgments of a whole people, and I am deceived if I had not succeeded better. I have naturally a humorous and familiar style; but it is a style of my own, not proper for public business, but, like the language I speak, too compact, irregular, abrupt, and singular; and as to letters of ceremony that have no other substance than a fine contexture of courteous words, I am wholly to seek. I have neither faculty nor relish for those tedious tenders of service and affection; I believe little in them from others, and I should not forgive myself should I say to others more than I myself believe.” Freud ganharia tendo-o lido, M.!

The Italians are great printers of letters; I do believe I have at least 100 several volumes of them; of all which those of Annibale Caro seem to me to be the best. If all the paper I have scribbled to the ladies at the time when my hand was really prompted by my passion were now in being, there might, peradventure, be found a page worthy to be communicated to our young inamoratos, that are besotted with that fury.”

CHAPTER XL——THAT THE RELISH FOR GOOD AND EVIL DEPENDS IN GREAT MEASURE UPON THE OPINION WE HAVE OF THEM

And amongst that mean-souled race of men, the buffoons, there have been some who would not leave their fooling at the very moment of death.”

What a world of people do we see in the wars betwixt the Turks and the Greeks rather embrace a cruel death than uncircumcise themselves to admit of baptism? An example of which no sort of religion is incapable.”

Should I here produce a long catalogue of those, of all sexes and conditions and sects, even in the most happy ages, who have either with great constancy looked death in the face, or voluntarily sought it, and sought it not only to avoid the evils of this life, but some purely to avoid the satiety of living, and others for the hope of a better condition elsewhere, I should never have done. Nay, the number is so infinite that in truth I should have a better bargain on’t to reckon up those who have feared it. This one therefore shall serve for all: Pyrrho the philosopher being one day in a boat in a very great tempest, showed to those he saw the most affrighted about him, and encouraged them, by the example of a hog that was there, nothing at all concerned at the storm. Shall we then dare to say that this advantage of reason, of which we so much boast, and upon the account of which we think ourselves masters and emperors over the rest of all creation, was given us for a torment? To what end serves the knowledge of things if it renders us more unmanly? if we thereby lose the tranquillity and repose we should enjoy without it? and if it put us into a worse condition than Pyrrho’s hog? Shall we employ the understanding that was conferred upon us for our greatest good to our own ruin; setting ourselves against the design of nature and the universal order of things, which intend that everyone should make use of the faculties, members, and means he has to his own best advantage?”

Posidonius being extremely tormented with a sharp and painful disease, Pompeius came to visit him, excusing himself that he had taken so unseasonable a time to come to hear him discourse of philosophy. ‘The gods forbid,’ said Posidonius to him, ‘that pain should ever have the power to hinder me from talking,’ and thereupon fell immediately upon a discourse of the contempt of pain: but, in the meantime, his own infirmity was playing his part, and plagued him to purpose; to which he cried out, ‘Thou mayest work thy will, pain, and torment me with all the power thou hast, but thou shalt never make me say that thou art an evil.’

Death has been, or will come: there is nothing of the present in it.”

Étienne de la Boétie, Satires

The delay of death is more painful than death itself.”

Ovid, Ep. Ariadne to Theseus, v. 42.

All ills that carry no other danger along with them but simply the evils themselves, we treat as things of no danger: the toothache or the gout, painful as they are, yet being not reputed mortal, who reckons them in the catalogue of diseases?”

Courage is greedy of danger.”

Seneca, De Providentia, c. 4

As an enemy is made more fierce by our flight, so pain grows proud to see us truckle under her. She will surrender upon much better terms to them who make head against her: a man must oppose and stoutly set himself against her. In retiring and giving ground, we invite and pull upon ourselves the ruin that threatens us.”

We are more sensible of one little touch of a surgeon’s lancet than of 20 wounds with a sword in the heat of fight. The pains of childbearing, said by the physicians and by God himself to be great, and which we pass through with so many ceremonies—there are whole nations that make nothing of them. I set aside the Lacedaemonian women, but what else do you find in the Swiss among our foot-soldiers, if not that, as they trot after their husbands, you see them today carry the child at their necks that they carried yesterday in their bellies?”

CHAPTER XLI——NOT TO COMMUNICATE A MAN’S HONOUR

we lend our goods and stake our lives for the necessity and service of our friends; but to communicate a man’s honour, and to robe another with a man’s own glory, is very rarely seen.”

. . .

INVESTIGAÇÕES SOBRE O ENTENDIMENTO HUMANO & SOBRE OS PRINCÍPIOS DA MORAL – Hume (trad. José Oscar de Almeida Marques)

Continuador da tradição empirista inaugurada por Bacon e desenvolvida por Locke e Berkeley, levou-a a sua mais extrema conclusão, culminando em um sistema que tem sido injustamente acusado de ser excessivamente cético e de privar a ciência e a moral de qualquer justificação racional. Os dois textos aqui apresentados têm uma origem comum, sendo ambos condensações e reelaborações de partes de uma obra mais vasta, o Tratado da natureza humana, que David Hume (1711-1776) redigiu em sua juventude (1737)”

Convencido de que o problema não estava no conteúdo de seu Tratado mas no estilo de sua exposição, Hume decidiu, alguns anos mais tarde, extrair dele duas obras mais curtas, nas quais procurou dar um tom acessível ao texto, eliminar a prolixidade argumentativa, suprimir os tópicos não-essenciais para a condução de seu argumento central e cuidar ao máximo da clareza da expressão.¹ São essas as duas Investigações reunidas no presente volume: a Investigação sobre o entendimento humano e a Investigação sobre os princípios da moral, extraídas do primeiro e do terceiro livros do Tratado e publicadas respectivamente em 1748 e 1751. Uma terceira obra, a Dissertação sobre as paixões, extrato do Livro II do Tratado e publicada em 1757, carece de maior relevância. De fato, os tópicos de maior interesse filosófico do Livro II, como a discussão da liberdade e da necessidade, já haviam sido incluídos na primeira Investigacão.”

¹ Se ao menos metade dos filósofos clássicos tivesse se preocupado em fazê-lo…

Acrescento algumas palavras sobre as presentes traduções. As duas Investigações já haviam sido anteriormente publicadas no Brasil – a primeira (em duas traduções distintas) na coleção Os Pensadores, e a segunda, traduzida por mim para a Editora da Unicamp, em 1995, tomando-se como base, em todos esses casos, a clássica edição de L.A. Selby-Bigge, à época a edição mais respeitada desses textos de Hume. O aparecimento, em 1998 e 1999, das novas edições preparadas por Tom L. Beauchamp para a série Oxford Philosophical Texts, da Oxford University Press, estabeleceu um novo standard acadêmico e abriu a oportunidade para o preparo de novas traduções brasileiras, o que fui feito quase imediatamente no caso da Investigação sobre o entendimento humano, publicada já em 1999 pela Editora UNESP.”

* * *

UMA INVESTIGAÇÃO SOBRE O ENTENDIMENTO HUMANO

SEÇÃO 1. DAS DIFERENTES ESPÉCIES DE FILOSOFIA

P. 19: crítica da filosofia moral até sua época (encarnada nos pragmatistas); chamemo-la de Filosofia A, doravante.

P. 20: crítica do racionalismo cartesiano (encarnada pelos pensantes), a Filosofia B doravante.

Hume efetuará a sua síntese entre ambas.

Um prefácio digno de um britânico fleumático: “É certo que, para o grosso da humanidade, a filosofia simples e acessível [A] terá sempre preferência sobre a filosofia exata e abstrusa, [B] e será louvada por muitos não apenas como mais agradável, mas também como mais útil que a outra.”

É fácil para um filósofo profundo cometer um engano em seus sutis raciocínios, e um engano é necessariamente o gerador de outro; ele, entretanto, segue todas as conseqüências e não hesita em endossar qualquer conclusão a que chegue, por mais inusitada ou conflitante com a opinião popular.” Podemos dizer que Schopenhauer foi o representante da filosofia B de maior calibre, e que errou exatamente desta maneira. Os “filósofos A”, enquanto pregadores morais, estão mais para “ensaístas”, concatenam idéias provisoriamente apenas, sem compromisso. Ex: La Rochefoucauld.

Ruim de chute (é impossível sepultar escolas filosóficas, elas sempre voltam à moda): “A fama de Cícero floresce no presente, mas a de Aristóteles está completamente arruinada. La Bruyère atravessa os mares e ainda mantém sua reputação, mas a glória de Malebranche está confinada à sua própria nação e à sua própria época. E Addison, talvez, ainda será lido com prazer quando Locke estiver inteiramente esquecido.”

O filósofo puro é um personagem que em geral não é muito bem-aceito pelo mundo, pois supõe-se que ele em nada contribui para o proveito ou deleite da sociedade, ao viver longe do contato com os seres humanos e envolvido com princípios e idéias não menos distantes da compreensão destes. Por outro lado, o mero ignorante é ainda mais desprezado; e, em uma época e nação em que florescem as ciências, não há sinal mais seguro de estreiteza de espírito que o de não se sentir minimamente atraído por esses nobres afazeres.”

chega[mos] mesmo à absoluta rejeição de todos os raciocínios mais aprofundados (…) [da] metafísica

O anatomista põe-nos diante dos olhos os objetos mais horrendos e desagradáveis, mas sua ciência é útil ao pintor para delinear até mesmo uma Vênus ou uma Helena.”

Um otimista incubado: “E embora um filósofo possa viver afastado dos assuntos práticos, o espírito característico da filosofia, se muitos o cultivarem cuidadosamente, não poderá deixar de se difundir gradualmente por toda a sociedade e conferir uma similar exatidão a todo ofício e vocação.” “A estabilidade dos governos modernos, em comparação aos antigos, e a precisão da moderna filosofia têm-se aperfeiçoado e provavelmente irão ainda se aperfeiçoar por gradações similares.”

E embora essas pesquisas possam parecer penosas e fatigantes, ocorre com algumas mentes o mesmo que com alguns corpos, os quais, tendo sido dotados de uma saúde vigorosa e exuberante, requerem severo exercício e colhem prazer daquilo que parece árduo e laborioso à humanidade em geral.”

Todo gênio audaz continuará lançando-se ao árduo prêmio e considerar-se-á antes estimulado que desencorajado pelos fracassos de seus predecessores, esperando que a glória de alcançar sucesso em tão difícil empreitada esteja reservada apenas para si.”

devemos dedicar algum cuidado ao cultivo da verdadeira metafísica a fim de destruir aquela que é falsa e adulterada.”

Constitui, assim, uma parte nada desprezível da ciência a mera tarefa de reconhecer as diferentes operações da mente, distingui-las umas das outras, classificá-las sob os títulos adequados e corrigir toda aquela aparente desordem na qual mergulham quando tomadas como objetos de pesquisa e reflexão.”

Tampouco pode restar alguma suspeita de que essa ciência seja incerta ou quimérica, a menos que alimentemos um ceticismo tão completo que subverta inteiramente toda especulação e, mais ainda, toda a ação.”

E deveríamos porventura considerar digno do trabalho de um filósofo fornecer-nos o verdadeiro sistema dos planetas e conciliar a posição e a ordem desses corpos longínquos, ao mesmo tempo que simulamos desconhecer aqueles que com tanto sucesso delineiam as partes da mente que de tão perto nos dizem respeito?” “Os astrônomos por muito tempo se contentaram em deduzir dos fenômenos visíveis os verdadeiros movimentos, ordem e magnitude dos corpos celestes, até surgir finalmente um filósofo que, pelos mais afortunados raciocínios, parece ter determinado também as leis e forças que governam e dirigem as revoluções dos planetas.”

Renunciar imediatamente a todas as expectativas dessa espécie pode ser com razão classificado como mais brusco, precipitado e dogmático que a mais ousada e afirmativa filosofia que já tenha tentado impor suas rudes doutrinas e princípios à humanidade.”

SEÇÃO 2. DA ORIGEM DAS IDÉIAS

Diga a um racionalista: Filosofe sobre a tortura, se queres tanto filosofar!

Entendo pelo termo impressão, portanto, todas as nossas percepções mais vívidas, sempre que ouvimos, ou vemos, ou sentimos, ou amamos, ou odiamos, ou desejamos ou exercemos nossa vontade. E impressões são distintas das idéias, que são as percepções menos vívidas, das quais estamos conscientes quando refletimos sobre quaisquer umas das sensações ou atividades já mencionadas.”

…e nada há que esteja fora do alcance do pensamento, exceto aquilo que implica uma absoluta contradição.” Ainda sob a sombra da opaca lógica aristotélica. Veremos isso com muito mais detalhes a seguir. Mas é curioso que a última página (e o limite teórico, por igual) da maior obra de Schopenhauer também seja inteiramente dominada pela mesma “sombra”…

INTUIÇÃO + MATEMÁTICA: “A idéia de Deus, no sentido de um Ser infinitamente inteligente, sábio e bondoso, surge da reflexão sobre as operações de nossa própria mente e do aumento ilimitado dessas qualidades de bondade e sabedoria.”

um lapão ou um negro não têm idéia do sabor do vinho.”

Portanto, sempre que alimentamos alguma suspeita de que um termo filosófico esteja sendo empregado sem nenhum significado ou idéia associada (como freqüentemente ocorre), precisaremos apenas indagar: de que impressão deriva esta suposta idéia?

a palavra idéia parece ter sido tomada usualmente num sentido muito amplo por Locke e outros, como significando qualquer uma de nossas percepções, nossas sensações e paixões, bem como pensamentos.” “L. caiu na armadilha dos escolásticos, os quais, ao fazerem uso de termos não-definidos, alongam tediosamente suas disputas sem jamais tocar no ponto em questão.”

SEÇÃO 3. DA ASSOCIAÇÃO DE IDÉIAS

Pelo menos 250 anos de antecipação a Freud: “Mesmo em nossos devaneios mais desenfreados e errantes – e não somente neles, mas até em nossos próprios sonhos – descobrimos, se refletirmos, que a imaginação não correu inteiramente à solta, mas houve uma ligação entre as diferentes idéias que se sucederam umas às outras.”

Embora o fato de que diferentes idéias estejam conectadas seja demasiado óbvio para escapar à observação, não é de meu conhecimento que algum filósofo tenha tentado enumerar ou classificar todos os princípios de associação; um assunto que, entretanto, parece digno de investigação. De minha parte, parece haver apenas 3 princípios de conexão entre as idéias, a saber, semelhança, contigüidade no tempo ou no espaço, e causa ou efeito.”

Como o homem é um ser dotado de razão e está continuamente em busca de uma felicidade…”

Como essa regra não admite nenhuma exceção, segue-se que, em composições narrativas, os acontecimentos ou ações que o escritor relata devem estar conectados por algum vínculo ou liame.”

Ovídio baseou seu plano no princípio de conexão por semelhança.”

Um analista ou historiador que se propusesse a escrever a história da Europa em um determinado século seria influenciado pela conexão de contigüidade”

Mas a espécie mais usual de conexão entre os diferentes acontecimentos que figuram em qualquer composição narrativa é a de causa e efeito”

Parece também que mesmo um biógrafo que fosse escrever a vida de Aquiles iria conectar os acontecimentos, mostrando suas relações e dependências mútuas, tanto quanto um poeta que fosse fazer da ira desse herói o assunto de sua narrativa, contrariamente a Aristóteles, Poética.” Talvez Ar. tenha sido enganado pelo procedimento de Homero na Ilíada. A propósito do quê H. não esquecerá de comentar: “Surge daí o artifício da narrativa oblíqua, empregada na Odisséia e na Eneida, em que o herói é inicialmente apresentado próximo à consecução de seus desígnios e posteriormente nos revela, como que em perspectiva, as causas e eventos mais distantes. Com esse método excita-se de imediato a curiosidade do leitor: os eventos seguem-se com rapidez e em estreita conexão, a atenção mantém-se viva e, por meio da relação próxima dos objetos, cresce continuamente do começo ao fim da narrativa.”

A mesma regra vale para a poesia dramática, não se permitindo, em uma composição regular, a introdução de um ator que tenha pouca ou nenhuma relação com os personagens principais do enredo.”

Pode-se objetar a Milton que ele foi muito longe no traçado de suas causas, e que a rebelião dos anjos produz a queda do homem por uma sucessão de eventos que é ao mesmo tempo muito longa e muito fortuita, para não mencionar que a criação do mundo, da qual ele dá um extenso relato, não é a causa dessa catástrofe mais do que da batalha de Farsália ou de qualquer outro evento já ocorrido. Mas se considerarmos que esses eventos todos: a rebelião dos anjos, a criação do mundo e a queda do homem assemelham-se uns aos outros por serem miraculosos e estarem fora do curso ordinário da natureza; que eles são considerados contíguos no tempo; e que, estando desconectados de todos os outros eventos e sendo os únicos fatos originais dados a conhecer pela revelação, chamam de imediato a atenção e evocam-se naturalmente uns aos outros no pensamento e na imaginação (…) [é] uma unidade suficiente”

A explicação completa deste princípio e de todas as suas conseqüências levar-nos-ia a raciocínios demasiado vastos e profundos para esta investigação.”

SEÇÃO 4. DÚVIDAS CÉTICAS SOBRE AS OPERAÇÕES DO ENTENDIMENTO

Parte 1

O ANTI-KANT: “Arrisco-me a afirmar, a título de uma proposta geral que não admite exceções, que o conhecimento dessa relação [de qualquer relação de fatos] não é, em nenhum caso, alcançado por meio de raciocínios a priori, mas provém inteiramente da experiência”

O mesmo conteúdo que em Schopenhauer: “Quanto às causas dessas causas gerais, entretanto, será em vão que procuremos descobri-las; e nenhuma explicação particular delas será jamais capaz de nos satisfazer. Esses móveis princípios fundamentais estão totalmente vedados à curiosidade e à investigação humanas. Elasticidade, gravidade, coesão de partes, comunicação de movimento por impulso – essas são provavelmente as últimas causas e princípios que será dado descobrir na natureza” Todos o afirmariam antes da eletricidade.

o resultado de toda filosofia é a constatação da cegueira e debilidade humanas”

Mesmo a geometria, quando chamada a auxiliar a filosofia natural, é incapaz de corrigir esse defeito ou de nos levar ao conhecimento das causas últimas”

Parte 2

Se houver qualquer suspeita de que o curso da natureza possa vir a modificar-se, e que o passado possa não ser uma regra para o futuro, toda a experiência se tornará inútil e incapaz de dar origem a qualquer inferência ou conclusão. (…) Por mais regular que se admita ter sido até agora o curso das coisas, isso, isoladamente, sem algum novo argumento ou inferência, não prova que, no futuro, ele continuará a sê-lo. (…) sua natureza secreta e, conseqüentemente, todos os seus efeitos e influências podem modificar-se sem que suas qualidades sensíveis alterem-se minimamente.”

SEÇÃO 5. SOLUÇÃO CÉTICA DESSAS DÚVIDAS

Parte 1

É certo que, ao buscarmos atingir a elevação e a firmeza espiritual do sábio filósofo e esforçarmo-nos para confinar nossos prazeres exclusivamente ao campo de nossas próprias mentes, poderemos acabar tornando nossa filosofia semelhante à de Epicteto e outros estóicos, ou seja, simplesmente um sistema mais refinado de egoísmo

Há no entanto uma espécie de filosofia que parece pouco sujeita a esse inconveniente, pois não se harmoniza com nenhuma paixão desordenada da mente humana, nem se mistura, ela própria, a nenhuma afecção ou inclinação naturais; essa é a filosofia acadêmica ou cética.” “uma filosofia como essa é o que há de mais contrário à indolência acomodada da mente, sua arrogância irrefletida, suas grandiosas pretensões e sua credulidade supersticiosa.” “Surpreende que essa filosofia – que em quase todas as ocasiões deve mostrar-se inofensiva e inocente – seja objeto de tantas censuras e reprovações infundadas.”

Parte 2

Segue-se uma clássica crítica do catolicismo por parte de um inglês protestante do século XVIII.

nossas emoções são mais fortemente despertadas quando vemos os locais que se diz terem sido freqüentados por homens ilustres do que quando ouvimos contar seus feitos ou lemos seus escritos. É assim que me sinto agora. Vem-me à mente Platão, de quem se diz ter sido o primeiro a entreter discussões neste lugar [a Academia de Atenas], e de fato o pequeno jardim acolá não apenas traz sua memória mas põe, por assim dizer, o próprio homem diante de meus olhos. E aqui está Espêusipo, aqui Xenócrates e seu discípulo Polemo, que costumava ocupar o próprio assento que ali vemos. E mesmo nosso edifício do Senado (refiro-me à Cúria Hostília, não ao novo edifício, que me parece ter-se tornado menor depois da ampliação)¹ trazia-me ao pensamento os vultos de Cipião, Catão, Lélio e principalmente de meu avô. Tal é o poder de evocação que reside nos locais, e não é sem razão que neles se baseia a arte da mnemônica.” Marco Piso

¹ Os homens são rabugentos e apegados ao passado em todas as eras.

Suponhamos que nos fosse apresentado o filho de um amigo há muito tempo morto ou ausente; é claro que esse objeto faria instantaneamente reviver sua idéia correlativa e traria a nossos pensamentos todas as lembranças dos momentos íntimos e familiares do passado, em cores mais vívidas do que de outro modo nos teriam aparecido. Eis aqui outro fenômeno que parece comprovar o princípio já mencionado.”

A influência do retrato supõe que acreditemos que nosso amigo tenha alguma vez existido. A contiguidade ao lar não poderia excitar as idéias que temos dele a menos que acreditemos que realmente exista.”

Não é verdade que, quando uma espada é empunhada contra meu peito, a idéia do ferimento e da dor me afeta mais fortemente do que quando me é oferecida uma taça de vinho, mesmo que tal idéia viesse por acidente a ocorrer-me quando do aparecimento desse último objeto?” Aonde você quer chegar, meu caro?

Assim como a natureza ensinou-nos o uso de nossos membros sem nos dar o conhecimento dos músculos e nervos que os comandam, [?] do mesmo modo ela implantou em nós um instinto que leva adiante o pensamento em um curso corresponde ao que ela estabeleceu para os objetos externos, [??] embora ignoremos os poderes e as forças dos quais esse curso e sucessão regulares de objetos totalmente depende. [!]”

[?] E quem é esta natureza, ente transcendental de seu sistema?

[??] “Implantaram-nos” instintos (voz passiva) que levam adiante pensamentos relativos a objetos exteriores? Características inatas cujo objetivo mesmo é lidar com o contingente? Mal-formulado!

[!] Finalmente uma afirmação competente no parágrafo – porém só mostra a vaidade da “filosofia cética”…

SEÇÃO 6. DA PROBABILIDADE

Embora não haja no mundo isso que se denominou acaso

SEÇÃO 7. DA IDÉIA DE CONEXÃO NECESSÁRIA

Parte 1

Na realidade, dificilmente se encontrará em Euclides uma proposição tão simples que não contenha mais partes do que se pode encontrar em qualquer raciocínio moral que não enverede pela fantasia e presunção.” “Como a filosofia moral [A] parece ter recebido até agora menos aperfeiçoamentos que a geometria ou a física, podemos concluir que, se há alguma diferença a esse respeito entre essas ciências, as dificuldades que atravancam o progresso da 1ª requerem maior cuidado e aptidão para serem sobrepujadas.

