ENCYCLOPEDIA OF HOMOSEXUALITY

PREFACE

Biographies of gay men and lesbian women discuss their orientation only when unavoidable, as with Oscar Wilde. There have been several encyclopedias and dictionaries of sexuality (beginning with a German one of 1922, the Handbuch der Sexualwissenschaft), but this work is the first to treat homosexuality in all its complexity and variety.

all the efforts of church and state over the centuries to obliterate homosexual behavior and its expression in literature, tradition, and subculture have come to naught, if only because the capacity for homoerotic response and homosexual activity is embedded in human nature, and cannot be eradicated by any amount of suffering inflicted upon hapless individuals.”

The editors are persuaded that the phenomenology of lesbianism and that of male homosexuality have much in common, especially when viewed in the cultural and social context, where massive homophobia has provided a shared setting, if not necessarily an equal duress.”

Perhaps the most difficult obstacle to a simple focus on <homosexuality> is the growing realization that what has been lumped together under that term since its coinage in 1869 is not a simple, unitary phenomenon. The more one works with data from times and cultures other than contemporary middle-class American and northern European ones, the more one tends to see a multiplicity of homosexualities.”

The Greeks who institutionalized pederasty and used it for educational ends take a prominent role, as does the Judeo-Christian tradition of sexual restriction and homophobia that prevailed under the church Fathers, Scholasticism, and the Reformers, and – in altered form – during the 20th century under Hitler and Mussolini, Stalin and Castro.

ACHILLES

He is a tragic hero, being aware of the shortness of his life, and his devoted friendship for Patroclus is one of the major themes of the epic. Later Greek speculation made the two lovers, and also gave Achilles a passion for Troilus. The homoerotic elements in the figure of Achilles are characteristically Hellenic. He is supremely beautiful, kalos as the later vase inscriptions have it; he is ever youthful as well as short-lived, yet he foresees and mourns his own death as he anticipates the grief that it will bring to others. His attachment to Patroclus is an archetypal male bond that occurs elsewhere in Greek culture: Damon and Pythias, Orestes and Pylades, Harmodius and Aristogiton are pairs of comrades who gladly face danger and death for and beside each other. From the Semitic world stem Gilgamesh and Enkidu, as well as David and Jonathan. The friendship of Achilles and Patroclus is mentioned explicitly only once in the Iliad, and then in a context of military excellence; it is the comradeship of warriors who fight always in each other’s ken: <From then on the son of Thetis urged that never in the moil of Ares [nas confusões da guerra] should Patroclus be stationed apart from his own man-slaughtering spear.>”

The friendship with Patroclus blossomed into overt homosexual love in the fifth and fourth centuries, in the works of Aeschylus, Plato, and Aeschines, and as such seems to have inspired the enigmatic verses in Lycophron’s third-century Alexandra that make unrequited love Achilles’ motive for killing Troilus. By the IV century of our era this story had been elaborated into a sadomasochistic version in which Achilles causes the death of his beloved by crushing him in a lover’s embrace. As a rule, the post-classical tradition shows Achilles as heterosexual and having an exemplary asexual friendship with Patroclus. The figure of Achilles remained polyvalent. The classical Greek pederastic tradition only sporadically assimilated him, new variations appeared in pagan writings after the Golden Age of Hellenic civilization, and medieval Christian writers deliberately suppressed the homoerotic nuances of the figure.”

W. M. Clarke, Achilles and Patroclus in Love (1978)

AESCHINES

Athenian orator. His exchanges with Demosthenes in the courts in 343 and 330 reflect the relations between Athens and Macedon in the era of Alexander the Great. Aeschines and Demosthenes were both members of the Athenian boule (assembly) in the year 347-46, and their disagreements led to 16 years of bitter enmity. Demosthenes opposed Aeschines and the efforts to reach an accord with Philip of Macedon, while Aeschines supported the negotiations and wanted to extend them into a peace that would provide for joint action against aggressors and make it possible to do without Macedonian help. In 346-45 Demosthenes began a prosecution of Aeschines for his part in the peace negotiations – Aeschines replied with a charge that Timarchus, Demosthenes’ ally, had prostituted himself with other males and thereby incurred atimia, <civic dishonor>, which disqualified him from addressing the assembly. Aeschines’ stratagem was successful, and Timarchus was defeated and disenfranchised. The oration is often discussed because of the texts of the Athenian laws that it cites, as well as such accusations that Timarchus had gone down to Piraeus, ostensibly to learn the barber’s trade.

AESCHYLUS

QUEM DISSE, JAEGER, QUE NÃO SE PODE SER SOLDADO E POETA AO MESMO TEMPO? First of the great Attic tragedians. Aeschylus fought against the Persians at Marathon and probably Salamis. Profoundly religious and patriotic, he produced, according to one catalogue, 72 titles, but 10 others are mentioned elsewhere. He was the one who first added a second actor to speak against the chorus. Of his 7 surviving tragedies, none is pederastic. His lost Myrmidons, however, described in lascivious terms the physical love of Achilles for Patroclus’ thighs, altering the age relationship given in Homer’s Iliad – where Patroclus is a few years the older, but as they grew up together, they were essentially agemates – to suggest that Achilles was the lover (erastes) of Patroclus.

Plato had Phaedrus point out the confusion, and argue that Patroclus must have been the older and therefore the lover, while the beautiful Achilles was his beloved (Symposium, 180a). Among Attic tragedians Aeschylus was followed by Sophocles, Euripides, and Agathon.

Sophocles (496-406 B.C.), who first bested Aeschylus in 468 and added a third actor, wrote 123 tragedies of which 7 survive, all from later than 440. At least 4 of his tragedies were pederastic. Euripides (480-406 B.C.) wrote 75 tragedies of which 19 survive, and the lost Chrysippus, and probably some others as well, were pederastic. Euripides loved the beautiful but effeminate tragedian Agathon until Agathon was 40. The latter, who won his first victory in 416, was the first to reduce the chorus to a mere interlude, but none of his works survive.

All four of the greatest tragedians wrote pederastic plays but none survive, possibly because of Christian homophobia. The tragedians seem to have shared the pederastic enthusiasm of the lyric poets and of Pindar, though many of their mythical and historical source-themes antedated the formal institutionalization of paiderasteia in Greece toward the beginning of the sixth century before our era.”

(o artigo de William Percy foi transcrito na íntegra)

AFRICA, NORTH

Pederasty was virtually pandemic in North Africa during the periods of Arab and Turkish rule. Islam as a whole was tolerant of pederasty, and in North Africa particularly so. (The Islamic high-water points in this respect may tentatively be marked out as Baghdad of The Thousand and One Nights, Cairo of the Mamluks, Moorish Granada, and Algiers of the 16th and 17th centuries.) The era of Arabic rule in North Africa did, however, witness occasional puritan movements and rulers, such as the Almohads and a Shiite puritanism centered in Fez (Morocco). This puritanism continues with the current King Hassan II of Morocco, who is, however, hampered by an openly homosexual brother.”

400 Franciscan friars left the Spain of Isabel the Catholic and embraced Islam rather than <mend their ways>, as she had commanded them to do.”

Universal throughout pre-colonial North Africa was the singing and dancing boy, widely preferred over the female in café entertainments and suburban pleasure gardens. A prime cultural rationale was to protect the chastity of the females, who would instantly assume the status of a prostitute in presenting such a performance. The result was several centuries of erotic performances by boys, who were the preferred entertainers even when female prostitutes were available, and who did not limit their acts to arousing the lust of the patrons. A North African merchant could stop at the café for a cup of tea and a hookah [narguilé], provided by a young lad, listen to the singing, and then proceed to have sex with the boy right on the premises, before returning to his shop.

The present writer has spoken with a Tunisian supervisor of schools who firmly believes in the death penalty for all homosexuals. Thus, in their rush to modernism, Third World leaders often adopt the sexual standards of medieval Christendom, even as Europe and America are moving toward legalization and tolerance of same-sex activity. Such, at least in part, is also the plight of modern North Africa.”

Tunisia. A small and impoverished country of some 4 million, Tunisia’s high birthrate keeps the country very young – about half the people are under 18. Although it is common to see men walking hand-in-hand (as in all Islamic countries), it would not be wise for a foreigner to adopt the practice with a male lover. Tunisians can easily tell the difference between two friends of approximately equal status (where hand-holding is expected) and a sexual relation (which is <officially> disapproved of and therefore not to be made public).” “In the days of Carthage, the city was known for its perfumed male prostitutes and courtesans. After Carthage was destroyed in the Punic wars, Tunisia became a Roman colony. The country did not regain its independence until modern times. The Romans were supplanted by the Vandals, who in turn surrendered the country to the Byzantine Empire. The rise of the followers of Muhammad swept Tunisia out of Christendom forever, and the country eventually passed into the Turkish Empire, where it remained until the French protectorate.”

Marxist societies abominate homosexuality, and this influence has had a chilling effect on Algeria. The passing tourist will see nothing of such activity, although residents may have a different experience. Another fact is that Algerians do not like the French (because of the war) and this dislike is frequently extended to all people who look like Frenchmen, though they may be Canadian or Polish. It is a strange country, where you can spot signs saying <Parking Reserved for the National Liberation Front> (the stalls are filled with Mercedes Benzes), and also the only place in all of North Africa where the present writer has even seen a large graffito proclaiming <Nous voulons vivre français!> (We want to live as Frenchmen!).

The adventures of Oscar Wilde and André Gide in Tunisia and Algeria before the war are good evidence that this modern difference between the two countries was in fact caused by the trauma of the war. There is better evidence in the history of Algiers long before. During the 16th and 17th centuries, Algiers was possibly the leading homosexual city in the world. It was the leading Ottoman naval and administrative center in the western Mediterranean, and was key to Turkey’s foreign trade with every country but Italy. Of the major North African cities, it was the furthest from the enemy – Europe. It was the most Turkish city in North Africa, in fact the most Turkish city outside Turkey.”

The bath-houses (hammams) of Fez were the object of scandalous comments around 1500. Two factors assume a bolder relief in Morocco, although they are typical of North Africa as a whole. One is a horror of masturbation. This dislike, combined with the seclusion of good women and the diseases of prostitutes, leads many a Maghrebi [africano setentrional] to regard anal copulation with a friend as the only alternative open to him, and clearly superior to masturbation. It also leads

to such behavior being regarded as a mere peccadillo. The other, more peculiarly Moroccan tradition is that of baraka, a sort of <religious good luck>. It is believed that a saintly man can transmit some of this baraka to other men by the mechanism of anal intercourse. (Fellatio has traditionally been regarded with disgust in the region, although the 20th century has been changing attitudes.)”

Malek Chebel, L’Esprit de sérail: Perversions et marginalités sexuelles au

Magreb, Paris: Lieu Commun, 1988.

ALCIBIADES

Reared in the household of his guardian and uncle Pericles, he became the eromenos and later intimate friend of Socrates, who saved his life in battle. His, brilliance enabled him in 420 to become leader of the extreme democratic faction, and his imperialistic designs led Athens into an alliance with Argos and other foes of Sparta, a policy largely discredited by the Spartan victory at Mantinea. He sponsored the plan for a Sicilian expedition to outflank Sparta, which ended after his recall in the capture of thousands of Athenians, most of whom died in the salt mines where they were confined, but soon after the fleet reached Sicily his enemies recalled him on the pretext of his complicity in the mutilation of the Hermae, the phallic pillars marking boundaries between lots of land. He escaped, however, to Sparta and became the adviser of the Spartan high command. Losing the confidence of the Spartans and accused of impregnating the wife of one of Sparta’s two kings, he fled to Persia, then tried to win reinstatement at Athens by winning Persian support for the city and promoting an oligarchic revolution, but without success. Then being appointed commander by the Athenian fleet at Samos, he displayed his military skills for several years and won a brilliant victory at Cyzicus in 410, but reverses in battle and political intrigue at home led to his downfall, and he was finally murdered in Phrygia in 404 [Sócrates, mais velho, foi condenado apenas em 399]. Though an outstanding politician and military leader, Alcibiades compromised himself by the excesses of his sexual life, which was not confined to his own sex, but was uninhibitedly bisexual, as was typical of a member of the Athenian aristocracy. The Attic comedians scolded him for his adventures; Aristophanes wrote a play (now lost) entitled Triphales (The man with three phalli), in which Alcibiades’ erotic exploits were satirized. In his youth, admired by the whole of Athens for his beauty, he bore on his coat of arms an Eros hurling a lightning bolt. Diogenes Laertius said of him that <when a young man, he separated men from their wives, and later, wives from their husbands,> while the comedian Pherecrates declared that <Alcibiades, who once was no man, is now the man of all women>. He gained a bad reputation for introducing luxurious practices into Athenian life, and even his dress was reproached for extravagance. He combined the ambitious political careerist and the bisexual dandy, a synthesis possible only in a society that tolerated homosexual expression and even a certain amount of heterosexual licence in its public figures. His physical beauty alone impressed his contemporaries enough to remain an inseparable part of his historical image.”

Walter Ellis, Alcibiades, New York: Routledge, 1989;

Jean Hatzfeld, Alcibiade: Étude sur l’histoire d’Athènes à la fin du Ve siècle, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1951.

ANARCHISM

Étienne de la Boétie (1530-1563) and William Godwin (1756-1836) wrote two proto-anarchist classics. Boétie’s Discours de la servitude voluntaire (1552-53) (translated as The Politics of Obedience and as The Will to Bondage) is still read by anarchists.” Ver excertos em Português em http://xtudotudo6.zip.net/arch2012-11-01_2012-11-30.html.

Pederasty comes not so much from lack of marriage bed as from a hazy yearning for masculine beauty.” Proudhon

The boy-lover John Henry Mackay (1864-1933), who wrote widely on both pederastic (under the pseudonym Sagitta) and anarchist topics, prepared the first (and only) biography of Stirner in 1898.”

Karl Marx & Frederick Engels had a personal disgust for homosexuality (Engels told Marx to be grateful that they were too old to attract homosexuals). Marx published full-length diatribes against Proudhon, Stirner, and Bakunin. He used Bakunin’s relationship to Nechaev as an excuse for expelling the anarchists from the International in 1872. Lenin later denounced anarchists as politically <infantile>, just as Freudians argued that homosexuality was an arrested infantile (or adolescent) development.”

Thomas Bell, a gay secretary of Frank Harris and a trick[?] of Wilde’s, has written a book on Wilde’s anarchism, available only in Portuguese.[!]”

In Spain during the Civil War (1936-39), anarchists fought against both the fascists and the communists, and for a time dominated large areas of the country. Many gay men and lesbians volunteered to fight in the war, while others worked as ambulance drivers and medics.”

Emma Goldman (1869-1940) is unquestionably the first person to lecture publicly in the United States on homosexual emancipation”

Whether from choice or necessity, anarchists have written extensively against prisons and in favor of prisoners, many of whom either from choice or necessity have experienced prison homosexuality. William Godwin opposed punishment of any kind and all anarchists have opposed any enforced sexuality.”

Both anarchists and gays can be found in the Punk Rock movement. Since many anarchists do not really believe in organizations, they can often be as hard to identify as homosexuals once were. During the early 80s at the New York Gay Pride marches, gay anarchists, S/M groups, gay atheists, NAMBLA, Pag Rag and others all marched together with banners as individual members drifted back and forth between all the groups.”

A major question is whether homosexuals are inherently attracted to anarchism or whether homosexuals have been equally attracted to democracy, communism, fascism, monarchy, nationalism or capitalism. Because of the secrecy, no one can ever figure what percentage of homosexuals are anarchists and what percentage of anarchists are homosexual. But only among anarchists has there been a consistent commitment, rooted in basic principles of the philosophy, to build a society in which every person is free to express him- or herself sexually in every way.”

ANDERSEN, HANS CHRISTIAN

His fame rests upon the 168 fairy tales and stories which he wrote between 1835 and 1872. Some of the very first became children’s classics from the moment of their appearance; the tales have since been translated into more than 100 languages. Some are almost child-like in their simplicity; others are so subtle and sophisticated that they can be properly appreciated only by adults.”

It has been speculated that the fairy tale The Little Mermaid, completed in January 1837, is based on Andersen’s self-identification with a sexless creature with a fish’s tail who tragically loves a handsome prince, but instead of saving her own future as a mermaid by killing the prince and his bride sacrifices herself and commits suicide – another theme of early homosexual apologetic literature.”

ANDROGYNY

There is a tendency to consider androgyny primarily psychic and constitutional, while hermaphroditism is anatomical.”

with reference to male human beings <androgynous> implies effeminacy. Logically, it should then mean <viraginous, masculinized> when applied to women, but this parallel is rarely drawn. Thus there is an unanalyzed tendency to regard androgynization as essentially a process of softening or mitigating maleness. Stereotypically, the androgyne is a half-man or incomplete male. In addition to these relatively specific usages there is a kind of semantic halo effect, whereby androgyny is taken to refer to a more all-encompassing realm. Significantly, in this broader, almost mystical sense the negative connotations fall away, and androgyny may even be a prized quality. For example the figures in the Renaissance paintings of Botticelli and Leonardo are sometimes admired for their androgynous beauty. It comes as no surprise that these aspects of the artists were first emphasized by homosexual art critics of the 19th century.”

In Hinduism and some African religions there are male gods who have female manifestations or avatars. A strand of Jewish medieval interpretation of Genesis holds that Adam and Eve were androgynous before the Fall. If this be the case, God himself must be androgynous since he made man <in his own image>. Working from different premises, medieval Christian mystics found that the compassion of Christ required that he be conceived of as a mother. Jakob Böhme (1575-1624), the German seer, held that all perfect beings, Christ as well as the angels, were androgynous. He foresaw that ultimately Christ’s sacrifice would make possible a restoration of the primal androgyny.”

androgyny points the way to a return to the Golden Age, an era of harmony unmarred by the conflict and dissension of today which are rooted in an unnatural polarization.”

Mircea Eliade, Mephistopheles and the Androgyne, New York: Harper and Row, 1965.

ANIMAL HOMOSEXUALITY

In the 1970s the well-publicized reports of the German ethologist Konrad Lorenz drew attention to male-male pair bonds in greylag geese. Controlled reports of <lesbian> behavior among birds, in which two females share the responsibilities of a single nest, have existed since 1885. Mounting behavior has been observed among male lizards, monkeys, and mountain goats. In some cases one male bests the other in combat, and then mounts his fellow, engaging in penile thrusts – though rarely with intromission. In other instances, a submissive male will <present> to a dominant one, by exhibiting his buttocks in a receptive manner. Mutual masturbation and fellatio have been observed among male stump-tailed macaques. During oestrus female rhesus monkeys engage in mutual full-body rubbing. Those who have observed these same-sex patterns in various species have noted, explicitly or implicitly, similarities with human behavior. It is vital, however, not to elide differences. Mounting behavior may not be sexual, but an expression of social hierarchy: the dominant partner reaffirms his superiority over the presenting one. In most cases where a sexual pairing does occur, one partner adopts the characteristic behavior of the other sex. While this behavioral inversion sometimes occurs in human homosexual conduct, it is by no means universal. Thus while (say) Roman homosexuality, which often involved slaves submitting to their masters, may find its analogue among animals, modern American androphilia largely does not. This difference suggests that the cultural matrix is important.” “In the light of this complexity, a simple identification of human homosexual behavior with same-sex interactions among animals is reductive, and may block or misdirect the search for an understanding of the remaining mysteries of human sexuality. Still, for those aspects to which they have relevance, animal patterns of homosexual behavior help to place human ones in a phylogenetic perspective – in somewhat the same way as animal cries and calls have a relation to human language, and the structures built by birds and beavers anticipate the feats of human architecture.

ARISTOCRATIC VICE

In the 17th century Sir Edward Coke attributed the origin of sodomy to <pride, excess of diet, idleness and contempt of the poor>. The noted English jurist was in fact offering a variation on the prophet Ezekiel (16:49). This accusation reflects the perennial truism that wealth, idleness, and lust tend to go together – a cluster summed up in the Latin term luxuria.

The stereotype of aristocratic vice has a sequel in the early 20th-century Marxist notion that the purported increase of homosexuality in modem industrial states stems from the decadence of capitalism; in this view the workers fortunately remain psychologically healthy and thus untainted by the debilitating proclivity. In the Krupp and von Moltke-Eulenburg scandals in Germany in 1903-08, journalists of the socialist press did their best to inflame their readership against the unnatural vices of the aristocracy, which were bringing the nation to the brink of ruin.”

ARISTOTLE

As a thinker Aristotle is outstanding for the breadth of his interests, which encompassed the entire panorama of the ancient sciences, and for his efforts to make sense of the world through applying an organic and developmental approach. In this way he departed from the essentialist, deductive emphasis of Plato. Unfortunately, Aristotle’s polished essays, which were noted for their style, are lost, and the massive corpus of surviving works derives largely from lecture notes. In these the wording of the Greek presents many uncertainties”

Although Aristotle is known to have had several male lovers, in his writings he tended to follow Plato’s lead in favoring restraints on overt expression of homoerotic feelings. He differs, however, from Plato’s ethical and idealizing approach to male same-sex love by his stress on biological factors. In a brief but important treatment in the Nicomachean Ethics (7:5) he was the first to distinguish clearly between innate and acquired homosexuality. This dichotomy corresponds to a standard Greek distinction between processes which are determined by nature (physis) and those which are conditioned by culture or custom (nomos). The approach set forth in this text was to be echoed a millennium and a half later in the Christian Scholastic treatments of Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas (Summa Theologiae, 31:7). In The History of Animals (9:8), Aristotle anticipates modem ethology by showing that homosexual behavior among birds is linked to patterns of domination and submission. In various passages he speaks of homosexual relations among noted Athenian men and boys as a matter of course. His treatment of friendship (Nicomachean Ethics, books 8 and 9) emphasizes its mutual character, based on the equality of the parties, which requires time for full consolidation. He takes it as given that true friendship can occur only between two free males of equal status, excluding slaves and women. Aristotle’s ideas on friendship were to be echoed by Cicero, Erasmus, Michel de Montaigne, and Francis Bacon.

The Problems (4:26), a work attributed to Aristotle but probably compiled by a follower, attributes desire for anal intercourse in men to the accumulation of semen in the fundament. This notion derives from the common Greek medical view that semen is produced in the region of the brain and then transferred by a series of conduits to the lower body.

In England and America a spurious compilation of sexual and generative knowledge, Aristotle’s Masterpiece, enjoyed a long run of popularity. Compiled from a variety of sources, including the Hippocratic and Galenic medical traditions, the medieval writings of Albertus Magnus, and folklore of all kinds, this farrago was apparently first published in English in 1684. A predecessor of later sex manuals, the book contains such lore as the determination of the size of the penis from that of the nose.

ART, VISUAL

Before the 16th century, we find only representations of friendship between women; then in the Venetian school there begins an imagery of lesbian dalliance – but only for male entertainment. Only in recent decades has there been a substantial production of lesbian art by lesbians and for lesbians.”

pe(re)nial tradition

In antiquity the Greeks were noted for their national peculiarity of exercising in the nude. Out of this custom grew the monumental nude statue, a genre that Greece bequeathed to the world. The tradition began a little before 600 B.C. with the sequence of nude youths known as kowoi. (Monumental female nudes did not appear until ca. 350 B.C.) Although archeologists have maintained a deafening silence on the matter, it seems clear that the radiance of these figures can only be explained in the light of the Greek homoerotic appreciation of the male form. Whatever else they may have been, the kowoi were the finest pin-ups ever created.