Não há, entre as idéias que ocorrem na metafísica, [B] outras mais incertas e obscuras que as de poder, força, energia ou conexão necessária, das quais nos é forçoso tratar a cada instante em todas as nossas investigações.” E no entanto, nada há de mais certo que a existência e ubiqüidade mesmo desse poder.

O cenário do universo está em contínua mutação, e os objetos seguem-se uns aos outros em sucessão ininterrupta, mas o poder ou força que põe toda essa máquina em movimento está completamente oculto de nossa vista e nunca se manifesta em nenhuma das qualidades sensíveis dos corpos.”

Pode-se dizer que a todo instante estamos conscientes de um poder interno, quando sentimos que, pelo simples comando de nossa vontade, podemos mover os órgãos de nosso corpo ou direcionar as faculdades de nosso espírito. Um ato de volição produz movimento em nossos membros ou faz surgir uma nova idéia em nossa imaginação. Essa influência da vontade nos é dada a conhecer pela consciência. Dela adquirimos a idéia de poder ou energia, e ficamos certos de que nós próprios e todos os outros seres inteligentes estamos dotados de poder. Essa idéia, então, é uma idéia de reflexão, dado que a obtemos refletindo sobre as operações de nossa própria mente e sobre o comando que a vontade exerce tanto sobre os órgãos do corpo como sobre as faculdades da alma.”

Essa influência, observa-se, é um fato que, como todos os outros acontecimentos naturais, pode ser conhecido apenas pela experiência” “a energia pela qual a vontade executa uma tão extraordinária operação, tudo isso está tão longe de nossa consciência imediata que deve para sempre escapar às nossas mais diligentes investigações.” Touché!

Se estivesse em nosso poder remover montanhas por um recôndito desejo, ou controlar os planetas em suas órbitas, essa vasta autoridade não seria mais extraordinária nem estaria mais distante de nossa compreensão.”

deveríamos conhecer a união secreta entre a alma e o corpo e a natureza dessas 2 substâncias que torna uma delas capaz de operar sobre a outra em um número tão grande de casos.”

Por que a vontade tem uma influência sobre a língua e os dedos, mas não sobre o coração e o fígado?” Curiosidade de colegial…

aprendemos em anatomia que o objeto imediato do poder no movimento voluntário não é o próprio membro movido, mas certos músculos, nervos, e espíritos animais, [?] ou talvez algo ainda mais minúsculo e mais desconhecido, através dos quais o movimento sucessivamente se propaga antes de atingir propriamente o membro cujo movimento é o objeto imediato da volição.” Então estávamos ou estamos inclusive hoje, antes das próximos descobertas, experimentando tudo errado, senhor?

O que ocorre aqui é que a mente executa um ato da vontade que tem como objeto um certo acontecimento e imediatamente se produz um outro acontecimento que nos é desconhecido e difere totalmente daquele que se tencionava produzir. E esse acontecimento produz outro, também desconhecido, até que, por fim, após uma longa sucessão, produz-se o acontecimento desejado.”

nossa idéia de poder não é copiada de nenhum sentimento ou consciência de poder que porventura experimentemos em nosso interior ao darmos início ao movimento animal ou empregarmos nossos membros nos usos e afazeres que lhes são próprios.” “Este nisus, ou esforço intenso do qual estamos conscientes, é a impressão original da qual essa idéia é copiada. Mas, em 1º lugar, atribuímos poderes a um vasto número de objetos com referência aos quais não é lícito supor a ocorrência de tal resistência ou exercício de força: ao Ser Supremo, que nunca depara com nenhuma resistência (…) Em segundo lugar, esse sentimento de um esforço para sobrepujar uma resistência não tem conexão conhecida com nenhum acontecimento (…) não poderíamos sabê-lo a priori.” “O que se tem aqui é uma genuína criação: a produção de alguma coisa a partir do nada”

Nossa autoridade sobre os nossos sentimentos e paixões é muito mais tênue que sobre nossas idéias, e mesmo esta última autoridade está circunscrita a limites bem estreitos. Quem pretenderá indicar a razão última?” Hume já sente a ponta do iceberg do niilismo…

Dominamos melhor nossos pensamentos pela manhã do que à noite”

IN COVID TIMES… “É só com a descoberta de fenômenos extraordinários como terremotos, peste e prodígios de qualquer outro tipo que a gente comum se sente incapaz de indicar uma causa adequada e de explicar o modo pelo qual o efeito é produzido por ela. É comum que pessoas em tais dificuldades recorram a algum princípio inteligente invisível (deus ex machina) como causa imediata do acontecimento que as surpreende e que elas julgam não mais poder ser explicado pelos poderes usuais da natureza.”

Aqui, então, muitos filósofos sentem-se obrigados pela razão a recorrer, em todas as ocasiões, ao mesmo princípio que o vulgo não emprega a não ser em casos que parecem miraculosos ou sobrenaturais.”

Nossa linha é demasiado curta para sondar abismos tão imensos.”

Nunca foi intenção de sir Isaac Newton destituir as causas segundas¹ de toda sua força ou energia, embora alguns de seus seguidores tenham se esforçado para estabelecer essa teoria valendo-se de sua autoridade. Pelo contrário, aquele grande filósofo [hm] lançou mão de um fluido ativo etéreo para explicar sua atração universal, embora tenha sido suficientemente cauteloso e modesto para admitir que se tratava de mera hipótese sobre a qual não se deveria insistir sem mais experimentos.² (…) Descartes sugeriu aquela doutrina da eficácia única e universal da Divindade, sem nela insistir. Malebranche e outros cartesianos tornaram-na o fundamento de toda sua filosofia.”

¹ Lei de causalidade, gravitação, etc.!

² O que desagradou os positivistas de então é que ele recuou demais: escolasticamente, atribuiu tudo a Deus! Laplace (da geração seguinte a Hume) refutaria o deísmo newtoniano com leis mais abrangentes sobre o sistema solar inteiro (avanço da matemática no período).

Parte 2

Todos os acontecimentos parecem inteiramente soltos e separados. Um acontecimento segue outro, mas jamais nos é dado observar qualquer liame entre eles. Eles parecem conjugados, mas nunca conectados. E como não podemos ter nenhuma idéia de uma coisa que nunca se apresentou ao nosso sentido exterior ou sentimento interior, a conclusão inevitável parece ser que não temos absolutamente nenhuma idéia de conexão ou de poder, e que essas palavras acham-se totalmente desprovidas de significado quando empregadas tanto no raciocínio filosófico quanto na vida ordinária.” “ele agora sente que esses acontecimentos estão conectados em sua imaginação”

SEÇÃO 8. DA LIBERDADE E NECESSIDADE

Parte 1

Espero tornar evidente que todos os homens sempre concordaram tanto sobre a doutrina da necessidade quanto sobre a da liberdade, em qualquer sentido razoável que se possa dar a esses termos, e que toda a controvérsia girou até agora meramente em torno de palavras.”

Quer-se conhecer os sentimentos, inclinações e modo de vida dos gregos e romanos? Estude-se bem o temperamento e a as ações dos franceses e ingleses” Far-fetched!

a terra, a água e outros elementos examinados por Ar. e Hipócrates não se assemelham mais aos que estão presentemente dados à nossa observação do que os homens descritos por Políbio e Tácito assemelham-se aos que agora governam o mundo.”

A veracidade de Quinto Cúrcio é tão suspeita quando descreve a coragem sobrenatural de Alexandre que o impelia a atacar sozinho multidões, como quando descreve sua força e atuação sobrenaturais que o tornavam capaz de resistir a essas mesmas multidões.”

A necessidade de qualquer ação, quer da matéria quer da mente, não é, propriamente, uma qualidade que esteja no agente, mas em um ser qualquer, dotado de pensamento e intelecto, que possa observar a ação; e consiste principalmente no fato de seus pensamentos estarem determinados a inferir a existência daquela ação a partir de alguns objetos precedentes”

sentimos que a vontade se move facilmente em todas as direções e produz uma imagem de si própria (ou uma veleidade, como se diz nas escolas) mesmo naquele lado no qual não veio a se fixar.”

Parte 2

(…)

SEÇÃO 9. DA RAZÃO DOS ANIMAIS

E não é igualmente a experiência que o faz até mesmo responder a seu nome e inferir, a partir desse som arbitrário, que referimo-nos a ele e não a algum outro de seus companheiros, e que o estamos chamando quando pronunciamos esse som de uma certa maneira e com um certo tom e inflexão?”

Formular máximas gerais a partir de observações particulares é uma operação muito delicada, e nada é mais usual do que enganar-se nessa atividade, pela pressa ou por uma estreiteza da mente que não examina a questão sob todos os seus ângulos.” Procedimento muito corriqueiro na Filosofia A.

SEÇÃO 10. DOS MILAGRES

Parte 1

a evidência que temos para a veracidade da religião cristã é menor que a evidência para a veracidade de nossos sentidos, porque já não era maior que esta nem mesmo nos primeiros autores de nossa religião, devendo certamente diminuir ao passar deles para seus discípulos, e ninguém pode depositar nos relatos destes tanta confiança quanto no objeto imediato de seus sentidos.” “Nada é tão convincente quanto um argumento conclusivo dessa espécie, que deve no mínimo silenciar o fanatismo e a superstição mais arrogantes e livrar-nos de suas exigências descabidas.”

Não fosse a memória dotada de um certo grau de obstinação, não se inclinassem comumente os homens à verdade e a um princípio de probidade, não fossem eles sensíveis à vergonha de serem apanhados mentindo, se estas qualidades, eu digo, não fossem reveladas pela experiência como inerentes à natureza humana, então não teríamos por que depositar a menor confiança no testemunho humano. Um homem que delira, ou é famoso pela sua falsidade e baixeza, não tem perante nós a menor autoridade.” Vivo no século do vil delírio.

A razão pela qual damos algum crédito a testemunhas e historiadores não deriva de qualquer conexão que percebamos a priori entre o testemunho e a realidade, mas de estarmos acostumados a encontrar uma concordância entre essas coisas.”

Eu não acreditaria em tal história, ainda que ela me fosse contada pelo próprio Catão, era um dito proverbial em Roma.”

Raciocinava corretamente o príncipe indiano que se recusou a acreditar nos primeiros relatos acerca dos efeitos do congelamento; e seria naturalmente necessário um testemunho muito poderoso para fazê-lo admitir fatos que decorrem de uma condição da natureza com a qual ele não estava familiarizado e que apresentavam tão pouca analogia com os acontecimentos dos quais tinha tido experiência constante e uniforme.”

Parte 2

não se encontra em toda a história nenhum milagre atestado por um número suficiente de homens de bom senso, educação e saber tão inquestionáveis que nos garantam contra toda possibilidade de estarem eles próprios enganados; de integridade tão indubitável que os coloque acima de qualquer suspeita de pretenderem iludir outros; de tal crédito e reputação aos olhos da humanidade que tenham muito a perder no caso de serem apanhados em qualquer falsidade; e, ao mesmo tempo, que atestem fatos realizados de maneira tão pública e em uma parte do mundo tão conhecida que não se pudesse evitar o desmascaramento.”

os efeitos que com muita dificuldade um Túlio ou um Demóstenes poderia obter sobre uma platéia romana ou ateniense, qualquer capuchinho, qualquer mestre itinerante ou estabelecido pode alcançar sobre o grosso da humanidade, e num grau mais elevado, manipulando essas paixões rudes e vulgares.”

nem bem 2 jovens de mesma condição vêem-se por duas vezes e a vizinhança inteira já os une imediatamente por casamento.”

Quando examinamos as histórias primevas de todas as nações, sentimo-nos como que transportados a algum mundo novo, no qual todo o arcabouço da natureza se acha desarticulado, e cada elemento realiza suas operações de uma maneira diferente da que o faz presentemente.”

nem sempre ocorre que todo Alexandre depare com um Luciano pronto a denunciar e desmascarar suas imposturas.” Personagens desconhecidos.

Um dos mais bem-atestados milagres em toda a história profana é aquele que Tácito conta de Vespasiano, que curou um cego em Alexandria por meio de sua saliva e um coxo com o simples toque de seu pé, em obediência a uma visão que estes tiveram do deus Serápis, o qual lhes ordenara recorrer ao imperador para obter essas curas milagrosas. Além disso, Suetônio oferece quase o mesmo relato em sua Vida de Vespasiano.” “Tácito era um autor contemporâneo aos fatos, famoso pela sinceridade e fidedignidade e, além disso, o maior e mais penetrante gênio, talvez, de toda a Antiguidade” “as testemunhas oculares do fato continuaram a confirmar seu depoimento depois que a família dos Flávios foi despojada do império e não poderia mais oferecer recompensas em troca de uma mentira.”

A sabedoria, inteligência e honradez dos cavalheiros e a austeridade das freiras de Port-Royal têm sido muito louvadas por toda a Europa. E, contudo, todos eles depõem em favor de um milagre acontecido à sobrinha do famoso Pascal, cuja santidade de vida e extraordinária capacidade são bem-conhecidas. [A sobrinha de Pascal escreveu-lhe a biografia] O famoso Racine relata esse milagre em sua famosa história de Port-Royal, e a reforça com todas as provas que uma multidão de freiras, padres, médicos e homens da sociedade – todos eles de crédito inquestionável – puderam conferir a ele. Diversos homens de letras, particularmente o bispo de Tournay, consideraram esse milagre tão genuíno a ponto de empregá-lo na refutação de ateístas e livres-pensadores. A rainha-regente da França, que alimentava imensa hostilidade contra Port-Royal, enviou seu médico particular para investigar o milagre, o qual retornou absolutamente convertido. Em resumo, a cura sobrenatural era tão incontestável que salvou por um tempo o famoso monastério da ruína com a qual os jesuítas o ameaçavam. Se tivesse sido um logro [e não um autologro], teria sido certamente detectado por antagonistas tão sagazes e poderosos, e deveria ter apressado a ruína dos perpetradores. Nossos teólogos, capazes de construir um castelo formidável com materiais tão insignificantes, que prodigiosa estrutura não teriam erguido com todas essas circunstâncias e muitas outras que não mencionei! Quão freqüentemente teriam os grandes nomes de Pascal, Racine, Arnaud, Nicole ressoado em nossos ouvidos? Mas, se forem sábios, é melhor que adotem o milagre por ser mil vezes mais valioso que todo o restante de sua coleção.” Hume já estava tão cansado de contar ‘causos’ numa nota de rodapé que ocupa 4 páginas que até abandonou o relato a meio caminho!

Nos primórdios das novas religiões, os sábios e instruídos comumente julgam que o assunto é demasiado insignificante para merecer seu cuidado e atenção. E quando mais tarde se interessam em desmascarar a fraude para abrir os olhos à multidão iludida, a hora certa já passou e os registros e testemunhas, que poderiam esclarecer a questão, estão para sempre perdidos.”

A autoridade do testemunho humano provém apenas da experiência, mas é essa mesma experiência que nos assegura sobre as leis da natureza. Quando, portanto, esses 2 tipos de experiência se opõem, nada nos resta a fazer senão subtrair um do outro, e abraçar uma opinião, seja de um lado, seja de outro, com a confiança que o resíduo pode produzir. Mas, de acordo com o princípio aqui explicado, essa subtração, no que diz respeito a todas as religiões populares, equivale a uma completa aniquilação, e podemos estabelecer, portanto, como uma máxima, que nenhum testemunho humano pode ter força suficiente para provar um milagre e torná-lo uma genuína fundação para qualquer sistema religioso dessa espécie.”

Embora o Ser ao qual o milagre é atribuído seja Todo-poderoso, o fato não se torna por isso minimamente mais provável, dado que nos é impossível conhecer os atributos ou ações de um tal Ser, a não ser pela experiência que temos de suas operações no curso usual da natureza.”

Devemos fazer uma coleção ou história particular de todos os monstros e produções ou nascimentos prodigiosos, e, em suma, de todas as coisas novas, raras e extraordinárias na natureza. Mas esse exame deve ser feito com o máximo rigor, para não nos afastarmos da verdade. Acima de tudo, todos os relatos que dependem em algum grau da religião devem ser considerados suspeitos, como os prodígios de Lívio. E no mesmo grau todas as coisas que se encontram nos escritos de magia natural ou alquimia, ou em autores que parecem todos dotados de insaciável apetite por mentiras e fábulas.” Bacon, Novum Organum, II

Para isso, teremos então de considerar inicialmente um livro que recebemos de um povo bárbaro e ignorante, escrito numa época em que eram ainda mais bárbaros e, muito provavelmente, longo tempo depois dos fatos nele narrados, um livro que não conta com a corroboração de nenhum testemunho concordante e que se assemelha aos relatos fabulosos que todas as nações fazem de suas origens.”

todo aquele que aceita a religião cristã movido pela está consciente de um permanente milagre em sua própria pessoa, milagre esse que subverte todos os princípios de seu entendimento e o faz acreditar no que há de mais oposto ao costume e à experiência.” Tão kierkegaardiano!

SEÇÃO 11. DE UMA PROVIDÊNCIA PARTICULAR E DE UM ESTADO VINDOURO

exceto pelo banimento de Protágoras e a morte de Sócrates – este último evento resultou parcialmente de outros motivos –, dificilmente se encontram, na história antiga, exemplos desse zelo fanático que tanto infesta a época presente. Epicuro viveu em Atenas até idade provecta, gozando de paz e tranqüilidade, e os epicuristas foram mesmo admitidos ao sacerdócio e oficiaram, diante do altar, os ritos mais sagrados da religião estabelecida. E o encorajamento público dos estipêndios e remunerações foi concedido igualmente, pelos mais sábios dos imperadores romanos, aos seguidores de todas as seitas filosóficas.” Cf. Luciano, O Banquete, Os Lápitas e O Eunuco. Este é o mesmo Luciano acima que “desmistificou” o homem Alexandre, O Grande?

SEÇÃO 12. DA FILOSOFIA ACADÊMICA OU CÉTICA

Parte 1

Não há maior número de raciocínios filosóficos desenvolvidos sobre um assunto qualquer do que aqueles que provam a existência de uma Divindade e refutam as falácias dos ateístas; e, contudo, os filósofos religiosos continuam debatendo se algum homem pode ser tão cego a ponto de ser um ateísta especulativo. Como poderíamos reconciliar essas contradições?”

que se entende por um cético?”

A dúvida cartesiana, portanto, se fosse alguma vez capaz de ser atingida por qualquer criatura humana (o que obviamente não é), seria totalmente incurável, e nenhum raciocínio poderia jamais levar-nos a um estado de segurança e convencimento acerca de qualquer assunto.

Deve-se confessar, contudo, que essa espécie de ceticismo, quando exercida com mais moderação, pode ser entendida em um sentido muito razoável, e constitui um preparativo necessário para o estudo da filosofia”

Com efeito: ironicamente, Descartes foi muito mais cético que Hume, “o cético”!

Até mesmo nossos próprios sentidos são postos em questão por uma certa espécie de filósofos, e as máximas da vida ordinária são sujeitas à mesma dúvida que os mais profundos princípios ou conclusões da metafísica e teologia. Como essas doutrinas paradoxais podem ser encontradas em alguns filósofos, e sua refutação em diversos outros, elas naturalmente excitam nossa curiosidade”

* * *

[POST SEPARADO] INTRODUÇÃO À EPISTEMOLOGIA HUME-KANTIANA

HUME ESTÁ PARA KANT COMO FEUERBACH ESTÁ PARA MARX: “sempre supomos um universo externo que não depende de nossa percepção, mas existiria ainda que nós a todas as outras criaturas sensíveis estivéssemos ausentes ou fôssemos aniquilados.”

Ainda com mais detalhes: Hegel Feuerbach (compreende Hegel, incapaz de prosseguir) Marx (compreende Hegel, compreende as falhas de Fuerbach, prossegue); Platão Hume (compreende a Idéia ou Representação, incapaz de prosseguir) Kant (criticismo kantiano ao estabelecer o a priori do espaço-tempo que leva em conta Platão e corrige as falhas de Hume).

Base de Hume:

instintos (naturalismo)

sentidos – sistema dos sentidos

ceticismo – crítica dos instintos e dos sentidos, sistema aperfeiçoado dos sentidos

[A filosofia] não pode mais recorrer ao instinto infalível e irresistível da natureza (naturalismo, mera noção enganosa ou antes verificada como impossível de ser alcançada através da ‘equipagem’ do ser humano no mundo), pois tal caminho nos conduz a um sistema completamente diferente, que se demonstrou falível e mesmo enganoso.” Refutação do naturalismo e do idealismo cartesiano, duas correntes de pensamento filosóficas – ambas refutáveis já por suas contrárias através de ceticismos incompletos ou parciais. “E justificar esse pretenso sistema filosófico por uma série de argumentos claros e convincentes, ou sequer por algo que se assemelhe a um argumento, é algo que está fora do alcance de toda a capacidade humana.” Descoberta de que a raiz da imperfeição tanto do naturalismo quanto do pseudo-ceticismo cartesiano são a mesma: o racionalismo, ou a fé na razão, que os primeiros filósofos da modernidade elevaram a uma categoria superior aos instintos e aos sentidos, mas que é mera ficção ou arbitrariedade, i.e., apresenta um conteúdo vazio, contaminado pelos próprios instintos e sentidos de maneira inconsciente (nestes filósofos, cujo ceticismo, grande ferramenta da filosofia, deixava a desejar).

Por qual argumento se poderia provar que as percepções da mente [sentidos e raciocínios] devem ser causadas por objetos externos inteiramente distintos delas, embora a elas assemelhados (se isso for possível), e não poderiam provir, seja da energia da própria mente, (I) seja da sugestão de algum espírito invisível e desconhecido, seja de alguma outra causa que ignoramos ainda mais?” (II) Começo da compreensão da dialética interior-exterior. Sujeito e objeto são díspares. Porém categorias os intersecionam num uno: cores e formas. A mente e uma mesa são objetos materiais, vermelhos, marrons, brancos, pouco importa, sólidos, etc. (I) é uma alusão avant la lettre a um tipo de solipsismo: conjetura-se: e se… todos os objetos exteriores que apreendemos são apenas criações nossas? Despidas de materialidade, apenas ilusões. Evocação do mito da caverna, do ainda-por-vir criticismo kantiano e das próprias considerações de uma filosofia ainda mais tardia a Hume e Kant eles mesmos, i.e., a fenomenologia do século XX, em que – com a ajuda manifesta de Kant – entendemos os fenômenos como aparências e ao mesmo tempo como nossa realidade relativa (posto descartar-se um absoluto). O (II) seria uma alusão direta à Coisa-Em-Si de Kant. Uma causa que está além do homem, e que incita à metafísica, ou seja, a meras especulações, sem poder ser refutada ou provada. “Reconhece-se, de fato, que muitas dessas percepções não surgem de nada exterior, como nos sonhos, na loucura e em outras enfermidades. E nada pode ser mais inexplicável que a maneira pela qual um corpo deveria operar sobre a mente para ser capaz de transmitir uma imagem de si mesmo a uma substância que se supõe dotada de uma natureza tão distinta e mesmo oposta.” Assunção humeana de corpo e mente como instâncias irrevocavelmente separadas. O corpo representa, nesta instância, os sentidos. A mente a capacidade de abstração. Que a substância? A matéria cinzenta, o cérebro, nosso sistema cognitivo. Sentidos e razão não possuem qualquer coincidência entre si. Nenhum pode sobrepor o outro, ambos são sempre contraditos e contradizem o outro, mas isto, esta conjugação paradoxal, é o homem. Nós sequer possuímos uma “imagem objetiva” de nosso próprio corpo, seja internamente seja externamente. Ex: não sabemos a priori como são nossas entranhas e como funcionam nossos sistemas biológicos como o digestório-excretório, o circulatório, o respiratório, etc., antes de uma investigação racional sobre tais temas. A mente também não pode comunicar conceitos ao corpo, e ela mesma não se conhece fisicamente ou, como queira, no nível espiritual, de forma objetiva, dadas nossas limitações. Não há uma instância maior-que-o-real a que se possa recorrer para arbitragem imparcial de todo esse impasse: no sonho, basta que se acorde. A causa está fora do sonho, por isso o sonho pode ser objeto de investigação. Na loucura, o louco não pode investigar-se, mas pode ser objeto de estudo. O homem, o filósofo, não pode investigar-se e investigar o mundo da mesma forma como o sonhador investiga o sonho e a medicina investiga o paciente. Neste caso, estamos dentro de um sonho, chamado mundo, e somos portadores de monomanias ou loucuras parciais que não podemos exatamente explicar ou esclarecer. Eis o que se pode construir contra todo ceticismo esclarecido. Nossos limites epistemológicos.

PERGUNTA – É uma questão de fato se as percepções dos sentidos são produzidas por objetos externos a elas assemelhadas – como se decidirá esta questão?”

Nossos olhos enxergam outras matérias porque são matéria também (idênticas, em última instância, ao que observam), ou nossa visão (sentido) cria a matéria tal qual a observamos? Neste estágio, Hume está em um problema de “o ovo ou a galinha”, a que não tem certeza a qual concede prioridade causal. Tal debate parece hoje inocente, mesmo da perspectiva epistemológica. Até por isso é necessário esclarecer o leitor, no entanto, que tampouco fala-se aqui da investigação física sobre o fenômeno da visão (já que usamos presentemente este sentido, aquele que é mais explorado pela filosofia ocidental, em detrimento do tato, paladar, audição e olfato), que até a época de Hume não estava esclarecido na base atual (a resposta encontrando-se na luz em interação tanto com a retina humana quanto com o objeto). Não é este “ângulo cru” que interessa neste livro de Hume. Ele está, ao invés, a se perguntar: que é a verdade, qual é o fundamento do real? Essas mesmas perguntas, repito, são para nós inocentes, pois a filosofia pós-kantiana decidiu-se sobre esse aspecto, sem recorrer quer ao ovo, quer a galinha, no que ficou conhecida como a síntese kantiana (ou ainda crítica, simplesmente) das correntes filosóficas importantes que o precederam. Não é dada primazia à faculdade do olho (uma câmera senciente, por assim dizer, i.e., uma câmera ligada a um sistema nervoso) nem à dos objetos, mas sim ao caráter relativista da apreensão do mundo inerente ao ser humano e ao ‘fenômeno’, conceito que detalharemos mais a seguir.

Nem existe nada de que se possa falar que seja externo ao ser (um cogitado real ou coisa-em-si), nem é o sentido do ser que cria ilusões sensórias em detrimento de acessar uma suposta realidade não-sensível, independente (o que poderíamos, hoje, tanto chamar de coisa-em-si – de novo – como de absurdo). O ser é a própria realidade que observa; a mesa, a luz, o olho humano são fenômenos (aparências), única forma da realidade regida pelo tempo-espaço, nosso único modo de vivência. Nosso corpo e mente não se encontram cingidos à maneira humeana no sistema kantiano, posto que enquanto fenômeno eternamente aparente (ou seja, em modificação) ele é em si a elucidação dos conceitos de espaço e de tempo, conteúdo e forma e sua variação, que estão embutidos em nossos instintos, sentidos e cognição (se desdobra num e noutro desde que existe, até que deixe de existir). A realidade é relativa ao indivíduo porque dois corpos não podem ser conhecidos ao mesmo tempo da mesma perspectiva, nem ‘no mesmo espaço’, sendo cada apreensão fenomênica um ‘caso isolado’ na perspectiva de um só indivíduo ou de vários. Se Hume ainda falava de um Absoluto, mas ao mesmo tempo defendia haver uma impossibilidade prática de acessá-lo, Kant, na medida em que não trata da coisa-em-si de forma moral (na Crítica da Razão Pura Prática, abordagem que não nos interessa nesta epistemologia humeana), dispensa o absoluto, ao tempo em que, justamente, o conserva, somente que sob a forma do fenômeno (que não conhece distinção sujeito-objeto), único absoluto de seu sistema.

RESPOSTA – Pela experiência.”

Como Hume não segue pela senda kantiana, ele entende que o real (o fenômeno) possa ser paulatinamente investigado pela experiência (“sentidos acumulados”, “sentidos orientados pela razão”, “razão orientada pelos sentidos” até, como queiram – também “memória”).¹ Sucede que, na fenomenologia póstuma chega-se ao veredito: a experiência humana não “acumula” fatores necessários para o entendimento da própria experiência ou do real, como diz Hume, simplesmente porque os fatores necessários são tempo e espaço,¹ que é inerente ao ser enquanto ser (e a única manifestação do ser é através do devir fenomenológico). Em outros termos, Hume procura uma solução que já estava solucionada, sendo sua investigação tautológica ou até mesmo pré-tautológica, contraproducente e falsificadora (já que podemos entender o mundo dos fenômenos como a tautologia ela mesma).

¹ Como esta é uma INTRODUÇÃO À EPISTEMOLOGIA destes dois autores, achei por bem não complicar a exposição logo de início com um último fator enunciado por Kant na sua primeira Crítica que completa um “tripé de fundamentos”. Se possível gostaria de ter deixado esta parte fora, mas como Hume, a dado ponto das Investigações cita a própria “memória” e o termo que aqui é conveniente citar, i.e., “aprendizado das causas e efeitos”, vejo que ao menos dessa nota de rodapé o “terceiro elemento” da tríade kantiana deve constar, embora a explanação seja auto-suficiente recorrendo-se estritamente a tempo e espaço. O fator que explica a memória e o acúmulo de experiências, no sistema kantiano, é o princípio inato de apreensão de causa-efeito; se já não fôssemos equipados desta intuição elementar, a própria passagem do tempo ou as mudanças do espaço (que são, em realidade, um único fenômeno que se separa na expressão da linguagem) não seriam apreensíveis, o que demoliria todo o sistema. E na verdade quando falamos em espaço e em tempo já intuímos, por assim dizer, noções como e hegemonia de causas e efeitos no real ou nos fenômenos. Nosso próprio conceito ou abstração do que seria nossa memória envolve um recipiente, um contêiner, uma caixa, por exemplo, extensa e tridimensional, finita, capaz de armazenar, em diferentes etapas e períodos, informações, sendo que esta caixa nunca nos parecerá totalmente vazia nem cheia, embora intuamos naturalmente suas limitações – ainda que nem evoquemos aqui o esquema de um cérebro esta imagem inocente da caixa já é o suficiente; o cérebro que, antes de dissecar um corpo, um ser humano não conhece em sua aparência nem em outros atributos (o mesmo que se poderia dizer do intestino, p.ex.) a não ser pela educação ou instrução, direta ou indireta, por seres humanos que obtiveram estes dados no passado, i.e., numa palavra, pela razão. Em suma, a noção de causa-efeito nada mais é do que a articulação lógica que possibilita nossa compreensão (inata) de tempo e espaço como fundamentos do real e articulados em unidade regendo todos os fenômenos.

Recorrer à veracidade do Ser supremo para provar a veracidade de nossos sentidos é, certamente, tomar um caminho muito inesperado.” Desta vez Hume está certo, e o próprio Kant, na Crítica da Razão Pura Prática, continuação moral de sua clássica e inauguradora Crítica da Razão Pura, retrocedeu e recaiu no próprio erro que já havia superado anos antes: atribuiu ao Ser supremo mediado pela ética cristã no mundo fenomênico o fundamento de nossa conduta social. Ele fez isso porque não encontrou outra solução metodológica para o dilema moral que suas conclusões no primeiro livro traziam: a queda no niilismo desenfreado, uma vez que os fenômenos são relativos e, portanto, realidades últimas individualmente falando. Faltava a explicação de como é possível a ética, isto é, a ação-no-mundo de forma que fosse possível a vida estabilizada em sociedade, fora da situação hipotética hobbesiana do estado de natureza (todos os homens contra todos os homens) e guiada por fins mais nobres do que a própria mundanidade fenomênica. Sua resposta bem conhecida é o enunciado do imperativo categórico. Sua premissa é válida para poucos séculos europeus de civilização cristã, ignorando portanto qualquer desenvolvimento histórico (a manifestação do Estado antes do modelo constitucional moderno, as civilizações anteriores, as civilizações não-européias e as civilizações póstumas, todas elas fenômenos transcendentais e estáveis, porém regidos por morais, culturas, religiões e códigos de ética alternativos ao tempo-espaço de Kant, i.e., o Estado de Direito cristão europeu do século XVIII). Kant retomaria uma epistemologia independente da coisa-em-si no seu terceiro trabalho clássico, a Crítica da Faculdade do Juízo, para explicar a possibilidade da Estética.

Este é um tópico, portanto, no qual os céticos mais profundos e mais filosóficos sempre haverão de triunfar quando se propuserem a introduzir uma dúvida universal em todos os objetos de conhecimento e investigação humanos.” No sentido aqui atribuído ao ceticismo, todos os trabalhos filosóficos ainda válidos para nossa própria idade foram efetivamente legados por indivíduos céticos, sem reparos.

É universalmente reconhecido, pelos modernos pesquisadores, que todas as qualidades sensíveis dos objetos, tais como o duro e o mole, o quente e o frio, o branco e o preto, etc., são meramente secundárias e não existem nos objetos eles mesmos, mas são percepções da mente que não representam nenhum arquétipo ou modelo externo. Se isso se admite com relação às qualidades secundárias, o mesmo deve igualmente seguir-se com relação às supostas qualidades primárias de extensão e solidez, as quais não podem ter mais direito a essa denominação que as anteriores. A idéia de extensão é inteiramente adquirida a partir dos sentidos da visão e do tato, e se todas as qualidades percebidas pelos sentidos estão na mente, não no objeto, a mesma conclusão deve alcançar a idéia de extensão, que é inteiramente dependente das idéias sensíveis, ou idéias de qualidades secundárias. Nada pode nos resguardar dessa conclusão a não ser declarar que as idéias dessas qualidades primárias são obtidas por abstração, uma opinião que, examinada cuidadosamente, revelar-se-á ininteligível e mesmo absurda. Uma extensão que não é nem tangível nem visível não pode ser minimamente concebida, e uma extensão visível ou tangível que não é nem dura nem mole, nem preta nem branca [Hume quis dizer: sem cor], está igualmente além do alcance da concepção humana. Que alguém tente conceber um triângulo em geral que não seja nem isósceles nem escaleno, nem tenha qualquer particular comprimento ou proporção entre seus lados, e logo perceberá o absurdo de todas as noções escolásticas referentes à abstração e às idéias gerais. (Em nota) Tomou-se de empréstimo esse argumento ao Dr. Berkeley; e, de fato, a maior parte dos escritos desse autor extraordinariamente habilidoso compõe as melhores lições de ceticismo que se pode encontrar entre os filósofos antigos ou modernos, incluindo Bayle. (…) Ele declara, entretanto, na folha de rosto (e sem dúvida com grande sinceridade), ter composto seu livro contra os céticos, bem como contra os ateus e os livres-pensadores. Mas todos os seus argumentos, embora visem a outro objetivo, são, na realidade, meramente céticos, o que fica claro ao se observar que não admitem nenhuma resposta e não produzem nenhuma convicção. Seu único efeito é causar aquela perplexidade, indecisão e embaraço momentâneos que são o resultado do ceticismo. [do filosofar]” Aqui Hume estava muito próximo de chegar ao criticismo kantiano, por exemplo. Diríamos que estava “quente”, mas que alguns parágrafos à frente “esfriou” de novo…

Parte 2

Pode parecer muito extravagante que os céticos tentem destruir a razão por meio de argumentos e raciocínios, contudo esse é o grande objetivo de todas as suas disputas e investigações.”

A principal objeção contra todos os raciocínios abstratos deriva das idéias de espaço e tempo; idéias que, na vida ordinária e para um olhar descuidado, passam por muito claras e inteligíveis, mas, quando submetidas ao escrutínio das ciências profundas (e elas são o principal objeto dessas ciências), geram princípios que parecem recheados de absurdos e contradições.” Significa: podemos abstrair inúmeras conclusões físico-matemática falsas acerca do espaço e do tempo, o que é o uso indiscriminado e mal-feito da razão, mas o que há de empírico e sensível no tempo e no espaço é irrefutável, indiscutível mesmo, ignorando e destruindo qualquer conceito ou abstração em última instância; daí ser fácil intuirmos por que espaço-tempo seja a base do kantismo: eis as noções mais imediatas e impregnadas no Ser, a condição de possibilidade de todos os fenômenos e representações.

Em mais algumas passagens de considerável extensão (!), Hume antecipa a eclosão, em um não-curto prazo, como a História verificou, dos famosos paradoxos das ciências exatas, principalmente na matemática pós-euclidiana, decorrente do próprio hiper-desenvolvimento e exaustão do modelo da geometria clássica, bem como podemos chamar já a matemática analítica (a álgebra), nascida aproximadamente com Descartes, do espelhamento desta situação, já adiantado, relativo à aritmética.

* * *

A grande destruidora do pirronismo, ou ceticismo de princípios excessivos, é a ação, e os afazeres e ocupações da vida cotidiana.”

Um seguidor de Copérnico, ou um de Ptolomeu, defendendo cada qual seu diferente sistema de astronomia, pode esperar produzir em sua audiência uma convicção que permanecerá constante e duradoura. Um estóico ou um epicurista expõem princípios que não apenas podem ser duradouros, mas também têm uma influência na conduta e nas maneiras. Mas um pirrônico não pode esperar que sua filosofia venha a ter alguma influência constante na mente humana; ou, se tiver, que essa influência seja benéfica para a sociedade. Ao contrário, ele deverá reconhecer – se puder – que toda vida humana seria aniquilada se seus princípios fossem adotados de forma constante e universal.” “Quando desperta de seu sonho, ele é o primeiro a rir-se de si mesmo e a confessar que suas objeções são puro entretenimento, e só tendem a mostrar a estranha condição da humanidade, que está obrigada a agir, a raciocinar e a acreditar sem ser capaz, mesmo pelas mais diligentes investigações, de convencer-se quanto às bases dessas operações ou de afastar as objeções que podem ser levantadas contra elas.”

Parte 3

Existe, com efeito, um ceticismo mais mitigado, ou filosofia acadêmica, que pode ser tanto útil quanto duradouro” O famoso ‘pra que arrumar a cama se vou dormir de novo ainda hoje?’.

Aqueles que têm propensão para a filosofia prosseguirão em suas pesquisas, porque ponderam que, em adição ao prazer imediato que acompanha essa ocupação, as decisões filosóficas nada mais são que as reflexões da vida ordinária, sistematizadas e corrigidas.”

Parece-me que os únicos objetos das ciências abstratas, ou objetos de demonstração, são a quantidade e o número, e que todas as tentativas para estender essa espécie mais perfeita de conhecimento além desses limites não passam de sofística e ilusionismo.”

Que o quadrado da hipotenusa é igual aos quadrados dos 2 outros lados, isso não pode ser conhecido, por mais exatamente que estejam definidos os termos, sem um processo de raciocínio e investigação.”

A ímpia máxima da filosofia antiga Ex nihilo, nihil fit (Do nada, nada procede), pela qual se negava a criação da matéria, deixa de ser uma máxima, de acordo com a presente filosofia.”

Os assuntos ligados à moral e à crítica são menos propriamente objetos do entendimento que do gosto e do sentimento. A beleza, quer moral ou natural, é mais propriamente sentida que percebida. Ou, se raciocinamos sobre ela, e tentamos estabelecer seu padrão, tomamos em consideração um novo fato, a saber, o gosto geral da humanidade ou algum outro fato desse tipo, que possa ser objeto do raciocínio e da investigação.” Longe de mim, ao demonstrar que a epistemologia kantiana é em síntese a superação da epistemologia humeana, rebaixar ou relegar Hume a um canto irrelevante da história dos pensadores. Nesta passagem, por exemplo, se vê com assaz clareza que Hume, apenas 13 anos mais velho que seu ainda mais celebrado “rival”, respirando a mesma cultura portanto, poderia muito bem ter sido o autor de todo o criticismo kantiano, se rumasse por veredas não muito distintas de seu próprio método, posto que essas linhas por si só contêm em germe não só as conclusões kantianas mais sublimes, como os postulados da primeira e da terceira Críticas, como até o sensato corretivo dos devaneios kantianos sobre a moral (segunda Crítica).

Quando percorrermos as bibliotecas, convencidos destes princípios, que devastação não deveremos produzir! Se tomarmos em nossas mãos um volume qualquer, de teologia ou metafísica escolástica, p.ex., façamos a pergunta: Contém ele qualquer raciocínio abstrato referente a números e quantidades? Não. Contém qualquer raciocínio experimental referente a questões de fato e de existência? Não. Às chamas com ele, então, pois não pode conter senão sofismas e ilusão.”

UMA INVESTIGAÇÃO SOBRE OS PRINCÍPIOS DA MORAL

SEÇÃO 1. DOS PRINCÍPIOS GERAIS DA MORAL

é inútil esperar que qualquer lógica – que não se dirige aos afetos – seja jamais capaz de levá-los a abraçar princípios mais sadios.”

Por mais insensível que seja um homem, ele será freqüentemente tocado pelas imagens do certo e do errado, e, por mais obstinados que sejam seus preconceitos, ele deve certamente observar que outras pessoas são suscetíveis às mesmas impressões. O único modo, portanto, de converter um antagonista dessa espécie é deixá-lo sozinho.”

Os filósofos da Antiguidade, embora afirmem muitas vezes que a virtude nada mais é que a conformidade com a razão, parecem em geral considerar que a moral deriva sua existência do gosto e do sentimento.”

Extingam-se todos os cálidos sentimentos e propensões em favor da virtude, e toda repugnância ou aversão ao vício; tornem-se os homens totalmente indiferentes a essas distinções, e a moralidade não mais será um estudo prático nem terá nenhuma tendência a regular nossa vida e ações.”

Mas em muitas espécies de beleza, particularmente no caso das belas-artes, é preciso empregar muito raciocínio para experimentar o sentimento adequado, e um falso deleite pode muitas vezes ser corrigido por argumentos e reflexão. Há boas razões para se concluir que a beleza moral tem muitos traços em comum com esta última espécie, e exige a assistência de nossas faculdades intelectuais para adquirir uma influência apropriada sobre a mente humana.”

Dado que essa é uma questão factual e não um assunto de ciência abstrata, só podemos esperar obter sucesso seguindo o método experimental e deduzindo máximas gerais a partir de uma comparação de casos particulares.” Larochefoucauldismo

Os homens estão hoje curados de sua paixão por hipóteses e sistemas em filosofia natural, e não darão ouvidos a argumentos que não sejam derivados da experiência.” Que otimismo!

Já é tempo de que façam uma reforma semelhante em todas as investigações morais e rejeitem todos os sistemas éticos, por mais sutis e engenhosos, que não estejam fundados em fatos e na observação.”

SEÇÃO 2. DA BENEVOLÊNCIA

Parte 1

Os epítetos ‘sociável’, ‘de boa índole’, ‘humano’, ‘compassivo’, ‘grato’, ‘amistoso’, ‘generoso’, ‘benfazejo’, ou seus equivalentes, são conhecidos em todas as linguagens e expressam universalmente o mais alto mérito que a natureza humana é capaz de atingir.”

Uma elevada aptidão, uma coragem indomável, um sucesso florescente só podem expor um herói ou um político à inveja e má vontade do público; mas tão logo se acrescentem os louvores de humanitário e beneficente, tão logo sejam dadas demonstrações de brandura, enternecimento e amizade, a própria inveja se cala ou junta-se ao coro geral de aprovação e aplauso.”

Em homens de talentos e capacidades mais ordinários, as virtudes sociais (se é que isto é possível) são requeridas de forma ainda mais essencial, já que não há, nesses casos, nada que se sobressaia para compensar sua ausência ou para preservar a pessoa da mais profunda aversão ou desprezo.”

Deve-se de fato reconhecer que é apenas pela prática do bem que um homem pode verdadeiramente gozar das vantagens de ser eminente. Sua posição elevada, por si só, apenas o deixa mais exposto ao perigo e à tempestade.”

Parte 2

Plantar uma árvore, cultivar um campo, gerar filhos: atos meritórios, segundo a religião de Zoroastro.” Faltou um quarto ato: ler meu blog.

O ato de dar esmolas a pedintes vulgares é compreensivelmente elogiado, pois parece trazer alívio aos aflitos e indigentes; mas, quando observamos o encorajamento que isso dá à ociosidade e à devassidão, passamos a considerar essa espécie de caridade antes como uma fraqueza que uma virtude.”

O tiranicídio, ou assassinato de usurpadores e príncipes opressivos, foi sumamente enaltecido em tempos antigos porque livrou a humanidade desses monstros e parecia, além disso, impor o temor a outros que a espada ou o punhal não podiam alcançar. Mas como a história e a experiência desde então nos convenceram de que essa prática aumenta a suspeita e a crueldade dos príncipes, um Timoleão e um Bruto, embora tratados com indulgência em vista das predisposições de sua época, são hoje considerados como modelos muito impróprios para imitação.”

O luxo, ou refinamento nos prazeres e confortos da vida, foi durante muito tempo tomado como a origem de toda a corrupção no governo, e como a causa imediata de discórdia, rebelião, guerras civis e perda total de liberdade.”

SEÇÃO 3. DA JUSTIÇA

Parte 1

A água e o ar, embora sejam as mais necessárias de todas as coisas, não são disputados como propriedades de indivíduos, e ninguém comete injustiça por mais prodigamente que se sirva e desfrute dessas bênçãos.” Como Hume envelheceu mal nesses 250 anos!

Para quê erigir marcos limítrofes entre meu campo e o de meu vizinho se meu coração não fez nenhuma divisão entre nossos interesses, mas compartilha todas as suas alegrias e tristezas com a mesma força e vivacidade que experimentaria caso fossem originalmente as minhas próprias?”

O ANTI-HOBBES I: “Esta ficção poética de uma idade de ouro está, sob certos aspectos, em pé de igualdade com a ficção filosófica de um estado de natureza (…) Essa ficção de um estado de natureza como um estado de guerra não se iniciou com Thomas Hobbes, como se costuma imaginar (Leviatã, capítulo 13). Platão esforça-se para refutar uma hipótese muito semelhante a essa nos 2º, 3º e 4º livros da República. Cícero, ao contrário, toma-a como certa e universalmente admitida [Cícero é péssimo!]”

Pode-se com razão duvidar de que uma tal condição da natureza humana tenha jamais existido, ou, se existiu, que tenha durado por tanto tempo a ponto de merecer a denominação de um estado.”

Hume não pôde prever um direito dos animais (p. 125 do PDF, 251 da edição); mais, aliás: não pôde prever nem direitos dos povos autóctones! “A grande superioridade dos europeus civilizados em relação aos índios selvagens inclinou-nos a imaginar que estamos, perante eles, em idêntica situação [àquela dos homens com os animais], e fez com que nos desembaraçássemos de todas as restrições derivadas da justiça e mesmo de considerações humanitárias.” Em seguida, sobre a situação isenta de esperança da mulher! Segundo Hume, pela força bruta, o homem jamais perderia seus direitos exclusivos à propriedade, p.ex.; ocorre que o charme da mulher ‘democratizou’ tais relações. Nada, portanto, mais etno-antropo-androcêntrico que este parágrafo!