The Romans did not share the Greek fondness for nude exercise and their attitude toward homosexual behavior was more ambiguous. Perhaps it is not surprising that they favored the old religious subject of the hermaphrodite, the double-sexed being, but now reduced largely to a subject of titillation [erotização – vulgarização]. They also were capable of depicting scenes of peeping toms [machos, provavelmente felinos] that recall the atmosphere of Petronius’s Satyricon.”

After the reign of Hadrian, who died in 138, the great age of ancient homoerotic art was over. Consequently, the adoption of Christianity cannot be said to have killed off a vibrant tradition, but it certainly did not encourage its revival.”

Since Freud’s essay of 1910 the enigmatic figure of Leonardo has offered a special appeal.”

By the turn of the century magazines began to appear in Germany presenting, by means of photographic reproduction, works appealing exclusively to male homosexual taste; lesbian magazines were only to emerge after World War I. Exceptionally, the American George Piatt Lynes (1907-1955) pursued a career in both mainstream and gay media (the latter in his extensive work for the Swiss magazine, Dei Kreis).”

Although the Surrealists sought to explore sexuality, the homophobia of their leader André Breton placed a ban on gay subjects – or at least male ones. Two related figures did explore in this realm however, the writer Jean Cocteau (1889-1963), with his drawings of sailors, and the Argentine-born painter Leonor Fini (b. 1908), with enigmatic scenes of women. The ambitious Russian-born Pavel Tchelitchev (1898-1957), connected with several avant-garde circles in Europe and America, also belongs in this company.”

It may be doubted that the long-standing premises of the modernist aesthetic – its sense of discontinuity, irony, and high seriousness – have been definitively overcome, but there is no doubt that the boundaries of the acceptable have been broadened. This enlargement creates opportunities for gay and lesbian artists. At the same time, however, the tyranny of the market and of critical stereotypes is as great as ever, so that artists are under great pressure to settle into niches that have been prepared for them. It should be remembered that many painters, sculptors, and photographers whose personal orientation is homosexual are as reluctant to be styled <gay artists> as they are to be called neo-expressionist, neo-mannerist, or some other label.”

BALZAC

Vautrin’s secret is that he does not love women, but when and how does he love men? He does so only in the rents of the fabric of the narrative, because the technique of the novelist lies exactly in not speaking openly, but letting the reader know indirectly the erotic background of the events of his story. The physical union of Vautrin with Lucien he presents with stylistic subtlety as a predestined coupling of two halves of one being, as submission to a law of nature. The homosexual aspect of the discourse must always be masked, must hide behind a euphemism, a taunting ambiguity that nevertheless tells all to the knowing reader. The pact struck between Vautrin and Lucien is a Faustian one. Vautrin dreams of owning a plantation in the American South (sic) where on a 100,000 acres he can have absolute power over his slaves – including their bodies. Balzac refers explicitly to examples of the pederasty of antiquity as a creative, civilization-building force by analogy with the Promethean influence of Vautrin upon his beloved Lucien. Vautrin is almost diabolical as a figure of exuberant masculinity, while Lucien embodies the gentleness and meekness of the feminine. The unconscious dimension of their relationship Balzac underlines with magnificent symbolism. He characterizes Vautrin as a monster, <but attached by love to humanity>. Homosexual love is not relegated to the margin of society, as in the dark underworld of the prison, but expresses the fullness of affection with all its physical demands and its spiritual powers.”

Having revealed to the hero and heroine an ideal love, Séraphitus-Séraphita departs for a heaven free of the earthly misery that human beings must endure.”

BARTHES, ROLAND

Barthes introduced into the discussion of literature an original interpretation of semiotics based on the work of the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure. His work was associated with the structuralist trend as represented by Claude Lévi-Strauss, Julia Kristeva, Tzvetan Todorov, and others. Attacked by the academic establishment for subjectivism, he formulated a concept of criticism as a creative process on an equal plane with fiction and poetry. Even those favorable to his work conceded that this could amount to a <sensuous manhandling> of the text. The turning point in his criticism is probably the tour de force S/Z (Paris, 1970), analyzing Balzac’s novella about an aging castrato, Sarrasine. Here Barthes turns away from the linear, goal-oriented procedures of traditional criticism in favor of a new mode that is dispersed, deliberately marginal, and <masturbatory>. In literature, he emphasized the factor of jouissance, a word which means both <bliss> and <sexual ejaculation>. Whether these procedures constitute models for a new feminist/gay critical practice that will erode the power of patriarchy, as some of his admirers have asserted, remains unclear.

Barthes, who never married, was actively homosexual during most of his life. Although his books are often personal, in his writing he excluded this major aspect of his experience, even when writing about love. Because of the attacks launched against him for his critical innovations, he was apparently reluctant to give his enemies an additional stick with which to beat him. Barthes’ posthumously published Incidents (Paris, 1987) does contain some revealing diary entries. The first group stems from visits he made, evidently in part for sexual purposes, to North Africa in 1968-69. The second group of entries records restless evenings in Paris in the autumn of 1979 just before his death. These jottings reveal that, despite his great fame, he frequently experienced rejection and loneliness. Whatever his personal sorrows, Barthes’ books remain to attest a remarkable human being whose activity coincided with an ebullient phase of Western culture.”

Sanford Freedman, Roland Barthes: A Bibliographical Reader’s Guide, New York: Garland, 1983.

BEAT GENERATION

The origins of this trend in American culture can be traced to the friendship of three key figures in New York City at the beginning of the 1940s. Allen Ginsberg (1926-[1997]) and Jack Kerouac (1922-1969) met as students at Columbia University, where both were working at becoming writers. In 1944 Ginsberg encountered the somewhat older William Burroughs (1914-[1997]), who was not connected with the University, but whose acquaintance with avant-garde literature supplied an essential intellectual complement to college study. Both Ginsberg and Burroughs were homosexual; Kerouac bisexual. At first the ideas and accomplishments of the three were known only to a small circle. But toward the end of the 1950s, as their works began to be published and widely read, large numbers of young people, <beatniks> and <hippies>, took up elements of their life-style.”

The word beat was sometimes traced to <beatific>, and sometimes to <beat out> and similar expressions, suggesting a pleasant exhaustion that derives from intensity of experience. Its appeal also reflects the beat and improvisation of jazz music, one of the principal influences on the trend. Some beat poets tried to match their writings with jazz in ballroom recitals, prefiguring the more effective melding of words and music in folk and rock. The ideal of spontaneity was one of the essential elements of the beat aesthetic. These writers sought to capture the immediacy of speech and lived experience, which were, if possible, to be transcribed directly as they occurred. This and related ideals reflect a new version of American folk pragmatism, preferring life to theory, immediacy to reflection, and feeling to reason. Contrary to what one might expect, however, the beat generation was not anti-intellectual, but chose to seek new sources of inspiration in neglected aspects of the European avant-garde and in Eastern thought and religion.”

First published in Paris in 1959, his novel Naked Lunch became available in the United States only after a series of landmark obscenity decisions. With its phantasmagoric and sometimes sexually explicit subject matter, together with its quasi-surrealist techniques of narrative and syntactic disjunction, this novel presented a striking new vision. This novel was followed by The Soft Machine and The Ticket That Exploded to form a trilogy. Nova Express (1964) makes extensive use of the <cut-up> techniques, which Burroughs had developed with his friend Brion Gysin. A keen observer of contemporary reality in several countries, Burroughs has sought to present a kind of <world upside down> in order to sharpen the reader’s consciousness. One of his major themes has been his anarchist-based protest against what he sees as increasingly repressive social control through such institutions as medicine and the police. Involved with

drugs for some years, he managed to kick the habit, but there is no doubt that such experiences shaped his viewpoint. His works have been compared to pop art in painting and science fiction in literature. Sometimes taxed for misogyny, his world tends to be a masculine one, sometimes exploiting fantasies of regression to a hedonistic world of juvenile freedom. Burroughs’s hedonism is acerbic and ironic, and his mixture of qualities yields a distorting mirror of reality which some have found, because perhaps of the many contradictions of later 20th-century civilization itself, to be a compelling representation.”

Ted Morgan, Literary Outlaw: The Life and Times of William Burroughs, New York: Henry Holt, 1988.

BEATS AND HIPPIES

The journalistic word <beatnik> is a pseudo-Slavic coinage of a type popular in the 1960s, the core element deriving from <beat> (generation), the suffix -nik being the formative of the noun of agent in Slavic languages. The term <hippie> was originally a slightly pejorative diminutive of the beat <hipster>, which in turn seems to derive from 1940s jivetalk adjective <hep>, meaning <with it, in step with current fashions>. The original hippies were a younger group with more spending money and more flamboyant dress. Their music was rock instead of the jazz of the beats. Despite differences that seemed important at the time, beats and hippies are probably best regarded as successive phases of a single phenomenon.

Attracted by the prestige of the beat writers, many beats/hippies cultivated claims to be poets and philosophers. In reality, once the tendency became modish only a few of the beat recruits were certifiably creative in literature and the arts; these individuals were surrounded by masses of people attracted by the atmosphere of revolt and experiment, or just seeking temporary separation – a moratorium as it was then called – from the banalities of ordinary American life. At its height the phenomenon supported scores of underground newspapers, which were read avidly by curious outsiders as well.”

Significantly, the street term for the Other, <straight>, could refer either to non-drug users or heterosexuals.”

Mysticism exerted a potent influence among beats and hippies, and some steeped themselves in Asian religions, especially Buddhism, Taoism, and Sufism. This fascination was not new, inasmuch as ever since the foundation of Theosophy as an official movement in 1875, American and other western societies had been permeated by Eastern religious elements. Impelled by a search for wisdom and cheap living conditions, many hippies and beatniks set out for prolonged sojourns in India, Nepal, and North Africa. Stay-at-homes professed their deep respect for American Indian culture.”

Most hippies were heterosexual, but their long hair exposed them to jibes of effeminacy. In this way they could experience something of the rejection that had always been the lot of homosexuals.”

With its adoption of a variant of jive talk, largely derived from black urban speech, the movement has left a lasting impression on the English vernacular, as seen in such expressions as <cool>, <spaced out>, and <rip off>.”

Marco Vassi, The Stoned Apocalypse, New York: Trident, 1972.

BENTHAM, JEREMY (1748-1832)

English philosopher and law reformer. Bentham was the founder of the Utilitarian school of social philosophy, which held that legislation should promote the greatest happiness of the greatest number. (…) His Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789) was eventually extremely influential in England, France, Spain, and Latin America where several new republics adopted constitutions and penal codes drawn up by him or inspired by his writings.

Bentham’s utilitarian ethics led him to favor abolition of laws prohibiting homosexual behavior. English law in his day (and until 1861) prescribed hanging for sodomy and during the early 19th century was enforced with, on the average, 2 or 3 hangings a year. Bentham held that relations between men were a source of sexual pleasure that did not lead to unwanted pregnancies and hence a social good rather than a social evil. He wrote extensive notes favoring law reform about 1774 and a 50-page manuscript essay in 1785. In 1791, the French National Assembly repealed France’s sodomy law but in England the period of reaction that followed the outbreak of the French Revolution made reforms impossible. In 1814 and 1816 Bentham returned to the subject and wrote lengthy critiques of traditional homophobia which he regarded as an irrational prejudice leading to <cruelty and intolerance>. In 1817-18 he wrote over 300 pages of notes on homosexuality and the Bible. Homophobic sentiment was, however, so intense in England, both in the popular press and in learned circles, that Bentham did not dare to publish any of his writings on this subject. They remained in manuscript until 1931 when C.K. Ogden included brief excerpts in an appendix to his edition of Bentham’s Theory of Legislation. Bentham’s manuscript writings on this subject are excerpted and described in detail in Louis Crompton’s 1985 monograph on Byron. Bentham’s views on homosexuality are sufficiently positive that he might be described as a precursor of the modern gay liberation movement. Bentham not only treats legal, literary, and religious aspects of the subject in his notes, but also finds support for his opinions in ancient history and comparative anthropology.”

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The emergence of systematic bibliographical control had to await the birth of the first homosexual emancipation movement in Berlin in 1897. This movement firmly held that progress toward homosexual rights must go hand in hand with intellectual enlightenment. Accordingly, each year’s production was noted in the annual volumes of the Jahrbuch fur sexuelle Zwischenstufen (1899-1923); by the end of the first ten years of monitoring over 1,000 new titles had been recorded. Although surveys were made of earlier literature, up to the time of the extinction of the movement by National-Socialism in 1933, no attempt had been made to organize this material into a single comprehensive bibliography of homosexual studies. Nonetheless, much valuable material was noted in the vast work of Magnus Hirschfeld, Die Homosexualität des Mannes und des Weisses (Berlin, 1914).”

Athenaeus (fl. ca. A.D. 200), Deipnosophists, Book 13;

Félix Buffiére, Eros adolescent: la pederastie dans la Grece antique (Paris, 1980);

Vern Bullough et al., Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality (2 vols., New York, 1976);

Wayne R. Dynes, Homosexuality: A Research Guide (New York, 1987).

BRAZIL [HOMOPHOBIA NEWLAND] & PORTUGAL

The Colonial Era. When the Portuguese reached Brazil in 1500, they were horrified to discover so many Indians who practiced the <unspeakable sin of sodomy>. In the Indian language they were called tivira, and André Thevet, chaplain to Catherine de Medici, described them in 1575 with the word bardache, perhaps the first occasion on which this term was used to describe Amerindian homosexuals. The native women also had relations with one another: according to the chroniclers they were completely <inverted> in appearance, work, and leisure, preferring to die rather than accept the name of women. Perhaps these cacoaimbeguire contributed to the rise of the New World Amazon myth.

In their turn the blacks – more than 5 million were imported during almost 4 centuries of slavery – made a major contribution to the spread of homosexuality in the <Land of the Parrots>. The first transvestite in Brazilian history was a black named Francisco, of the Mani-Congo tribe, who was denounced in 1591 by the Inquisition visitors, but refused to discard women’s clothing. Francisco was a member of the brotherhood of the quimbanba, homosexual fetishists who were well known and respected in the old kingdom of Congo-Angola. Less well established than among the Amerindians and Africans, the Portuguese component (despite the menace of the Tribunal of the Holy Office, 1536-62) continued unabated during the whole history of the kingdom, involving 3 rulers and innumerable notables, and earning sodomy the sobriquet of the <vice of the clergy>. If we compare Portugal with the other European countries of the Renaissance – not excluding England and the Netherlands – our documentation (abundant in the archives of the Inquisition) requires the conclusion that Lisbon and the principal cities of the realm, including the overseas metropolises of Bahia and Rio de Janeiro, boasted a gay subculture that was stronger, more vital, and more stratified than those of other lands, reflecting the fact that Luso-Brazilian gays were accorded more tolerance and social acceptance. Thirty sodomites were burned by the Inquisition during 3 centuries of repression, but none in Brazil, despite the more than 300 who were denounced for practicing the <evil sin>. They were referred to as sodomitas and fanchonos.

Independence. With Brazilian independence and the promulgation of the first constitution (1823) under the influence of the Napoleonic Code, homosexual behavior ceased to be criminal, and from this date forward there has been no Brazilian law restricting homosexuality [Bolsonaro e seu séquito se encontram quase 200 anos enterrados na História; me admira que não tenham morrido asfixiados em seu ideal de mundo até agora!] – apart from the prohibition with persons less than 18 years of age, the same as for heterosexuals. Lesbianism, outlawed by the Inquisition since 1646, had always been less visible than male homosexuality in Brazil, and there is no record of any mulher-macho (<male woman>) burned by the Portuguese Inquisition. In the course of Brazilian history various persons of note were publicly defamed for practicing homosexuality: in the 17th century 2 Bahia governors, Diogo Botelho and Câmara Coutinho, both contemporaries of the major satirical poet, Gregorio de Matos, author of the oldest known poem about a lesbian in the Americas, Nise. He himself was brought before the Inquisition for blasphemy in saying that <Jesus Christ was a sodomite>. [HAHAHA!] In the 19th century the revolutionary leader Sabino was accused of homosexual practices. A considerable surviving correspondence between Empress Leopoldina, consort of the Brazil’s first sovereign, Dom Pedro, with her English lady in waiting, Maria Graham, attests that they had both a homosexual relationship and an intense homoemotional reciprocity. Such famous poets and writers as Álvares de Azevedo (1831-1852), Olavo Bilac (1865-1918), and Mário de Andrade (1893-1945) rank among the votaries of Ganymede. The list also includes the pioneer of Brazilian aeronautics, Alberto Santos-Dumont (1873-1932), after whose airship the pommes Santos-Dumont were named. At the end of the 19th century homosexuality appears as a literary theme. In 1890 Aluizio Azevedo included a realistic lesbian scene in O Cortiço, and in 1895 Adolfo Caminha devoted the entire novel O Bom Crioulo (which has been translated into English) to a love affair between a cabin boy and his black protector. In the faculties of medicine of Rio de Janeiro and Bahia various theses addressed the homosexual question, beginning with O Androfilismo of Domingos Firmínio Ribeiro (1898) and O Homosexualismo: A Libertinagem no Rio de Janeiro (1906) by Pires de Almeida – both strongly influenced by the European psychiatrists Moll, Krafft-Ebing, and Tardieu. From 1930 comes the first and most outspoken Brazilian novel on lesbianism, O Terceiro Sexo, by Odilon Azevedo, where lesbian workers founded an association intended to displace men from power, thus setting forth a radical feminist discourse.

In 1976 appeared the main gay journal of Brazilian history, O Lampião (The Lantern)[!], which had a great positive effect on the rise of the Brazilian homosexual movement.” “One of the chief battles of gay activists is to denounce the repeated murders of homosexuals – about every 10 days the newspapers report a homophobic crime.”

Recently the transvestite Roberta Close appeared on the cover of the main national magazines, receiving the accolade of <the model of the beauty of the Brazilian woman>. In the mid-1980s more than 400 Brazilian transvestites could be counted in the Bois de Boulogne in Paris; many also offer themselves in Rome. When they hear the statistics of the Kinsey Report, Brazilian gays smile, suggesting through experience and <participant observation> that in Brazil the proportion of predominantly homosexual men is as high as 30%.

Brazil, once the paradise of gays, has entered a difficult path.” Premonitório. Mas falava apenas da AIDS.

BUDDHISM

Among world religions, Buddhism has been notable for the absence of condemnation of homosexuality as such.”

For an account of the earliest form of Buddhism, scholars look to the canonical texts of the Tipitaka preserved in the Pali language and transmitted orally until committed to writing in the 2nd century B.C. These scriptures remain authoritative for the Theravada or Hinayana school of Buddhism, now dominant in Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka. The Pali Canon draws a sharp distinction between the path of the lay-person and that of the bhikkhu (mendicant monk, an ordained member of the Buddhist Sangha or Order). The former is expected primarily to support the Sangha and to improve his karmic standing through the performance of meritorious deeds so that his future lives will be more fortunate than his present one. The bhikkhu, in contrast, is expected to devote all his energies to self-liberation, the struggle to cast off the attachments which prevent him from attaining the goal of nirvana in the present lifetime.”

all acts involving the intentional emission of his semen are prohibited for the monk; the insertion of the penis into a female or male is grounds for automatic expulsion from the Sangha, while even masturbation is a (lesser) offense.” “there is no law against a monk receiving a penis into his own body.”

The full rules of the vinaya are not applied to the samanera or novice monk, who may be taken into the Sangha as early as 7 years old and who is generally expected though not obligated to take the Higher Ordination by the age of 21. In this way the more intense sexual drive of the male teenager is tacitly allowed for. A samanera may masturbate without committing an offense. Interestingly, while a novice commits a grave offense if he engages in coitus with a female, requiring him to leave the Sangha, should he instead have sex with a male he is only guilty of a lesser offense requiring that he reaffirms his samanera vows and perform such penance as is directed by his teacher. This may be the only instance of a world religion treating homosexual acts more favorably than heterosexual ones.”

it has been speculated that homosexual orientation may arise from the residual karma of a previous life spent in the opposite gender from that of the body currently occupied by the life-continuum. This explanation contains no element of negativity but rather posits homosexuality as a <natural> result of the rebirth cycle.”

The form of Buddhism which spread northward into Tibet, China, Japan, Korea, and Mongolia from its Indian heartland came to be known as the Mahayana. It de-emphasized the dichotomy between monk and lay-person and relaxed the strict vinaya codes, even permitting monks to marry (in Japan). The Mahayana doctrinally sought to obliterate categorical thinking in general and resolutely fought against conceptual dualism. These tendencies favored the development of positive attitudes toward homosexual practices, most notably in Japan.”

When Father Francis Xavier arrived in Japan in the mid-16th century with the hope of converting the Japanese to Christianity, he was horrified upon encountering many Buddhist monks involved in same-sex relationships; indeed, he soon began referring to homoeroticism as the <Japanese vice>. Although some Buddhist monks condemned such relationships, notably the monk Genshin, many others either accepted or participated in same-sex relationships. Among Japanese Buddhist sects in which such relationships have been documented are the Jishu, Hokkeshu, Shingon, and Zen.”

Zen, that form of Buddhism perhaps most familiar to Westerners, emerged during the 9th century. In the Zen monasteries of medieval Japan, same-sex relations, both between monks and between monks and novices (known as kasshiki and shami), appear to have been so commonplace that the shogun Hojo Sadatoki (whom we might now refer to as <homophobic>) initiated an unsuccessful campaign in 1303 to rid the monasteries of same-sex love. Homoerotic relationships occurring within a Zen Buddhist context have been documented in such literary works as the Gozan Bungaku, Iwatsutsuji, and Comrade Loves of the Samurai [1972]. The blending of Buddhism and homoeroticism has continued to figure prominently in the works of contemporary Japanese writers, notably Yukio Mishima and Mutsuo Takahashi.”

the Gelugpas [seita tibetana dos Lamas que se sucedem] condemned heterosexual intercourse for monks, believing that the mere odor resulting from heterosexual copulation could provoke the rage of certain deities. Such misogynistic and anti-heterosexual notions may have encouraged same-sex bonding.”

Among those who may be credited with introducing the West to Buddhism are Walt Whitman and Henry David Thoreau, both of whom are thought to have loved members of the same sex and both of whom blended elements of Buddhism with elements of other spiritual traditions in their work. In the latter half of the 20th century, many American gays are practitioners of Buddhism, and the blending of homoeroticism and Buddhism may be found in the work of a number of gay American writers and musicians including Allen Ginsberg, Harold Norse, Richard Ronan, Franklin Abbott, and Lou Harrison.”

BYRON

The most influential poet of his day, with a world-wide reputation, Byron became famous with the publication of Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage (1812-

18), an account of his early travels in Portugal, Spain, Albania, and Greece. The proud, gloomy, guilt-ridden, alienated Harold defined the <Byronic hero> who was to reappear in various guises in Byron’s later poems, notably in Manfred, The Corsair, and Lara. The type became a defining image for European and American romanticism. Forced into exile in 1816 because of the scandal caused by his wife’s leaving him, Byron settled in Italy, principally in Venice. There he wrote his sparkling satire on cant and hypocrisy, Don Juan. He spent the last months of his life in Greece, trying to help the Greeks in their struggle to gain independence from the Turks.”

Because of the intense homophobia of English society these poems were ostensibly addressed to a woman, as the name Thyrza and Byron’s use of feminine pronouns implied.”

publicity about his love affair with his half-sister, Augusta Leigh, compounded the scandal [of his homosexuality].”

Byron’s last three poems, On This Day I Complete My 36th Year, Last Words on Greece, and Love and Death, poignantly describe his love for Loukas, which was not reciprocated.”

A surreptitiously published erotic poem, Don Leon, purporting to be Byron’s lost autobiography, probably written in 1833, had set forth many of the facts about Byron’s homosexuality but was dismissed as an unwarranted libel. An edition appeared in 1866 but it remained unknown to all but a few specialists. When the Fortune Press reprinted it in 1934, the publication was confiscated by the British police.”

CAESAR

In addition to his three wives and several mistresses, Julius Caesar had a number of homosexual affairs.”

Arthur D. Kahn, The Education of Julius Caesar: A Biography, a Reconstruction, New York: Schocken, 1986;

Caesar, Gallic Wars (uma prosa bélica comemorativa cortante)

CAPOTE

American novelist and journalist. Capote became famous at the age of 24 with his elegant, evocative book Other Voices, Other Rooms, which concerns the growing consciousness of a boy seeking to comprehend the ambivalent inhabitants of a remote Mississippi house. Dubbed <swamp baroque>, this short novel was easily assimilated into then-current notions of Southern decadence. (…) In 1966 he published In Cold Blood, a <non-fiction novel> about the seemingly senseless murder of a Kansas farm family by two drifters. In preparing for the book, Capote gained the confidence of the murderers, and was thus able to make vivid their sleazy mental universe.”

Capote became the confidant of rich and famous people, especially women, and he gathered their stories for incorporation in a major work which was intended to rival Marcel Proust. Yet when excerpts from this work-in-progress were published in magazines, not only were they found to be vulgar and lacking in insight, but Capote began to be dropped by the socialites he had so unsubtly satirized. Dismayed, the writer sank more and more into a miasma of alcohol, cocaine, and valium – his only consolation the devoted love, or so he claimed, of a succession of straight, proletarian young men whom he prized because of their very ordinariness.”

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio came under the protection of Cardinal Francesco Maria del Monte, a homosexual prelate. During this period he painted several works showing ambiguous or androgynous young men, including The Musicians (New York, Metropolitan Museum). Efforts have been made to deny the homoerotic implications of these works, but they seem feeble.”

caravaggio1

Only after World War II did his reputation begin to climb, attaining remarkable heights in the 1980s, when even the abstract artist Frank Stella praised him. In 1986 Derek Jarman’s stylish film Caravaggio was released, presenting the artist as bisexual, but emphasizing the homosexual side.”

caravaggio2
Baco/Dionísio pelas mãos do pintor bissexual italiano.

CASTRATI

The castrati were male singers emasculated in boyhood to preserve the soprano or contralto range of their voices, who from the 16th century to the 19th played roles in Italian opera.” “Boys are commonly mischievous, unruly, and troublesome, and by the time they have really been trained their voices are usually on the edge of breaking; falsettists do not share these drawbacks, but their voices have a peculiar, unpleasant quality, and as a rule cannot attain as high a range as the soprano.”

The elaborate a cappella style, which began to flourish about the middle of the 15th century, required a much wider range of voices and a higher degree of virtuosity than anything that had gone before, and for this task the existing singers were inadequate. The first response took the form of Spanish falsettists of a special kind, but by the end of the 16th century these had yielded to the castrati, who also dominated the new baroque art form – the opera, which was the principal musical activity of the Italian nation in the next two centuries. Opera was unlike legitimate theatre in that it traveled well; it was the first form of musical entertainment that was both popular and to a certain degree international, so that a star system transcending national borders arose. Leading singers were discussed, criticized, and compared in fashionable drawing rooms from Lisbon to St. Petersburg. (…) If other nations had some form of native opera, this ranked lower on the cultural scale and was indifferently sung, while the Italian version enjoyed the highest standard of singing that had ever been known, and will in all likelihood never again be attained. France alone refused admission to Italian singers, and virtually banned the castrati; but Frenchmen, like other Europeans, were full of praise for the opera of Italy.

Since no recording devices existed in the heyday of the castrati, the modern critic has no way of judging the quality of their performance, yet 6 generations of music-lovers preferred the voices of these <half-men> to those of women themselves and of whole men.

In this economic stratum, however, it was accepted that any male child who betrayed the slightest aptitude for music should be sold into servitude, just as in modern Thailand children are sold by their parents to labor in factories or serve in brothels. The successful castrato naturally tried to conceal his humble origins and pose as the scion of an honorable family. The singing-masters of that era were responsible for the perfection of the art of the castrati; no one since has rivaled them in perseverance and thoroughness, and in their perfect command of the capabilities and shortcomings of the human vocal organs. They usually worked in a conservatorio, though sometimes they had their own singing schools or tutored pupils on the side.

Since canon law condemned castration and threatened anyone involved in it with excommunication, which could be reinforced by civil penalties, the business had to be carried on more or less clandestinely, and everywhere prying questions brought only misleading and deceitful answers. The town of Lecce in Apulia, and Norcia, a small town in the Papal States about 20 miles east of Spoleto, are mentioned as notorious for the practice, though the castrati themselves came from all parts of the peninsula. The doctors most esteemed for their skill in the operation were those of Bologna, and their services were in demand not just in Italy but abroad as well.

The curriculum entailed much hard work, and was thorough and comprehensive; as much attention was given to the theory of singing as to its actual practice. Between the ages of 15 and 20, a castrato who had retained and embellished his voice, and passed the various tests with greater or lesser distinction, was considered ready for his debut. On contract to some opera house, he would often first be seen in a female part, for which his youth and fresh complexion would particularly suit him. His looks and unfamiliarity would perhaps gain him greater success than his art would have merited, to the rage and envy of his senior colleagues. Once his name was made, he would have his clique of admirers who attended en masse his every performance and extolled him as their idol; aristocratic ladies and gentlemen would fancy themselves in love with him and manipulate a piquant interview. Backstage, the rivalry with other singers could rage with intense virulence; and a castrato who was too vain and insolent might be assassinated by the hirelings of a rival’s protector. If, however, the performer did not please his audience, he would be doomed to touring small provincial opera houses, or to performing in a church choir. Dissatisfied with his situation, he could set off for Bologna, the marketplace for the musical profession in Italy, to better his fortunes. The castrati came in for a great amount of scurrilous and unkind abuse, and as their fame increased, so did the hatred of them. They were often castigated as malign creatures who lured men into homosexuality, and there were admittedly homosexual castrati, as Casanova’s accounts of XVIII century Italy bear witness. He mentions meeting an abbé whom he

took for a girl in disguise, but was later told that it was a famous castrate. In Rome in 1762, he attended a performance at which the prima donna was a castrato, the minion of Cardinal Borghese, who supped every evening with his protector. From his behavior on stage, <it was obvious that he hoped to inspire the love of those who liked him as a man, and probably would not have done so as a woman.> He concludes by saying that the holy city of Rome forces every man to become a pederast, even if it does not believe in the effect of the illusion which the castrati provoke.”

Opponents of castration have claimed that the practice caused its victims an early loss of voice and an untimely death, while others have affirmed that castration prolonged the life of the vocal cords, and even that of their owner. There is no solid evidence for either contention: the castrati had approximately the same life span as their contemporaries, and retired at roughly the same age as other singers. The operation appears to have had surprisingly little effect on the general health and well-being of the subject, any more than on his sexual impulses. The trauma was largely a psychological one, in an age when virility was deemed a sovereign virtue.A castração tardia não elimina a libido, ao contrário da crença vulgar. Não há solução fácil para o dilema da energia! Eu-nuco El-niño or neverminds

Toward the end of the XVIII century castrati went out of fashion, and new styles in musical composition led to the disappearance of these singers. Meyerbeer was the last composer of importance to write for the male soprano voice; his Il Crociato in Egitto, produced at Venice in 1824, was designed especially for a castrato star. Succeeding generations regarded their memory with derision and disgust, and were happy to live in an age when such products of barbarism were no longer possible. A few castrati performed in the Vatican chapel and some other Roman churches until late in the XIX century, but their vogue on the operatic stage had long passed.”

Angus Heriot, The Castrati in Opera

CATAMITE

The Latin common noun, catamitus, designating a minion or kept boy, is usually derived from the Greek proper name Ganymede(s), the favorite of Zeus. Another possible source is Kadmilos, the companion of the Theban god Kabeiros. The word entered English in 16th century as part of the Renaissance revival of classical literature, and has always retained a learned, quasi-exotic aura. The term could also be used as a verbal adjective, as <a catamited boy>.” “In modern English the termination -ite tends to be perceived as pejorative, as in Trotskyite (vs. Trotskyist) and sodomite.”

CATULLUS

Born at Verona, he spent most of his life in Rome, but kept a villa near his birthplace at Smirno on Lake Garda. Often considered the best Republican poet, he imitated Sappho as well as other archaic, classical, and Hellenistic models, upon which he often improved, and which he combined with native Latin traditions to create stunning, original pieces. He wrote poems, 250 of which survive, of happiness and bitter disappointment. Some are addressed to his mistress Clodia, 10 years his senior, whom he addressed as Lesbia (though with no insinuation of what we now call lesbianism), and who was unfaithful to him with other men. Homophobic Christians and modern schoolmasters have, however, greatly exaggerated the importance of the poems to Lesbia, which amount to no more than 1/8 of the Catullan corpus.”

Sophisticated and fastidious, he set the standard for the Augustan poets of love Ovid, Horace, Vergil, and Propertius. In the Silver Age even Martial acknowledged his debt to Catullus’ epigrams. Like those poets, and most specifically Tibullus, he showed little inhibition and equal attraction to boys and women, but also shared the traditional attitude that the active, full-grown male partner degraded the passive one, and that the threat to penetrate another male symbolized one’s superior virility and power. On the other hand, the accusation of having been raped by another male has a largely negative force”

CENSORSHIP AND OBSCENITY

The practice of tolerating certain hand-produced materials clearly shows that censorship is concerned not simply with the prohibition of materials, but with the size of the audience. It is for this reason that medical and other books dealing with sexual matters formerly had the crucial details in Latin.”

The urge to censor is probably ultimately rooted in fear of blasphemy, the apprehension that if utterances offensive to the gods are tolerated their wrath will fall on the whole society. It was impiety toward the gods for which Socrates was tried and condemned in 399 B.C. The Roman erotic poet Ovid was banished by the puritanical emperor Augustus in A.D. 8.”

Since the monasteries had a monopoly on producing manuscripts, it was assumed that such oversight was not necessary. In fact the abbey scriptoria not only copied erotic materials from Greco-Roman times, but created their own new genres of this type. In any event, the medieval authorities were concerned more with doctrinal deviation than with obscenity.” “The centralization of printing in the hands of a relatively few firms made it possible to scrutinize their intended productions before publication; only those that had passed the test and bore the imprimatur [seal] could be printed. It was then only necessary to make sure that heretical materials were not smuggled in from abroad. In Catholic countries this system was put in place by the establishment, under the Inquisition, with the Index of Prohibited Books in 1557. In countries where the Reformation took hold the control of books was generally assumed by the government. In England the requirement that books should be licenced for printing by the privy council or other agents of the crown was introduced in 1538. These origins explain why the activity of censors was for long chiefly concerned with the printed word. Revealingly, this system is still in force in Communist countries today [1990].”

The French author Nicolas Chorier contrived an even more ambitious ruse for his pansexual dialogues of Aloisia Sigea (1658(?)), which purported to be a translation into Latin by a Dutch author (Jan de Meurs) working from a Spanish original by a learned woman.” Entendeu? Uma tradução para o latim (língua culta) de um escrito erudito (mas vulgar) de uma espanhola, feito por um holandês, para circular na França!

Many French books, unwelcome to throne and altar, were published in Geneva, in Amsterdam, and in Germany. With the coming of the French revolution, however, all restraints were off. Thus the large works which the Marquis de Sade had composed in prison were published, as well as two fascinating homosexual pamphlets, Les enfans de Sodome and Les petits bougres au manège. Although controls were eventually tightened again, Paris gained the reputation (which lasted until about 1960) among English and American travelers as the place where <dirty books> could be obtained.

Through his prudish editions of Shakespeare, Thomas Bowdler (1754-1825) gave rise to the term <bowdlerize>. At the ports, an efficient customs service kept all but a trickle of works deemed to be obscene from coming in. In the United States, the morals crusader Anthony Comstock (1844-1915) not only fought successfully for stringent new legislation, but as head of the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice [haha] he claimed responsibility for the destruction of 160 tons of literature and pictures. The restrictions on malleability proved to be particularly hard on publishers of homosexual material, and this problem was not overcome until the ONE, Inc. case in 1954. A landmark in freedom to read books in the United States was the 1931 Ulysses case. Shortly thereafter, however, Hollywood instituted a system of self-censorship known as the Hays Office. This device effectively prevented any direct representation of homosexual love on the silver screen for decades, the only exceptions being a very few foreign films shown at art houses. During this period book publishers practiced their own form of self-censorship by insisting that novels featuring homosexual characters must doom them to an unhappy end.

Only after World War II did the walls begin to come tumbling down in English-speaking countries. In Britain the publishers of Lady Chatterley’s Lover by D.H. Lawrence were acquitted after a spectacular trial in 1960. In America Grove Press had obtained a favorable court decision on the availability of Lady Chatterley in 1959; three years later the firm went on to publish Henry Miller’s Tropic of Cancer without difficulty. The travails of a book containing explicit homosexual passages, William Burroughs’ Naked Lunch, were more extended. In 1958 authorities at the University of Chicago refused to permit publication of excerpts in a campus literary review. This led to the founding of a new journal, largely to publish the Burroughs text; once this had been done, a lengthy court battle ensued. Only in 1964 was the way clear for the whole novel to be issued by Grove Press. (The book had been published in Paris in 1959.)

Subsequently, a series of United States Supreme Court decisions made censorship impractical, and for all intents and purposes it has ceased nationally, though local option is sometimes exercised. This cessation permitted the appearance and sale of a mass of sexually explicit

books, films, and magazines. The only restriction that is ubiquitously enforced is the ban on <kiddy porn>, photographs and films of children engaging in sexual acts. In an unlikely de facto alliance, two groups emerged at the end of the 1970s in America to reestablish some form of censorship: one consisting of fundamentalists and other religious conservatives; the other of feminist groups [haha].

Michael Barry Goodman, Contemporary Literary Censorship: The Case of Burroughs’ Naked Lunch, Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1981;

Rocco, Alcibiades The Schoolboy (1652) (diálogo êmulo de Platão apólogo da pederastia)

CERVANTES

For 5 years he was a captive in Algiers, where he was on surprisingly good terms with a homosexual convert to Islam; he refers several times in his writings to the pederasty that flourished in the Ottoman empire – on his return from Algiers he was accused of unspecified filthy acts. His marriage was unhappy, and women in his works are treated distantly. Like Manuel Azaña, he put a very high value on freedom.

While Cervantes presented the male-female relationship as the theoretical ideal and goal for most people, the use of pairs of male friends is characteristic of his fiction, and questions of gender are often close to the surface. In his masterpiece Don Quixote (1605-15), which includes cross-dressing by both sexes, the middle-aged protagonist has never had, and has no interest in, sexual intercourse with a woman. A boy servant who appears fleetingly at the outset is replaced by the unhappily-married companion Sancho Panza. The two men come to love each other, although the love is not sexual.”

Verbete por Daniel Eisenberg

Louis Combet, Cervantes ou les incertitudes du désir, Lyon: Presses Universitaires, 1982 (review in MLN, 97 [1982], 422-27);

Rosa Rossi, Ascoltare Cervantes, Milan: Riuniti, 1987 (Spanish translation: Escuchar a Cervantes, Valladolid: Ámbito, 1988);

Luis Rosales, Cervantes y la libertad, 2ed., Madrid: Cultura Hispánica, 1985;

Ruth El Saffar, Cervantes and the Androgyne, Cervantes, III (1983);

______. Beyond Fiction: The Recovery of the Feminine in the Novels of Cervantes, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.

CHINA

The civilization of China emerged from pre-history during the first half of the 2nd millennium B.C. in the valley of the Huang-He (Yellow River), spreading gradually southwards. Over the centuries China has exercised extensive influence on Korea, Japan, and southeast Asia. Inasmuch as Chinese society has traditionally viewed male homosexuality and lesbianism as altogether different, their histories are separate and are consequently treated in sequence in this article.

During the latter part of the Zhou, homosexuality appears as a part of the sex lives of the rulers of many states of that era. Ancient records include homosexual relationships as unexceptional in nature and not needing justification or explanation. This tone of prosaic acceptance indicates that these authors considered homosexuality among the social elite to be fairly common and unremarkable. However, the political, ritual and social importance of the family unit made procreation a necessity. Bisexuality therefore became more accepted than exclusive homosexuality, a predominance continuing throughout Chinese history.

The Eastern Zhou produced several figures who became so associated with homosexuality that later generations invoked their names as symbols of homosexual love, much in the same way that Europeans looked to Ganymede, Socrates, and Hadrian. These famous men included Mizi Xia, who offered his royal lover a half-eaten peach, and Long Yang, who compared the fickle [volúvel] lover to a fisherman who tosses back a small fish when he catches a larger one. Rather than adopt scientific terminology, with associations of sexual pathology, Chinese litterateurs preferred the aesthetic appeal of these literary tropes [figures of speech].”

One incident in the life of Dong Xian became a timeless metaphor for homosexuality. A tersely worded account [relato oral sucinto] relates how Emperor Ai [last Han] was sleeping with Dong Xian one afternoon when he was called to court. Rather than wake up his beloved, who was reclining across the emperor’s sleeve [manga, sobra de tecido], Ai took out a dagger and cut off the end of his garment. When courtiers inquired after the missing fabric, Emperor Ai told them what had happened. This example of love moved his courtiers to cut off the ends of their own sleeves in imitation, beginning a new fashion trend.

The Jin dynasty (265-420) poet Zhang Hanbian wrote a glowing tribute to the 15-year-old boy prostitute Zhou Xiaoshi. In it he presents the boy’s life as happy and care-free, <inclined toward extravagance and festiveness, gazing around at the leisurely and beautiful>. A later poet, the Liang dynasty (502-557) figure Liu Zun, tried to present a more balanced view in a poem entitled Many Blossoms. In this piece he shows the dangers and uncertainty associated with a boy prostitute’s life. His Zhou Xiaoshi

<knows both wounds and frivolity

Withholding words, ashamed of communicating.>

Although these poems take opposite perspectives on homosexual prostitution, the appearance of this theme as an inspiration for poetry points to the presence of a significant homosexual world complete with male prostitutes catering [sendo ofertados] to the wealthy.”

The high profile of male prostitution led the Song rulers to take limited action against it. Many Confucian moralists objected to male prostitution because they saw the sexual passivity of a prostitute as extremely feminizing. In the early 12th century, a law was codified which declared that male prostitutes would receive 100 strokes of a bamboo rod and pay a fine of 50,000 cash. Considering the harsh legal penalties of the period, which included mutilation and death by slicing, this punishment was actually quite lenient. And it appears that the law was rarely if ever enforced, so it soon became a dead letter.”

Legal intervention peaked in the Qing dynasty (1644-1911) when the Kang Xi Emperor (r. 1662-1723) took steps against the sexual procurement of young boys, homosexual rape, and even consensual homosexual acts.” “it seems that the traditional government laissez-faire attitude toward male sexuality prevented enforcement of the law against consensual homosexual acts.”

A thirst for knowledge of homosexual history led to the compilation of the anonymous Ming collection Records of the Cut Sleeve (Duan xiu pian) which contains vignettes of homosexual encounters culled from nearly two millennia of sources. This anthology is the first history of Chinese homosexuality, perhaps the first comprehensive homosexual history in any culture, and still serves as our primary guide to China’s male homosexual past.”

In Fujian province on the South China coast, a form of male marriage developed during the Ming. Two men were united, the older referred to as an <adoptive older brother> (qixiong) and the younger as <adoptive younger brother> (qidi). The younger qidi would move into the qixiong’s household, where he would be treated as a son-in-law by his husband’s parents. Throughout the marriage, which often lasted for 20 years, the qixiong was completely responsible for his younger husband’s upkeep. Wealthy qixiong even adopted young boys who were raised as sons by the couple. At the end of each marriage, which was usually terminated because of the familial responsibilities of procreation, the older husband paid the necessary price to acquire a suitable bride for his beloved qidi.” [!!!]

The famous 17th century author Li Yu wrote several works featuring male homosexuality and lesbianism. The greatest Chinese work of prose fiction, Dream of the Red Chamber (Honglou meng), features a bisexual protagonist and many homosexual interludes. And the mid-19th century saw the creation of A Mirror Ranking Precious Flowers (Pinhua baojian), a literary masterpiece detailing the romances of male actors and their scholar patrons.”

Within a few generations, China shifted from a relative tolerance of homosexuality to open hostility. The reasons for this change are complex and not yet completely understood. First, the creation of colloquial baihua literary language removed many potential readers from the difficult classical Chinese works which contained the native homosexual tradition. Also, the Chinese reformers early in the century began to see any divergence between their own society and that of the West as a sign of backwardness. This led to a restructuring of Chinese marriage and sexuality along more Western lines. The uncritical acceptance of Western science, which regarded homosexuality as pathological, added to the Chinese rejection of same-sex love. The end result is a contemporary China in which the native homosexual tradition has been virtually forgotten and homosexuality is ironically seen as a recent importation from the decadent West.

Communist China. In the People’s Republic of China, homosexuality is taken as a sign of bourgeois immorality and punished by <reeducation> in labor camps. Officially the incidence of homosexuality is quite low. Western psychologists, however, have noted that the official reporting of impotence is much higher in mainland China than in the West. It seems that many Chinese men, unfamiliar with homosexual role models, interpret their sexuality solely according to their attraction to women. Nevertheless, a small gay subculture has begun to develop in the major cities since the end of the Maoist era [?]. Fear of discovery and lack of privacy tend to limit the quality and duration of homosexual relationships. And for the vast majority of Chinese living in the conservative country-side, homosexual contacts are much more difficult to come by.” “With the 1997 return of Hong Kong to China approaching, British liberals have supported a last minute repeal of the sodomy law.”

Traditionally, Chinese people have viewed male homosexuality and lesbianism as unrelated. Consequently, much of the information we have on male homosexuality in China does not apply to the female experience. Piecing together the Chinese lesbian past is frustrated by the relative lack of source material. Since literature and scholarship were usually written by men and for men, aspects of female sexuality unrelated to male concerns were almost always ignored.” “Sex manuals of the period Ming include instructions integrating lesbian acts with heterosexual intercourse as a way of varying the sex lives of men with multiple concubines.”

Li Yu’s first play, Pitying the Fragrant Companion (Lianxiangban), describes a young married woman’s love for a younger unmarried woman. The married woman convinces her husband to take her talented beloved as a concubine. The 3 then live as a happy ménage-à-trois free from jealousy. A more conventional lesbian love affair is detailed in Dream of the Red Chamber, in which a former actress regularly offers incense to the memory of her deceased beloved.”