Parte 2

Fanáticos podem supor que o poder se funda na graça, e que somente os santos herdarão a terra, mas o magistrado civil muito corretamente põe esses sublimes teóricos em pé de igualdade com os assaltantes comuns e lhes ensina pela disciplina mais severa que uma regra que, do ponto de vista especulativo, parece talvez a mais vantajosa para a sociedade, pode revelar-se, na prática, totalmente perniciosa e destrutiva.”

PREFIGURAÇÕES DO SOCIALISMO: “Talvez os ‘Levellers’, que reclamavam uma distribuição igualitária da propriedade, tenham sido um tipo de fanáticos políticos que brotaram da espécie religiosa e confessavam mais abertamente suas pretensões, como tendo uma aparência mais plausível de poderem ser postas em prática e serem de utilidade para a sociedade humana.”

a mínima gratificação de um frívolo capricho de um indivíduo custa freqüentemente mais do que o pão de muitas famílias, e até de muitas províncias.” Cita Esparta como a república que teria realizado o ideal da igualdade sobre a terra. E em seguida: “Sem mencionar que as leis agrárias, tão freqüentemente reivindicadas em Roma e postas em prática em muitas cidades gregas, procederam todas elas de uma concepção geral da utilidade desse princípio.” Claro que, como bom liberal do XVII, H. vai dizer que essas idéias não são mais exeqüíveis nem desejáveis, de forma alguma. Uma das razões é que tal disposição geraria a necessidade de uma justiça draconiana, praticamente uma comissão inquisitorial. Não deixa de ser verdade que Esparta e Roma foram assim, mas que, em Esparta pelo menos, isso não era sentido como peso devido à arete dos cidadãos.

Quem não vê (…) que a propriedade deve passar por herança para os filhos e parentes, tendo em vista o mesmo útil propósito?”

um sistema [o de Montesquieu!] que, em minha opinião, jamais poderá ser reconciliado com a verdadeira filosofia.” Posso entender por que Hume deve ter exercido influência do mais alto grau em mentes como Smith e Stuart-Mill! Aliás, Smith foi contemporâneo tanto de Montesquieu quanto de Hume, e conterrâneo de Hume (escocês)!

Um sírio morreria de fome antes de saborear um pombo, um egípcio não se aproximaria de um pedaço de toucinho” “Uma ave na quinta-feira é um alimento lícito, na sexta-feira torna-se abominável; ovos são permitidos nesta casa e nesta diocese durante a Quaresma, cem passos adiante, comê-los é um pecado mortal; este terreno ou edifício ontem era profano, hoje, após serem murmuradas certas palavras, tornou-se pio e sagrado.”

Adoro o Hume antirreligioso: “Se os interesses da sociedade não estivessem de nenhum modo envolvidos, a razão pela qual a articulação de certos sons implicando consentimento por parte de uma pessoa deveria alterar a natureza de minhas ações com respeito a um objeto particular seria tão ininteligível quanto a razão pela qual uma fórmula litúrgica recitada por um padre, com um certo hábito e numa certa postura, deveria consagrar uma pilha de madeira e tijolos e torná-la desde então sagrada para todo o sempre.”

MALDITOS JESUÍTAS, ESSES “SUPERESCOLÁSTICOS”: “ver no Dicionário de Bayle o verbete ‘Loyola’.”

As sutilezas casuísticas podem não ser maiores que as sutilezas dos advogados aqui mencionadas, mas como as primeiras são perniciosas e as últimas inocentes e mesmo necessárias, compreende-se a razão das recepções bastante diferentes que encontraram no mundo. § É uma doutrina da Igreja de Roma que o sacerdote, por um direcionamento secreto de sua intenção, pode invalidar qualquer sacramento.”

E estas próprias palavras, herança e contrato, representam idéias infinitamente complicadas, e uma centena de volumes de legislação mais um milhar de volumes de comentários não se mostraram suficientes para defini-las com exatidão. Poderia a natureza, cujos instintos nos seres humanos são de todo simples, abarcar objetos tão complicados e artificiosos, e criar uma criatura racional sem nada consignar à operação de sua razão?” “Teríamos então idéias inatas originárias acerca de pretores, chanceleres e júris? Quem não vê que todas essas instituições surgem simplesmente das necessidades da sociedade humana?” Sedutor, mas errado.

O Zeitgeist é tão forte que mesmo um “anti-Iluminista” como Hume acaba chegando às mesmas conclusões que os baluartes do Esclarecimento: “A vantagem, ou antes a necessidade, que leva à justiça é tão universal e conduz em todas as partes de modo tão pronunciado às mesmas regras que o hábito toma assento em todas as sociedades e só com algum esforço investigativo somos capazes de descobrir sua verdadeira origem.”

SEÇÃO 4. DA SOCIEDADE POLÍTICA

Alianças e tratados são formalizados todos os dias entre Estados independentes, o que constituiria desperdício de pergaminho se a experiência não tivesse mostrado que eles têm alguma influência e autoridade.”

No caso de confederações como a antiga república dos aqueus ou, modernamente, os Cantões Suíços e as Províncias Unidas,(*) como a aliança tem, nesses casos, uma peculiar utilidade, as condições de união têm um caráter particularmente sagrado e impositivo, e uma violação delas será considerada tão ou mais criminosa que qualquer dano ou injustiça de caráter privado.

(*) Os Países Baixos, constituídos em 1579 pelo tratado de Utrecht. (N.T.)”

A única solução que Platão oferece a todas as objeções que poderiam ser levantadas contra a posse em comum das mulheres estabelecida em sua comunidade imaginária é ‘pois sempre houve e haverá boa razão para se afirmar que o útil é belo, e o nocivo é feio’ (Rep., V).”

Odeio um companheiro de bebedeiras que nunca esquece, diz o provérbio grego. As loucuras da última esbórnia devem ser sepultadas em eterno olvido a fim de abrir o máximo espaço para as loucuras da próxima.”

ÉTICA DO CARONEIRO PARTE II! (PREQUEL): “Que o veículo mais leve ceda passagem ao mais pesado, e, em veículos de mesmo porte, que o que está vazio dê preferência ao carregado são regras fundadas na conveniência. Que aqueles que estão se dirigindo para a capital têm precedência sobre os que estão retornando parece fundar-se em alguma representação da dignidade da grande cidade, e a uma preferência do futuro sobre o passado. Por análogas razões, entre pedestres, a mão direita dá direito a caminhar junto à parede e evita os esbarrões que as pessoas pacíficas acham muito desagradáveis e inconvenientes.”

SEÇÃO 5. POR QUE A UTILIDADE AGRADA

Parte 1

Se a natureza não tivesse feito essa distinção com base na constituição original da mente, as palavras ‘honroso’ e ‘vergonhoso’, ‘estimável’ e ‘odioso’, ‘nobre’ e ‘desprezível’ não existiriam em nenhuma linguagem; e mesmo que os políticos viessem a inventar esses termos, jamais seriam capazes de torná-los inteligíveis ou fazê-los veicular alguma idéia aos ouvintes. Nada mais superficial, portanto, que esse paradoxo dos céticos

Essa dedução da moral a partir do amor de si mesmo, ou de uma atenção aos interesses privados, é uma idéia óbvia” “Mas (…) a voz da natureza e da experiência parecem se opor claramente à teoria egoísta.”

O descumprimento das obrigações para com os pais é desaprovado por todos os homens” Mas Políbio vê que essas considerações são também egoístas: <quando eu tiver filhos…>

Que tem isso a ver comigo? Há poucas ocasiões em que essa pergunta não é pertinente”

Um homem trazido à beira de um precipício não pode olhar para baixo sem tremer, e o sentimento de um perigo imaginário atua sobre ele em oposição à opinião e crença de uma segurança real.” Poderíamos inverter os vocábulos imaginário e real nesta frase e ela manteria o mesmo sentido, se é que não faria ainda mais sentido…

Parte 2

Poucos gêneros poéticos trazem mais entretenimento do que o gênero pastoral

A leitura atenta da história parece ser um entretenimento tranqüilo, mas não seria de nenhum modo um entretenimento se nossos corações não batessem em movimentos correspondentes aos que são descritos pelo historiador.”

Tucídides e Guicciardini mantêm com dificuldade nossa atenção quando o 1º descreve os triviais confrontos das pequenas cidades da Grécia e o 2º as guerras inofensivas de Pisa. (…) Mas a profunda aflição do numeroso exército ateniense diante de Siracusa e o perigo que tão de perto ameaçava Veneza, esses despertam compaixão, esses incitam o terror e a ansiedade.” Hoje tudo isso para nós está unido sob uma única alcunha: passado remoto; igualmente indiferente, igualmente apaixonante, dependendo da circunstância e do receptor.

Se admitíssemos que a crueldade de Nero era inteiramente voluntária e não antes o efeito de um constante temor e ressentimento, é evidente que Tigelino, de preferência a Sêneca e Burro, deveria ter gozado de sua constante e invariável aprovação.”

NACIONALISMO: FÓSSIL: “Dedicamos sempre uma consideração mais apaixonada a um estadista ou patriota que serve nosso próprio país em nossa própria época do que a um outro cuja influência benéfica operou em eras remotas ou em nações distantes, nas quais o bem resultante de sua generosa benevolência, estando menos relacionado conosco, parece-nos mais obscuro, afeta-nos com uma simpatia menos vívida.” Essa regra só se aplicaria aos seres humanos que conhecemos em nossa vida diária: os fascistas com quem convivo me inspiram aversão infinitamente maior que qualquer traste que eu venha a conhecer lendo a história do Nazismo.

SEÇÃO 6. DAS QUALIDADES ÚTEIS A NÓS MESMOS

Parte 1

Para um Cromwell, talvez, ou para um De Retz, a discrição pode parecer uma virtude típica de vereador, no dizer do Dr. Swift; e, sendo incompatível com aqueles vastos desígnios inspirados por sua coragem e ambição, poderia neles constituir realmente um defeito ou imperfeição.”

Um dos extremos da frugalidade é a avareza, que, ao privar um homem de todo uso de suas riquezas e simultaneamente impedir a hospitalidade e qualquer prazer sociável, sofre, com razão, uma dupla censura.”

Mas, em épocas antigas, quando ninguém podia sobressair-se sem o dom da oratória e a audiência era demasiado refinada para suportar as arengas cruas e mal-digeridas com que nossos improvisados oradores se dirigem às assembléias públicas, a faculdade da memória tinha então a mais alta importância e era, em conseqüência, muito mais valorizada do que no presente.”

Parte 2

As justas proporções de um cavalo descritas por Xenofonte e Virgílio são as mesmas hoje aceitas pelos que lidam com esses animais, porque seu fundamento é o mesmo, a saber, a experiência do que é prejudicial ou útil nesses animais.”

Quanto escárnio e desdém, por parte de ambos os sexos, acompanham a impotência! O infeliz indivíduo é visto como privado de um prazer essencial na vida e, ao mesmo tempo, incapaz de proporcioná-lo a outros.”

SEÇÃO 7. DAS QUALIDADES IMEDIATAMENTE AGRADÁVEIS A NÓS MESMOS

DÊNIS & CABELINHO: “A chama se propaga a todo o círculo, e mesmo os mais rabugentos e taciturnos são contagiados por ela. Embora Horácio o tenha afirmado, tenho certa dificuldade em admitir que as pessoas tristes detestam as alegres, porque sempre observei que, quando a jovialidade é moderada e decente, as pessoas sérias são as que mais se deliciam, já que ela dissipa as trevas que comumente as oprimem e proporciona-lhes uma rara diversão.” “surge uma cordial emoção dirigida para a pessoa que transmite tanta satisfação. Ela constitui um espetáculo mais tonificante, sua presença difunde sobre nós uma satisfação e um contentamento mais serenos; nossa imaginação, penetrando em seus sentimentos e disposições, é afetada de uma maneira mais agradável do que se nos tivesse sido apresentado um temperamento triste, abatido, sombrio e angustiado.”

Não há ninguém que não seja afetado, em certas ocasiões, pelas desagradáveis paixões do medo, cólera, abatimento, aflição, tristeza, ansiedade, etc. Mas essas paixões, por serem naturais e universais, não fazem nenhuma diferença entre uma pessoa e outra, e não podem jamais constituir motivo de censura. É apenas quando a disposição produz uma propensão a uma dessas desagradáveis paixões que desfiguram o caráter e, ao produzir desconforto, transmitem o sentimento de desaprovação ao espectador.”

Poucos invejariam o caráter que César atribui a Cássio:

He loves no play,

As thou do’st, Anthony: he hears no music:

Seldom he smiles; and smiles in such a sort,

As if he mock’d himself, and scorn’d his spirit

That could be mov’d to smile at any thing.”

Shakespeare, Júlio César, ato I, cena II,203-207, trecho tão comentado por Deleuze no Anti-Édipo!

Ide!, exclamou o mesmo herói a seus soldados quando estes se recusaram a segui-lo até as Índias, ide e dizei a vossos compatriotas que deixastes Alexandre completando a conquista do mundo! E o Príncipe de Condé, grande admirador dessa passagem, complementa: Alexandre, abandonado por seus soldados entre bárbaros ainda não totalmente subjugados, sentia em si uma tamanha dignidade e direito de comando que não podia acreditar ser possível que alguém se recusasse a obedecer-lhe. Na Europa ou na Ásia, entre gregos ou persas, pouco lhe importava: onde quer que encontrasse homens, imaginava que haveria de encontrar súditos.”

RUBENEUS ADRIANUS: “E se, como freqüentemente acontece, a mesma pessoa que rasteja diante de seus superiores é insolente com seus subordinados, essa contradição em seu comportamento, longe de corrigir o vício anterior, agrava-o extraordinariamente pelo acréscimo de um vício ainda mais odioso.”

Contemplei Filipe, contra quem lutastes, expondo-se resolutamente, em sua busca de poder e domínio, a todos os ferimentos; o olho coberto de uma crosta de sangue, o pescoço contorcido, o braço e coxa trespassados, pronto a abandonar de bom grado qualquer parte de seu corpo que a fortuna agarrasse desde que pudesse, com o restante, viver com honra e renome. Quem diria que, nascido em Pela, lugar até então vil e ignóbil, ele tenha sido inspirado por tão grande ambição e sede de celebridade, ao passo que vós, atenienses, . . . .” Demóstenes

Os suevos arranjavam seus cabelos com um louvável intento; não para amar ou serem amados: eles se adornavam apenas para seus inimigos e para parecerem mais terríveis.” – Tácito. O penteado coque-samurai dos bárbaros germânicos massacrados por César – acabei de ler a mesma citação na History of The Romans Under the Empire de Merivale (em breve no Seclusão)!

Os citas, de acordo com Heródoto em seu Livro 4, após escalpelarem seus inimigos, tratavam a pele como um couro e usavam-na como uma toalha, e quem possuísse o maior número dessas toalhas era o mais merecedor de apreço entre eles.”

E esse [a ética da coragem guerreira] também, até muito recentemente, foi o sistema ético predominante em muitas das regiões bárbaras da Irlanda, se podemos dar crédito a Spenser em seu judicioso relato do estado daquele reino: ‘É comum que os filhos das boas famílias, tão logo sejam capazes de usar suas armas, reúnam-se imediatamente a 3 ou 4 vagabundos ou mercenários os quais vagueiam à toa durante algum tempo pelo país, apoderando-se apenas de comida, até que afinal se lhe ofereça alguma má aventura, a qual, logo que se torna conhecida, faz com que ele seja considerado daí em diante como um homem de valor, em quem há coragem.

A serenidade filosófica pode, na verdade, ser considerada simplesmente como um ramo da grandeza de espírito.”

Epicteto não tinha sequer uma porta no casebre em que morava, e por isso logo perdeu seu lampião de ferro, o único de seus objetos que valia a pena ser furtado. E tendo decidido frustrar todos os futuros ladrões, substituiu-o por um lampião de barro, que manteve pacificamente desde então em sua posse.”

sofremos por contágio e simpatia, e não podemos manter-nos como espectadores indiferentes, mesmo estando certos de que nenhuma conseqüência danosa nos advirá dessas ameaçadoras paixões.”

A coragem excessiva e a resoluta inflexibilidade de Carlos XII arruinaram seu país e assolaram todos os vizinhos, mas exibem um tal esplendor (…) que poderiam ser até (…) aprovadas (…) se não traíssem (…) sintomas (…) evidentes de loucura”

SEÇÃO 8. DAS QUALIDADES IMEDIATAMENTE AGRADÁVEIS AOS OUTROS

Um espanhol sai de sua casa à frente de seu hóspede, significando com isso que o deixa como senhor dela. Em outros países, o dono da casa sai em último lugar, como um sinal usual de respeito e consideração.”

pouca satisfação é obtida pelo contador de longas histórias ou pelo declamador empertigado.”

Há um tipo inofensivo de mentirosos, comumente encontrados nas reuniões, que se comprazem muitíssimo com relatos fantásticos. Em geral sua intenção é agradar, mas, como as pessoas se encantam mais com aquilo que supõem verdadeiro, esses indivíduos se equivocam redondamente sobre as formas de entreter e incorrem em uma censura universal.”

As pessoas têm, em geral, uma propensão muito maior para se sobrevalorizarem do que para se menosprezarem, não obstante a opinião de Aristóteles sobre o assunto em Ética a Nicômaco.”

Ninguém poderá censurar Maurício, príncipe de Orange, por sua resposta de caráter bem-humorado e velado quando lhe perguntaram quem ele considerava o maior general de sua época: O marquês de Spinola é o segundo.”

A magnífica obstinação de Sócrates, como Cícero a denominava, tem sido grandemente celebrada em todas as épocas, e, quando conjugada à usual modéstia de seu comportamento, compõe um caráter luminoso. (…) Em suma, um generoso temperamento e amor-próprio, quando bem-fundamentados, disfarçados com decoro e corajosamente defendidos contra as calúnias e vicissitudes, é uma grande virtude e parece derivar seu mérito da nobre elevação de seu sentimento, ou do fato de ser imediatamente agradável a seu possuidor.”

Por que essa ansiedade em relatar que estivemos em companhia de pessoas ilustres e que recebemos referências elogiosas, como se essas não fossem coisas corriqueiras que todos poderiam imaginar sem que lhes fossem contadas?”

SEÇÃO 9. CONCLUSÃO

Parte 1

O ANTI-SCHOPENHAUER: “Celibato, jejum, penitência, mortificação, negação de si próprio, submissão, silêncio, solidão e todo o séquito das virtudes monásticas – por que razão são elas em toda parte rejeitadas pelas pessoas sensatas a não ser porque não servem a nenhum propósito; não aumentam a fortuna de um homem nem o tornam um membro mais valioso da sociedade; não o qualificam para as alegrias da convivência social nem o tornam mais capaz de satisfazer-se consigo mesmo?” “Um fanático sombrio e ignorante pode, após sua morte, ganhar uma data no calendário, mas dificilmente seria admitido, enquanto vivo, à intimidade e ao convívio social, exceto por aqueles tão transtornados e lúgubres quanto ele.”

O ANTI-HOBBES II: “aqueles pensadores que sinceramente sustentam o predominante egoísmo do ser humano não se escandalizarão em absoluto ao ouvir falar desses tênues sentimentos de virtude implantados em nossa natureza.”

Quando um homem chama outro de seu inimigo, seu rival, seu antagonista, seu adversário, entende-se que ele está falando a linguagem do amor de si mesmo e expressando sentimentos que lhe são próprios e que decorrem das situações e circunstâncias particulares em que está envolvido. Mas, quando atribui a alguém os epítetos de corrupto, odioso ou depravado, já está falando outra linguagem e expressando sentimentos que ele espera que serão compartilhados por toda sua audiência.”

Quando o coração está cheio de ira, nunca lhe faltam pretextos dessa natureza, embora sejam às vezes tão ridículos como os de Horácio que, ao ser quase esmagado pela queda de uma árvore, pretendeu acusar de parricídio quem a havia plantado (Odes, livro 2, ode 13).” [!!!]

NOVAMENTE ME ESPANTO QUE HUME NÃO TENHA VIVIDO APÓS LAPLACE! “quando reflito que, embora se tenha medido e delineado o tamanho e a forma da Terra, explicado os movimentos das marés, submetido a ordem e organização dos corpos celestes a leis apropriadas, e reduzido o próprio infinito a um cálculo, ainda persistem as disputas relativas ao fundamento de seus deveres morais (…) recaio na desconfiança e no ceticismo, [não diga! logo você, sr. Hume?!] e suspeito que, se fosse verdadeira (…) esta hipótese tão óbvia (…) teria já há muito tempo recebido o sufrágio e a aceitação unânimes da humanidade.”

Parte 2

(…)

APÊNDICE 1. Sobre o sentimento moral

(…)

APÊNDICE 2.

(…)

APÊNDICE 3.

(…)

APÊNDICE 4.

Em tempos mais recentes, toda espécie de filosofia e em especial a ética têm estado mais estreitamente unidas à teologia do que jamais estiveram entre os pagãos; e como essa última ciência não faz quaisquer concessões às demais, mas verga todos os ramos do conhecimento para seus propósitos particulares, sem dar muita atenção aos fenômenos da natureza ou a sentimentos mentais livres de preconceitos, segue-se que o raciocínio e mesmo a linguagem foram desviados de seu curso natural, e fez-se um esforço para estabelecer distinções em situações em que a diferença entre os objetos era quase imperceptível. Filósofos, ou antes teólogos sob esse disfarce, ao tratar toda a moral em pé de igualdade com as leis civis, protegidas pelas sanções de recompensa ou punição, foram necessariamente levados a fazer da característica do voluntário ou involuntário o fundamento de toda a sua teoria.”

Que temos um dever em relação a nós mesmos é algo que até o mais vulgar sistema de moral reconhece”

UM DIÁLOGO

Parece que Alcheic tinha sido muito belo em sua juventude, tinha sido cortejado por muitos amantes, mas concedera seus favores especialmente ao sábio Elcouf, a quem se supunha que ele devia o espantoso progresso que fizera em filosofia e na virtude.

Surpreendeu-me também o fato de que a esposa de Alcheic (que, aliás, era também sua irmã) não se mostrasse minimamente escandalizada com essa espécie de infidelidade.

Mais ou menos à mesma época descobri (…) que Alcheic era um assassino e um parricida, e que mandara para a morte uma pessoa inocente, que lhe era estreitamente aparentada e a quem estava obrigado a proteger e defender por todos os laços da natureza”

Recebi recentemente uma carta de um correspondente em Fourli, pela qual fiquei sabendo que, após minha partida, Alcheic apropriadamente se enforcou, e morreu universalmente lamentado e aplaudido em todo o país.”

mal poderíeis distinguir se ele estava zombando ou falando sério.”

Cuidado, gritou ele, tende cuidado! Não percebeis que estais blasfemando e insultando os vossos favoritos, os gregos, especialmente os atenienses, que eu ocultei o tempo todo sob os nomes bizarros que empreguei?”

Mas não dissestes que Usbek era um usurpador!”