The most highly developed form of female relationship was the lesbian marriages formed by the exclusively female membership of Golden Orchid Associations. A lesbian couple within this group could choose to undergo a marriage ceremony in which one partner was designated <husband> and the other <wife>. After an exchange of ritual gifts, a wedding feast attended by female friends served to witness the marriage. These married lesbian couples could even adopt young girls, who in turn could inherit family property from the couple’s parents. This ritual was not uncommon in 19th-century Guangzhou province. Prior to this, the only other honorable way for a woman to remain unmarried was to enter a Buddhist nunnery.” “The existence of Golden Orchid Associations became possible only by the rise of a textile industry in south China which enabled women to become economically independent. The traditional social and economic attachment of women to the home has so far prevented the emergence in modem China of a lesbian community on even so limited a scale as that of male homosexuals.”

Lanling Xiaoxiao Sheng, Golden Lotus ou The Plum [Ameixa] in The Golden Vase (2013) (título original: Jin ping mei) (novela de costumes, considerada o “Lolita” oriental), s/ data precisa (~séc. XVI; ed. por Zhang Zhupo no século seguinte). trad. francesa: La merveilleuse histoire de Hsi Men avec ses six femmes (1), Fleur en fiole d’or (2);

Pai Hsien-yung, The Outsiders (Niezi) (inspirou um filme homônimo, de 1986)

CHRISTIANITY

ORÍGENES” DO MAL II: “By about A.D. 200, the church had come to recognize the texts making up the New Testament as a single canon. After some hesitation, the Hebrew Bible, known to Christians as the Old Testament, was taken from Judaism and also accepted as divinely inspired. From this point onwards, Christian doctrines were elaborated by a group of intellectuals, known as the Fathers of the Church or the Patristic writers, beginning with such figures as Origen, Clement of Alexandria and Tertullian.” “Though they based their exegesis upon the Bible, they were inevitably influenced by philosophical and religious currents of their own time, especially Greek Stoicism and Neo-Platonism and by rival mystery cults such as Manichaeanism and Gnosticism.” “Still today there are differences on such sexually related topics as divorce, celibacy, and so forth between Roman Catholics and members of various eastern branches of Christianity which date from the foundations of Christianity, including Coptic, Nestorian, and various Orthodox Churches. In practice, most of these churches have been more tolerant of homosexuality than the Roman Catholic Church and its Protestant off-shoots.”

RESUMO DAS CONFISSÕES DE UM HOMEM POUCO SANTO

St. Augustine (d. 430), one of the great scholars of the ancient world, had converted to the austere faith of Manichaeanism after receiving a classical education. It seemed to his mind more suited to his Neo-Platonic and Stoic ideals than the Christianity of his mother. In Manichaean belief, which drew heavily from Zoroastrianism, intercourse leading to procreation was particularly evil because it caused other souls to be imprisoned in bodies, thus continuing the cycle of good versus evil.

Augustine was a member of the Manichaean religion for some 11 years but never reached the stage of the Elect in part because of his inability to control his sexual appetites. He kept a mistress, fathered a child, and according to his own statement, struggled to overcome his lustful appetites everyday by praying: <Give me chastity, and continence, but do not give it yet>. Recognizing his own inability to give up sexual intercourse, Augustine finally arrived at the conclusion that the only way to control his venereal desire was through marriage. He expelled his mistress and his son from his house, became engaged to a young girl not yet of age for wedlock (probably under 12 years of age), and planned a marriage. Unable to abstain from sex, he turned to prostitutes, went through a religious crisis, and in the process became converted to Christianity.

HA-HA: “All other sex was sinful including coitus within marriage not performed in the proper position (the female on her back and facing the male) and using the proper appendages and orifices (penis in vagina). St. Augustine’s views became the views of the western church centered in Rome.” “In general there was no extensive discussion of homosexuality by any of the early Church Fathers, and most of the references are incidental.”

The Augustinian views were modified in the 13th century [o que houve nestes 7 séculos além de monges devassos e burros?] by St. Thomas Aquinas, who held that homosexual activities, though similar to other sins of lust, were more sinful because they were also sins against nature. The sins against nature in descending order were (I) masturbation, (2) intercourse in an unnatural position, (3) copulation with the same sex (homosexuality and lesbianism), and (4) sex with non-humans (bestiality).

One of the key sources in the early medieval Church is the penitential literature. Originally penance had been a way of reconciling the sinner with God and had taken place through open confession. The earliest penitentials put sexual purity at a high premium, and failure to observe the sexual regulations was classified as equal to idolatry (reversion to paganism) and homicide. Ultimately public penance was replaced by private penance and confession which was regulated by the manuals or penitentials designed to guide those who were hearing them. Most of the early penitentials classified homosexual and lesbian activities as equivalent to fornication. Later ones classified such activities as equivalent to adultery although some writers distinguished between interfemoral intercourse and anal intercourse and between fellatio or oral-genital contacts. Anal intercourse was regarded as being the most serious sin.“Sodomy came to be regarded as the most heinous of sexual offenses, even worse than incest, and as civil law began to take over from canon law, it could be punished as a capital crime.”

Antes só dormia, hoje sodomia.

Só dormia, ou será que prazer também? No lato sensucht

Calvin & Child Harolde: “Catholics denounced Calvin for his supposed pederasty, a charge that was completely unfounded.”

NADA COMO COMER O BRIOCO DUMA INDIAZINHA: “In 1730-31 the great Dutch persecution of sodomites occurred, and in the accompanying propaganda the old charges against Roman Catholicism were revived. In Catholic countries themselves, the dissolution of the Jesuit order in 1773 was preceded by accusations of sodomy.”

Graciano, A Harmony of Discordant Canons (1140)

St. Peter Damián (1007-1072), Liber Gomorrhianus

CHURCHES, GAY

The emergence of Christian churches with predominantly gay and lesbian congregations, as well as interest groups within or allied to existing denominations, is a recent phenomenon, centered in the English-speaking world. There are records of homosexual monks, nuns, and priests, especially in the later Middle Ages and in early modern times, but no indication that they even thought of organizing on the basis of their sexual preference. Christian homosexuals drawn to particular parishes, where cliques [panelinhas] occasionally even became a visible segment of the congregation, would not openly avow this shift in the church’s character: they remained closeted gay Christians, so to speak.”

Some maintain that Jesus – an unmarried man in a Jewish milieu where marriage and procreation were de rigueur even for the religious elite – had a passionate relationship with John, the beloved disciple. Liturgically and sociologically the UFMCC tends to be of a <low church> character, with notable exceptions in some congregations. The evangelical fundamentalist domination of the UFMCC may be regarded as a response to the homophobic vehemence of the mainstream fundamentalist churches, which drives gay Christians out of their fold with a vengeance and forces them into an external redoubt, in contrast to the relatively more tolerant atmosphere, hospitable to internal gay caucuses [panelinhas, partidos], of the more liberal churches.”

CICERO

Roman politician, orator, and writer, who left behind a corpus of Latin prose (speeches, treatises, letters) that make him one of the great authors of classical antiquity. Unsuccessful in politics, he was overestimated as a philosopher by the Middle Ages and the Renaissance and underestimated in modern times, but was and is ranked as one of the greatest masters of Latin style. His career as an orator began in 81 B.C., and from the very beginning his speeches revealed his rhetorical gifts. His denunciation of Verres, the proconsul who had plundered the province of Sicily, opened the way to his election as aedile, praetor, and then consul, but subsequently the intrigues of his enemies led to his banishment from Rome (58/57), followed by his triumphal return. In the civil war he took the side of Pompey and so failed again, but was pardoned by the victorious Caesar, after whose death he launched a rhetorical attack on Mark Antony. The formation of the triumvirate meant that Cicero was to be proscribed by his opponent and murdered by his henchmen.”

In the last turbulent century of the Roman republic in which he lived, a contrast between the austere virtue of earlier times and the luxury and vice of the present had become commonplace. Also, as we know from the slightly later genre of satirical poetry, a taste for salacious gossip had taken root in the metropolis. In his orations Cicero remorselessly flays the homosexual acts of his enemies, contrasting homosexual love with the passion inspired by women which is <far more of natural inspiration>.”

Something of the Roman antipathy to Greek paiderasteia transpires from Cicero’s condemnation of the nudity which the Greeks flaunted in their public baths and gymnasia, and from his assertion that the Greeks were inconsistent in their notion of friendship. He pointedly noted: <Why is it that no one falls in love with an ugly youth or a handsome old man?> Effeminacy and passive homosexuality are unnatural and blameworthy in a free man, though Cicero remained enough under the influence of Greek mores to express no negative judgment on the practice of keeping handsome young slaves as minions of their master.” “The Judaic condemnation of homosexuality per se had not yet reached Rome, but the

distinction that had existed in Hellenic law and custom between acts worthy and unworthy of a citizen was adopted and even heightened by the com[cu]bination of appeal to Roman civic virtue and his own rhetorical flair.”

The term patientia used with reference to Verres implies the passivity in sexual relations that is degrading and unworthy of a free man, just as in the case of Mark Antony, charged with having <prostituted himself to all>, much like the Timarchus whom Aeschines had denounced centuries earlier in Athens for a like failing [op. cit. – para mais detalhes, vide seção OBRAS RECOMENDADAS em https://seclusao.art.blog/2019/09/28/do-espirito-das-leis-de-montesquieu-abreviado-na-traducao-de-jean-melville-com-comentarios-e-aprofundamentos-de-rafael-aguiar-indicacoes-de-leituras-durante-o-tratado-e-ao-final/].”

SMEAR CAMPAIGN: “Cicero’s rhetoric thus had two sides: the attempt to discredit opponents by inflammatory imputations of homosexual conduct and of sexual immorality in general – a type of smear to be followed in political life down to modern times”

CIRCUMCISION

GENEALOGIA DA PROFILAXIA: “Male circumcision, or the cutting away of the foreskin [prepúcio] of the penis, has been practiced by numerous peoples from remotest antiquity as a religious custom, while to some modern homosexuals it has an aesthetic and erotic significance. It has been speculated that the custom originated somewhere in Africa where water was scarce and the ability to wash was limited. Thus the Western Semites (Israelites, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Arabs, Edomites, Syrians), who lived in an area where water was never really plentiful, also observed the custom, while the Eastem Semites (Assyrians and Babylonians), in an area where water was more abundant, did not circumcise. This is true also of the Greeks and other Aegean peoples who always lived near the water.”

Jesus never mentioned circumcision, though the Jewish rite was (Luke 2:21) performed upon him on his 8th day as it was with all other males of his community of faith – hence the designation of the calendar in which the first day of the year is January 1 as <circumcision style>. In the early church the party of Paul of Tarsus which opposed circumcision was victorious, and uncircumcised Greeks and Romans poured into the new faith, so that to this day the majority of European men have retained their foreskins. With the coming of the faith of Islam, however, in the VII century the Middle East and North Africa became a stronghold of the practice of circumcision. Hindus and Buddhists avoid it, hence East Asians – and Amerindians – retain their foreskins.”

In the late 20th century the trend is being reversed in America as more and more medical articles – and some books – have argued that the operation in most cases is needless.”

There are even groups of men who have retained their foreskins (and others who admire them); these individuals with generous or pronounced <curtains> are in demand.”

Bud Berkeley & Joe Tiffenbach, Circumcision: Its Past, Its Present, and Its Future, San Francisco: Bud Berkeley, 1983-84;

Rosemary Romberg, Circumcision: The Painful Dilemma, South Hadley, MA: Bergin & Garvey, 1985;

Edward Wallerstein, Circumcision: An American Health Fallacy, New York: Springer Publishing Co., 1980.

CLASS

When there are no children to raise there is more discretionary income, so that adopting a homosexual lifestyle provides a margin for class enhancement.” “An established gay man or lesbian may put resources which parents would use for raising the status of their children into helping a lover-protegé. The mentor may also provide private lessons in manners and business acumen.” “Curiously, some parents seem to tolerate same-sex alliances by their offspring more easily than those that cross class or racial lines. § Internalizing the folk belief that homosexuals are more <artistic>, some gay men cultivate musical, theatrical, and culinary tastes that are above their <station> – and above their income. Acquisition of these refined preferences, together with <corrected> speech patterns, hinders easy communication with former peers, though there are many factors that work for geographical and psychological distance between homosexuals, on the one hand, and their families and original peer groups, on the other. Given their relative freedom, some individuals may be inclined to experiment with <class bending>, [sinuosidade de classe] sometimes with paradoxical results.”

There is class, and there is class fantasy.”

CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA

Greek church father. Born in Athens, probably of pagan and peasant ancestry, he is not to be confused with Clement, bishop of Rome, author of the New Testament epistle. After his conversion, Clement of Alexandria traveled widely to study under Christians, finally under the learned Pantaenus in Alexandria. Of the early Fathers, he had the most thorough knowledge of Greek literature. He quoted Homer, Hesiod, the dramatists, and (most of all) Platonic and Stoic philosophers. Sometime before 200 he succeeded Pantaenus, whom he praised for his orthodoxy, as head of the catechetical school at Alexandria, but in 202 he had to flee the persecution unleashed by the emperor Septimius Severus and perhaps died in Asia Minor.”

Although Clement’s christianity has been criticized as being too Hellenized, his serene hope and classical learning helped convert the upper classes. His pseudo-Platonic doctrine that homosexuality was particularly noxious because it was <against nature> served to combine that strand of classical philosophy with Hellenistic Jewish homophobia, most trenchantly exemplified by the Alexandrian philosopher Philo Judaeus (20 B.C.-A.D. 45), to justify persecution of sodomites. He thus preceded and stimulated the homophobia of the Christian emperors, from Constantine’s sons to Justinian, and of the two most influential Fathers, John Chrysostom and Augustine of Hippo.

CLERGY, GAY

that there is a psychological affinity between religious ministry and hemophilia” Edward Carpenter

The patrician John XII (938-964) went so far as to model himself on the scandalous Roman emperor Heliogabalus, holding homosexual orgies in the papal palace – a practice imitated by Benedict IX (1021-ca. 1052).” “paradoxically the enforcement of celibacy on priests and even attempts to impose it on those in lesser orders increased the danger of homosexuality.”

Friars, who unlike the monks were free to wander among the laity without much supervision, became notorious as seducers of boys as well as women, whose confessions they often heard to the disgruntlement [desabono] of parish priests. Many homosexual clergy, then as now, confessed to one another and were formally absolved. Indeed, the confessional at times became the locus of seduction.

Philip IV of France charged Boniface VIII not only with heresy, usury, and simony, but with sodomy and masturbation as well.”

The Renaissance in Italy, with its revival of classical antiquity and love of art, saw a number of popes who were interested in their own sex. Among them were the anti-pope John XXIII (d. 1419), who began his career as a pirate. Entering the clergy he quickly acquired the reputation of an unblushing libertine. The humanist pope Pius II (1405-1464) watched boys run naked in a race at Pienza, noting a boy <with fair hair and a beautiful body, though disfigured with mud>. The vain Venetian Paul II (1417-1471) toyed with adopting the name Formosus. Affecting the most lavish costumes, he was attacked by his enemies as <Our Lady of Pity>. His successor, Sixtus IV (1414-1482), made his mark as an art patron, erecting the Sistine chapel. He also elevated to the cardinalate a number of handsome young men. Julius II (1443-1513), another art-loving pope, provoked such scandal that he was arraigned under various charges, including that of sodomy, but he managed to survive the attempt to depose him. His successor, the extravagant Medici Leo X (1475-1521), became embroiled in intrigues to advance favorite nephews, a hobby that strained the treasury to the utmost. Julius III (1487-1555), who had presided over the Council of Trent before his pontificate, was nonetheless sometimes seen at official functions with catamites [<coroinhas>], one of whom he made a cardinal.”

The anticlerical literature of the last decades of that century delighted in exposing cases in which a clergyman had committed a sexual offense, to the point where in 1911 the Pope had to issue the motu proprio decree Quamvis diligenter forbidding the Catholic laity to bring charges against the clergy before secular courts. This step unilaterally abolished the principle of the equality of all citizens before the law established by the French Revolution, reinstating the <benefit of clergy> of the Middle Ages. The anticlerical literature of that period still needs study for the light that it can shed on the homosexual subculture of the clerical milieux.”

The Bible for Believers and Unbelievers (1922) (clássico anticlerical russo)

The Rule of St. Benedict, chapter 22.

Transcrição completa do capítulo 22 das regras de São Benedito (regulamento dos monges na alta idade média):

CHAPTER XXII: HOW THE MONKS ARE TO SLEEP

Let them sleep singly in separate beds. Let them receive bedding suitable to their manner of life, at the discretion of the abbot. If it can be done, let all sleep in one room: but if their number does not allow of this, let them repose by tens or by twenties with their seniors who have charge of them. Let a candle burn continually in the dormitory until morning. Let them sleep clothed and girded with girdles or cords, but let them not have knives at their sides while they sleep, lest by chance while dreaming they wound a sleeper; and let them be monks always ready; and upon the signal being given let them rise without delay and hasten one after the other, yet with all gravity and decorum, to be ready in good time for the Work of God. Let not the younger brethren have their beds by themselves, but among those of the seniors: and let them be allowed gently to encourage one another as they rise for the Work of God, because some may feel drowsy and listless.”

COCTEAU, JEAN

The Infernal Machine (peça)

COLETTE

A happy childhood is a bad preparation for contact with human beings.”

COLOR SYMBOLISM

A current Russian term for a gay man is golubchik, from goluboy, <blue>, evidently through association with the <blue blood> of the aristocracy of the Old Régime.”

According to Havelock Ellis, one could not safely walk down the streets of late 19th century New York wearing a red tie without being accosted, since this garment was then the universal mark of the male prostitute.” “Because of the <scarlet woman>, the great Whore of Babylon of the book of Revelation, that color has acquired a strong association with prostitution and adultery”

In American culture the word lavender – a blend of red and blue (as in <lavender lover>, The Lavender Lexicon, etc.) – almost speaks for itself.”

The mid-1980s saw public display at rallies and marches of a rainbow Gay Pride Flag, consisting of six parallel stripes ranging from bright red to deep purple. The juxtaposition of colors stands for the diversity of the gay/lesbian community with regard to ethnicity, gender, and class – perhaps also connoting, in the minds of some, the coalition politics of the Rainbow Alliance headed by Jesse Jackson.”

COMICS

The first true comic strips were introduced in 1897 as a circulation-building device in the Sunday supplements of the Hearst newspapers. The now-familiar pulp comic book was a creation of the Depression: the first commercial example is Famous Funnies of 1934. Although these strips generally affirmed middle-class values, and certainly contained not the slightest overt indication of sex, they were regularly denounced by pundits as a pernicious influence on the young.”

Batman, appearing in 1939, featured the adventures of a playboy detective and his teenage ward, Robin. Although the relationship is portrayed as a simple mentor-protegé one, some teenage male readers were able to project something stronger into it. This aspect was certainly flirted with in the campy television off-shoot beginning in 1966, though this series reflects a much changed cultural climate. In 1941 there appeared Wonder-woman, featuring an Amazon with special powers living on an all-woman island. This strip – contrary to the expressed wishes of its creators – served as a focus for lesbian aspirations. In the 1970s it was rediscovered by the women’s movement as a proto-feminist statement.

In the late 1940s Blade drew several illustrated stories, including The Barn and Truck Hiker, that can be considered predecessors of the gay comics. Circulated underground, they have been officially published only in recent years. Somewhat later the wordless strips of supermacho types created by Tom of Finland began to circulate in Europe.

It was the American counterculture of the 1960s, however, which first made possible the exploration of taboo subjects in a context of crumbling censorship restrictions. In 1964 a Philadelphia gay monthly, Drum, began serializing Harry Chess by Al Shapiro (A. Jay). Modeled on a popular television series, Harry Chess was both macho and campy, though explicit sex scenes were veiled. In the 1970s no-holds-barred examples appeared drawn by such artists as Bill Ward, Sean, and Stephen (Meatman).”

COMING OUT

A few gays and lesbians report no memory of a coming out process; they always considered themselves homosexual and were never <in the closet>. Others have reported a sudden revelation of their own homosexuality which does not fit into any theory of stages but has brought them from apparently heterosexual to comfortably homosexual virtually overnight.”

The self-help literature for gay and lesbian youth is quite explicit in designating parents as the crucial factor in the youth’s coming out process. Those who do not come out to their family, according to G.B. MacDonald, become <half-members of the family unit: afraid and alienated, unable ever to be totally open and spontaneous, to trust or be trusted… This sad stunting of human potential breeds stress for gay people and their families alike – stress characterized by secrecy, ignorance, helplessness, and distance.> The scientific literature, however, has largely ignored the role of parents, having centered on gay and lesbian adults.”

CONTEST LITERATURE

Diálogos.

Achilles Tatius, Leucippe and Clitophon

Pseudo-Lucian, Affairs of the Heart

CONTRARY SEXUAL FEELING

the linguistic remnant of the first, uncertain psychiatric attempt to grapple with the problem of homosexuality.”

COUNTERCULTURE

Apparently the term counterculture is an adaptation of the slightly earlier <adversary culture>, an expression coined by the literary critic Lionel Trilling (1905-1975). In many respects the counterculture constituted a mass diffusion – fostered by diligent media exploitation – of the prefigurative beat/hippie phenomenon. As American involvement in the Vietnam War increased, in the wake of opposition to it the counterculture shifted from the gentle <flower-child> phase to a more aggressive posture, making common cause with the New Left, which was not, like the radicalism of the 30s, forced by economic crisis to focus on issues of unemployment and poverty. Of course radical political leaders were accustomed to decry the self-indulgence of the hippies, but their followers, as often as not, readily succumbed to the lure of psychedelic drugs and the happy times of group togetherness accompanied by ever present rock music.”

MESSIANISMO EPIDÊMICO: “The counterculture shamelessly embraced ageism: <Don’t trust anyone over thirty.> Observing this precept cut young people off from the accumulated experience and wisdom of sympathetic elders. Moreover, it meant that the adherents of the movement themselves quickly became back numbers as they crossed over the 30-year line. In regard to gay adherents, the distrust of older people tended to reinforce the ageism already present in their own subculture. To be sure, the full force of such problematic effects has become evident only in retrospect. Although outsiders, and some insiders as well, exaggerated the fusion of the counterculture and the New Left, still the convergence of massive cultural innovation with hopes for fundamental political change gave the young generation a heady sense of imminent revolution.”

The psychiatrist Thomas Szasz and others correctly perceived the link between the campaign to decriminalize marijuana and the efforts to reform sex laws.” “many assumed that homosexuals were essentially counterculturist, leftist, and opposed root and branch to the established order. Subsequent observation has shown, not surprisingly perhaps, that a majority of gay men and lesbians were (and are) liberal-reformist and even conservative, rather than revolutionary in then-overall political and social outlook.”

CROWLEY, ALEISTER

After the turn of the century Crowley’s public career began, and he was regularly attacked in the press as <The Great Beast> and <The Wickedest Man in the World>.”

Raulseixismo: <There is no law beyond Do what thou wilt.>

In a 1910 memoir Aleister Crowley proclaimed, <I shall fight openly for that which no Englishman dare defend, even in secret – sodomy! At school I was taught to admire Plato and Aristotle, who recommend sodomy to youths – I am not so rebellious as to oppose their dictum; and in truth there seems to be no better way to avoid the contamination of woman and the morose pleasures of solitary vice.>

he advanced beyond the grade of Magus to the supreme status of Ipsissimus.” E o Quico?

Scarcely known today outside occult circles, Crowley is an extravagant instance of the concern with heterodox religion that has flourished among some male homosexuals who could find no peace within established Christianity, and more recently among female adherents of <the craft>. Through his voluminous writings Crowley foreshadowed the emergence of the <Age of Aquarius>.”

Israel Regardie, The Eye in the Triangle: An Interpretation of Aleister Crowley, St. Paul: Llewellen Publications, 1970.

CRUISING

Nicole Ariana, How to Pick up Men, New York: Bantam, 1972;

Mark Freedman & Harvey Mayes, Loving Man, New York: Hark, 1976, chapter 2;

John A. Lee, Getting Sex, Toronto: General, 1978 [Tinder on paper for human beings as archaic as those from a century ago];

Publius Ovid, Art of Love [~1A.D., obra seminal do “flerte” e “sondagens de sexo casual”, homo e heteronormativas!]

CUBA

The largest island of the Antilles chain, home to 10 million Spanish-speaking people” Para 2017, o censo ainda não aponta população superior a 11.5 milhões.

The British, French, and Dutch seized islands from the Spanish or colonized vacant ones as naval bases or sugar plantations; like the pirates they seldom brought women along. All 3 European powers were involved in the notorious triangular trade, shipping molasses or rum to Europe, guns and trinkets from there to Africa, and slaves back to the West Indies.”

Cuba began to excel in sugar production after 1762. Havana became a glittering metropolis, rivaling New York and Rio de Janeiro, by 1800. The slave population, including huge numbers of males imported for work in the cane fields or molasses manufacturing, grew from fewer than 40,000 in 1770 to over 430,000 seventy years later. The census of 1841 reported that more than half the population was non-white (black and mixed blood) and that 43% were slaves. Males outnumbered females by 2 to 1 in the center and west and were just equal in the east. Other islands in the Caribbean had even greater sexual imbalances. Documentation for the homosexuality that must have abounded is scarce but the earlier prevalence can be assumed from attitudes and customs that still survive.”

With Spain’s adoption of the Napoleonic Code in 1889, homosexuality was decriminalized 3 years after the abolition of slavery.”

During World War I, Europe was closed to North Americans and Cuba, especially Havana, became a resort for the more adventurous. Prosperity increased with a rise in commodity prices. Also, the Prohibition in the United States after 1920 left Cuba as an oasis where liquor still flowed freely. Casino gambling and prostitution were also legal. A favorite port of call of cruise ships [pun intended!], Havana flourished as a mecca for pleasure-seekers.”

The post-war collapse of commodity prices was to some extent offset by tourism. Everything was for sale in Havana under the dictator Fulgencio Batista, whose 1952 coup ousted an outwardly democratic but venal and nepotistic predecessor.

Old Havana had gay bars. Moral laxity, characteristic of the slave-rooted Caribbean economy, the Napoleonic Code, and the weakness of the Catholic Church (which was mainly Spanish, urban and upper class) produced an environment where gays were only mildly persecuted and could buy protection from corrupt officials. Drugs, especially marijuana, which flourished throughout the Caribbean, were available in Cuba long before they won popularity in the United States.”

Exploiting popular revulsion against continuing political corruption as well as resentment of the diminishing but still important American domination, Fidel Castro led an ill-assorted group of liberals, patriots, and Marxists, including some gays, to victory over Batista in 1959. Only after he came to power did the United States realize that Castro was an avowed Communist. The American Central Intelligence Agency then tried and failed to assassinate him. His triumph was sealed by the missile crisis of 1962 when Khrushchev agreed to withdraw the missiles in return for Kennedy’s promise never to try to invade Cuba.”

Soviet hostility toward homosexuality since 1934, when Stalin restored the penal laws against male homosexuals, combined with traditional Latin American machismo and Catholic homophobia, made the existence of Cuban homosexuals wretched and oppressive. To prevent their <contamination> of youth, thousands of gays in the 1960s were placed in work camps known as Military Units to Increase Production (UMAP). Although the camps were abolished by the end of the decade, other forms of discrimination continued. Article 359 of the Cuban penal code prohibits public homosexuality. Violations are punished with a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 20 years. Parents must discourage their children from homosexuality or report their failure to officials as Articles 355-58 mandate. Articles 76-94 punish with 4 years imprisonment sexual deviation regarded by the government as contrary to the spirit of Socialism.”

The gifted playwright and fiction writer Virgilio Piñera (1912-1967) returned from Argentina in 1957 and after Castro’s triumph worked for several of the newspapers of the regime. On October 11, 1961, he was arrested and jailed for homosexuality. Che Guevara personally denounced him.”

Allen Young, Gays under the Cuban Revolution

DANDYISM

The dandy has been since antiquity the man who prides himself on being the incarnation of elegance and of male fashion. The word itself stems from the Romantic period in the 19th century, when the character type reached its apogee; England and France were the principal countries in which it flourished. Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867) was one of the first to perceive that the type was not limited to the age just preceding his own, but had emerged across the centuries in some celebrated historical figures. Jules Barbey d’Aurevilly (1808-1889) wrote an Essay on Dandyism and George Brummel (1845), dealing with Beau Brummell (1778-1840), the most famous English representative of the dandy in the London of George IV.

History of the Type. Ancient Greece saw two classical specimens of the dandy: Agathon and Alcibiades. In Plato’s Symposium Agathon is a poet and tragedian, not merely handsome, but obsessed with the most trivial details of his wardrobe. Aristophanes shows him using a razor to keep his cheeks as smooth and glistening as marble, wearing sumptuous clothing in the latest Ionian fashion. Later in the same dialogue Alcibiades also enters the stage, the most dazzling figure of the jeunesse dorée of Athens, richer and more influential than Agathon, and never sparing any expenditure that would enhance his renown.”

Another aesthete of this era, Oscar Wilde, affected a particularly striking costume when he made a lecture tour of the United States, capitalizing on a character featured in the Gilbert and Sullivan opera Patience (1881).”

Rationale. The relation of the dandy to male homosexuality is complicated. As a rule the homosexual – more than the male who is attracted to women – feels the need to distinguish his person in some way, is more conscious of the world of male fashion and more likely to be narcissistically preoccupied with his image. Naturally not all the dandies of the past were homosexual or bisexual, and an element of leisure class self-demarcation and snobbery enters into the picture. Since it is usually the male of the species whom nature makes physically more noteworthy, the male-female antithesis in style of dress that has prevailed in Western culture since the French Revolution reverses the immemorial state of affairs. The notion that only a woman may be preoccupied with her wardrobe and that a man should dress simply and even unobtrusively is of recent date.”

DANTE ALIGHIERI

As a youth he had a profound spiritual experience in an encounter with the young Beatrice Portinari; after her death he submerged himself in the study of philosophy and poetry. In 1302 Dante was banished from Florence, pursuing his literary career in various other cities of Italy.”

The presence in both the Inferno and the Purgatorio of groups of <sodomites> has given rise to a series of debates over the centuries. These passages must be interpreted in the larger context of the great poem’s situations and personnel.” “The sodomites of the Inferno (cantos 15 and 16) are seen running under a rain of fire, condemned never to stop if they wish to avoid the fate of being nailed to the ground for a hundred years with no chance of shielding themselves against the flames. Having recognized Dante, Brunetto Latini (ca. 1212-1294) called him to speak with him, voicing an important prophecy of Dante’s future. In describing his fellow sufferers, Latini mentioned a number of famous intellectuals, politicians, and soldiers.

In the Purgatorio (canto 26) the sodomites appear in a different context – together with lustful heterosexuals. The two categories travel in opposite directions, yelling out the reason for their punishment.

How can one account for the striking deference and sympathy that Dante shows for the sodomites? This matter began to puzzle commentators only a few years after the poet’s death.

Dante’s education took place in the 13th century when Italy was beginning to change its attitudes toward homosexual behavior. Conduct which had been a transgression condemned by religion but viewed with indulgence by everyday morality assumed increasing seriousness in the eyes of the laity. For Dante it was still possible – as it had commonly been through the first half of the 13th century – to separate human and divine judgment with respect to sodomy.”

IDADE DAS LUZES E O BURACO ESCURO: “For Dante’s commentators sodomy was a sin of such gravity that it was inconceivable for them to treat with respect men seared with such <infamy>.”

That Dante had spoken of Brunetto Latini and the sodomites with too much sympathy because he too shared their feelings was the conclusion of one anonymous commentator of the 14th century. Another wild suggestion is that the shameless Latini had made an attempt on Dante’s own virtue, and that hence Dante’s gentle words are in reality sarcasm that must be understood <in the opposite sense> (Guiniforto dei Bargigi; 1406-ca. 1460). Then, foreshadowing a thesis that would be favored by medical opinion in the 12th century, it was suggested that there were two types of sodomites, those by <choice> and those who are such by <necessity>.”

The debate on Dante’s motives has continued until our own day. In 1950 Andre Pezard devoted a whole book, Dante sous la pluie de feu, to an effort to show that the sin for which Brunetto and his companions were being punished was sodomy not in the usual sense, but in an allegorical one: sodomie spirituelle, which in Brunetto’s case meant having used the French language as a medium for one of his works.

The authoritative Encyclopedia Dantesca has sought to bring the conflict to an end, taking adequate account of Dante’s indulgent judgment as the correct key for solving the supposed <enigma> of the band of sodomites. As regards the reason for Brunetto Latini’s presence among the sodomites, Avalle D’Arco’s recent confirmation of the attribution to him of a long love poem directed to a man, S’eo son distretto inamoramente, shows that it was probably on the basis of facts that were publicly known in Dante’s time that he was consigned to Hell.” Aposto o cu que você já deu o cu.

DICKINSON, EMILY (1830-1886)

American poet. After brief periods at Amherst Academy and Holyoke Female Seminary, she settled into an outwardly uneventful life keeping house for her family. Dickinson never married. The real events in her life are her writings, which have assumed classic status in American literature.

These homoerotic poems are never joyous, but that is to be expected in a society where heterosexual marriage was virtually believed inevitable and there was little possibility of two unrelated women establishing a life together if they were not wealthy through independent inheritance.”

DIONYSUS

Greek god associated with wine and emotional exuberance. Although the name occurs in linear B tablets [?] from the end of the second millennium B.C., his figure absorbed additional elements from Thrace and the East in the following centuries. Dionysus, called Bacchus in Latin, was the son of Zeus and a mortal, Semele. When his mother unwisely besought Zeus to reveal himself in his true form, she was incinerated, but the embryo of her son escaped destruction. Zeus then inserted it into his own thigh and carried the child to term. This quality of being <twice born>, once from a woman and once from a man, points to the ambiguity of the god, who though male had effeminate traits. In literary and artistic representations, he sometimes served as a vehicle for questioning sex roles, otherwise strongly polarized in ancient Greece.

According to the late-antique writer Nonnus, Dionysus fell in love with a Phrygian boy, Ampelos, who became his inseparable companion. When the boy was killed in a bull-riding accident, the grief-stricken Dionysus turned him into a vine. As a result, the practices of vine cultivating and grape harvesting, of wine making and drinking, commemorate this deeply felt pederastic relationship: in honoring the vine (ampelos in Greek), one honors the god through his beloved.

In historic times Dionysus attracted a cult following consisting largely of women, the Bacchae or maenads. During the ritual followers abandoned their houses and work to roam about in the mountains, hair and clothing in disarray, and liberally imbibing wine, normally forbidden to women. At the height of their ecstasy they would seize upon an animal or even a child, tear it to pieces, and devour the uncooked flesh, by ingesting which they sought to incorporate the god and his powers within themselves. From a sociological point of view, the Bacchic cult is a <religion of the oppressed>, affording an ecstatic relief to women, whose status was low. Occurring only once during the year, or once every two years, these Dionysiac rites were bracketed off from the normal life of the Greek polis, suggesting comparison with such later European customs as the feast of fools, the carnival, the charivari, and mardi gras.

The maenads assume a major role in Euripides’ tragedy, The Bacchae (406 BC). Accompanied by his female followers, Dionysus appears in Thebes as a missionary. Unwisely, King Pentheus insults and arrests the divine visitor; after he has been rendered mad and humiliated, the transgressor is dismembered by the maenads. Interpretations of the play differ: a warning of the consequences of emotional excess versus a reaffirmation of the enduring presence of humanity’s irrational side. The subject probably attracted Euripides as a phenomenon of individual and group psychology in its own right, but it is unlikely that he intended it as a forecast of modern gay liberation in the <faery spirituality> mode, as Arthur Evans has argued. Inasmuch as the sexuality of The Bacchae was not pederastic, the Greek audience would not have seen the play as homosexual (a concept foreign to their mentality), but rather as challenging gender-role assumptions about men and women, whatever their sexual orientation. That the parts of the maenads were taken by men was not exceptional: women never appeared on the Greek stage.

Bacchanalian rites were introduced into Rome during the Republic. Men joined women in the frenzied gatherings, and (according to the historian Livy) there was more debauchery among the men with each other than with the women. Apart from their orgiastic aspects, the rites caused concern because they crossed class lines, welcoming citizens, freed men and slaves alike. Condemned as a subversive foreign import, the Senate suppressed the Bacchanalia in 186 BC, but they evidently were soon revived. Roman sarcophagi of the 2nd and 3rd century of our era show Bacchic scenes, projecting hopes for an afterlife spent in Dionysic bliss. In its last phases the cult of Dionysus emerged as an other-worldly mystery religion, showing affinities with Mithraism, the religion of Isis, and Christianity. Meeting now behind closed doors, members of the sect recognized one another by passwords and signs.

Although the early Christians regarded all pagan worship as demonic, they were not averse to purloining the Bacchic wine harvest imagery for their own sarcophagi and mosaics. Some Bacchic reminiscences recur in drinking songs of medieval goliardic poets, notably the Carmina Burana.”

At the end of the 16th century the flamboyant bisexual painter Caravaggio created a notably provocative image of Bacchus-Dionysus (Florence, Uffizi Gallery).” Veja pintura no verbete do pintor mais acima.

The most influential latter-day evocation of the god occurs in The Birth of Tragedy (1872) of Friedrich Nietzsche, who exalted the category of the Dionysiac as an antidote for excessive rationality in the interpretation of ancient Greece and, by implication, in modern life as well.

Nietzsche’s ideas were modernized and correlated with anthropology and psychoanalysis by the classical scholar E.R. Dodds, who in turn influenced the poet W.H. Auden. Together with his lover, Chester Kallman, Auden turned Euripides’ play into an opera libretto entitled The Bassarids.”

Karl Kerenyi, Dionysus: Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life, London: Routledge, 1976.

DREAMS

When a dream has homosexual content, the hermeneutic process is complicated by the ethical assumptions of the dreamer and the interpreter, which reflect the attitudes of society toward same-sex experience.

To understand their dream experiences human beings have formulated a lore to which the ancients gave the name oneirocritical. Because the ancient world accepted homosexual interest and activity as part of human sexuality, the dream interpreters of the eastern Mediterranean cultures could calmly explain the homoerotic episodes in dreams in terms of their overall system of signs and meanings and without anxiety. Such was the work of Artemidorus of Daldis (middle of the 2nd century), which alludes to pédérastie and homosexual dream sequences and assigns them a specific, often prophetic meaning. Not so the Christian Middle Ages; the literature of dreams became exclusively heterosexual because the taboo with which theology had tainted sexual attraction to one’s own sex imposed a censorship that is only now being lifted.”

DRUGS

It should be noted that there has never been a country or society in which unrestricted use of all psychoactive drugs has been permitted over any period of time.”

In some users hallucinogens cause terrifying experiences; psychological problems can be exacerbated, and brain damage caused. The action of stimulants is often followed by a compensatory negative experience through which the body restores its equilibrium.”

Society can tolerate drug use if it is encapsulated within an artistic, recreational, religious, or therapeutic context; while some are able to so control their usagé, for many that is a daunting or impossible condition, at least in our present culture”

education is more effective than prohibition. Exaggeration of drugs’ harmful effects reduces respect for law, overwhelms the courts and prisons, inhibits research on any therapeutic use of drugs, makes drugs of controlled strength and purity unavailable, gives drugs the glamour of the forbidden, and encourages progression to ever more dangerous yet legally equal substances. As with alcohol during America’s Prohibition (1920-33), the supply of illegal drugs has become a very profitable industry, and not a passive or benign one. Foreigners who supply drugs sometimes justify their actions to themselves and their countrymen as a means of striking back at the political and economic power of the United States.”

during the 1960s, there were a considerable number of reports of people becoming aware of homoeroticism for the first time while under the influence of LSD especially. Drugs have also been used by musicians, artists, and writers who claim that the substances help them create, although this claim is controversial, perhaps because if substantiated it would be a powerful argument for drug use.”

The use of hashish (cannabis), eaten in sweets rather than smoked, is found in the Bible (Song of Songs 5:1; I Samuel 14:25-45), and there is evidence of psychic use of hemp (marijuana), from which hashish is made, from pre-historic times. Herodotus, for example, reports its popularity among the Scythians. However, widespread use of hashish begins in Islam in the 12th and 13th centuries. While the Koran prohibited wine, which because of distribution costs was somewhat more expensive than today, it was silent on hashish, which was also much less expensive. There was debate about whether the Koran’s silence was to be taken as approval, or whether prohibition was to be inferred from the treatment of wine; still, as long as it remained a minority indulgence it was tolerated, as wine usually was. Hashish users became a subculture; in particular it is linked to the mystical Sufis, who made a cult and ritual of its use. However, almost every Islamic poet from the 13th to the 16th centuries produced at least some playful poems on hashish, although wine poetry is much more abundant.”

Hashish was thought to cause effeminacy, a preference for the passive sexual role, and a loss of interest in sex. However, it was also prized as the drug of scholars and lovers of young men, and an aid in seduction of the latter. Turkish soldiers frequently ate hashish together before going into battle.

Coffee was introduced to Europe in the 17th century from the Turkish empire. Both within Islam and in Europe coffee was at first a similarly controversial drug, subject to occasional legal restriction or suppression. Its use in coffee-houses, later cafés, was typical of intellectuals and dissidents.”

The first half of the 20th century was characterized by a wave of reaction against drugs and the establishment of legal controls throughout Westem Europe and North America. However, the tensions of the 1960s, against a backdrop of the Holocaust and the invention and use of the atomic bomb, brought on a new wave of drug use. The hedonistic use of cannabis increased greatly; its enthusiasts promoted it as an aid to sensual and sexual enjoyment. The Beat generation, especially William Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg, had already turned to potent psychedelics as a means of self-improvement; they became part of the short-lived counterculture of the late 1960s. The discovery of psychedelics was in part due to progress in anthropology and archeology. The use by native peoples of mescaline (peyote), psilocybin (mushrooms), and other psychedelics became known, and the possible role of such substances in visions and oracles of the ancient Mediterranean world was proposed by scholars. The hallucinogenic properties of the most potent psychedelic yet known, lysergic acid diethylamine-25 (LSD), were discovered in 1943” “until it became too controversial, it was manufactured by a pharmaceutical company for research in psychotherapeutic treatment.”

The gay bar remains the only gay institution in many American communities, as it was almost everywhere until the 1970s.”

Poppers are a vasodilator of transitory effect, and cause a <high> from a drop in blood pressure; users say that the intensity and/or duration of orgasm is increased, that muscles (such as throat and anal sphincters) and gag reflexes are relaxed, and that feelings of increased union or <melting> with the sex partner result. Many users report that continued use (a single inhalation produces effects only for a few minutes) inhibits erections, while other users seem unaffected. Likewise, some users say the poppers encourage passivity and complete relaxation, while others report no such effect. Headaches and dizziness are sometimes reported as side effects.” “In the early 1980s poppers were accused of being a co-factor in the development of AIDS, and they were made illegal in some areas, although the accusation remains unproven.”

EFFEMINACY, HISTORICAL SEMANTICS OF

In reading older texts it is important to bear these differences in mind, for the term effeminate can be used slightingly of a womanizer [mulherengo] as well as of a <womanish> man.

The ancient Greeks and Romans sharply differentiated the active male homosexual, the paiderastes (in the New Testament arsenokoites, literally <man-layer>), from the passive partner, the cinaedus or pathicus (New Testament Greek malakos; Hebrew, rakha). The Greeks also sometimes used the term androgynos, <man-woman>, to stigmatize the passive homosexual. Beginning with the Old Attic comedies of Aristophanes, the passive is a stock figure of derision and contempt, the active partner far less so. Because of the military ideals on which ancient societies were founded, passivity and softness in the male were equated with cowardice and want of virility. A seeming exception is the god Dionysus – whose effeminate characteristics are, however, probably an import from the non-Greek East.

In ancient Rome the terms mollis (soft) and effeminatus acquired special connotations of decadence and enervating luxury. By contrast the word virtus meant manliness. The Roman satirists took sardonic delight in flagellating the vices of luxury that were rampant among the upper classes of a nation that, once rude and war-like, had succumbed to the temptations that followed its successful conquest and plunder of the entire ancient world. The classical notion of effeminacy as the result of luxury, idleness, and pampered self-indulgence is thus far removed from the claim of some gay liberationists today to kinship with the exploited and down-trodden.

The old Icelandic literature stemming from medieval Scandinavia documents the condemnation of the argr, the cowardly, unwar-like effeminate (compare Modern German arg, <bad>). The Latin term mollities (softness) entered early Christian and medieval writings, but often with reference to masturbation. It may be that the 18th-century English term molly for an effeminate homosexual is a reminiscence of Latin mollis.”

In the 16th century the French monarch Henri III assembled an entourage of favorites whose name mignon connotes effeminacy and delicacy. In French also the original meaning of bardache was the passive partner of the active bougre. English writings of the 17th and 18th century frequently denounced foppery [dandismo], sometimes homosexual but more often heterosexual.”

Restoration times also witnessed the popularity of the self-referencing habit of male homosexuals adopting women’s names: Mary, Mary-Anne, Molly, Nance or Nancy, and Nelly. The habit occurs in other languages as well – Janet in Flemish; Checca (from Francesca) in Italian; Maricón (from Maria) in Spanish; and Adelaida in Portuguese.”

19th-century English witnessed a semantic shift of a number of terms originally applied to women to provide opprobrious designations of male homosexuals. Thus gay had the meaning of a loose woman, prostitute; faggot, a slatternly woman –, and queen (or quean), a trollop. Even today the popular mind tends to the view that gay men seek to imitate women, or even become women –, the considerable number of unstereotypical, masculine homosexuals are not taken into account.”

Termagant and virago, though pejorative, do not suggest variance of sexual orientation. The girl who is a tomboy has always been treated more indulgently than the boy who is a sissy.”

Men who cross-dress as women are of two kinds. Some go to great lengths to make the simulation credible, an effort that may be a prelude to transsexualism. In other instances the simulation is imperfect, a kind of send-up. Although some feminists have interpreted such cross-dressing exercises as mockery of women, it is more likely that they signify a questioning of gender categories. In any event, transvestism is not normally held to lie within the province of effeminacy, which is thought to be the adjunction of feminine traits in a person otherwise fully recognizable as masculine.”