Não o fiz, para que não descobrísseis o paralelo que tinha em mente. Mas, mesmo acrescentando essa circunstância, não deveríamos hesitar, de acordo com nosso sentimento de moral, em classificar Bruto e Cássio como traidores ingratos e assassinos, embora saibais que são talvez as mais altas personalidades de toda a Antiguidade, e que os atenienses erigiram-lhes estátuas, [?] colocadas próximas às de Harmódio e Aristogiton, seus próprios libertadores.”

Creio que com justiça mostrei que um ateniense de mérito poderia ser alguém que entre nós passaria hoje por incestuoso, parricida, assassino, ingrato, pérfido traidor e outra coisa demasiado abominável para ser nomeada; [gay] sem contar sua rusticidade”

Geometria, física, astronomia, anatomia, botânica, geografia, navegação: em todas estas reivindicamos com razão a superioridade. Mas que temos a opor a seus moralistas? Vossa representação das coisas é falaciosa.”

Ser-me-ia permitido informar aos atenienses de que houve uma nação em que o adultério, tanto ativo quanto passivo, gozava da mais alta popularidade e estima? Na qual cada homem educado escolhia para sua amante uma mulher casada, talvez a esposa de seu amigo e companheiro, e vangloriava-se dessas infames conquistas tanto quanto se tivesse sido várias vezes vencedor no boxe ou na luta nos Jogos Olímpicos? Na qual cada homem também se orgulhava de sua mansidão (…) com relação a sua própria mulher, e alegrava-se de fazer amigos e obter vantagens permitindo que ela prostituísse seus encantos; e que dava-lhe plena liberdade e indulgência? Pergunto, então, que sentimentos os atenienses experimentariam por um tal povo”

Ser-me-ia preciso acrescentar que esse mesmo povo era tão orgulhoso de sua escravidão e dependência como os atenienses de sua liberdade, e embora um homem desse povo estivesse oprimido, desgraçado, empobrecido, insultado ou aprisionado pelo tirano, ainda consideraria altamente meritório amá-lo, servi-lo e obedecer-lhe?”

E se um homem que lhes é absolutamente estranho desejasse que, sob ameaça de morte, cortassem a garganta de um velho amigo, eles imediatamente obedeceriam e se julgariam altamente favorecidos e honrados por essa comissão.”

Mas embora estejam tão prontos a sacar sua espada contra seus amigos, nenhuma desgraça, dor ou miséria jamais levará essas pessoas a apontarem-na contra seu próprio peito. Um homem de posição irá remar nas galés, mendigar seu pão, definhar na prisão, sofrer todas as torturas, conquanto conserve sua ignóbil existência.”

É também muito usual entre esse povo construir prisões nas quais todas as artes de afligir e atormentar os infelizes prisioneiros são cuidadosamente estudadas e praticadas. E é comum que pais voluntariamente encerrem vários de seus filhos nessas prisões, a fim de que um outro filho, que admitem não ter mais mérito, ou até tê-lo menos, que os outros, possa gozar integralmente de sua fortuna e chafurdar em toda espécie de voluptuosidade e prazeres.”

Mas o mais singular nessa caprichosa nação é que vossos folguedos durante as saturnais, quando os escravos são servidos por seus senhores, são seriamente estendidos por eles de modo a cobrir o ano inteiro e todo o tempo de sua vida, acompanhados ainda de algumas circunstâncias que aumentam o absurdo e o ridículo. (…) em todo o tempo a superioridade das mulheres é prontamente reconhecida e aceita por todos (…) Dificilmente um crime seria mais universalmente condenado do que uma infração a essa regra.”

Também os franceses, sem dúvida, são um povo muito civilizado e inteligente; no entanto, seus homens de mérito poderiam, entre os atenienses, ser objetos do maior desprezo e ridículo, e mesmo de ódio. O que torna a questão mais extraordinária é que esses dois povos são considerados os mais similares em seu caráter nacional entre todos os povos antigos e modernos! E enquanto os ingleses se gabam de assemelhar-se aos romanos, seus vizinhos no continente traçam um paralelo entre os cultivados gregos e si próprios.”

Os amores gregos (…) provêm de uma causa muito inocente, a freqüência dos exercícios de ginástica entre esse povo, e eram recomendados, embora absurdamente, como uma fonte de amizade, simpatia, apego mútuo e fidelidade”

Como se poderia recuperar a liberdade pública das mãos de um usurpador ou tirano, se seu poder o protege da rebelião pública e de nossos escrúpulos da vingança privada?”

reconheço que há uma dificuldade quase tão grande de justificar a galanteria francesa quanto a grega, exceto, talvez, que a 1ª é muito mais natural e agradável.”

Certamente nada pode ser mais absurdo e bárbaro que a prática do duelo”

Horácio enalteceu uma testa baixa, e Anacreonte sobrancelhas unidas; mas o Apolo e a Vênus da Antiguidade são ainda nossos modelos de beleza masculina e feminina”

De todas as nações do mundo nas quais não se permitia a poligamia, os gregos parecem ter sido os mais reservados em suas relações com o belo sexo”

vemos que, exceto pelas fabulosas histórias de Helena e Clitemnestra, quase não há nenhum acontecimento na história grega que decorra das intrigas femininas. Nos tempos modernos, entretanto, particularmente em uma nação vizinha, as mulheres participam de todas as transações e arranjos da Igreja e do Estado (…) Henrique III pôs em perigo sua coroa e perdeu sua vida por ter incorrido no desagrado das mulheres”

quem poderia imaginar que os romanos tivessem um tão grande desinteresse pela música e considerassem a dança aviltante; ao passo que os gregos passassem todo o tempo a tocar flauta, cantar e dançar?”

Hoje, quando a filosofia perdeu a atração da novidade, não tem mais uma influência tão extensa, mas parece confinar-se principalmente a especulações de gabinete, da mesma maneira como a antiga religião estava limitada a sacrifícios no templo. Seu lugar está agora ocupado pela moderna religião, que inspeciona por inteiro nossa conduta e prescreve uma regra universal a nossas ações, a nossas palavras, a nossos próprios pensamentos e inclinações”

Diógenes é o modelo mais célebre de filosofia extravagante. Procuremos um seu paralelo nos tempos modernos. Não devemos desonrar nenhum autor filosófico comparando-o com os Domingos ou Loyolas, [dominicanos e jesuítas] ou algum padre ou monge canonizado. [No lugar disso,] comparemos Diógenes a Pascal”O filósofo antigo se sustentava por sua magnanimidade, exibição, orgulho, e pela idéia de sua própria superioridade perante seus conterrâneos. O filósofo moderno professava constantemente humildade e aviltamento, desprezo e ódio de si mesmo, e esforçava-se por alcançar essas supostas virtudes, tanto quanto fosse possível alcançá-las. As austeridades do grego visavam habituá-lo aos desconfortos e impedir que jamais viesse a sofrer. As do francês eram adotadas meramente por elas próprias, com o fito de fazê-lo sofrer o máximo possível. O filósofo entregava-se aos prazeres mais bestiais, mesmo em público; [quanto escândalo, ui, ui!] o santo recusava a si próprio os mais inocentes deles, mesmo em privado. O primeiro julgava seu dever amar seus amigos, ralhar com eles, censurá-los, descompô-los. O último esforçava-se por tornar-se absolutamente indiferente às pessoas que lhe eram mais próximas, e amar e falar bem de seus inimigos. O grande alvo dos sarcasmos de Diógenes era a superstição de qualquer tipo (…) A mortalidade da alma era seu princípio-padrão (…) As mais ridículas superstições dirigiam a fé e os atos de Pascal, e um extremo desprezo desta vida em comparação com uma vida futura era o principal fundamento de sua conduta.”

Onde está, então, o padrão universal da moral de que falais?”

Dos dois diálogos hipostasiados por David Hume apreendi que: para vencer uma discussão tens de ser o último a falar!

O MELHOR GOLE D’ÁGUA

Originalmente publicado em 22 de janeiro de 2009

Hoje eu compreendo o sentido de três mudanças na minha vida: ter sido expulso do Colégio Militar; ter rompido com a quase totalidade dos meus colegas de curso; não ter me casado. Quando Nietzsche formulou o conceito de Deus ex machina¹ ele escrevia a serviço do cristão Richard Wagner. O Deus ex machina, se fosse atualizado, seria entendido como parte do indivíduo e de sua força – o sabor da roda do acaso. Sinto que estas três linhas divisórias da minha vida foram de obtenção inconsciente. Mas é o inconsciente nossa verdadeira fatalidade.

¹ Não “formulou”, mas utilizou de forma muito característica em seu primeiro livro. – 01/01/21.

Não houvesse sido inconseqüentemente submetido a processo disciplinar na escola-quartel em que estudava aos 14 anos, provavelmente hoje eu teria profunda ligação com amizades daquele tempo. Faria parte de um círculo razoavelmente sólido na Universidade de Brasília. Gosto de pensar que sou um barco à deriva ao invés de uma ilha, então minha base fluida me permite conhecer novas águas. Hoje eu entendo a modalidade de comportamento daqueles garotos, uma vez crescidos, como não tendo sido alterada mesmo após tantos anos. Sinto uma diferença muito dilatada entre nossos pontos de vista. Eles são minha antinomia: os filhos, os profissionais e os cidadãos que eu jamais seria. Conversas tediosas, rotina hedonista (cujo sinônimo mais próximo é “pessimismo”: falta de capacidade e de claridade mental para suportar a dor e até querê-la, como nascedouro de novas vitórias), projetos ligados ao dinheiro e falta de discernimento psicológico. Sem dúvida esta última característica é a que mais me irrita: não conseguem compreender as atitudes dos outros (eu posso estar feliz com a cara mais séria!). Tal deficiência é óbvia, pois seus universos são como a viseira de um cavalo.

O mesmo problema – exatamente o mesmo – se verifica entre novos jovens. Não tão novos assim: parecem cópias dos primeiros. Ao entrar no curso de sociologia, procurei avidamente me entrosar. Conhecimento e reconhecimento instantâneos. Estava caindo na mesma cilada de quatro anos antes sem perceber. Mas novamente houve uma interferência do que eu posso chamar de “o manobreiro-eu”, sua parte mais colada à essência, sua personalidade verdadeira, que opera sua casa-das-máquinas. Contra os incuráveis hedonistas – perguntem-nos por que bebem tanto, o que querem esquecer, por que preferem a palavra “solução” a “problema”! – encontrei a solução da mímica: me tornei o superlativo do beberrão. O que aconteceu depois disso foi a quebra de um dente da frente numa escada e o dano moral. Finalmente o operador se recostou aliviado e emitiu um suspiro: seu pupilo absorveu o recado. Pude iniciar meus rompimentos no campus: uma série que ainda não acabou. Disposição havia, mas faltava o motivo: um para cada um, como seria desgastante! Mas, ao fim, bela manobra! Infelizmente, depois de baixar a poeira, percebi que algumas cabeças permaneciam fiéis. Mas eram fidelidades que doíam. Querer-se todo para si: esse é o extremo do amor! O próximo trabalho, em curso, está sendo revolver essa gente, que também me faz sentir apequenado. Já não basta a carência de rivais dignos, para injetar um pouco de graça? O que há no momento são mil sombras indiferentes e alguns adolescentes que ainda me incomodam por estarem do lado que se chama de “os amigos”: não há grupelho mais propenso a destruir o que um tem de mais valoroso do que esse. É preciso tomar muito cuidado com cada coisa que deles se ouve e com cada postura que eles sub-repticiamente nos incitam a tomar.

Meu plano inicial – e falo de outro tipo de relacionamento agora, ocorrido cronologicamente entre esses dois primeiros marcos citados – era terminar a faculdade de jornalismo já despachando num jornal e me casar. Havia pressão da namorada para que isso acontecesse, e como ela era “o bem mais precioso” eu tinha de me esforçar. Uma vida inteira ao lado de quem se ama, a segurança sexual almejada pelo homem, quem sabe daí a vôos mais altos: lindos filhos, a propalada vida do bem-estar. Era o vírus do hedonismo, do ser humano sempre apático diante do que a vida tem para oferecer, esse querer-se enclausurar num conto-de-fadas, que me atacava outra vez. Como o ferrão de uma abelha, ou a agulha de uma injeção, de quem espera a anestesia, a sonolência, a amnésia profunda. Eu havia me esquecido que o amor perverte mais do que a amizade, é a amizade que dorme consigo na cama! A amizade de papel lavrado. A amizade não é o problema. Mas ser a amizade errada, e não sabermos onde raios se encontram as certas. Parece que não há naturezas como a minha. É esse o preço a se pagar por se desejar um pouco de desafio, querer tomar um gole d’água gostoso, e não porque se diz por aí que beber água faz bem para a saúde? Que bem é esse? Viver mais enquanto se nega a viver? Minha potencial noiva se apaixonou por outro e o sonho americano foi pulverizado. Aos 20 anos, eu confesso que sei demais: muito mais do que jovens hedonistas, cuja preguiça me cansa. É preciso aprender, tolinhos, que o gole d’água só é gostoso quando se está com sede…

JOHANN HERBART – Norbert Hilgenheger (trad. e org. José Eustáquio Romão), 2010.

Nos países de língua alemã, o pedagogo Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi teve dois grandes sucessores: Johann Friedrich Herbart e Friedrich Fröbel. Cheios de entusiasmo juvenil, os dois começaram seguindo o modelo fascinante do filantropo suíço. Cada um à sua maneira, ambos conseguiram mais tarde ir além do trabalho de Pestalozzi, abrindo à ação pedagógica novos caminhos, aliando estreitamente a teoria e a prática.

Pestalozzi entrou para a história da educação como o pai dos órfãos de Stans (Suíça) e o fundador da nova escola primária. Fröbel, além de sua filosofia pedagógica romântica, deu ao mundo o termo ‘jardim da infância’. O perfil do educador e pensador pedagógico J.F. Herbart pode, também, ser delineado a partir de um ponto central marcante, a ideia de instrução educativa.”

Entre 1794 e 1797, foi aluno do filósofo Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814) na Universidade de Iena. No entanto, o jovem Herbart rapidamente tomará distância da ‘teoria da ciência’ e da filosofia prática de seu mestre. No terreno fértil das contradições do pensamento idealista, fará germinar sua própria filosofia realista.”

As principais obras filosóficas de Herbart são: Hauptpunkte der Metaphysik (Elementos essenciais da metafísica) (1806); Allgemeine Praktische Philosophie (Filosofia prática geral) (1808); Psychologie als Wissenschaft: neugegründet auf Erfahrung, Metaphysik und Mathematik (A psicologia como ciência, novamente fundada na experiência, na metafísica e nas matemáticas) (1824-1825) e Allgemeine Metaphysik nebst den Anfängen der Philosophischen Naturlehre (Metafísica geral com os primeiros elementos de uma filosofia das ciências da natureza) (1828-1829).”

Em sua metafísica, Herbart retoma a doutrina das mônadas de Gottfried Willhelm Leibniz. Levando em consideração os problemas levantados por Immanuel Kant na Crítica da razão pura, Herbart busca em suas deduções metafísicas apreender o real pelos conceitos. A metafísica de Herbart compreende, especialmente, uma psicologia minuciosamente elaborada, que se tornou um marco na história desta disciplina. Herbart foi o primeiro a utilizar com uma lógica implacável os métodos do cálculo infinitesimal moderno para resolver problemas da pesquisa filosófica. (…) Embora a investigação psicológica empírica do século XIX não o tenha acompanhado, sua psicologia exerceu uma influência inegável na psicologia empírica de Wilhelm Wundt, por exemplo, e na psicanálise de Sigmund Freud.

A filosofia prática de Herbart se caracteriza pelo fato de os juízos morais serem interpretados como julgamentos estéticos particulares. Os juízos morais expressam aprovação ou reprovação com base nas manifestações da vontade. As ideias morais não passam de juízos estéticos com base nas manifestações elementares da vontade. Os juízos morais da vida cotidiana podem ser corrigidos em função de ideias éticas de perfeição, de liberdade interior, de boa vontade, de direito e de equidade.”

No início de 1809, foi chamado à Universidade de Königsberg para tornar–se o segundo sucessor de Immanuel Kant. Königsberg queria um filósofo de alto nível científico que fosse, também, um especialista da pedagogia.”

Herbart distingue entre educação (Erziehung, em latim educatio) e instrução (Unterricht, em latim instructio). A educação se preocupa em formar o caráter e aprimorar o ser humano. A instrução veicula uma representação do mundo, transmite conhecimentos novos, aperfeiçoa aptidões preexistentes e faz despontar capacidades úteis.”

Se tivesse sido completado, o sistema pedagógico de Herbart se comporia, assim, de duas partes ligadas (vinculadas), respectivamente, à ética e à psicologia. As duas partes podem ser desenvolvidas tanto analiticamente (partindo da experiência pedagógica) quanto sinteticamente (partindo de princípios filosóficos).”

No início, Herbart tinha tentado exercer uma influência direta sobre o desenvolvimento do caráter de seus alunos. Logo, porém, constata, ao menos em relação a Ludwig que já estava, então, com 14 anos, que não teria o sucesso esperado. Disto concluiu que deveria doravante ‘dirigir-se ao entendimento de Ludwig’. Era a única maneira de afastar o perigo de ver as disposições (de modo algum más) de Ludwig se congelarem em um ‘egoísmo sábio (sensato, cauteloso), refletido e obstinado (persistente)’. Segue-se, então, o que se pode considerar como a primeira descrição da instrução educativa. Em Ludwig, a única oportunidade que se poderia ainda jogar para formar seu caráter seria

seu entendimento enquanto capacidade passiva de apreender aquilo que lhe é apresentado lentamente (vagarosamente) após tê-lo bem preparado e a esperança de que esta fraca centelha fará um dia surgir a reflexão autônoma ativa e a aspiração de viver conforme os seus ensinamentos. (Herbart, Os Relatórios para Karl Friedrich Steiger, p. 23.)”

Herbart inculcou em seus alunos capacidades linguísticas surpreendentes, assim como um excelente conhecimento de história e de literatura clássica da Antiguidade. Deu-lhes uma bagagem matemática sólida e até, um feito extraordinário para a época em torno de 1800, uma iniciação aos métodos experimentais das ciências da natureza que estavam se constituindo. No entanto, esta instrução não era educativa apenas porque Herbart sempre subordinou os múltiplos fins do ensino estético e literário e do ensino matemático e científico à formação do caráter.”

Este encaminhamento da educação moral encontra sua justificativa na psicologia de Herbart, sobrepondo-a à mais antiga psicologia das faculdades [Kant?]. (…) A força de vontade e a constância do comportamento são vistas como fenômenos que se explicam pela estabilidade das estruturas cognitivas. Inversamente, a falta de seriedade e a incoerência do comportamento se devem ao fato de contextos de comportamento do mesmo tipo receberem interpretações diferentes.”

O interesse, como o desejo, é considerado como uma atividade mental, embora de intensidade menor. O interesse cria as primeiras ligações entre o sujeito e o objeto e determina, assim, o ‘horizonte’ do homem como campo daquilo que ele percebe ou não do mundo. Ao contrário do desejo, que pode ser aumentado pelo interesse, o interesse não dispõe ainda de seus objetos.”

Um interesse no qual nenhum aspecto particular teria se desenvolvido, permanece em um estado bruto. Um interesse em que apenas aspectos isolados são desenvolvidos permanece unilateral. O interesse múltiplo (polivalente) é aquele no qual todos os aspectos se harmonizam, formando um todo. Isso tudo não deve variar segundo os indivíduos. Ao contrário, os interesses respectivos múltiplos devem se harmonizar de tal modo que cada indivíduo seja receptivo a todas as formas de atividade que caracterizam o homem como um ser espiritual. Com essa noção de interesse múltiplo (polivalente), Herbart adere à concepção de humanismo corrente à sua época.”

Herbart menciona 6 orientações do espírito humano (do humanismo) [teste vocacional? haha]: no âmbito do conhecimento, distingue um interesse empírico, um interesse especulativo e um interesse estético; no âmbito das relações humanas (‘simpatia’), ele opõe o interesse voltado aos indivíduos aos interesses sociais e ao interesse religioso. Com sua fórmula de ‘interesse múltiplo’, Herbart traduziu a expressão consagrada em sua época ‘desenvolvimento harmonioso das forças humanas’, na linguagem de sua própria psicologia.”

apenas um interesse permanente permite ampliar constantemente e sem esforço o círculo de idéias, de explorar o mundo e estimular uma simpatia calorosa pelo destino do outro. Assim, o ‘pecado capital do ensino’ é o tédio.”

No início, o ensino tem uma missão específica de apresentar aos olhos das crianças, com base na poesia, relações humanas tão simples quanto possível. Quando havia um interesse suficiente para as línguas antigas, Herbart começava a formação estético-literária pela leitura de Homero, especialmente da Odisséia. Contudo, esta iniciação às línguas antigas servia, inicialmente, para apresentar as relações humanas e, só depois, para ensinar a língua.

A iniciação às matemáticas também era orientada para a formação do caráter, embora isso estivesse longe de ser seu fim exclusivo. Em seu tratado de 1802, A ideia de um ABC da intuição de Pestalozzi, Herbart esboçou não apenas um programa de iniciação às matemáticas ultramoderno para sua época, mas também respondeu à questão de saber em que o ‘ensino’ das matemáticas deve contribuir para a ‘educação’. Não é somente pela sua utilidade prática ou sua importância tecnológica que as matemáticas devem figurar no programa, mas, sobretudo, porque é um meio de exercer a atenção.”

A disposição à atenção não deve, contudo, ser desenvolvida em contato com os objetos da arte ou da literatura. Com efeito, se os exercícios de atenção estivessem apoiados nas relações humanas, eles destruiriam todo sentimento de simpatia pelas personagens apresentadas; pela mesma razão, a instrução religiosa não constitui um quadro (situação) conveniente aos exercícios de atenção.” De acordo. Nada há nos números que possa estragá-los. Mas focar-se excessivamente nas personalidades romanescas e heróicas e sobretudo em Deus corrompe o homem-em-miniatura.

Uma tal representação do mundo, de todas as suas partes e de todas as épocas conhecidas, visando impedir as más impressões de um meio desfavorável, poderia com razão ser tomada como o principal objeto da educação, no qual a disciplina, que desperta o desejo ao mesmo tempo em que o domina, só serviria como preparação necessária.” A disciplina nada é em e por si mesma.

Herbart não exclui a possibilidade, ou a utilidade, de um ensino não-educativo. Na sua Pedagogia geral, afirma: ‘E confesso que não posso conceber educação sem a instrução; ao contrário, não reconheço nenhuma instrução que não seja educativa’

Em um texto circunstancial de 1818 intitulado Avaliação pedagógica de classes escolares, Herbart fez, mais uma vez, uma excelente exposição sobre as características da instrução educativa que a distingue do ensino tradicional¹ tanto pela escolha de seus objetivos quanto dos seus meios. O ensino tradicional tinha por finalidade inculcar no aluno o máximo de conhecimentos e de competências (saber-fazer) úteis. Seu objetivo era o ‘treinamento’ e a ‘qualificação’ do aprendiz.” E cá estamos nós de novo na hipervalorização das escolas técnicas…

¹ Muito distante do ensino antigo, no entanto.

o homem que percorreu o mundo por terra ou por mar poderia cansar-se dela, e é justamente o desgosto pelas coisas e pelas ocupações e o aborrecimento que constituem esta depravação e esta indiferença que são o adversário, e até o inimigo mais cruel, da cultura e do interesse. (…) Qualquer um que entenda outra coisa pela palavra cultura poderá conservar seu vocabulário, mas suas ideias deverão ser banidas da pedagogia.”