Hans Herter, Reallexikon fur Antike und Christentum, 4 (1959).

EGYPT

Traditionally the pharaohs married their half-sisters, a custom that other peoples considered curious. Self-confident in their cherished habits and customs, the Egyptians nonetheless cherished a distinct sense of privacy, which restricted discussion of erotic themes in the documents that have come down to modern times. Most of our evidence stems from temples and tombs, where a full record of everyday life could scarcely be expected. Unfortunately, Egypt had no law codes comparable to those known from ancient Mesopotamia.”

The realm of mythology provides several instances of homosexual behavior. In order to subordinate him, the god Seth attempted to sodomize his brother Horus, but the latter foiled him, and tricked Seth into ingesting some of his (Horus’s) own semen. Seth then became pregnant. In another myth the ithyphallic god Min anally assaulted an enemy, who later gave birth to the god Thoth. Both these stories present involuntary receptive homosexuality as a humiliation, but the act itself is not condemned; in the latter incident the god of wisdom is born as a result. (In another myth the high god engenders offspring parthenogenetically by masturbation.) While it is sometimes claimed that the ancient Egyptians were accustomed to sodomize enemies after their defeat on the battlefield, the evidence is equivocal.”

In what is surely history’s first homosexual short story, King Pepy II Neferkare (2355-2261) makes nocturnal visits to have sex with his general Sisinne. This episode is significant as an instance of androphilia – sex between two adult men – rather than the pederasty that was dominant in the ancient world. From a slightly earlier period comes the Tomb of the Two Brothers at Thebes, which the excavators have explained as the joint sepulcher of two men, Niankhnum and Khnumhotep, who were lovers. Bas reliefs on the tomb walls show the owners embracing affectionately.”

Queen Hatshepsut (reigned 1503-1482 BC) adopted male dress and even wore a false beard; these male attributes probably stem from her decision to reign alone, rather than from lesbianism.

A figure of particular interest is the pharaoh Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV; reigned ca. 1372-1354 BC), who was a religious and artistic reformer. Although this king begat several daughters with his wife, the famous Nefertiti, in art he is often shown as eunuch-like, with swollen hips and feminine breasts. According to some interpreters these somatic features reflect a glandular disorder. Other scholars believe that they are a deliberate artistic stylization, so that the appearance of androgyny may convey a universal concept of the office of kingship, uniting the male and the female so as to constitute an appropriate counterpart of the universal god Aten he introduced. Scenes of Akhenaten caressing his son-in-law Smenkhkare have been interpreted, doubtfully, as indicating a homosexual relation between the two.”

ELLIS, HAVELOCK

Pioneering British writer on sexual psychology. Descended from a family with many generations of seafarers, Henry Havelock Ellis was named after a distinguished soldier who was the hero of the Indian Mutiny. Early in life he sailed twice around the world and spent some years in Australia. In boarding school he had some unpleasant experiences suggesting a passive element in his character, and his attachments to women were often more friendships than erotic liaisons. At the age of 32 he married Edith Lees, a lesbian; after the first year of their marriage all sexual relations ceased, and both went on to a series of affairs with women. By nature an autodidact, Ellis obtained in 1889 only a licentiate in Medicine, Surgery, and Midwifery from the Society of Apothecaries – a somewhat inferior degree that always embarrassed him. More interested in his literary studies than in the practice of medicine, he nevertheless collected case histories mainly by correspondence, as his autobiography makes no mention of clinical practice.

ERA DE AQUARIUS: “In the atmosphere that prevailed after the disgrace of Oscar Wilde (May 1895), publication in England was problematic, but under doubtful auspices the English edition was released in November 1897.”

Sexual Inversion was the first book in English to treat homosexuality as neither disease nor crime, and if he dismissed the current notion that it was a species of <degeneracy> (in the biological sense), he also maintained that it was inborn and unmodifiable – a view that he never renounced. His book, couched in simple language, urged public toleration for what was then regarded as unnatural and criminal to the highest degree. To a readership conditioned from childhood to regard homosexual behavior with disgust and abhorrence, the book was beyond the limits of comprehension, and a radical publisher and bookseller named George Bedborough was duly prosecuted for issuing <a certain lewd wicked bawdy scandalous and obscene libel>” “The book was to appear in two later editions as the second volume of Ellis’ Studies in the Psychology of Sex, which in its final format extended to 7 volumes covering the whole of sexual science as it existed in the first three decades of the 20th century.” “Ellis never endorsed the explanations offered by Freud and the psychoanalytic school, so that the third edition of Sexual Inversion (1915), which was supplemented by material drawn from Magnus Hirschfeld’s Die Homosexualität des Mannes und des Weibes, published a year earlier, presented essentially the standpoint of 1904. The next in radical character was the measured discussion of masturbation, which Victorian society had been taught to regard with virtual paranoia as the cause of numberless ills.

EPHEBOPHILIA

The term ephebophilia seems to have been coined by Magnus Hirschfeld in his Wesen der Liebe (1906)

ANTI-AQUILINO (BANQUETE): “those with bearded faces who had outgrown the stage at which they were appropriate as the younger partners in pederasty, but not yet old enough to marry: the prime age for military service. The ancient Greek age of puberty was likely in the mid-teens rather than the younger ages typical of contemporary Western society.”

In other societies, ephebes are legally on a par with younger children, but in practice sexual activities with them are not as harshly repressed as with the younger group.”

The combination of heightened sexual energy with a lack of heterosexual outlets (owing to marriage ages in the twenties and restrictions on pre-marital opportunities) and low incomes (characteristic of males still in school, military service, or just beginning to acquire work experience) has in many societies made heterosexual ephebes more available for trade (one-sided) relationships with homosexuals than any other group of heterosexual males.

For many ephebophiles, the naïveté of ephebes is a source of attraction, their enthusiasm for new experiences (including sexual and romantic involvements) contrasted with what is perceived to be the more jaded and skeptical attitudes of other adults.”

The ancient Greeks acknowledged this trait with the term philephebos (fond of young men) and philoboupais (one who is fond of over-matured boys, <bull-boys> or <husky young men>), but generally slighted it in favor of the pederastic preference. Nevertheless, the athletic games of which the Greeks were so fond featured nude ephebes, the size of whose members received public acclaim, and the victors basked in adulation; Pindar wrote odes to them.”

In the 20th century, the dominance of the androphile model of male homosexuality has tended to subsume, appropriate, and obscure the ephebophile current, and to consider it as a mode of adult-adult relationships rather than as a distinctive type of preference.”

EPICUREANISM

Knowledge of Epicureanism, the classical rival of Stoicism, is fragmentary because Christians, disliking its atheistic materialism, belief in the accidental existence of the cosmos, and ethical libertarianism, either failed to copy or actually destroyed the detested works. Of all the numerous works composed in antiquity, only Lucretius’ philosophical poem De rerum natura survives intact. Diogenes Laertius reported that Epicurus wrote more than anyone else, including 37 books On Nature. A typical maxim: <We see that pleasure is the beginning and end of living happily>.

Epicurus (341-270 BC), the founder of the school, served as an ephebe in Athens at 18 and then studied at the Academy, a fellow classmate of Menander, when Aristotle was absent in Chalcis. Having taught abroad, where he combatted the atomist philosophy of Democritus, he returned to Athens and bought his house with a garden in 307-6. There he taught until his death, allowing women and slaves to participate in his lessons – to the shock of traditionalists. Only a few lines of his works survive. Apparently he likened sexual object choice, whether of women or boys, to food preferences – a parallel that often recurred in later times. His beloved Metrodorus predeceased him.

[O LEITMOTIF INCONSCIENTE DO BLOG] The Epicurean school, consisting of scholars who secluded themselves from society in Epicurus’ garden, lived modestly or even austerely. Stoics, however, libeled the secretive Epicureans because of their professed hedonism, accusing them of profligacy of every kind despite the fact that Epicurus felt that pleasure could be attained only in restraint of some pursuits that in the long run bring more pain than the temporary pleasure they seem to offer. Natural pleasures are easily satisfied, others being unnecessary. The ideal was freedom from destiny by satisfying desire and avoiding the pain of desires too difficult or impossible to satisfy. By freeing man from fear of gods and an afterlife and by teaching him to avoid competition in politics and business it liberates him from emotional turmoil. Friendship was extremely important to Epicureans.”

Lucretius (ca. 94-55 BC) seems not to have added any ideas to those taught by Epicurus himself. But others, like the fabulously rich general Lucullus, whose banquets became proverbial, excused their gross sensuality by references to Epicurus’ maxims. Julius Caesar proclaimed himself an Epicurean. Under the Empire Stoicism vanquished its rival and vied with Christianity, which when triumphant anathematized Epicureanism.”

the Soviet Communists, who naturally ranked Epicurus above Plato as the greatest philosopher of antiquity.” ???

Gassendi (1592-1655) [neo-epicurean] exerted enormous influence on both Newton and Leibniz.”

FAGGOT

One of the most persistent myths that have gained a foot-hold in the gay movement is the belief that faggot derives from the basic meaning of <bundle of sticks used to light a fire>, with the historical commentary that when witches were burned at the stake, <only presumed male homosexuals were considered low enough to help kindle the fires>.

The English word has in fact three forms: faggot, attested by the Oxford English Dictionary from circa 1300; fadge, attested from 1588; and faggald, which the Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue first records from 1375. The first and second forms have the additional meaning <fat, slovenly woman> which according to the English Dialect Dictionary survived into the 19th century in the folk speech of England.

The homosexual sense of the term, unknown in England itself, appears for the first time in America in a vocabulary of criminal slang printed in Portland, Oregon in 1914, with the example <All the fagots (sissies) will be dressed in drag at the ball tonight>. The apocopated (clipped) form fag then arose by virtue of the tendency of American colloquial speech to create words of one syllable; the first quotation is from the book by Neis Anderson, The Hobo (1923): <Fairies or Fags are men or boys who exploit sex for profit.> The short form thus also has no connection with British fag as attested from the 19th century (for example, in the novel Tom Brown’s Schooldays) in the sense of <public school boy who performs menial tasks for an upper-classman>.

In American slang faggot/fag usurped the semantic role of bugger in British usage, with its connotations of extreme hostility and contempt bordering on death wishes. In more recent decades it has become the term of abuse par excellence in the mouths of heterosexuals, often just as an insult aimed at another male’s alleged want of masculinity or courage, rather than implying a sexual role or orientation.

The ultimate origin of the word is a Germanic term represented by the Norwegian dialect words fagg, <bundle, heap>, alongside bagge, <obese, clumsy creature> (chiefly of animals). From the latter are derived such Romance words as French bagasse and ltalian bagascia, <prostitute>, whence the parallel derivative bagascione whose meaning matches that of American English faggot/fag, while Catalan bagassejar signifies to faggot, <to frequent the company of loose women>.

The final proof that faggot cannot have originated in the burning of witches at the stake is that in English law both witchcraft and buggery were punishable by hanging, and that in the reign of the homosexual monarch James I the execution of heretics came to an end, so that by the time American English gave the word its new meaning there cannot have been in the popular mind even the faintest remnant of the complex of ideas credited to the term in the contemporary myth. It is purely and simply an Americanism of the 20th century.

Given the fact that the term faggot cannot refer to burning at the stake, why does the myth continue to enjoy popularity in the gay movement? On the conscious level it serves as a device with which to attack the medieval church, by extension Christianity in toto, and finally all authority. On another level, it may linger as a <myth of origins>, a kind of collective masochistic ritual that willingly identifies the homosexual as victim.

FASCISM

The term fascism derives from fasces, the bundles of rods carried by the lictors of ancient Rome to symbolize the unity of classes in the Republic. Fascism is the authoritarian movement that arose in Italy in the wake of World War I. Although Hitler admired its founder Mussolini and imitated him at first – the term Führer is modeled on Duce – one cannot simply equate his more radical National Socialist movement with the Italian phenomenon, as writers of the left are prone to do.”

Not essentially racist like Nazism or anti-bourgeois like Marxism, Italian fascism, with its corporative binding of workers and employers, has been less consistently hostile to homosexuals.”

Mussolini also argued in a discussion of a draft penal code in 1930 that because Italians, being virile, were not homosexuals, Italy needed no law banning homosexual acts, which he believed only degenerate foreigners to practice. A ban would only frighten such tourists away, and Italy needed the money they spent to improve its balance of payments and shore up its sagging economy. Napoléon had promulgated his code, which did not penalize homosexual acts between consenting adults, in northern Italy in 1810, and thus decriminalized sodomy. It had already been decriminalized in Tuscany by Grand Duke Leopold, the enlightened brother of Joseph II. The Albertine Code of 1837 for Piedmont-Sardinia was extended to all its dominions after the House of Savoy created a united Kingdom of Italy, a task completed in 1870. Pervasive was the influence of the jurist Marquis Cesare Beccaria, who argued against cruel and unusual punishments and against all offenses motivated by religious superstition and fanaticism.

Thus Italy with its age-old <Mediterranean homosexuality> in which women were protected, almost secluded – upper-class girls at least in the South being accompanied in public by dueñas –, had like other Latin countries allowed female prostitution and closed its eyes to homosexuality. As such it had became the playground par excellence during the grand tour of the English milords, and also the refuge of exiles and émigrés from the criminal sanctions of the Anglo-American common law and the Prussian code. The Prussian Code was extended in 1871-72 to the North and then South German territories incorporated in the Reich, including ones where the Code Napoleon had prevailed in the early part of the century. Byron and John Addington Symonds took refuge in Italy, as William Beckford did in Portugal and Oscar Wilde in Paris. Friedrich Alfred Krupp’s playground was in Capri, Thomas Mann’s in Venice, and Count Adelswárd Fersen’s also in Capri.”

Personally, Mussolini was somewhat of a sexual acrobat, in that he had a succession of mistresses and often took time out in the office to have sex with one or another of his secretaries.”

Believing in military strength through numbers, Mussolini did more than Hitler to subsidize parents of numerous progeny, thus hoping to increase Italy’s population from 40 to 60 million.”

However, after he formed the Rome-Berlin Axis with Hitler in 1936, Mussolini began, under Nazi influence, to persecute homosexuals and to promulgate anti-Semitic decrees in 1938 and 1939, though these were laxly enforced, and permitted exceptions, such as veterans of World War I.”

Oppressing homosexuals more than Jews, Mussolini’s regime rounded up and imprisoned a substantial number, a procedure poignantly depicted in Ettore Scola’s excellent film A Special Day (1977).” “Even exclusive homosexuals, if they were not unlucky, survived fascism unscathed.”

Admiral Horthy seized control of Hungary from the communist Bela Kun in 1920 and as Regent unleashed a <White Terror> largely directed against Jews, two years before Mussolini marched on Rome with his black-shirts.”

Fascists were less consistent and more divided among themselves than even communists or Nazis. After all, they had no sacred text like Das Kapital or Mein Kampf, and further were not ruling only a single powerful country.” “Czechoslovakia, the only democracy in Central Europe to survive this period, simply continued the Austrian penal code of 1852 that penalized both male and female homosexuality.”

The great homosexual poet Federico García Lorca was shot by a death squad near Granada in 1936; it is said that they fired the bullets through his backside to <make the punishment fit the crime>.” “More than Mussolini, Franco resisted the theories and pressures of Hitler, whom he regarded as a despicable (and perhaps deranged) upstart. It has been argued that Franco was not a fascist at all and that he actually maintained a pro-Jewish policy, granting asylum to refugees from Nazi-occupied Europe and attempting to protect Sephardic Jews in the Balkan countries. In his last years he in fact liberalized Spain to a certain extent, allowing among other things a resurgence of gay bars, baths, and culture even before the accession of King Juan Carlos upon his death in 1975. Today Spain is one of the freest countries in Europe.”

Naturally Latins, like Slavs, being considered inferior peoples by Hitler, did not in general espouse racism (Hitler had to make the Japanese honorary Aryans to ally with them in the Tripartite Pact of 1937), so they had no reason to think of homosexuals in his terms.”

FASCIST PERVERSION, BELIEF IN

Fascism and National Socialism (Nazism) were originally distinct political systems, but their eventual international ties (the <Rome-Berlin axis>) led to the use of <fascist> as an umbrella term¹ by Communist writers anxious to avoid the implication that <National Socialism> was a type of socialism. Neither in Italy nor in Spain did the right-authoritarian political movements have a homosexual component. Rather it was in Weimar Germany that the right-wing paramilitary groups which constituted the nucleus of the later National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) attracted a considerable number of homosexuals whose erotic leanings overlapped with the male bonding of the party. This strong male bonding, in the later judgment of their own leaders, gave the Nazis a crucial advantage in their victory over the rival Social Democratic and communist formations in the early 1930s.

The most celebrated of the homosexuals in the Nazi Party of the 1920s was Ernst Rohm, whose sexual proclivities were openly denounced by left-wing propagandists, but this did not deprive him of Hitler’s confidence until the putsch of June 30, 1934, in which he and many of his homosexual comrades in arms were massacred.”

¹ Discordo, mas segue o jogo.

theorists such as Wilhelm Reich who were opposed to homosexuality [?] could claim that the right-wing youth were <becoming more homosexual>. The victory of National Socialism at the beginning of 1933 then reinforced Communist and émigré propagandists in their resort to <fascist perversion> as a rhetorical device with which they could abuse and vilify the regime that had defeated and exiled them – and which they hoped would be transient and unstable.

In particular, the statute by which Stalin restored the criminal sanctions against homosexuality that had been omitted from the penal codes of 1922 and 1926 was officially titled the <Law of March 7, 1934> – a pointed allusion to the anniversary of the National Socialist consolidation of power one year earlier.”

In the United States Maoists charged that the gay liberation movement of 1969 and the years following was an example of <bourgeois décadance> that would vanish once the triumph of socialism was achieved. “

Samuel Igra, Germany’s National Vice, London: Quality Press, 1945.

FILM

Adolescent alienation was the theme of Rebel without a Cause (1955), in which, however, the delicate Sal Mineo character dies so that James Dean can be united with Natalie Wood.”

In the book Midnight Express the hero admitted to a gay love affair in prison, but in the movie version (1978) he rejects a handsome fellow inmate’s advances.”

Screen biographies of gay people have had similar fates. Michelangelo and Cole Porter appear as joyful heterosexuals; Oscar Wilde could not be sanitized, to be sure, but he was presented in a <tasteful> manner (3 British versions, 2 in 1960, one in 1984). Recent screen biographies have been better; the documentary on the painter Paul Cadmus (1980) is open without being sensational; Prick Up Your Ears, on the life of Joe Orton, is as frank as one can wish, though it somehow misses the core of his personality.”

In The Third Sex (West Germany, 1959) a sophisticated older man has an entourage of teenage boys. Although this film purveys dated ideas of homosexuality, it went farther in explicitness than anything that Hollywood was able to do for over a decade. Federico Fellini’s celebrated La Dolce Vita (1960) is a multifaceted portrait of eternal decadence in chic circles in Rome.”

One breakthrough came in 1967 when the legendary Marlon Brando portrayed a closeted homosexual army officer in John Huston’s Reflections in a Golden Eye, a film which drew a <Condemned> rating from the Catholic Church.” Who gives a fuck (literally)!

Sunday Bloody Sunday: this film was notable for the shock experienced by straight audiences at a kissing scene between Peter Finch and Murray Head. Perhaps the most notorious of the gay directors was Rainer Werner Fassbinder, whose Fox and His Friends (1975) deals with homosexuality and class struggle. Fassbinder’s last film was his controversial version of a Genet novel, Querelle (1982). The death of Franco created the possibility of a new openness in Spanish culture, including a number of gay films. Influenced by Luis Buñuel, Law of Desire (1986) by Pedro Almodóvar is surely a masterpiece of comic surrealism.”

Already in the 1920s some major directors were known to be gay, including the German Friedrich W. Murnau and the Russian Sergei Eisenstein.”

During their lifetimes Charles Laughton and Montgomery Clift had to suffer fag-baiting taunts from colleagues, while Rock Hudson remained largely untouched by public scandal until his death from AIDS in 1985. Tyrone Power and Cary Grant were decloseted after their deaths. The sexuality of others, such as Errol Flynn and James Dean, remains the subject of argument. In Germany the stage actor and film director Gustav Grundgens managed to work through the Nazi period, even though his homosexuality was known to the regime.”

In 1969, however, hardcore porno arrived, apparently to stay. Some 50 theatres across the United States specialized in the genre, and where the authorities were willing to turn a blind eye, sexual acts took place there, stimulated by the films.”

Much of the early production was forgettable, but in 1971, in Boys in the Sand starring Casey Donovan (Cal Culver), the director-producer Wakefield Poole achieved a rare blend of sexual explicitness and cinematographic values.”

In the later 80s AIDS began to devastate porno-industry workers, gay and straight, and safe sex procedures became more rigorous on the set (it should be noted, however, that long before AIDS, by strict convention, pornographic film ejaculations were always conducted outside the body, so as to be graphically visible; hence film sex was always basically <safe sex>).”

PROVAVELMENTE ULTRAPASSADO: “Lesbian porno exists only as scenes within films addressed to heterosexual males, their being, thus far, no market for full-length lesbian films of this nature. A number of independent lesbian film-makers have made candid motion pictures about lesbian life, but they are not pornographic.”

Carel Rowe, The Baudelairean Cinema: A Trend Within the American Avant-Garde, Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1982.

FLAUBERT

From his early years at the lycée onward, he preferred the pen to his father’s scalpel, and single-handedly edited a minor journal, the Colibri, that clumsily but clearly foretold his future talent. In Paris he read Law but never took the degree for reasons of health, and there met Maxime Du Camp, with whom he formed a close friendship. Together they traveled through Brittany and Normandy in 1847, bringing back a volume of reminiscences that was to be published only after Flaubert’s death (Par les champs et par les grèves, 1885). Between October of 1849 and May of 1851 the two traveled in Egypt and Turkey, and there Flaubert had a number of pédérastie experiences which he related in his letters to Louis Bouilhet.”

BORING FASHION: “On his return to France Flaubert shut himself up in his country house at Croisset, near Rouen. Instead of aspiring to self-discovery in the manner of the Romanticists, Flaubert sought to bury his own personality by striving for the goal of art in itself, and he devoted his entire life to the quest for its secrets. His ferocious will to be in his works <like God>, everywhere and nowhere, explains the nerve-wracking effort that went into each of his novels, in which nothing is left to the free flow of inspiration, nothing is asserted without being verified, nothing is described that has not been seen.” “This explains the multiple versions that are periodically uncovered of almost every one of his works, with the sole exception of Madame Bovary (1857), which led to his being tried for offending public decency.”

In 1857 he traveled to Tunisia to collect material for a historical novel set in Carthage after the First Punic War. Salammbô (1862), abundantly documented, is so rich in sadistic scenes, including one of a mass child-sacrifice, that it horrified some contemporary readers.”

In 1874 he published La tentation de saint Antoine, a prose poem of great power and imagination. His last work, Bouvard et Pécuchet (issued posthumously in 1881), is an unfinished study in male bonding.”

Sodomy is a subject of conversation at table. You can deny it at times, but everyone starts ribbing you and you end up spilling the beans. Traveling for our own information and entrusted with a mission by the government, we regarded it as our duty to abandon ourselves to this manner of ejaculation. The occasion has not yet presented itself, but we are looking for one. The Turkish baths are where it is practiced. One rents the bath for 5 fr., including the masseurs, pipe, coffee, and linen, and takes one’s urchin into one of the rooms. – You should know that all the bath attendants are bardaches [homossexuais passivos].”

FOUCAULT

at the end of his life he surprised the world with 2 successor volumes with a different subject matter: the management of sexuality in ancient Greece and Rome. While completing these books he was already gravely ill, a fact that may account for their turgid, sometimes repetitive presentation. In June 1984 Michel Foucault died in Paris of complications resulting from AIDS.”

O CONTINENTE SE ESMIGALHA: “Discontent with the systems of Marx and Freud and their contentious followers had nonetheless left an appetite for new <mega-theories>, which the Anglo-Saxon pragmatic tradition was unable to satisfy.”

This concept of discontinuity was all the more welcome as the ground had been prepared by an influential American philosopher of science, Thomas Kuhn, whose concept of radical shifts in paradigm had been widely adopted. In vain did Foucault protest toward the end of his life that he was not the philosopher of discontinuity; he is now generally taken to be such.”

Not since Jean-Paul Sartre had France given the world a thinker of such resonance. Yet Foucault’s work shows a number of key weaknesses. Not gifted with the patience for accumulating detail that since Aristotle has been taken to be a hallmark of the historian’s craft, he often spun elaborate theories from scanty empirical evidence. He also showed a predilection for scatter-gun concepts such as episteme, discourse, difference, and power; in seeking to explain much, these talismans make for fuzziness. Foucauldian language has had a seductive appeal for his followers, but repetition dulls the magic and banalization looms.”

FOURIER

French Utopian philosopher and sexual radical. Fourier spent much of his life in Lyon, trapped in a business world which he hated with a passion. Disillusioned in childhood by the dishonesty and hypocrisy of the people around him, he gradually formulated an elaborate theory of how totally to transform society in a Utopian world of the future known as Harmony, in which mankind would live in large communes called Phalansteries.

Fourier hid his sexual beliefs from his contemporaries, and it was more than a century after his death before his main erotic work, Le nouveau monde amoureux, was first published. (…) Fourier did not believe that anyone under 16 had any sexual feelings, nor did he understand the psychology of sadism, pedophilia, or rape, so that his sexual theories are not entirely suitable for modem experimentation. (…) He recognized male homosexuals and lesbians as biological categories long before Krafft-Ebing created the modern concept of immutable sexual <perversions>.” “He wrote some fictional episodes in the vein of William Beckford, one of which describes the seduction of a beautiful youth by an older man.”

FRANCE

French politics and literature have exercised an incalculable influence on other countries, from England to Quebec, from Senegal to Vietnam. Whether justified or not, a reputation for libertine hedonism clings to the country, and especially to its capital, Paris – by far the largest city of northern Europe from the 12th to the 18th centuries (when London surpassed it), making France a barometer of changing sexual mores.”

The heavy-drinking later Merovingians, descendants of the Frankish king Merovech and his grandson Clovis, who conquered all Gaul, were barbarians who indulged their sensual appetites freely. Lack of control allowed considerable sexual license to continue into the more Christianized Carolingian period (late 8th-9th centuries), and probably to increase during the feudal anarchy that followed the Viking invasions of the 9th and 10th, but in the 11th century the church moved to regulate private conduct according to its own strict canons.”

The term sodomia, which appears in the last decades of the 12th century [?], covered bestiality, homosexual practices, and <unnatural> heterosexual relations of all kinds.” “Popes organized the Inquisition against them and invoked the bloody Albigensian Crusade which devastated much of Languedoc, homeland of a sensual culture tinged by Moslem influences from the south. The word bougre itself survives to this day as English bugger, which in Great Britain, apart from legal usage, remains a coarse and virtually obscene expression.”

The guilt of the Templars remains moot to this day; while some may have been involved in homosexual liaisons, the political atmosphere surrounding the investigation and the later controversy made impartial judgment impossible. A persistent fear of sexuality and a pathetic inability to stamp out its proscribed manifestations, even with periodic burning of offenders at the stake and strict regulations within the cloister, plagued medieval society to the end.”

Henri III was celebrated for his mignons, the favorites drawn from the ranks of the petty nobility – handsome, gorgeously attired and adorned adolescents and magnificent swordsmen ready to sacrifice their lives for their sovereign. Although the king had exhibited homosexual tendencies earlier in life, these became more marked after a stay in Venice in 1574. Yet neither he nor the mignons scorned the opposite sex in their pursuit of pleasure, and there is no absolute proof that any of this circle expressed their desires genitally. Yet a whole literature of pamphlets and lampoons by Protestants and by Catholic extremists, both of whom disapproved of the king’s moderate policy, was inspired by the life of the court of Henri III until his assassination in 1589.”

Even the entourage of Cardinal Richelieu included the Abbé Boisrobert, patron of the theatre and the arts, and founder of the French Academy, the summit of French intellectual life. His proclivities were so well known that he was nicknamed <the mayor of Sodom>, while the king who occupied the throne, Louis XIII, was surnamed <the chaste> because of his absolute indifference to the fair sex and to his wife Marie de Medici.”

In his posthumously published novel La religieuse, Denis Diderot indicted convents as hot-houses of lesbianism.”

The Revolution secured the release (though only for a time) of the imprisoned pansexual writer and thinker, the Marquis D.A.F. de Sade, who carried the transgressive strain in the Enlightenment to the ultimate limits of the imagination.”

The novels of Jean Genet, a former professional thief, treated male homosexuality with a pornographic frankness and style rich in imagery unparalleled in world literature. Genet enjoyed the patronage of the dominant intellectual of the time, the heterosexual Jean-Paul Sartre, who also wrote about homosexuality in other contexts.”

Innovations such as a computerized gay bulletin board – the Minitel – reached France, but also the tragic incursion of AIDS (in French, SIDA), spread in no small part from Haiti and the United States.”

FREE-MASONRY

The fraternal order of Free and Accepted Masons is a male secret society having adherents throughout the world. The order is claimed to have arisen from the English and Scottish fraternities of stone-masons and cathedral builders in the late Middle Ages. The formation of a grand lodge in London in 1717 marked the beginning of the spread of free-masonry on the continent as far east as Poland and Russia. From its obscure origins free-masonry gradually evolved into a political and benevolent society that vigorously promoted the ideology of the Enlightenment, and thus came into sharp and lasting antagonism with the defenders of the Old Régime.”

The slogan Liberty, Equality, Fraternity immortalized by the French Revolution is said to have begun in the lodges of the Martinist affiliate.”

FREUDIAN CONCEPTS

Five aspects of Freud’s psychoanalytic work are relevant to homosexuality, though by no means have all of them been fully appreciated in the discussion of the legal and social aspects of the subject. These include: (1) the psychology of sex; (2) the etiology of paranoia; (3) psychoanalytic anthropology; (4) the psychology of religion; and (5) the origins of Judaism and Christianity. In regard to the last two the psychoanalytic profession in the United States has notably shied away from the implications of the founder’s ideas, in no small part because of its accommodation to the norms of American culture, including popular Protestant religiosity.”

Freud pointed out that the pederast is attracted only to the male youth who has not yet lost his androgynous quality, so that it is the blend of masculine and feminine traits in the boy that arouses and attracts the adult male” “with a narcissistic starting point they seek youthful sexual partners resembling themselves, whom they then love as the mother loved them. He also determined that alleged inverts were not indifferent to female stimuli, but transferred their arousal to male objects.”

Recent investigations have sought to confirm this insight for paranoia in male subjects only, and in all likelihood it is related not just to the phenomenon of homosexual panic but to the generally higher level of societal anxiety and legal intolerance in regard to male as opposed to female homosexuality. This would also explain why lesbianism is invisible to the unconscious: the collective male psyche experiences no threat from female homosexuality.”

The outcome of Freud’s explorations in this direction [anthropology] was Totem and Taboo (1913), which despite the break with his Swiss colleague in that year is the most Jungian of all his works.” “While Hellenic civilization could distinguish between father-son and erastes-eromenos relationships, Biblical Judaism could not, and expanded its earlier prohibition of homosexual acts with a father or uncle to a generalized taboo. It is perhaps pertinent that pedophilia (sex with pre-pubertal children), as distinct from pederasty, usually involves members of the same family, not total strangers. Also, extending this mode of thinking, the fascination which some homosexual men have for partners of other races may be owing to the unconscious guilt that still adheres to a sexual relationship with anyone who could be even remotely related to them, which is to say a member of the same ethnic or racial group.” “Totemism and exogamy are the two halves of the familiar Oedipus complex, the attraction to the mother and the death wishes against the rival father.” “Freud then appealed to Robertson Smith’s writings on sacrifice and sacrificial feasts in which the totem is ceremonially slain and eaten, thus reenacting the original deed. The rite is followed by mourning and then by triumphant rejoicing and wild excesses –, the events serve to perpetuate the community and its identity with the ancestor. After thousands of years of religious evolution the totem became a god, and the complicated story of the various religions begins. This work of Freud’s has been condemned by anthropologists and other specialists, yet it may throw considerable light on aspects of Judeo-Christian myth and legend that cluster around the rivalry of the father and his adolescent son – in which the homosexual aggressor is, ostensibly, seeking to destroy the masculinity of his rival by <using him as a woman>.

Obsessional neurosis is a pathological counterpart of religion, while religion may be styled a collective obsessional neurosis.”

From the secondary sources that he had read, Freud surmised that the lawgiver Moses was an Egyptian who had opted for exile after religious counter-revolution had undone the reforms of the first monotheist, Akhenaten. His Egyptian retinue became the Levites, the elite of the new religious community which received its law code, not from him, but from the Midianite priest of a volcanic deity, Jahweh, at the shrine of Kadesh Barnea. This last site, amusingly enough, presumably took its name from the bevy of male and female cult prostitutes who ministered at its shrine. The Biblical Moses is a fusion of the two historic figures.

Freud also, on the basis of a book published by the German Semiticist Ernst Sellin, posited the death of Moses in an uprising caused by his autocratic rule and apodictic pronouncements. The whole notion was based upon a reinterpretation of some passages in the book of Hosea, which because of its early and poetic character, not to speak of the problems of textual transmission, poses enormous difficulties even for the expert.” “Judaism is a religion of the father, Christianity a religion of the son, whose death on the cross and the institution of the eucharist are the last stage in the evolution that began with the slaying and eating of the totem animal by the primal horde.”

The particular emphasis with which Freud contradicted Magnus Hirschfeld’s notion that homosexuals were a biological third sex led – together with a tendency (not confined to psychoanalysis) to deny the constitutional bases of behavior – to the assertion that homosexuality was purely the result of <fixation> in an infantile stage of sexual development provoked by the action or inaction of the parents. (…) Thus in the popular mind the belief that homosexuality is somehow a failure of psychological development has its underpinning in the Freudian concepts.”

his legacy has quietly worked in favor of toleration”

FRIENDSHIP, FEMALE ROMANTIC

When Sarah’s family discovered that she had run off with a woman instead of a man, they were relieved – her reputation would not suffer any irreparable harm (as it would have had her accomplice been male). Her relative Mrs. Tighe observed, <Sarah’s conduct, though it has an appearance of imprudence, is I am sure void of serious impropriety. There were no gentlemen concerned, nor does it appear to be anything more than a scheme of Romantic Friendship.> The English, during the second half of the 18th century, prized sensibility, faithfulness, and devotion in a woman, but forbade her significant contact with the opposite sex before she was betrothed. It was reasoned, apparently, that young women could practice these sentiments on each other so that when they were ready for marriage they would have perfected themselves in those areas. It is doubtful that women viewed their own romantic friendships in such a way, but – if we can place any credence in 18th century English fiction as a true reflection of that society – men did. Because romantic friendship between women served men’s self-interest in their view, it was permitted and even socially encouraged. The attitude of Charlotte Lennox’s hero in Euphemia (1790) is typical. Maria Harley’s uncle chides her for her great love for Euphemia and her obstinate grief when Euphemia leaves for America, and he points out that her fiancé <has reason to be jealous of a friendship that leaves him but second place in Maria’s affection>; but the fiancé responds, <Miss Harley’s sensibility on this occasion is the foundation of all my hopes. From a heart so capable of a sincere attachment, the man who is so happy as to be her choice may expect all the refinements of a delicate passion, with all the permanence of a generous friendship.>

The most complete fictional blueprint for conducting a romantic friendship is Sarah Scott’s A Description of Millennium Hall (1762), a novel which went through four editions by 1778.”

Mrs. Delany’s description of her own first love (in The Autobiography and Correspondence of Mrs. Delany, ed. Sara L. Woolsey) is typical of what numerous autobiographies, diaries, letters, and novels of the period contained. As a young woman, she formed a passionate attachment to a clergyman’s daughter, whom she admired for her <uncommon genius … intrepid spirit … extraordinary understanding, lively imagination, and humane disposition.> They shared <secret talk> and <whispers> together –, they wrote to one another every day, and met in the fields between their fathers’ houses at every opportunity. <We thought that day tedious,> Mrs. Delany wrote years later, <that we did not meet, and had many stolen interviews>. Typical of many youthful romantic friendships, it did not last long (at the age of 17, Mrs. Delany was given in marriage to an old man), but it provided fuel for the imagination which idealized the possibilities of what such a relationship might be like without the impingement of cold marital reality. Because of such girlhood intimacies (which were often cut off in an untimely manner), most women would have understood when those attachments were compared with heterosexual love by the female characters in 18th century novels, and were considered, as Lucy says in William Hayley’s The Young Widow, <infinitely more valuable>. They would have had their own frame of reference when in those novels, women adopted the David and Jonathan story for themselves and swore that they felt for each other (again as Lucy says) <a love passing the Love of Men>, or proclaimed as does Anne Hughes, the author of Henry and Isabella (1788), that such friendships are <more sweet, interesting, and to complete all, lasting, than any other which we can ever hope to possess; and were a just account of anxiety and satisfaction to be made out, would, it is possible, in the eye of rational estimation, far exceed the so-much boasted pleasure of love.>

Saint Mery, who recorded his observations of his 1793-1798 journey, was shocked by the <unlimited liberty> which American young ladies seemed to enjoy, and by their ostensible lack of passion toward men. The combination of their independence, heterosexual passionlessness, and intimacy with each other could have meant only one thing to a Frenchman

in the 1790s: that <they are not at all strangers to being willing to seek unnatural pleasures with persons of their own sex>. It is as doubtful that great masses of middle and upper-class young ladies gave themselves up to homosexuality as it is that they gave themselves up to heterosexual intercourse before marriage. But the fiction of the period corroborates that St. Mery saw American women behaving openly as though they were in love with each other. Charles Brockden Brown’s Ormand, for example, suggests that American romantic friends were very much like their English counterparts.”

But love between women, at least as it was lived in women’s fantasies, was far more consuming than the likes of Casanova could believe. Women dreamed not of erotic escapades but of a blissful life together. In such a life a woman would have choices; she would be in command of her own destiny; she would be an adult relating to another adult in a way that a heterosexual relationship with a virtual stranger (often an old or at least a much older man), arranged by a parent for consideration totally divorced from affection, would not allow her to be. Samuel Richardson permitted Miss Howe to express the yearnings of many a frustrated romantic friend when she remarked to Clarissa, <How charmingly might you and I live together and despise them all>.”

FRIENDSHIP, MALE

For Plato, friendship is rather part of the philosopher’s quest: a link between the world of the senses in which we live and the eternal world.”

How could the masculinity of a youth be preserved in a homosexual relationship with an older man? That was the kernel of the problem for the Greeks. For the Romans it was the perennial anxiety that a free citizen might take a passive role in a sexual relationship with a slave. Homosexuality in itself was not the problem for either: it was in the forms that homosexuality might take that the difficulty lay.”

Homosexuality and friendship: they may well appear at first as two discrete histories, one of society and the other of sexuality. But if one tries to follow their subterranean currents in the Europe of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, one will end by finding oneself drawn into writing about something larger. One will find oneself writing about power and the power not only of judges but of words.”

Marriage itself was redefined, with implicit consequences for friendship. A society that had observed the tradition of arranged marriages between unequal partners was confronted with a need for change. Under the influence of the middle-class ideology of the 18th century, society now accepted the principle of a marriage founded upon the affinity of equals, upon love rather than family interest. In this sense husband and wife could now be friends, and friendship was no longer invested with an exclusively homo-social character. The decisive shift in this direction occurred in England, where the Industrial Revolution and the ideology of classical liberalism went hand in hand.”

So Romanticism revived the classical model of friendship for which Hellenic antecedents could always be held up as an ideal by such homosexual admirers of antiquity as Johann Joachim Winckelmann, a thinker who in Goethe’s words <felt himself born for a friendship of this kind> and <became conscious of his true self only under this form of friendship>.”

While Ernst Röhm could boast, late in 1933, that the homoerotic component in the SA and SS had given the Nazis the crucial edge in their struggle against the Weimar system, homophobic writers could call for the suppression of all forms of overt male homosexuality and the enactment of even more punitive laws – which were in fact adopted in 1935.”

Certain women feel more comfortable in their dealings with gay men, just because they know that they do not have to be constantly on guard against sexual aggression, but can have close relationships, both social and professional, that attain high levels of creativity and imagination.”

The use of friend or friendship as an euphemism for the homosexual partner (lover) and the liaison itself persists. Recently the compilers of newspaper obituary columns have taken to describing the lifelong companion of a deceased homosexual as <his friend>, in contexts where a heterosexual would be survived by the spouse and children.” Haha

Edward Carpenter, Ioläus: An Anthology of Friendship (1902)

GAMES, GAY

Anyone was allowed to compete regardless of race, sex, age, nationality, sexual orientation, religion, or athletic ability. In keeping with the Masters Movement in sports, athletes competed with others in their own age group. The track and field and swimming events were officially sanctioned by their respective national masters programs. Athletes participated, not as representatives of their respective countries, but as individuals on behalf of cities and towns. There were no minimum qualifying standards in any events.”

The organizers of the Gay Games have experienced considerable legal difficulties. Before the 1982 Gay Games, the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) filed a court action against the organizers of the Gay Games, which were going to be called the Gay Olympic Games. In 1978, the United States Congress passed the Amateur Sports Act which, among other things, granted the USOC exclusive use of the word Olympic. Although the USOC had allowed the Rat Olympics, Police Olympics, and Dog Olympics, it took exception to the term Gay Olympic Games. Two years later, the USOC continued its harassment of the Gay Games and filed suit to recover legal fees in the amount of $96,600.”

GAY

The word gay (though not its 3 later slang meanings) stems from the Old Provençal gai, <high spirited, mirthful>. A derivation of this term in turn from the Old High German gahi, <impetuous> (cf. modem German jah, <sudden>), though attractive at first sight, seems unlikely. Gai was a favorite expression among the troubadours, who came to speak of their intricate art of poetry as gai saber, <gay knowledge>. Despite assertions to the contrary, none of these uses reveals any particular sexual content. In so far as the word gay or gai has acquired a sexual meaning in Romance languages, as it has very recently, this connotation is entirely owing to the influence of the American homosexual liberation movement as a component of the American popular culture that has swamped the non-Communist world.

Beginning in the 17th century, the English word gay began to connote the conduct of a playboy or dashing man about town, whose behavior was not always strictly moral but not totally depraved either; hence the popularity of such expressions as <gay lothario>, <gay deceiver>, and <gay blade>. Applied to women in the 19th century (or perhaps somewhat before), it came to mean <of loose morals; a prostitute>: <As soon as a woman has ostensibly lost her reputation we, with grim inappositeness, call her gay> (Sunday Times, London, 1868).”

The expansion of the term to mean homosexual man constitutes a tertiary stage of modification, the sequence being lothario, then female prostitute, then homosexual man.”

The word (and its equivalents in other European languages) is attested in the sense of <belonging to the demimonde> or <given to illicit sexual pleasures>, even specifically to prostitution, but nowhere with the special homosexual sense that is reinforced by the antonym straight, which in the sense of heterosexual was known exclusively in the gay subculture until quite recently.”

Although it has not been found in print before 1933 (when it appears in Noel Ersine’s Dictionary of Underworld Slang as gay cat, <a homosexual boy>), it is safe to assume that the usage must have been circulating orally in the United States for a decade or more. (As Jack London explains in The Road of 1907, gay cat originally meant – or so he thought – an apprentice hobo, without reference to sexual orientation.) In 1955 the English journalist Peter Wildblood defined gay as <an American euphemism for homosexual>, at the same time conceding that it had made inroads in Britain. Grammatically, the word is an adjective, and there has been some resistance to the use of gay, gays as nouns, but this opposition seems to be fading.”

Many lesbian organizations now reject the term gay, restricting it to men, hence the spread of such binary phrases as <gay and lesbian> and <lesbian and gay people>.”

GAY STUDIES

Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825-1895), whose Forschungen zur mannmännhchen Liebe (Researches on Love between Males), published from 1864 to 1870, ranged in an encyclopedic manner over the history, literature, and ethnography of past and present.”

In England John Addington Symonds may be considered the first gay scholar, since he composed two privately printed works, A Problem in Greek Ethics and A Problem in Modern Ethics, the latter of which introduced to the English-speaking world the recent findings of continental psychiatrists and the new vision of Ulrichs and Walt Whitman. Symonds was also a major contributor to the first edition of Havelock Ellis’ Sexual Inversion (German 1896, English 1897). At the same time the American university president Andrew Dickson White quietly inserted into his 2-volume History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom (1896) a comprehensive analysis and demolition of the Sodom legend. In the same year Marc-André Raffalovich published his Uranisme et unisexualité (Uranism and unisexuality), with copious bibliographical and literary material, some from German authors of the 19th century, which he supplemented at intervals in a series of articles in the Archives d’anthropologie criminelle down to World War I.”

psychoanalytic biographies of famous homosexuals, a genre initiated by Freud’s philologically rather weak Eine Kindheitserinnerung des Leonardo da Vinci (A Childhood Reminiscence of Leonardo da Vinci; 1910).”

The interest of geneticists in twin studies led to some papers on the sexual orientation of monozygotic and dizygotic twins, a field pioneered by Franz Kallmann. While certain issues continue to be disputed, the study of monozygotic twin pairs has revealed concordances as marked as those for intelligence and other character traits, albeit with a complexity in the developmental aspect of the personality that earlier thinkers had not fully appreciated.”

black studies and women’s studies are by their very nature interdisciplinary. In 1976, for example, ONE Institute, the independent Los Angeles homophile education foundation, articulated the subject in the following fields: anthropology, history, psychology, sociology, education, medicine and biology, psychiatry, law and its enforcement, military, religion and ethics, biography and autobiography, literature and the arts, the homophile movement, and transvestism and transsexualism (An Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality, New York, 1976).”

In anthropology there is a continuing temptation to ethno-romanticism, that is over-idealizing the exotic culture one is studying, viewing it as natural, non-repressive, organic, and so forth.”

GENET, JEAN

The homosexuality of Genet’s characters is explicit, and the scenes of love-making attain the limit of physical and psychological detail, recounted in the argot of the French criminal underworld (which largely defies English translation) and in a style once possible only in pornographic novels sold <under the counter>. If the homosexuality of the heroes of Genet’s novels has a strong sado-masochistic component, their love is depicted with honesty and tenderness. The plot construction borders on free association, while the sordid and brutal aspects of male love are not suppressed or denied.” “Since French writing shapes literary trends throughout the world, the influence of Genet on future depictions of homosexual experience is likely to mount.”