O treinamento e as qualificações podem ser obtidos pelo constrangimento ou pela autodisciplina, enquanto que o desenvolvimento do interesse múltiplo não pode ser outra coisa a não ser o fruto de uma motivação interna. O interesse do aluno é o fio de Ariadne ao longo do qual a instrução educativa avança regularmente”

A Pedagogia geral de 1806 é fundada na experiência do preceptor que, mesmo após ter deixado Berna, a colocou sempre à prova em seu ensino privado. O ponto de vista de um preceptor é, todavia, diferente daquele de um mestre-escola. É possível que a instrução educativa dê excelentes resultados num quadro familiar, mas fracasse nas condições mais difíceis da vida escolar.” Não só possível, como provável e quase certo.

O único meio de refutar a objeção consiste em mostrar, pela experiência, que uma instrução educativa escolar pode também ser bem-sucedida.”

Entre minhas ocupações, o ensino da pedagogia me é particularmente caro. Mas isso exige mais do que um simples ensino; é necessário, também, que ele se torne o objeto de demonstrações e de exercícios. Além do mais, eu queria prolongar a série de experiências realizadas por quase dez anos. É por isso que considero, já há algum tempo, a possibilidade de eu mesmo dar uma hora de ensino a um pequeno grupo de meninos convenientemente escolhidos, por volta de uma hora por dia, na presença de jovens que seriam familiarizados com minha pedagogia e que poderiam, pouco a pouco, tentar, diante de mim, revezar comigo a aula e prosseguir o que eu havia começado. Dessa forma, seriam progressivamente formados mestres cujo método deveria se aperfeiçoar graças à observação mútua e à troca de experiências. Sabendo-se que um programa não é nada sem mestres, e por isto entendo mestres imbuídos do espírito deste programa e tendo adquirido o domínio do método, uma pequena escola experimental tal como eu imagino poderia ser a melhor preparação para um dispositivo futuro de maior envergadura. Conforme diz Kant, primeiro escolas experimentais, depois escolas normais.”

A proposta de Herbart encontrou acolhida favorável na Prússia de 1809: a reforma do sistema educativo era considerada parte integrante da reforma de todo o sistema político que vinha sendo empreendida. Por meio de reformas internas, esforçava-se por compensar as perdas infligidas por Napoleão à Prússia na batalha de Iena e Auerstedt em 14 de Outubro de 1806. A reforma educacional prussiana foi conduzida vigorosamente em 1809 e 1810 por Wilhelm von Humboldt.”

O ensino das matemáticas e das ciências naturais iniciava-se com exercícios de percepção. A estes se seguiam a geometria, a álgebra, a teoria dos logaritmos e, finalmente, o cálculo diferencial e integral.¹ Nesses dois ramos [poesia e matemáticas] foram enxertadas (acrescentadas) a religião, as narrativas históricas, a gramática e as ciências naturais.”

¹ Tá doido porra?! Ensinar cálculo no ciclo básico?

No geral, Herbart pensa ter provado que seu método era independente de sua pessoa e que, mesmo nas condições mais difíceis do ensino público, por assim dizer, reformado, ele poderia ser posto em prática.”

Para o ensino da literatura, a escola primária superior se distingue do liceu à medida que abandona as línguas antigas.” Não entendi nada? O que é ensino fundamental e médio nessas nomenclaturas?

Segundo Herbart, a instrução educativa que parte de uma língua antiga faz um ‘détour’ que ele recomenda vivamente para os [poucos] espíritos mais brilhantes.”

O caráter aristocrático do liceu, tal como o concebe Herbart, é inegável.” Liceu = ginásio = ensino médio?

Hoje nem mesmo o doutorado chega a ser aristocrático.

As ideias reformadoras de Herbart não ganharam aceitação na Prússia de seu tempo. A Restauração superou o ‘élan’ reformador que havia prevalecido de 1809 a 1813. [Malditos monarcas!] Havia disposição em recrutar professores para cuja formação Herbart tinha contribuído, mas eles tinham que submeter-se a programas concebidos com objetivos diferentes dos seus. Não se considerava mais, se é que alguém já o havia feito, reformar os programas escolares no espírito do programa da instrução educativa. Também o método desenvolvido por Herbart para os liceus nunca foi adotado em nível nacional.”

O Esboço de lições pedagógicas não se limita apenas a considerações isoladas e, inevitavelmente, incompletas. Ele revela a concepção global da pedagogia que Herbart havia exposto em sua introdução à Pedagogia geral, mas que não havia desenvolvido a não ser pela metade nesta sua obra de início de carreira.”

Aquele que aprende para ganhar a vida e fazer seu caminho ou para se divertir não se põe a questão de saber se ele se tornará melhor ou pior. Dessa forma, tem a intenção de aprender isto ou aquilo, seja o fim bom, mau ou indiferente, e ficará satisfeito com todo mestre que lhe inculque o saber-fazer requerido tuto, cito, iucunde.”

Além disso, o Esboço aborda problemas de método trazidos pelo ensino de algumas matérias”

Apesar disso, o Esboço não vai além do que promete seu título escolhido com precisão: renunciando à discussão aprofundada desejável, Herbart se limita a delinear problemas e possíveis soluções.” Morreu antes das “Lições pedagógicas completas”.

Teve, certamente, êxito em elaborar seu sistema filosófico e desenvolver seu método pedagógico tanto no plano teórico quanto no prático, mas suas principais obras filosóficas não tiveram a repercussão esperada. Herbart, particularmente, lamentava que sua psicologia matemática tivesse sido quase completamente ignorada pelos seus colegas filósofos.”

É tanto mais surpreendente de ver que após a morte de Herbart sua pedagogia marcou profundamente as orientações de um movimento pedagógico ao qual se deu o nome de herbartismo. Este é implantado e se desenvolve no seio das universidades de Leipzig, Iena e Viena, contribuindo de maneira decisiva na formação do crescente grupo profissional de professores. É então que surgem associações e revistas dedicadas à pedagogia de Herbart. Convém mencionar, em especial, a Associação de Pedagogia Científica criada em Leipzig em 1868 e sua revista anual. São incontáveis as publicações sobre a filosofia e a pedagogia de Herbart.”

em 1895 a Pedagogia geral surge em Paris em tradução francesa e, em 1898, em Londres e Boston a tradução inglesa.”

Pouco a pouco, a reforma pedagógica do início do século XX excluirá o herbartismo e a pedagogia de Herbart foi gradualmente ameaçada de cair no esquecimento. (…) não foi somente na Alemanha que a reforma pedagógica do sistema escolar foi elaborada em oposição ao herbartismo. Como não se conhecia mais o primeiro Herbart, poder-se-ia ver nele o campeão de uma ‘escola livresca’ onde os alunos repetem as palavras do mestre sem poder chegar a uma experiência pessoal de aprendizagem. Critica-se Herbart de ter querido formar os espíritos pela ação externa, inculcando-lhes conteúdos educativos vindos de fora (ver, por exemplo, John Dewey, em Democracia e Educação, capítulo 6). [Ah, John! Tsc…] Herbart teria ignorado a presença de funções ativas na mente humana. As objeções deste tipo, justificadas em face dos excessos do herbartismo, ameaçaram lançar no descrédito o próprio Herbart. Sua doutrina da instrução educativa tinha se tornado incompreensível. Esqueceu-se que a instrução educativa tinha a experiência do aluno como função central e o interesse do aluno, traço de sua atividade mental própria, não apenas como fim, mas como o meio mais importante da instrução educativa.” “a pedagogia de Dewey é, efetivamente, em muitos aspectos, diametralmente oposta à de Herbart.”

A partir dos anos 1950, verifica-se na Alemanha e em países vizinhos um renascimento da admiração por Herbart. [Como toda moda neste mundo, vai e volta.] Seus protagonistas tomaram distância em relação à imagem deformada passada pelos proponentes do herbartismo e de sua doutrina original e querem reencontrar o caminho do ‘Herbart vivo’ (H. Nohl). O meio de chegar a isso consistiria em renunciar à filosofia de Herbart enquanto fundamento dedutivo de sua pedagogia. Dever-se-ia, ao contrário, considerar a pedagogia como uma ciência relativamente independente da filosofia.”

TRECHOS SELECIONADOS

(*) “No Brasil nenhuma das obras de Herbart chegou a ser publicada, em que pese a importância das suas proposições acerca do fenômeno educativo no debate educacional havido na Europa, no século XIX.”

(*) “No período pós-guerra, quando o pensamento de Herbart começa a ser novamente resgatado na Europa, temos, no Brasil, a disseminação e o fortalecimento do escolanovismo entre os educadores, devido, principalmente, a ação dos ‘pioneiros’ da educação dentre os quais se destaca Lourenço Filho que teve uma atuação fundamental para que se difundisse entre nós a psicologia como base da educação.”

(*) “No Brasil os passos formais foram os poucos elementos de sua didática, mais aceitos e divulgados.”

(*) “No que toca à psicologia, a posição metafísica de Herbart radica-o na corrente do associacionismo, na qual encontramos a figura de David Hume, importante para Herbart como, por outros motivos filosóficos, o foi para Kant. A psicologia de Herbart não é, com efeito, aristotélica: a psicologia herbartiana não consiste no estudo da alma. Também não contempla, por conseguinte, o estudo das faculdades da alma, dado não existirem tais faculdades […] A psicologia é algo como uma física do mundo da psique.”

(*) “A antologia que se segue foi organizada a partir de 4 temas gerais, estabelecidos com base nas principais contribuições de Herbart para a pedagogia do seu tempo e da atualidade, presentes na obra Pedagogia geral derivada das finalidades da educação: a educação e a pedagogia, o ensino educativo, a psicologia educacional, e os educadores.”

* * *

Seleção muito ruim, com parágrafos soltos que não fazem sentido… Esses três quartos da obra que seguem são dispensáveis. Tudo de que se necessitava era de uma introdução ao pensador. Economizar-se-ia tinta, papel e paciência. E o que é pior: essa verdadeira MUTILAÇÃO CONTEXTUAL pode estragar o autor aos olhos dos incautos.

Os educadores não param de se lamentar sobre o modo como as circunstâncias os afetaram negativamente, e ainda relativamente aos empregados, aos parentes, aos companheiros, ao instinto sexual e à universidade!”

uma boa cabeça encontra o seu melhor mestre na sua autossuficiência, na sua participação e no seu gosto, para em determinada altura ser capaz de se acomodar às convenções da sociedade, conforme quiser.”

Um mestre de escola da aldeia nonagenário tem a experiência de noventa anos de vida rotineira, tem o sentido do seu longo esforço, mas será que também tem o sentido crítico dos seus resultados e do seu método?”

Os resíduos das experiências pedagógicas são os erros cometidos pelo educando na idade adulta”

No longo percurso da juventude há tantos e tão variados momentos, cada um dos quais afetando por si fortemente a alma, que mesmo o mais forte pode ser subjugado, se com o tempo se não multiplicar ou for renovado em numerosas outras manifestações.”

Daí o aviso: não educar demais – é preciso evitar o emprego desnecessário do poder, através do qual se dobra e redobra, se domina o ânimo e se perturba a alegria. Perturbam-se igualmente as futuras recordações alegres da infância e a alegre gratidão, que é a única forma autêntica de gratidão”

Rousseau queria, pelo menos, endurecer o seu educando. Ele definira para si mesmo um determinado ponto de vista, ao qual permaneceu fiel. Ele segue a natureza. Mediante a educação deverá garantir-se um desenvolvimento livre e alegre de todas as manifestações da vida vegetativa humana, desde a primeira infância ao matrimônio. A vida é o ofício que ele ensina. E, no entanto, vemos que ele aprova a máxima do nosso poeta: ‘A vida não é o bem supremo!’, pois sacrifica em pensamento toda a vida particular do educador, que se dedica a companheiro constante do jovem! (…) Mas será simplesmente viver assim tão difícil para o homem? Julgávamos que a planta humana se assemelhava à rosa: assim como a rainha das flores é a flor que menos preocupa o jardineiro, também o homem seria capaz de crescer em qualquer ambiente, de se alimentar de toda a espécie de alimentos, de aprender mais facilmente, de se servir de tudo e de tirar vantagem.”

Quem, porventura, melhor sabe como comportar-se em sociedade é o educando de Locke. Aqui o mais importante é o convencional. Depois de Locke já não será preciso escrever um livro sobre educação para os pais que destinam os seus filhos à sociedade. O que quer que acrescentasse degeneraria, provavelmente, em artificialidade. Comprai por qualquer preço um homem grave, ‘de boas maneiras, que conheça as regras de cortesia e de conveniência com todas as variações resultantes da diferença das pessoas, dos tempos e dos lugares, capaz de orientar constantemente o seu educando, na medida em que a idade deste o permita, no cumprimento destas coisas’. Aqui, é forçoso uma pessoa calar-se. Seria totalmente inútil argumentar contra a vontade de verdadeiros homens de sociedade, de querer converter igualmente os seus filhos em homens de sociedade, uma vez que esta vontade se constitui em virtude das impressões da realidade, sendo confirmada e reforçada através de novas impressões a cada novo momento. Bem podem pregadores, poetas e filósofos transpor para prosa e verso toda e qualquer consagração, leviandade ou formalidade, porque um simples olhar em redor desfaz qualquer efeito, acabando essas pessoas por parecerem atores ou sonhadores.”

Poder-se-ia pôr em dúvida, se este capítulo faz ou não efetivamente parte da pedagogia ou se não se deveria incluí-lo nas seções da filosofia prática, que na realidade tratam do governo, uma vez que é seguramente diferente de base a preocupação pela formação intelectual daquela que se limita a querer manter a ordem. E se a primeira tem o nome de educação, se precisa de artistas especiais que são os educadores, se ao fim e ao cabo qualquer arte tem de ser separada de todas as ocupações secundárias heterogêneas para que se chegue à perfeição mediante a força concentrada do gênio, não poderá desejar-se menos à boa causa em questão, bem como ao rigor dos conceitos, que se retire o governo das crianças àqueles a quem cabe penetrar com seu olhar e com sua ação no íntimo das almas.”

Um governo que se satisfaça sem educar destrói a alma, e uma educação que não se ocupe da desordem das crianças, não conheceria as próprias crianças.”

Primeiro, não se desenvolve na criança uma autêntica vontade capaz de tomar decisões, mas tão somente um ímpeto selvagem que a arrasta para aqui e para ali que é de si um princípio de desordem:, contrariando as disposições dos adultos e, inclusivamente, capaz de pôr em perigo de vária ordem a pessoa futura da própria criança. Esta impetuosidade tem de ser subjugada, senão a desordem terá de ser atribuída como culpa aos que tratam da criança. A submissão processa-se através do poder e o poder tem de ser suficientemente forte e repetir-se as vezes que forem necessárias para ter completo êxito, antes que se manifestem na criança os traços de uma vontade própria.”

O adulto e aquele que chegou à idade da razão assumem naturalmente com o tempo governarem-se a si próprios. Existem, porém, também pessoas que nunca atingem esse ponto. A estas é a sociedade que as mantém sob tutela, designando-as de loucas ou de dissipadoras. Existem também aqueles que formam em si uma vontade contrária à sociabilidade e a sociedade encontra-se com eles numa disputa inevitável, acabando finalmente por submeter-se ao que é justo em relação a elas.”

O amor não aprova hesitações, nem tampouco espera por imperativos categóricos”

No ensino há sempre qualquer coisa de terceiro, com que o professor e aluno estão simultaneamente ocupados, ao passo que em todas as outras preocupações da educação é o educando que está diretamente na mente do educador, como o ser em que tem que atuar e que, em relação a si próprio, se deve manter passivo”

THE NATURE AND TREATMENT OF ANXIETY DISORDERS

Barr Taylor & Bruce Arnow, 1988.

For the existentialist Rollo May (1950), anxiety <is described on the philosophical level as the realization that one may cease to exist as a self. . . i.e., the threat of meaninglessness> (p. 193).”

Etimologia greco-latina: sendo pressionado para baixo por tristezas e misérias (pesares).

Jablensky (1985) notes that the English word anxiety does not cover the same semantic space as the French anxieté or the Spanish ansiedad although they all derive from a common root. In French, angoisse is used as a near-synonym for anxiety but connotes more strongly the physical sensations accompanying the experience and may be closer to the English anguish than to anxiety. And the German word angst implies, besides anxiety and anguish, agony, dread, fear, fright, terror, consternation, alarm and apprehension.”

the indefinable nature of the feeling gives it its peculiarly unpleasant and intolerable quality.”

Lay people, in particular, use the terms anxiety, stress and tension interchangeably. There is little agreement in the scientific community as to the definition and nature of stress, and the term is best avoided as it only causes confusion.”

Se o paciente é prejudicado pela ansiedade, procura tratamento, ou se envolve em comportamentos auto-destrutivos a fim de controlá-la, a ansiedade deve ser considerada clínica.”

Generalizada e/ou episódica (ataque de pânico)


CORE CHAT

palpitação do coração

não deixe estranhos dar

palpite, não

pit of emotions

the inverted peak

shadow&light

negative&positive

yes and no world against

you

who am I

a genius, a demon,

Socrates or a man

a single and

pitagorean

human being

that was not

and will not be

just live

with the leaves

leave me

alone

can you?

all of you

levee of emotions

lake of discharge

storm and thunder

revenge

vengeance

action of genius

evil genius

gentle

until

kindle the

sweetness

draw

out

now!

* * *

jittery man

The bullied are afterwards the greatest bullies” Juice R, pessoa sem-graça nota 7 que não quis se identificar. Possui características de liderança. Falam mal pelas suas costas, mas ela não está nem aí…

Queria ter consulta com o dentista a qualquer dia menos hoje!

aquiescente com o tumulto

Eu já havia lido Sartre, mas fui saber o que é náusea quando trabalhei na DRI.

depois eu começo a sentir que estou separado do meu corpo e, sabe, que vou cair ou/hmm/como se eu estivesse fora do meu corpo e não tivesse mais controle sobre minhas funções motoras – não consigo nem caminhar nem conversar”

mas finjo para os trouxas

terapia de impacto

tratamento de choque

de coxinhas estou cheio,

ops, grogue

boxeador

madVanity beats

but the countdown never comes in…

minha boca mais seca que a tua consciência

verme sem olhos, ouvidos, miolos!

miolo mole miolo-oco

guacamole

cabeça-de-ovo

azedo

como abacate

eXtra-

(degra)

(d/g)ado

GG

gado.golpista

odeiam regras então

meu K.O.

será letal

matarei em

legítima defesa

dessa vez

eis meu lema

tímido

em time que está ganhando

mexe-se sim,

para fazer cera


between dizziness and almost vertigo”

Não se sabe o que é mais irritante, se, numa palestra, ninguém prestar atenção… ou todo mundo prestar atenção.

Sintomas muscular-esqueléticos da ansiedade: dores, espasmos, paralisias, rigidez, mioclonia (contrações musculares involuntárias), bater de dentes, voz irregular, tônus muscular crescente, tremores, sensação constante de cansaço, pernas bambas, corpo desajeitado.

No sistema sensório: Tinnitus (doença do ouvido mais freqüente em depressivos; condição também associada com a gradual perda da audição), vista embaçada, hiper-sensibilidade ao calor e frio, sensação generalizada de fraqueza, arrepios repentinos, face corada, face pálida, suor, coceiras.

(…) respiratório: (…) sensação de engasgo. (…) gastro-intestinal: (…) flatulências, dor abdominal, azia, desconforto abdominal, náusea, vômitos, frouxidão intestinal, perda de peso, perda do apetite, constipação (…) genital-urinário: urina freqüente, perda da menstruação, menstruação excessiva, ejaculação precoce, perda da libido. (…) sistema automático: boca seca, tontura, dor de cabeça de tensão, cabelos eriçados.


sentimentos de irrealidade”

impotência para controlar o pensamento”

perda de objetividade e perspectiva”

medo de não conseguir lidar”

medo de se machucar ou morrer”

medo de ficar louco ou incapaz”

medo de avaliações negativas”

imagens visuais aterradoras”

ideação de medo repetitiva”

mobilização do corpo para enfrentar/fugir”

Immobility is classified as attentiveness, in which the animal remains inert while carefully observing its environment—a phenomenon suggested by the phrase <freeze in your tracks,> or as tonic immobility, in which a previously active animal exhibits prolonged freezing and decreased responsiveness.”

For instance, during anxiety episodes some patients feel that their coordination is impaired, that they might faint and that they can’t move their feet.”

vista evitativa

The behavior associated with anxiety frequently becomes independent of the anxiety itself. Furthermore, behavior engaged in for the purpose of controlling anxiety sometimes exacerbates the anxiety. For example, some patients drink excessive amounts of coffee when they feel anxious, yet the caffeine in coffee produces anxiety and even panic.”

The most serious complications of anxiety disorders are often associated with the patient’s attempts to cope with anxiety. Patients may become severely avoidant or depressed, abuse drugs or alcohol, or become helplessly dependent on their family, friends, and the medical system. The avoidance, when manifested as agoraphobia, may be one of the most disabling of all psychiatric problems. (…) Thus, chronic symptoms such as avoidance, which result from efforts to cope with anxiety, are often more disabling than the anxiety itself and need to become the focus of treatment. [lógica da insistência dos terapeutas]

Very uncomfortable. Shopping in store. Unable to wait through check-out stand. I went and sat in car while my Mom paid for the items.”

The septo-hippocampus, thalamus, locus coeruleus, and their afferents and efferents, and various neurotransmitters are clearly involved with anxiety.”

Contemporary psychodynamic theories of anxiety began with Fr.. His first major discussion of anxiety was published in 1894 and his last in 1926, but his writings before and after these also address major issues of anxiety. New insight, observations, experience, and discussions led Fr. to reformulate and elaborate his views. In his final model, and the one still followed by most psychoanalysts, Fraud argued that the generation of anxiety occurs unconsciously, outside of the individual’s awareness.”

She reported that the number of the street the bus was approaching corresponded to the age at which her father had died and that her father had had his heart attack near the hour that corresponded to the time her anxiety attack on the bus occurred.”

Deutsch (1929) presented 4 cases of agoraphobia where defense against aggressive impulses towards parents or parental figures resulted in panic attacks.”

catástrofe narcisista

all the awful sexual things that I was always taught can happen to you when you walk around the streets in the dark”

Threat of loss creates anxiety, and actual loss causes sorrow; both, moreover, are likely to arouse anger.”

beta-blockers, which block many of the peripheral sensations of anxiety, are not effective in blocking panic.”

We have glimpses of some of the systems involved with anxiety, but an integrated model will require new neuroscientific methods capable of observing the actual functioning of the central nervous system under various conditions.” The limbic system is concerned with integrating emotional and motivational behavior, particularly motor coordination in emotional responses (Watson et al., 1986).” For instance, low intensity stimulation of the LC causes head and body turning, eye scanning, chewing, tongue movement, grasping and clutching, scratching, biting fingers or nails, pulling hair or skin, hand wringing, yawning, and spasmodic total body jerking (Redmond et al., 1976).”

Neurotransmitter systems are distributed only partially in the classical anatomic pathways. Neurotransmitters are the chemical <messengers> that control transmission between nerves. In general, they are released at the end of a nerve into the synaptic cleft, the space between the end of one nerve and the beginning of another. These neurotransmitters diffuse across the synaptic cleft to the postsynaptic neuron, where they activate specific sites on the cell membrane called receptors. Attachment to the receptor causes the postsynaptic neuron to alter its standing electrical charge, which in turn may cause it to discharge.” “Already, over 40 neurotransmitters and neurohormones have been isolated from the CNS. However, 2 neurotransmitter systems, the noradrenergic and serotinergic, seem particularly important to anxiety, and each has strong proponents arguing for its central role in anxiety disorders.”

It is possible that patients prone to anxiety disorders have too few noradrenergic receptors, that their system is too sensitive to input (it tends to overshoot), and that their receptors are subsensitive. Neurotransmitter systems are dynamic and it may be that environmental events, like a traumatic experience or separation, are necessary for the noradrenergic system to become disequilibrated.” Que é possível Homero já podia dizê-lo, não carece um neurocientista afirmar com tanta pompa. Seria melhor virem a público quando tivessem qualquer informação certa e transmitir usando seus preciosos neurorreceptores!

Experimentally, the serotonergic system seems to be involved in behavioral inhibition. The suppression of behavioral inhibition following punishment is a phenomenon that seems to be affected by drugs with antianxiety properties.” The antianxiety drugs counteract the behavioral effects of 3 classes of stimuli: those associated with punishment, with the omission of expected reward, and with novelty.” Classificação puramente abstrata e convencional.

VOCÊ É UM HOMEM OU EU MATO? a rat conditioned to expect a shock when a red light is flashed (stimulus of punishment), will exhibit freezing (behavioral inhibition), increase in heart rate and other physiological functions (increment in arousal), and scanning (increased attention).” Vejo que avançamos milhas e milhas desde Pavlov!

TODO GARÇOM TEM CARA DE BUNDA: toughening up by repeated exposure to a feared situation should be enhanced by drugs that increase noradrenergic activity. Exposure combined with imipramine is more effective than exposure alone.”

5. Mild episodic anxiety. Mild episodic anxiety occurs for reasons that are difficult for the patient to identify. [TODA razão de ansiedade é difícil de identificar.] Such anxiety is a common phenomenon in therapy. We include so-called death or existential anxiety in this category.

6. Mild anxiety and mild depression, sometimes called distress. This is probably the most common anxiety disorder. Patients with mild anxiety and depression and concomitant medical problems are the most frequent users of sedative medications. [80% da população mundial – embora apenas traços de porcentagem provavelmente tenham consciência e recebam medicação…]

7. Anxiety related to specific social, family, or work situations. In such patients the anxiety is usually bearable and is seen as secondary to the primary problem. Such patients sometimes meet the criteria for social phobia.”

Traditionally, psychoanalysts have classified distress and generalized and panic anxiety together.”

Panic disorder with agoraphobia is the most severe condition and includes all of the pathology of the other disorders.”

The extreme rituals and obsessive thoughts characteristic of individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder distinguish this group from other anxiety sufferers.”

DSM-III-R is a necessary evil. It is necessary because it often determines reimbursement, helps with clinical formulation and treatment, and facilitates communication of scientific and clinical information. The drawbacks of DSM-III-R are that it forces clinicians to classify patients into categories that only partially fit their complex problems; it makes assumptions not shared by many therapists (for instance, that mental health problems should be considered medical problems), and it gives undue emphasis to psychiatry over other mental health disciplines since psychiatrists were the ones who mainly developed and implemented the system.”

Pennys-silvana

The syndrome of recurrent panic attacks was recognized as a separate disorder as far back as 1871 when Da Costa described the <irritable heart> and later in 1894 when Fraud first applied the name anxiety neurosis to the syndrome, separating it from the category of neurasthenia.”

The 1869 American Medico-Psychological Association diagnostic system included only simple, epileptic, paralytic, senile and organic dementia, idiocy, cretinism, and ill-defined forms. The next major change in the U.S. occurred in 1917 when the American Psychiatric Association developed a 22-item nosology based on etiology. By then psychoanalytic theory had introduced the concept of neurosis, in which anxious symptoms were attributed to unconscious conflicts. Thus <psychoneurosis> was introduced as a diagnostic category. Disorders subsumed under this heading included hysteria (of which anxiety hysteria was a variant), [afinal, ao que tudo indica a histeria nem existe mais, fato nunca excessivamente sublinhado] psychasthenia or compulsive states, neurasthenia, hypochondriasis, reactive depression, anxiety state, and mixed psychoneurosis.”

DSM-I: 1952

DSM-II: 1968

DSM-III-R: 1980 “In 1980 the term <neurosis> was replaced by <disorder>.” PARA TRANS-TORNO DOS PACI-ENTES

DSM-IV: 1992 (previsão – livro velho!)

A patient often meets the criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and agoraphobia simultaneously, or, over time, exhibits changing symptomology that at one time may seem most consistent with one diagnosis and at another time with an alternative one. (…) the rigid hierarchical system of DSM-III, in which one anxiety diagnosis precluded another, is loosened.”

feelings of impending doom.” Dá uma música do Black Sabbath

Attacks usually last minutes; occasionally they will last for an hour or more. The individual often develops varying degrees of nervousness and apprehension between attacks. The initial attacks are unexpected or spontaneous, although over time, they may become associated with specific situations, persons or places.”

Não precisa ser um DSM recente para me deixar “apreensivo” (mas o que é isso na vida de um eternamente apreensivo?):

PANIDOG SYMPTOMS – Spair (12/13)!

(1) shortness of breath (dyspnea) or smothering [asfixia] sensations

(2) dizziness, unsteady feelings, or faintness

(3) palpitations or accelerated heart rate

(4) trembling or shaking

(5) sweating

(6) choking

(7) nausea or abdominal distress

(8) depersonalization or derealization

(9) numbness or tingling sensations (paresthesias)

(10) flushes (hot flashes) or chills [rubores (quentura) ou calafrios]

(11) chest pain or discomfort

(12) fear of dying [more like fear of never dying…]

(13) fear of going crazy or doing something uncontrolled

“As a result of this fear, the person either restricts travel or needs a companion when away from home, or else endures agoraphobic situations despite intense anxiety.”

WORKABHORRENT

anxiety is almost invariably experienced if the individual attempts to resist the obsessions or compulsions.” “Obsessions and compulsions secondary to panic and agoraphobia are often readily amenable to treatment; obsessions and compulsions characteristic of obsessive compulsive disorder are far more refractory to change.”

TRAUMATIC SYMPTOMS – Strike!!

Part I

(1) recurrent and intrusive recollections

(2) recurrent and distressing dreams of the event

(3) sudden acting or feeling as if the traumatic event were recurring

(4) intense psychological distress at exposure to events that resemble the traumatic event [síndrome de E. temote]

Espere, uma pausa para distender os músculos…


LITTLE JEW SYNDROME

remote memory

remote control

of your own business

dare your church [synagogue?] matters

and live the secular world

for us sinners you ultra-fool

you’re fuel

for my combustions

my hellish combustions

oh how does it feel to be alone

like some Achilles standing by

beneath the shadows,

repentlessly?

YouReaTraumA

IRA @ YOU

Assunto: Re: calque (Recalc. de cimento – retificação)

To (destino otário): vai.a.a.merda.com.agua.sanitaria@no.teu.cu

cof cof, more coffee coffee please!


Part II

(1) efforts to avoid thoughts, or feelings associated with the trauma

(2) efforts to avoid activities or situations that arouse recollections of the trauma

(3) inability to recall an important aspect of the trauma

(4) marked diminished interest in significant activities

(5) feeling of detachment or estrangement from others

(6) restricted range of affect

(7) sense of foreshortened future”

What about “sense of being superior”?!

Part III

(1) difficulty falling or staying asleep [Grande Bog!]

(2) irritability or outbursts of anger

(3) difficulty concentrating

(4) hypervigilance

(5) exaggerated startle response (?)

(6) physiologic reactivity upon exposure to events that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the trauma

GENERALIZED A. SYMPTOMS

Motor Tension

(1) trembling, twitching, or feeling shaky [“enrolado”, como dizem alguns]

(2) muscle tension, aches, or soreness

(3) restlessness

(4) easy fatigability

Autonomic hyperactivity

(5) Shortness of breath or smothering sensations

(6) palpitations or accelerated heart rate

(7) sweating, or cold clammy hands

(8) dry mouth

(9) dizziness or lightheadedness

(10) nausea, diarrhea, or other abdominal distress

(11) flushes (hot flashes) or chills

(12) frequent urination

(13) trouble swallowing or <lump in throat> [Pomo de Adão? Sensação de ter engolido um tubo?!]

Vigilance and scanning

(14) feeling keyed up or on edge

(15) exaggerated startle response (?)

(16) difficulty concentrating or <mind going blank> because of anxiety

(17) trouble falling or staying asleep

(18) irritability

<The Europeans have taken a slightly different approach to the classification of anxiety disorders. The main European classification system is the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). ICD is not a true nomenclature in that it has a limited number of categories that are not systematically ordered. ICD does not use operational rules but describes the classification for purposes of making the diagnosis. Anxiety states are defined in ICD-9 as ‘various combinations of physical and medical manifestations of anxiety, not attributable to real danger and occurring either in attacks or as a persisting state.’ The anxiety is usually diffuse and may extend to panic. Other neurotic features such as obsessional or hysterical symptoms may be present but do not dominate the clinical picture> (Jablensky, 1985, p. 755). Presumably, there will be some reconciliation between ICD-10 and DSM-IV when they are published in the future.”

a patient may come close to meeting the DSM-III-R criteria for panic disorder but may have too few panic attack episodes to qualify for that diagnosis. The focus of treatment should still be on the panic attacks if they are disabling.” Some patients with recent onset of panic attacks may see a psychotherapist early in the course of their disorder, but this is rare, as most consult a medical specialist first.”

Hipotensão ortostática: condição fisiológica de quem tem níveis de pressão abaixo da média exclusivamente após mais de 3 minutos na posição vertical (em pé); pode ser ignorada e confundida com a condição da tontura ou náusea ansiosas.

lightheadedness (a feeling that one might be about to faint)” Alarme falso desde sempre.

Vertigem de fumar na sacada.

Comer não dá prazer antes de grandes eventos.

Intolerância ao calor e suor excessivo: hipertireoidismo também pode ser a resposta.

Depersonalization or derealization: (may be attributed to) Temporal lobe epilepsy: (Symptoms) Perceptual distortions, hallucinations” Jesus tinha um rombo no lobo.

Keep in mind that anxiety disorder patients often overuse the medical system and caution must be taken to make the appropriate diagnosis while avoiding or minimizing unnecessary tests.”

Drogas ansiosas”: aspirina, cocaína, anfetamina, alucinógenos. Álcool, cafeína e nicotina são conhecidas facas de dois gumes. Qual seria a taxa de nicotina “com moderação”? O antitabagista da rodada.

Fluxograma habitual da nicotina: leve excitação seguida de tensão-relaxação. Abuso: ansiedade (superexcitação).

Café: ansiedade quando abusivo ou em pessoas predeterminadas à sensibilidade.

Somatoform Disorders. (…) The two types of somatoform disorders most likely to present with panic-like symptoms are somatization disorder and hypochondriasis.”

Somatization disorder is distinguished from the anxiety disorders by its course, number of symptoms, and phenomenology. The main feature of somatization disorder is a history of physical symptoms of several years’ duration, beginning before the age of 30. To meet the DSM-III-R criteria, patients must complain of at least 12 symptoms in 4 different body systems, to have sought medical evaluation and treatment of these symptoms without a medical explanation being uncovered. At any one time, these patients usually have at least one or two symptoms that dominate the clinical picture and are present night and day.” Voilà! My research has finally ended…

O QUE É, O QUÉ? SÓ GANHAMOS, MAS COM ISSO SÓ PERDEMOS? O fato de que a cada dia somos brindados com o diagnóstico de novos transtornos e desordens.

compared to patients with somatoform disorders, most panic patients have symptom-free episodes and times when they are not bothered by somatic symptoms.”

Assessing the presence and extent of avoidance is somewhat problematic, particularly for patients who must work or take transportation despite dread of doing so. They may appear to have little restriction, when in fact they live with frequent dread. Four self-report instruments are available to assess avoidance: the Mobility Inventory (Chambless et al., 1985), the Phobic Avoidance Inventory (Telch, 1985), (see Appendix 2), the Stanford Agoraphobia Severity Scale (Telch, 1985), and the Fear Inventory (Marks & Mathews, 1979). Of these, the latter two are easiest to use.”

APPENDIX 2

The Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (Hamilton, 1959) is the standard pharmacology outcome rating scale for anxiety. It is designed to be completed by an interviewer. The Stanford Panic Appraisal Inventory (Telch, 1985) was designed to assess patients’ panic cognitions. The Common Fears and Phobias questionnaire is an adaption of the Fear Survey (Wolpe & Lang, 1964). The Stanford Panic Diary is used to collect information on the intensity, symptomatology, place of occurrence, cognition, and patient response to panic attacks. Patients should be given a sufficient number of forms for them to be able to record this information on all the panic attacks they may experience from one visit to another. The Panic Attack Self-Efficacy form is used to monitor treatment. Patients need to be taught how to use the form. Finally, the Phobic Avoidance Inventory, developed by Michael Telch, Ph.D., for the Stanford Agoraphobia Avoidance Research Projects, is a useful clinical tool. Some of the items will need to be changed if the form is used in geographic locations other than the San Francisco Bay area. For instance, the <Driving an Automobile> section refers to Route 280 and Highway 101.”

~(Neste ponto: consultar caderno Goethe com anotações pessoais.)~


OUT OF THE BLUE: randomly, “do nada”…

o nada é o limite

pálido ponto abstrato

vórtice zero do buraco negro

fedro

belo

fim


HAMILTON ANXIETY RATING SCALE

Anxious mood – 68,75%

Tension – 45,75%

Fears – 41,5%

Insomnia – 45,75%

Insomnia during UnB – 54% (only!)

Intellectual compromising – 25%

Depressed mood – 31,25% (Am+Dm=100%!)

Somatic (muscular) – 39,27%

Somatic II – 40%

Cardiovascular symptoms – 41,5%

Respiratory symptoms – 37,5%

Gastrointestinal symptoms – 30,5%

Genitourinary – 31,25%

Autonomic symptoms (boca seca, suor, dor de cabeça) – 58,25%

Behavior at interview – 63,75%


Se meu humor fosse dividido em 10 pedaços, eu seria “6 torrões de ansiedade”, “3 torrões de depressão” e 1 de capricho indeciso. Olá, garçom, vou querer um café. O que vai ser, (ran)cinzas ou azedante? Soda cáustica.

Mais volátil que pedras de granizo em precipitação.

* * *

As many therapists are ambivalent about or opposed to symptom-focused treatment we would like to begin this chapter by briefly attempting to persuade the reader of our point of view, if he or she does not already share it.” “In general, psychodynamic approaches proceed with somewhat diffuse or general goals, while behavioral, cognitive, and pharmacological treatments are more specific in their foci. Specific and non-specific therapies, which have often seen themselves in competition with one another—witness the sometimes acrimonious exchanges between behaviorally oriented clinicians and their dynamic counterparts—have dissimilar goals. (…) To oversimplify a bit, psychodynamic therapy primarily offers insight, self-awareness, and general growth and development, while behavioral and other forms of brief, symptom-focused treatment concentrate on helping the patient achieve palpable relief from certain specific complaints.”

Saia mais!” – talvez signifique: saia mais da sala destes analistas superficiais.

Several authorities on psychodynamic treatment have noted that patients with phobic and other anxiety-related complaints are not receptive to such therapy, or that they do not respond well once engaged in psychodynamic psychotherapy.” “Consider, for example, the agoraphobic patient. In the most severe cases, all facets of the person’s day-to-day life are compromised: work is problematic and often impossible because of the difficulty traveling far from, or even leaving, home; personal and family relationships are distorted by the demands imposed upon intimates to organize their lives to protect the agoraphobic from exposure to anxiety; mundane, everyday tasks such as grocery shopping are either delegated to others, or are undertaken only after carehil [sic – careful?] planning to minimize <unsafe> features of the situation such as lines or traffic; and socializing and other recreational activities are severely curtailed or entirely avoided.” “they would like to be able to grocery-shop independently, or travel more freely, or shop in a department store, or attend a movie, or return to work. And it is here that treatment must begin.” “Often what they want to deal with is another problem such as a difficulty in establishing close relationships or ambivalence about a particular partner, but they seem to need to formulate a more disabling problem in order to justify the need for psychotherapy to themselves or to others. Some, who may have a well-defined anxiety disorder, enter treatment with an a priori bias against behavioral or symptom-focused treatment as <superficial> [mas não é bias, é fato] and seek a therapy that is focused on the promotion of insight and self-understanding. But for the vast majority of patients presenting with anxiety disorders, symptom relief is the most salient initial goal.”

PROFUNDEZA DEMAIS NÃO É REALEZA

even if one assumes that behavioral symptoms have their roots in unconscious conflict, they may become functionally autonomous (Fraud, 1936; Sluzki, 1981), and be maintained by a variety of other factors. Stated differently, the processes that <cause> a problem and those that maintain the problem are likely to be distinct. As the etiological factors may no longer be significant at the time of treatment, symptoms may be relieved without fresh outbreaks [meu caso na fase Victor Hugo].”

ALIMENTE-SE DE COISAS BOAS (MAS PODE CONTINUAR COMENDO FAST FOOD)

as he begins to behave in a less helpless fashion, others in his relationship network are likely to come to treat him as though he is more competent, which will, in turn, enhance his self-perception.”

Just as many psychiatrists never receive training in the administration of exposure therapy and so confine their treatment of anxious patients to pharmacotherapy, many psychologists and social workers trained to conduct exposure therapy are negatively disposed toward the use of medication and do not seek a medical consultation for patients who are failing to carry out therapeutic tasks because the symptoms are too distressing. Further, even when it is employed, medication is often improperly or inadequately applied. That is, the dosage is often too small to reduce the symptoms or it is so great that the anxious symptoms temporarily disappear, and the patient fails to learn to cope more effectively with them should they arise.”

For example, one elderly agoraphobic patient, Mrs. H., with a 40-year history of avoidances of various kinds, made considerable progress in her ability to travel freely and comfortably over a 6-month period. After years of being housebound, she was able to visit her children and grandchildren who lived nearby, take a course at a local college, attend church, and shop in department stores, all without a companion. At one point, she and the therapist agreed that the next task was for her to drive to a nearby city by herself to visit a relative. Like most other activities involving travel, this was something that she had always done with her husband. At this point, progress stopped. For several weeks, she would arrive for her sessions not having done the task, offering a variety of explanations involving inconvenience, but it quickly became clear that there were other issues involved.”

SÍNDROME DA HONESTIDADE: “At the time of the initial consultation, symptoms of panic, which included palpitations, sweatiness, chest pain, dizziness, nausea, and fears of death and insanity were a daily occurrence. (…) She described her parents as very supportive and loving, but when she talked about her interaction with them it was clear that they were extremely demanding, with a very rigid sense of right and wrong. The family had clear and definite rules regarding virtually all areas of behavior—what church to attend and how often, what kind of car one should and shouldn’t drive, what kind of furniture one should have in one’s house, when was a proper time to go to bed, how a dinner table was to be set, what color the napkins should be, and so on. Virtually all behavior was evaluated in terms of its <rightness> or <wrongness> (…) Mrs. K. was the clear favorite among the three siblings in her family.” “K. was somewhat envious of her siblings, who had been <rebellious> as children but seemed to her to have developed a sense of adventure and to enjoy life considerably more than she.” “Considerable time was spent addressing her compliance as it manifested itself in the transference, including her over-enthusiasm for the therapist’s interpretations and her beliefs that she would be abandoned and the therapy relationship terminated if she failed to please the therapist and meet the expectations she imagined he had for her.” “During the course of treatment, Mrs. K. became considerably more assertive, and reported losing the general sense of bemused detachment that formerly had characterized her relationships and activities and were a direct outgrowth of her compliant posture.”

one particular agoraphobic patient of ours dealt with the demands of others in an outwardly compliant way, but when uncomfortable or unhappy with such demands found ways to sabotage them passively. The way this emerged in the therapy was that when the patient felt the therapist did not understand the severity of her problem and was <pushing> too hard for her to complete certain tasks on her own, she would agree to carry out the tasks and then <not find the time>.”

While some patients elect to stay in treatment beyond the point where their presenting symptoms have been reduced or have remitted, it is beyond the scope of our current effort to describe the long-term treatment of the anxious patient.”

The main symptomology of patients with acute anxiety was reviewed in the first chapter. The patient feels anxious, tense, nervous; he is preoccupied and worried and ruminates about some, perhaps, indefinable problem; he may appear worried, with a furrowed brow or tense muscles; he may sweat excessively and have trouble sleeping and concentrating. (…) It is usually not possible to determine when an acute problem will become chronic, but most acute anxiety and tension disorders resolve within 6 months.”

Past history of vulnerability to stress suggests continuation of the same vulnerability to stress, other factors being similar. We have seen patients with panic disorder, for instance, who experience recurrence of panic symptoms only when they feel stressed. In these people stress always seems to produce recurrence of the panic symptoms. Effective and early coping with stress minimizes adverse consequences.”

THE THIN LINE BETWEEN… “The boundary between generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder is somewhat arbitrary. Generalized anxiety is often a feature of panic disorder, although some patients with panic disorder have all the symptoms of generalized anxiety; conversely, patients with generalized anxiety disorder are likely to have at least infrequent panic attacks, perhaps occurring with only one or two symptoms. Patients with chronic anxiety score high on <neuroticism> on standard personality inventories. The neuroticism factor includes anxious, depressive, and somatic symptoms, low self-esteem and low self-confidence, and irritability.” “Patients report that they are frequently preoccupied, worried, or ruminative; their preoccupations often concern events that are highly improbable. For instance, a wealthy patient may worry that he will become a pauper; an excellent college student may worry that he will fail his classes. When the content of the ruminations involves anticipated problems whose occurrence is more probable, the experience is more accurately described as anticipatory anxiety [parrifobia].”

When compared with those who did not suffer panic attacks, patients who did found their thoughts more clearly articulated, intrusive, credible, and difficult to exclude. Most patients who had experienced panic attacks reported a physical feeling as the most frequent precipitant to episodes of anxiety, whereas patients in the generalized anxiety disorder group reported an anxious thought or a change in mood as the trigger. These data suggest that generalized anxiety disorder patients may be less likely than patients with panic attacks to systematically misconstrue their somatic experiences as dangerous.”

O balão de pensamentos dos quadrinhos foi a invenção literária mais genial do século XX. Talvez a invenção humana por excelência deste século, tirante o avião.

rivotril, nicotine, ecstasy, vicodin, marijuana and alcohol…

In retrospect, she decided that her asthma attack was actually a panic attack. Medical examination was normal. She reported feeling anxious 80-90 percent of the time even when she was not having panic attacks. She reported worrying continuously about her children, her health, and the health of her children. On a scale from 0 to 10, with 10 being the highest anxiety and 0 being none, she rated her anxiety a 10 most of the time.”

Although the electromyographic activity recorded from the frontalis muscle is reliably higher in anxious patients than in controls, EMG activity from forearm, masseter, and other muscle sites does not appear to differ (Lader & Marks, 1971). (…) There is no evidence of EEG abnormalities among anxious patients. Respiration is more rapid and shallow. Finally, although dry mouth is a common symptom of anxiety, there do not appear to be differences in salivation between anxious subjects and controls (Peck, 1966).” “individual differences are sufficient to prevent generalizations regarding the physiological reactivity of anxious patients as a group.” “Evans et al. (1986) found that average daily heart rate was not correlated with anxiety measures.” “at present, we lack a reliable peripheral biologic measure of anxiety.”

As anxiety and depression are closely associated, distinguishing between the two can pose a problem. In a community sample, 67% of subjects with a psychiatric disorder had features of both anxiety and depression that could not be differentiated (Tennant et al., 1981).”

Thyer et al. (1985a) reported that the mean age of onset for GAD [Generalized Anxiety Disorder] patients was 22.8 years. Noyes et al. (1980) have suggested that the onset is gradual. Studies indicating the stability of <neurotic traits> are also relevant here; in adults such traits seem stable from one decade to another. Given the chronic nature of the problem, helping patients learn to tolerate symptoms without abusing prescribed medications or other substances seems particularly important.”

Among the most interesting theories regarding etiology is that generalized anxiety disorder in humans is analogous to sensitization observed in animals. There are 2 basic processes involved in defensive learning: habituation, which is the response decrement that occurs on repeated presentation of a noxious stimulus, and sensitization, which is the increase in defense evoked by strong or noxious stimuli. Habituation is the process that allows an animal to eventually ignore repeated innocuous events, and sensitization is the process that leads it to attend to potentially dangerous ones. (…) Perhaps generalized anxiety disorder represents chronic sensitization characterized by continuous over-attention to potentially noxious or dangerous stimuli.” Uau, como são geniais os psiquiatras de nossa era! Como se houvesse mesmo a possibilidade de ser até outra coisa!

Benson notes that hypnosis, autogenic training, relaxation and transcendental meditation have been shown to lower oxygen consumption, respiration, and heart rate while increasing alpha activity and skin resistance—all responses compatible with inhibited sympathetic activity.” For instance, the subject is invited to imagine floating in a hot bath or a lake and may be told that each breath out will leave him feeling a bit more comfortable and that he will be able to breathe more deeply and easily. Spiegel encourages the patient to picture an imaginary screen in his mind’s eye, a movie screen or a TV screen, and to visualize on that screen a pleasant scene, somewhere the patient enjoys being. After the patient has achieved the ability to produce a comforting scene and is able to achieve body relaxation, he is asked to imagine anxious images. The patient moves from anxious scenes back to comfort and floating—a process similar to desensitization.”

After patients have identified what they would like to say to whom, we model and role-play the situation. Often we suggest the kinds of things that the patient might say and play the role of the patient in the feared situation. We then reverse roles and have the patient practice the interaction. We provide feedback. When the patient feels comfortable with the role-played interaction we then encourage them to use the skills in the actual situation, cautioning them that such situations are rarely identical to the ones created in the office but offer some variations and challenges for them to work on. We agree on the situation they will try and then review it during the next session. Such review may also be useful in elaborating troublesome thoughts. Patients will usually downplay obviously successful interactions or attribute their success to some external factor. Thus, developing a proper cognitive appraisal of their performance is a part of the assertion training.”

It is probably unrealistic to expect patients presenting with GAD to adopt what amounts to a <heart-healthy> life-style (i.e., avoidance of smoking; exercising at aerobic levels 3-5[!] times per week for 20-30 minutes; eating a low-fat, low cholesterol diet, and maintaining a serum cholesterol below 200 mg/dl; blood pressure below 140 systolic and 90 diastolic; and weight no more than 10-20 pounds above ideal for height sex, and age).” “Patients with GAD who drink several cups of caffeinated coffee daily should certainly be encouraged to cut down to no more than one. Those who clearly work an excessive amount of hours should be encouraged to reduce their work load if possible and to build in time for recreation.” Não dê ao escravo o gosto do que ele não pode ter.

The longterm pharmacologic treatment of chronic or generalized anxiety is one of the most controversial issues in medicine. The debate centers on the risk/benefit of such treatment. On one hand, some argue that effective agents should not be withheld from people who are suffering from anxiety disorders. Others argue that the agents are not, in fact, effective and that they carry considerable risk for longterm dependence, unknown side-effects, and life-threatening withdrawal.”

While there is general consensus that benzodiazepines are effective in the short run, given the importance of the question, it is surprising how limited our knowledge is regarding the long-term effectiveness of benzodiazepines. In 1980, after reviewing studies on benzodiazepine effects, the British Medical Association concluded that the tranquilizing effects of such drugs do not persist beyond 3 to 4 months. However, other experts have argued that benzodiazepines are effective beyond 4 months, particularly in patients with severe anxiety.”

He was seriously considering resigning from his firm because he dreaded meetings with clients and other professionals and was hardly able to stand the anxiety. He was drinking 1-2 oz. [?] of alcohol per week; there were no medical causes for his anxiety. He had taken diazepam, 5-10mg per week intermittently for the past 3 years with no apparent benefit. He met the DSM-III-R criteria for panic disorder and for uncomplicated and generalized anxiety disorder. Because of the panic attacks and an unwillingness to take imipramine, he was started on Alprazolam 0.5mg BID. On this dose, he achieved immediate and almost complete relief of his symptoms. For the first time in his life, he said, he no longer dreaded going to work and no longer experienced anguish from hour to hour. (…) Coincident with his improvement, one of his senior partners in the accounting firm decided to retire and wanted to have the patient buy out his interest. Because of the reduced anxiety, the patient was now more confident to deal with clients and to try to obtain new business. He decided to buy the firm, a move that caused him some stress and demanded more intensive effort. This new business venture coincided with the end of the first 6 months on the medication and the patient did not want to stop the medication and possibly jeopardize both his ability to function effectively and his monetary investment. Over the 6 months, he had not increased his medication, was not using alcohol, did not have evidence of withdrawal symptoms, and remained improved. We agreed to continue the medication for another 6 months and then to try a drug-free period.”

O perigo de estar por cima da onda… Assumir riscos em excesso. Contribuir para o próprio fracasso. Ingenuamente. Como se fosse a primeira vez.

At the end of 6 months, now a year into therapy, the patient continued to use the medication as prescribed and maintained his improvement. We strongly encouraged him to try a drug-free period, reviewed the possible long-term risks associated with the drug, and reminded him of our initial agreement. Reluctantly, he gradually stopped the medication, and although he did not seem to have withdrawal symptoms, his anxiety and panic attacks had returned within 3 months and had begun to impair his work. The medication was resumed for another 6 month period.

Although this case is somewhat unusual in the dramatic relief obtained from the medication, the issues are typical for many patients; the medication was associated with improved functioning and alternative therapies seemed ineffective. However, the patient continues to rely on the medication in order to function effectively.”

“In a few patients the withdrawal syndrome can be sufficiently severe to cause epileptic seizures, confusion, and psychotic symptoms (Owen & Tyrer, 1983; Noyes et al., 1986.). For most patients, withdrawal symptoms are more diffuse, including anxiety, panic, tremor, muscle twitching, perceptual disturbances, and depersonalization (Petursson & Lader, 1984; Owen & Tyrer, 1983; Busto et al., 1986).” “Benzodiazepine withdrawal is a real and serious problem and sometimes life-threatening in chronic benzodiazepine users.”

CHOCANDO OS OVOS NO NINHO DA SERPENTE:Jennifer had a difficult family history. She described her father, also a lawyer, as extremely critical, distant, and contemptuous of her and her older sister. She reported that as an adolescent, he would frequently end arguments by saying <You’re fat,> [also known as young] as though this fact disqualified her from rendering opinions or having feelings worthy of consideration, and as though she was to be dismissed on all counts for this reason. She reported that her mother was a loving, <reasonable,> person, who, however, never confronted the father, and, instead, attempted to accommodate to his irascibility.

The patient proved to be highly sensitive to a variety of medications including imipramine, desipramine, protriptyline, nortriptyline, and amitriptyline, complaining that each either caused increased fatigue or increased agitation. We continued with cognitive therapy during this period of about 4 months when numerous medications were tried, but the patient’s depression and anxiety continued. Family therapy with a colleague of the primary therapist was also arranged. The patient reported that the first session <made a huge difference> in her outlook. While nothing was resolved, and she remained unsure whether she and her father could have an acceptable relationship, having her father hear her concerns seemed to lift a weight from her. She reported fears prior to the session that he would dismiss her, deny the validity of her complaints, or storm out of the session. (…) She no longer felt hopeless about the future.”

PARADOXAL INTENTION or REVERSAL PSYCHOLOGY (…) Everytime he felt a little wave of spontaneous alarm, he was not to push it aside but was to enhance it, to augment it, to try to experience it more profoundly and more vividly. If he did not spontaneously feel fear, every 20 or 30 minutes, he was to make a special effort to try and do so, however difficult and ludicrous it might seem. I arranged to see him twice a day over the next two days until his examination. He was an intelligent man, and an assiduous patient. He practiced the exercises methodically, and by the time of the examination he reported himself as almost totally unable to feel frightened. … He passed his examination without apparent difficulty.”

Many of our patients have read books about anxiety before coming to the clinic or wish to do so in the course of therapy. Ghosh and Marks (1986) have even reported that bibliotherapy works as effectively as therapist instruction for self-exposure, at least with agoraphobics. We have yet to see a patient benefit from bibliotherapy to the extent indicated by the Ghosh and Marks study. However, we have found such books useful to help patients gain an understanding of their problem and to feel less alone in struggling with their difficulties. Two books that provide a good discussion of panic are The Anxiety Disease by Sheehan (1984) and Panic: Facing Fears, Phobias and Anxiety by Agras (1985); these books are not designed as self-help manuals.” Then they are probably good lectures.

we have seen patients who avoid speaking in public situations; in most such cases, they fear that their anxiety will become evident to others either through a tremor in their voice or through an inability to speak.”

while the agoraphobic’s fear of losing control and driving his or her car off the road during a panic attack can be easily viewed as <irrational,> the social phobic’s fear of verbally stumbling during a talk or fear of being rejected as a suitor on a date might reasonably occur. (…) Thus a vicious cycle often develops in which the anxiety is actually instrumental in potentiating the consequences most feared by the patient through interaction of the cognitive, physiological, and behavioral aspects of the problem.”

Beck and Emery (1985) have made certain important observations on the phenomenon of shame as it applies to individuals who experience anxiety regarding evaluation. As they note, shame involves insult to one’s public image. Strangers, who are perceived as representatives of a group, may more easily arouse feelings of shame than those with whom we are on intimate terms. (…) Such judgements are viewed as <absolute, finalistic, irrevocable.>

One final observation made by Beck and Emery that may have important treatment implications is that one may feel shame whether the perceived disapproval is communicated or not; shame is tied to the perception of how others think, rather than what they specifically communicate. Thus, an individual might expose him or herself to problematic situations regularly without diminution of anxiety, if he or she continued to believe that others’ negative evaluations continued to be present.

unlike anxiety, which usually ends when the individual exits the fear-evoking situation, the experience of shame continues beyond the individual’s participation, fits with Liebowitz et al.’s (1985a) report that the anxiety of the social phobics they have seen <does not seem to attenuate during the course of a single social event or performance . . . (but rather) augment(s), as initial somatic discomfort becomes a further distraction and embarrassment to the already nervous individual> Seria possível que eu fosse sociofóbico entre 2006-2012 e tenha me tornado progressivamente “apenas” ansioso-depressivo?


who copes with difficulties

is cop(y)ing (with) the

winners

cannot copy without you two!


the social performance standards of those with increased levels of social anxiety are unrealistically high. Thus, the discrepancy between actual performance and the desired standard may be more likely to be pronounced”

being introduced, meeting people in authority, and being watched while doing something are among the more difficult situations for this group, while agoraphobics fear circumstances including being alone, being in unfamiliar places, and open spaces.” <Ele é tímido> são as piores aspas da história.

In our experience, alcohol abuse is a significant problem among social phobics and must be carefully assessed before proceeding with treatment.”

He had begun to avoid small seminars in which he felt class participation would be required. Though verbally appropriate and attractive, he had done little dating, and had had no sexual experiences of any kind with women. He would also become sufficiently nervous over the prospect of asking a young woman for a date that in this situation too, he worried about his voice quavering and was avoiding such encounters. During the sixth week of treatment, he confided to the therapist that he believed that when he thinks about women, he emits an offensive odor that causes others who may be physically near him to leave. This idea had started when he was 17 and a senior in high school. His parents had gone out for the evening and he had masturbated in the family room. His parents however, came home unexpectedly early, within a minute or so of the time he had finished masturbating. Though he had managed to collect himself before they entered the family room, and there was no overt evidence they knew what he had done, he believed that in the act of masturbating he had given off an odor that they could detect. This idea had progressed to the point where he now believed that just thinking about an attractive woman caused him to give off such an odor. He was in the habit of sitting by himself in a corner of the library or cafeteria due to fears that others could smell when he was thinking about women.

The patient’s questionable reality testing and other phenomenology raised the possibility that he might be schizophrenic. However, after discussing these issues with the therapist, and feeling somewhat reassured, he agreed to a consultation with a urologist who was quite understanding and also reassured him. He was greatly relieved by this reassurance, and stopped isolating himself in the school library and cafeteria. Social isolation is often a feature of social phobia, and in such cases, without the availability of corrective feedback, ideas such as the above can develop.”

The onset of social phobia appears typically between ages 15 and 20. Marks (1969) noted that among a sample he studied onset appeared to peak in the late teens. Amies et al. (1983) reported a mean onset of 19, as opposed to 24 among the agoraphobics. Nichols (1974) reported that two thirds of his sample developed the problem before age 25. Shaw (1976) reported that 60% of the social phobics in her sample had developed the problem by age 20 (as compared with 20% of agoraphobics), and 19% of the social phobics rated the onset as acute (as compared with 53% of the agoraphobics).”

Several other hypotheses have been suggested. Nichols (1974) has noted the presence among social phobics of unusual sensitivity to criticism, disapproval, and scrutiny from others, low self-evaluation, rigid ideas regarding appropriate social behavior, a tendency to overestimate the extent to which visible symptoms of anxiety are evident to others, and a fear of being seen as ill or losing control. He argues that perception of loss of regard by others leads the individual to become hyper-aware of his or her anxiety in social situations, leading to increased sensitivity to physical cues and increasing concern that further lack of regard will ensue should such symptoms be noticed.” “poor performance in social situations leads the individual to expect negative evaluation and rejection from others (Curran, 1977). Another hypothesis is that social anxiety and social phobias are mediated by faulty cognitions regarding performance demands and the consequences of negative evaluation, which then, in fact, interfere with effective performance (Beck & Emery, 1985). [Óbvio.] Some of the avoidant strategies employed by social phobics such as gaze aversion, facial inexpressiveness, and reduced talkativeness can engender rejecting responses from others” O que não ensinam na escola: que não querer, conseguir ou suportar olhar no rosto dos outros não é covardia, mas condição. O tagarela é o primeiro a ser punido, mas também o primeiro a ser abordado (pelas mesmas pessoas!): “O que está acontecendo? Tudo bem com você, o que é que tá pegando? O gato comeu sua língua?”. Outrora tive um chefe que ria das pessoas que não conseguiam olhar nos olhos dos outros. Esse chefe, longe de ser um pacato cidadão mediano, era um dos mais neuróticos patológicos não só do setor, mas do órgão inteiro. Sua característica mais pusilânime era chegar dando um bom dia mais animado que o apresentador do Balanço Geral. Com o tempo, entretanto, e a percepção de que as pessoas no trabalho não o enxergavam como sua mãe o enxergava (e portanto ele mesmo se enxergava), graças a sua arrogância, hipocrisia e acerbas observações, e a certeza cada vez maior de que não passava de um chato de galocha, ele começou a se comportar de modo um tanto errático, auto-isolando-se além de toda medida, aproveitando-se do expediente de ser chefe para passar o dia trancado, longe de nossos olhos perscrutadores. Alguns realmente aprendem na prática a baixar a bola.

Beta-blockers have been prescribed to block the peripheral manifestations of anxiety on the assumption that peripheral autonomic arousal increases social anxiety. Beta-blockers have been shown to reduce performance anxiety among such groups as musicians and college students.” “in patients with atypical depression, MAOIs seem to reduce interpersonal sensitivity, which is a measure of sensitivity to rejection, criticism and indifference on the part of others”

—“As a group, social phobics suffer from a number of cognitive errors. While it is true that the underlying theme of these errors involves sensitivity to the evaluation of others, they may take a variety of forms. The most common cognitive errors we have encountered among social phobics are the following: (1) overestimating the extent to which their behavior will be noticed by others, thus exposing them to scrutiny or evaluation; (2) overestimations about the likelihood of rejection, embarrassment, or humiliation in a particular situation; (3) unrealistic assessments about the character of others’ responses to displays of anxiety; (4) attributional errors; and (5) overresponsiveness to actual rejection or lack of acceptance.

Fenigstein (1979) has differentiated between private self-consciousness, which involves heightened awareness of one’s thoughts and feelings, and public self-consciousness, which involves similar awareness of how one is viewed by others. Those in the latter group report a sense of being observed when with other people, an increased awareness of how others regard them, and they assign considerable importance to others’ responses toward them (Fenigstein, 1979). Their attention is focused on their appearance and behavior to an extent that effectively turns them into observers. Social situations often trigger an assessment process (Schlenker & Leary, 1982) in which the individual monitors his effect on others in hypervigilant fashion much as the panic disorder patient monitors internal sensations hypervigilantly. (…) The social phobic often erroneously assumes that others are monitoring his social performance as closely as he is. Thus if his voice trembles, or if he has a tendency to blush, or shake while holding a glass, he assumes that the attention of others is equally focused on such displays.” Mais eu leio sobre isso, mais eu “condeno meu passado” (o que é quase uma prova empírica de que eu sou um sociófobo até para mim mesmo – o eu do passado!) e mais eu penso na Tharsila como um papagaio que sempre me relia uma cartilha de tópicos prontos semanalmente, inutilmente…

Several studies have indicated the presence of perfectionistic social standards among the socially anxious (Alden & Cappe, 1981; Alden & Safran, 1978; Goldfried & Sobocinski, 1975). To put the same concept slightly differently, what we have encountered among many social phobics is an unrealistic appraisal of what is required of them in social situations. For example, they may assume that in an initial heterosocial encounter they will inevitably be rejected if they are not <totally at ease,> or if they fail to demonstrate a quick sense of humor. As the hypothesized demands of social situations become higher and more unreasonable, the social phobic’s self-efficacy drops, and the risk of perceived failure is increased, leading to overestimating the likelihood of rejection, embarrassment, or humiliation.”

Specifically, social phobics tend to assume that the anxiety or awkwardness they experience in social situations marks them as different, defective, and strange. Yet in many instances, the situations arousing anxiety for the social phobic arouse anxiety in many of us (e.g., public speaking, first dates, job interviews, etc.). The labels social phobics attach to themselves as a consequence of their anxiety, which are often global, absolute, and self-blaming, have the effect of increasing their arousal and levels of anxiety. In general, these labels reflect their lack of self-acceptance.” “Those who present with extreme avoidance across a wide variety of social situations usually manifest an oversensitivity to rejection, and the reverse attributional bias discussed above. These individuals are the most difficult to treat and usually require longer-term therapy, in which deeper cognitive structures relating to self-esteem and personal identity (Guidano & Liotti, 1983) become the focus of treatment.”

In general, we have been more impressed with the cognitive errors common among social phobics which, as we noted, distort the demands and risks involved in social encounters. Most of the social phobics we see appear to have adequate skills but have difficulty in deploying them or underestimate their own performance.”

The patient indicated that what disturbed her about blushing was that people would see she was anxious. (…) Her supervisor at work frequently commented about it when he noticed her blushing in a way that embarrassed her. Accordingly, she was instructed not to avoid this supervisor but, in fact, to seek him out, and when blushing did occur to say, <Uh-oh, menopause already,> or <Oh no, not those hot flashes again,> or to fan

herself with her hand and say, <Whew, it’s hot in here.>”

She did not have problems interacting with strangers; symptoms of anxiety were experienced only with those whom she regarded as <potential friends.>” “Linda’s sensitivity to rejection was clearly related to doubts about her self-worth. Part of the fear of rejection in social situations had to do with the extent to which she was searching for evidence regarding her own worth in such encounters.”

Alcohol is the earliest and probably still the most widely used drug with antianxiety properties. Sedative-hypnotics with antianxiety properties were widely used during the 19th century. For instance, it is estimated that by the 1870s a single hospital in London specialized in nervous diseases might dispense several tons of bromides annually. Barbiturates, first synthesized in 1864, began to be widely used in medicine after 1900. Meprobamate, originally developed as a potential muscle relaxant in the 1950s, achieved rapid popularity and was widely prescribed until its addictive properties became apparent. The discovery of the effectiveness of the benzodiazepines was serendipitously made by Stembach in 1957 who, when cleaning up his laboratory, decided to screen a group of compounds he had synthesized many years before (Stembach, 1983). One compound, 1,4-benzodiazepine-chlordiazepoxide, was two to five times more potent than meprobamate in producing relaxation in rats.” “Because of their clinical effectiveness and their low potential for fatal overdosage, BZDs have largely replaced other sedative hypnotics. In the early 1960s Klein reported that the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) blocked anxiety attacks in patients prone to anxiety, even in those who were not depressed. Drugs that block the peripheral manifestations of anxiety, like the beta-blockers, have been used in some patients. More recently, drugs that increase serotonin levels in the brain amongst other effects, the azaspirodecanediones, have shown promise as antianxiety agents.”

Other agents that are potent inhibitors of amine uptake, notably amphetamine and cocaine, are poor antidepressants. Furthermore, some TCAs affect the reuptake of serotonin, while others have a greater effect on norepinephrine.”

The other group of antidepressants with significant antipanic effect are the MAO inhibitors. The monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors comprise a heterogeneous group of drugs, which, as the name implies, block the enzyme monoamine oxidase. MAO inhibitors were first used to treat tuberculosis. Because the drugs seemed to have mood-elevating effects in tuberculosis patients, they were given to depressed psychiatric patients with favorable results.” “MAO is widely distributed throughout the body, although its important biological effects relate to its action within the mitochondria.”

Another group of theoretical importance in treating anxiety are central adrenergic agonists. On the assumption that central noradrenergic activity is increased, agents that reduce central noradrenergic activity should have antianxiety effects. One agent that has been evaluated for its antianxiety effects is clonidine, which reduces central sympathetic activity through potent agonistic activity on alpha-2 presynaptic receptors in the CNS. Clonidine has been found to be effective in the treatment of panic attacks (Liebowitz et al., 1981), anxiety experienced during opiate withdrawal, and anxiety accompanying depression (Uhde et al., 1984).”

Antipsychotic medications, like thioridazine, chlorpromazine, haldol, and mesoridazine have been advocated for the treatment of anxiety. Indeed, such agents are effective in reducing anxiety in patients with psychotic disorders. However, autonomic and extra-pyramidal side effects and the risk of tardive dyskinesia make them generally inappropriate for patients with primary anxiety disorders.”

Alcohol is rapidly absorbed from the stomach, small intestine, and colon. After absorption, it is rapidly distributed throughout all tissues and all fluids of the body. Alcohol is metabolized through oxidation. The rate of metabolism is roughly proportional to body weight and probably to liver weight. Many other factors, such as diet, hormones, drug interactions, and enzyme mass affect alcohol metabolism. Alcohol use is also associated with tolerance, physical dependence and can lead to a life-threatening withdrawal reaction.”