GERMANY

In the Passion of Saint Pelagius composed in Latin by Roswitha (Hrotswith) of Gandersheim, there is the story of the son of the king of Galicia in Spain who, captured by the Moslem invaders, was approached by Abderrahman with offers of the highest honors if he would submit to his pederastic advances but violently refused – at the cost of his life. The Latin poem on Lantfrid and Cobbo relates the love of two men, one homosexual, the other bisexual. A High German version of Solomon and Mololf composed about 1190 makes an allusion to sodomy, while the Eneid of Heinrich von Veldeke has the mother of Lavinia, the daughter of King Latinus of Italy accuse Aeneas of being a notorious sodomite to dissuade her from marrying him. Moriz von Craun, a verse narrative of ca. 1200, makes the emperor Nero the archetype of the mad sodomite, who even wishes to give birth to a child. In his rhymed Flauenbuch (1257), Ulrich von Lichtenstein presents a debate between a knight and a lady, in which the latter accuses men of preferring hunting, drinking, and boy-love to the service of women. About the same time the Austrian poet Der Strieker used references to Sodom and Gomorrah in his negative condemnation.”

Prussia was the first German state that in 1794 abolished the death penalty for sodomy and replaced it with imprisonment and flogging. After 1810 many states (including Bavaria, Württemberg, and Hannover) followed the model of the Code Napoleon in France and introduced complete impunity for homosexual acts, a policy reversed in 1871 in favor of the anti-homosexual Paragraph 175 of the uniform Imperial Penal Code.”

In German poetry, however, the homosexual theme was rare before the 19th century. Friendship between men is, to be sure, a frequent subject of poetry (especially in Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock, Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim, Wilhelm Heinse, even in Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen and others), but the amicable feelings depicted in them are clearly demarcated from the longing of pederasts and sodomites, and the boundary between friendship and sexuality is seldom if ever crossed (though possibly in F.W.B. von Ramdohr, Venus Urania, 1798, Part 2, pp. 103ff.)”

The flowering of a gay movement in the first third of the 20th century was the outstanding feature that set the homosexuals in Germany apart from those in other countries.”

The campaign for the abolition of Paragraph 175 provoked an enormous literature of books, pamphlets, and articles pro and con, so extensive that by 1914 the criminologist Hans Gross could write that everything that anyone could ever have to say on the subject had by then appeared in print. There was also a profusion of gay and lesbian poetry, short stories, and novels. Such mainstream authors as Hans Henny Jahnn, Klaus Mann, Thomas Mann, Anna Elisabet Weihrauch, and Christa Winsloe also discussed the theme. This cultural efflorescence lent substance to the claim of Weimar Germany to be a land of cultural innovation, though to be sure the Republic had its dark side as well.”

If until then Germany was probably unique and unparalleled in the world in terms of governmental liberalism and of opportunities for homosexual life, then the same was true in reverse for the Nazi era from 1933 to 1945: at least 10,000 homosexual men, stigmatized with the pink triangle, were confined in German concentration camps under the Holocaust during those 12 years, and many of them were killed.”

In West Germany after about 1948 conditions returned to what they had been before 1933. Although the Nazi version of Paragraph 175 remained on the books, homosexual organizations, bars, and gay magazines were tolerated in many West German cities and in West Berlin. In East Germany, to be sure, only the milder pre-1933 version of paragraph 175 was in force, but homosexual life was subject to restrictions on the part of the state and the police, so that gay men and lesbians had scarcely any opportunity to organize and express their views freely.”

Richard Plant, The Pink Triangle, New York: Henry Holt, 1986.

GIDE, ANDRÉ

In 1891 Gide met Oscar Wilde, the flamboyant aesthete, who set about ridding him of his inhibitions – with seductive grace. Gide’s first really striking work of moral <subversion> was Les Nourritures terrestres (The Fruits of the Earth, 1897), a set of lyrical exhortations to a fictional youth, Nathanaël, who is urged to free himself of the Christian sense of sin and cultivate the life of the senses with sincerity and independence. During the political turmoil of the 1930s Gide returned to the same themes and stylistic manners in Les nouvelles nourritures (1935).”

In 1895 he married his cousin, Madeleine Rondeaux, and suffered an acute conflict between her strict Christian values and his own yearning for self-liberation, together with his awakening homosexual drives. The never-ending battle within himself between the puritan and the pagan, the Biblical and the Nietzschean, caused his intellect to oscillate between two poles that are reflected in his succeeding books. In Les Caves du Vatican (The Vatican Cellars, 1914), the hero, Lafcadio, <lives dangerously> according to the Gidean formula and commits a seemingly senseless murder as a psychologically liberating <gratuitous act>. A further series of short novels have an ironic structure dominated by the viewpoint of a single character, while his major novel, Les Fauxmonnayeurs (The Counterfeiters, 1926) has a Chinese-box like structure meant to reflect the disorder and complexity of real life.”

Limited in scope as they were, Gide’s four dialogues constituted a remarkable achievement for their time by blending personal experience, the French literary mode of detached presentation of abnormal behavior, the traditional appeal to ancient Greece, and the then quite young science of ethology – the comparative study of the behavior of species lower on the evolutionary scale.”

Gide, Retour de l’U.R.S.S. (Back from the USSR, 1936)

GILGAMESH

This Mesopotamian figure ranks as the first tragic hero in world literature. The Epic of Gilgamesh has survived in Sumerian, Akkadian, and Hittite versions that go back to the 3rd millennium before our era. Lost from sight until the decipherment of the cuneiform script retrieved the literatures of early Mesopotamia, the epic is a blend of pure adventure, morality, and tragedy. Only the final version, that of Assurbanipal’s library in Nineveh, has survived in virtually complete form, but all the episodes in the cycle existed as separate poems in Sumerian. The setting of the story is the 3rd millennium, and the original language was Sumerian, the Paleoeurasian speech of the first literate civilization of Mesopotamia, which continued like Latin to be copied as a dead language of past culture even after it was displaced by the Eastern Semitic Akkadian.”

Gilgamesh is announced at the outset as a hero: two-thirds god and one-third man, endowed by the gods with strength, with beauty, with wisdom. His sexual demands upon the people of Uruk are insatiable: <No son is left with his father, for Gilgamesh takes them all . . . His lust leaves no virgin to her lover, neither the warrior’s daughter nor the wife of the noble.> In reply to their complaints Aruru, the goddess of creation, forms Enkidu out of clay. <His body was rough, he had long hair like a woman’s. He was innocent of mankind; he knew not the cultivated land.> To tame the wild man a harlot offers her services, <she made herself naked and welcomed his eagerness, she incited the savage to love and taught him the woman’s art.> At the conclusion, the transforming power of eros has humanized him; the wild animals flee from him, sensing that as a civilized man he is no longer one of them. The metamorphosis from the subhuman and savage to his new self proves strikingly how love is the force behind civilization.”

Gilgamesh has two dreams with symbolism which presages the homoerotic relationship which the gods have planned for him and the challenger Enkidu. In the Akkadian text there are puns on the words lusru, <ball (of fire), meteorite>, andiezru, <male with curled hair>, the counterpart of the harlot, and on hassinu, <axe>, and assinu, <male prostitute>. Gilgamesh’s superior energy and wisdom set him apart from others and make him lonely; he needs a male companion who can be his intimate and his equal at the same time, while their male bond stimulates and inspires them to action. After a wrestling match between Enkidu and Gilgamesh in which the latter triumphs, the two become comrades. Their erotic drive is not lost, but rather transformed and directed to higher objects; it leads to a homoerotic relationship that entails the rejection of Ishtar, the goddess of love. A liaison of this kind is not contingent on the physical beauty of the lover, it endures until death. Gilgamesh himself abandons his earlier oppressive conduct toward Uruk and comes to behave like a virtuous ruler who pursues the noble goals of fame and immortality through great deeds. But a dream warns Gilgamesh: <The father of the gods has given you kingship (but) everlasting life is not your destiny … Do not abuse this power, deal justly with your servants in the palace.>

To obtain the secret of everlasting life he journeys far across the sea to Utnapishtim, who tells him the Babylonian version of the story of the Deluge. On his return he carries with him a flower that has the power of conferring eternal youth, but loses it to a serpent lying beside a pool and so reaches Uruk empty-handed, yet still able to engrave the tale of his journey in stone. Gilgamesh has been transformed by a love that makes him seek not the pleasures of the moment, but virtue, wisdom, and immortality, hence the motif of the epic is that male bonding is a positive ingredient of civilization itself.

George F. Held, “Parallels between The Gilgamesh Epic and Plato’s Symposium”, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 42 (1983) (artigo)

GOETHE

BIOGRAFIAS PARTE II & III: “Settling at Weimar under the patronage of the ducal heir and elected to the Privy Council, he became leader in that intellectual center, associating with Wieland, Herder, and later Schiller. His visit to Italy recorded in Italienische Reise and probably involving pederastic adventures inspired him anew as did his intimate friendship with Schiller. Even after he married in 1806 he continued his frequent love affairs with women. His autobiographical Wilhelm Meister, a Bildungsroman or novel of character formation [probably boring…], and the second part of Faust (in 1832), exalted his reputation further, although he was already first in German literature. The non-exhaustive Weimar edition of his works extends to over 130 volumes.

Knaben hebt ich wohl auch, doch

lieber sind mir die Mädchen,

Hab ich als Mädchen sie sätt, dient

sie als Knabe mir noch.

If I have had enough of one as a girl, she still serves me as a boy.”

In the play Egmont (1788) the hero’s enemy Alba is embarrassed by his son’s intense emotional bonding with Egmont. The figure of Mignon, the waif girl in Wilhelm Meister, could be androgynous. In his Travels in Switzerland [DV] he waxed rapturous over the sight of a nude comrade bathing in the lake, and in the West Eastern Divan (1819, enlarged edition, 1827), he used the pretext of being inspired by Persian poetry to allude to the <pure> love which a handsome cupbearer evokes from his master (sec. 9).”

GREECE, ANCIENT

Paiderasteia, or the love of an adult male for an adolescent boy, was invested with a particular aura of idealism and integrated firmly into the social fabric. The erastes or lover was a free male citizen, often a member of the upper social strata, and the eromenos or beloved was a youth between 12 and 17, occasionally somewhat older. Pedophilia, in the sense of erotic interest in young children, was unknown to the Greeks and the practice never approved by them. An interesting question, however, is what was the average age of puberty for ancient Greek boys? For some men (the philobupais type), the boy remained attractive after the growth of the first beard, for most he was not – exactly as with the modern pederast.”

It formed part of the process of initiation of the adolescent into the society of adult males, of his apprenticeship in the arts of the hunter and warrior. The attachment of the lover to his boy eroticized the process of learning, making it less arduous and more pleasurable, while reinforcing the bond between the mentor and his pupil.”

a biological universal – the physical beauty and grace of the adolescent that invest him with an androgynous quality soon lost when he reaches adulthood.”

The achievements of their own history necessarily rested upon the legacy of 3,000 years of cultural evolution in the Semitic and Hamitic nations. In technology and material culture they – and their successor peoples – never went far beyond the accomplishments of the non-Indo-European civilizations of the East. It was in the realm of theory and philosophy that the Greeks innovated – and created a new model of the state and society, a new conception of truth and justice that were the foundations of Western civilization.”

Sir Francis Galton calculated in the late 19th century that in the space of 200 years the population of Athens – a mere 45,000 adult male citizens [número controverso] – had produced 14 of the 100 greatest men of all time. This legacy – the <Greek miracle> – owed no small part of its splendor to the pederastic ethos that underlay its educational system and its civic ideal.”

Marriage and fatherhood were part of the life cycle of duties for which the initiation and training prepared the eromenos. Needless to say, family life did not hinder a male from pursuing boys or frequenting the geisha-like hetairai. Down to the 4th century BC, however, the really intense and reciprocal passion that the modern world calls romantic love was reserved for relationships between males. Only in the Hellenistic period (after 323 BC) was the additional possibility of love between man and wife recognized.”

A INSÂNIA E O RANCOR DO MESTRE: “The misinterpretations have been reinforced by the strictures of the elderly Plato in the Laws, where an element of resentment toward the young and of embitterment at his own failures and disappointments as a teacher seems to have been at work. This text, however it may anticipate later judeo-Christian attitudes and practices, was never typical of Greek thought on the subject. The evidence of the classical authors shows that as late as the early 3rd century of our era the Greeks accepted pederasty non-chalantly as part of the sexual order, without condemnation or apprehension.”

The Greeks knew nothing of the Book of Leviticus, cared nothing for the injunctions it contained, and scarcely even heard of the religious community for which it was meant down to the beginning of the Hellenistic era, when Judea was incorporated into the empire of Alexander the Great. On the other hand, there is evidence that in the Zoroastrian religion pederasty was ascribed to a demonic inventor and regarded as an inexpiable sin, as a vice of the Georgians, the Caucasian neighbors of the Persians – just as the Israelites identified homosexual practices with the religion of the heathen Canaanites whose land they coveted and invaded. However, the antagonism between the Greeks and the Persians precluded any adoption of the beliefs and customs of the <evil empire> – against which they won their legendary victories. The Greek spirit – of which pederasty was a vital component – stood guard over the cradle of Western civilization against the encroachments of Persian despotism. Only on the eastern periphery of the Hellenic world – where Greeks lived as subject peoples under Persian rule – could the Zoroastrian beliefs gain a foothold.

Oral-genital sexuality seems not to have been popular, but this was probably for hygienic reasons specific to the ancient world.”

The career of Sappho suggests that lesbian relations in ancient Greece took the same pattern, that is to say, they were corophile – between adult women and adolescent girls who were receiving their own initiation into the arts of womanhood. But the paucity of evidence makes it difficult to assay the incidence of the phenomenon, especially as Greek sexual mores were entirely androcentric – everything was seen from the standpoint of the adult male and free citizen. The subordinate status of women and children was taken for granted, and the effeminate man was the object of ridicule if not contempt, as can be seen in the plays of Aristophanes and his older contemporary Cratinus.”

It is true that the more abstract thinking of the Greeks ultimately recognized the parallel between male and female homosexuality, beginning with a passage in Plato’s Laws (636bc) in which both are stigmatized as <against nature> – a concept which the Semitic mind, incidentally, lacked until it was adopted from the Greek authors translated in the Middle Ages.”

Toward the end of the 2nd millennium the Mycenean era closed with a series of disasters, both natural catastrophes and wars – of which the Trojan war sung by Homer was an episode. During this period the Dorians invaded Greece, blending with the older stocks. One landmark paper on Greek pederasty, Erich Bethe’s article of 1907, ascribed pederasty to the military culture of the Dorian conquerors, an innovation ostensibly reflected in the greater prominence of the institution among the Dorian city-states of history.”

The sexual lives of the Greeks were free of ritualistic taboos, but enacted in a context of comrade simplified in the devotion of Achilles and Patroclus, which foreshadowed the pederastic ideal of the Golden Age. The lyric poetry composed in the dawn of Greek literature was rich in allusions to male love, between gods and between mortals.”

In a mere 4 centuries Greek civilization had matured into a force that intellectually and militarily dominated the world – and laid the foundations not just for Western culture, but for the entire global meta-system of today. What followed was the Hellenistic era, in which Greek thought confronted the traditions of the peoples of the east with whom the colonists in the new cities founded in Egypt and Syria mingled. The emergence of huge bureaucratic monarchies effectively crushed the independence of the city-states, eroding the base of the pederastic institution with its emphasis on civic initiative. The outcome of this period, once Rome had begun its eastward expansion, was Roman civilization as a derivative culture that blended Greek and indigenous elements. Even under Roman rule the position of the Greek language was maintained, and the literary heritage of previous centuries was codified in the form in which, by and large, it has been transmitted to modern scholars and admirers.”

For nearly 200 years scholars have argued the Homeric question: Did one, two, or many authors create the two great epic poems known as the Illiad and the Odyssey? What were the sources and techniques of composition of the author (or authors)? The current consensus favors a single author utilizing a traditional stock of legends and myths – the final redaction may have taken place as late as 640 BC. A second question arises in connection with these epic poems: Did they recognize homoerotic passion as a theme, or was this an accretion of later times?” “Homer may not have judged the details of their intimacy suitable for epic recitation, but he was not oblivious to a form of affection common to all the warrior societies of the Eastern Mediterranean in antiquity. The peculiar resonance of the Achilles-Patroclus bond probably is rooted in far older Near Eastern epic traditions, such as the liaison between Gilgamesh and Enkidu in the Mesopotamian texts.

PLATÃO CHATEADÍSSIMO: “The famous Athenian lawgiver Solon was also a poet, and in two surviving fragments (13 and 14) he speaks of pederasty as absolutely normal.”

Despite the mutilated and fragmentary state in which Sappho’s poetry has been transmitted, she was hailed in antiquity as the <tenth Muse>, and her poetry remains one of the high points of lyric intensity in world literature. In the 19th century philologists tried to reconcile her with the Judeo-Christian tradition by dismissing the lesbian interpretation of her poems as libelous, and misinterpreting or misusing bits of biographical data to make her nothing but the strait-laced mistress of a girls’ finishing school.”

Anacreon of Teos [Ceos?], who flourished in the mid-6th century, owes his fame to his drinking songs, texts composed for performance at the symposia, which inspired an entire genre of poetry: anacreontic.”

Herodotus, the <Father of History>, used the data that he gathered on his

extensive travels to point up the relativism of moral norms. Among the phenomena that he reported was the Scythian institution of the Enarees, a shift in gender that puzzled the Greeks, who called it the nousos theleia or <feminine disease>, but can now be identified as akin to the shaman and the berdache/bardache of the sub-Arctic and New World cultures. Profiting from the insights of the pre-Socratic thinkers, Herodotus anticipated the findings of modern anthropology in regard to the role of culture in shaping social norms. The consequence of his relativistic standpoint was to discredit absolutist concepts of <revealed> or <natural> morality and to allow for a pluralist approach to sexual ethics.”

Thanks to a surviving oration of Aeschines, the Contra Timarchum of 346 BC, we know of the restrictions that Athenian law placed on the homosexual activity of male citizens: the male who put his body in the power of another by prostituting himself incurred atimia or infamy, the gymnasia anathose who had authority over youth were subject to legal control, and a slave could not be the lover of a free youth. There is no evidence for parallel statutes elsewhere, and certainly no indication that homosexual behavior per se was ever the object of legal prohibition, or more stringently regulated than heterosexual, which had its own juridical norms.”

In the writings of Plato and Xenophon, Socrates basks in a strongly homophile ambiance, as his auditors are exclusively male, even if he was no stranger to heterosexuality and had a wife named Xanthippe who has come down in history as the type of the shrewish wife. His chief disciple, Plato (ca. 429-347 BC), whose thought cannot easily be disentangled from that of his teacher, never married, and left a record of ambivalence toward sexuality and homosexuality in particular that is one of the problematic sides of his thinking. His influence on Western civilization has been incalculable. One of the ironies of history is that the atypical hostility to pederasty in the elderly Plato, probably reflecting both personal resentment and envy and the decline of the institution in the 4th century (while anticipating later <puritan> attitudes), was often received with enthusiasm in later centuries, becoming a Hellenic source of Christian homophobia.“he inculcated the notion of sexual activity as ignoble and demeaning, which was integrated with the absolute <purity> of biblical Judaic ascetic ideal of complete asexuality which was to have fateful consequences for homosexuals in later centuries. A completely negative approach to pederasty emerges in one of his last works, the Laws, the product of the pessimism of old age disappointed by Athenian democracy and the failure of his ambitions at statecraft in Sicily. In the 1st book Plato calls homosexual acts <against nature> (para physin) because they do not lead to procreation, and in the 8th book (836b-839a) he proposes that homosexual activity can be repressed by law and by constant and unrelenting defamation, likening this procedure to the incest taboo. The designation of homosexual acts as <contrary to nature> found its way into the New Testament in a text that intertwined Judaic myth with Hellenic reasoning, Romans 1:18-32. This passage argues that <the wrath of God is revealed from heaven> in the form of the rain of water that drowned the Watchers and their human paramours and the rain of fire that obliterated the homosexual denizens of Sodom and Gomorrah. Later Christian thinkers were to insist that the morality of sexual acts was coterminous with procreation, and that any non-procreative gratification was <contrary to nature>, but this view never held sway in pagan antiquity, so that Plato himself cannot be charged with the tragic aftermath of this belief and the attempt to impose it upon the entire population by penal sanctions and by ostracism. The attempt of modern Christian historians to prove that Plato’s idiosyncratic later attitude corresponded to the mores of Athenian society, or of Greece as a whole, is unfounded.

Plato was succeeded by the almost equally influential Aristotle (384-322 BC), who sought to correct some of the imbalances in his teacher’s work and bring it more in line with experience.” “In the Nicomachean Ethics (1148b) he undertook to differentiate two types of homosexual inclination, one innate or constitutionally determined (<by nature>) and one acquired from having been sexually abused (<by habit>). He stated categorically that no fault attached to behavior that flowed from the nature of the subject (thereby contradicting Plato’s assertion that homosexuality per se was unnatural), while in the second type some moral fault could be imputed. In the 13th century Thomas Aquinas utilized this passage in arguing that sodomy was unnatural in general, but connatural in some human beings; yet in quoting Aristotle he suppressed the mention of homosexual urges as determined <by nature>, so that Christian theology has never been able to accept the claims of gay activists that their behavior had innate causes. At all events, Aristotle can be cited in favor of the belief that in some forms, at least, homosexuality is inborn and unmodifiable.

The successors of Plato and Aristotle, the Stoics, are sometimes regarded as condemnatory of pederasty, but a closer examination of their texts shows that they approved of boy-love and engaged in it, but counseled their followers to practice it in moderation and with ethical concern for the interests of the younger partner [= Epicureans].”

the pseudo-Aristotelian Problemata (IV, 26) claims that the propensity to take the passive role in anal intercourse is caused by an accumulation of semen in the rectum that stimulates activity to relieve the tension.”

pangenesis – the belief that the semen incorporated major parts of the body in microscopic form; yet the belief that the male seed alone determines the formation of the embryo (only in the 19th century was the actual process of fertilization of the ovum observed and analyzed).”

The Hippocratic treatise On Airs, Waters, and Places touched upon the effeminacy of the Scythians, the so-called nasos theleia, which it ascribed to climate – a view that was to recur in later centuries. The Greek adaptation of late Babylonian astrology created the individual horoscope – which included the factors determining sexual characterology. Such authors as Teucer of Babylon and Claudius Ptolemy of Alexandria named the planets whose conjunctions foretold that an individual would prefer his or her own sex or would be effeminate or viraginous. Because Greek religion and law did not condemn homosexual behavior, it fell into the category of an idiosyncrasy of temperament which the heavenly bodies had ordained, not of a pathological condition that entitled the bearer to reprieve from the severity of the law. Ptolemy taught, for example, that if the influence of Venus is joined to that of Mercury, the individuals affected <become restrained in their relations with women but more passionate for boys> (Tetrabiblos, III, 13). The astrological texts make it abundantly clear that the ancients were familiar with the whole range of sexual preferences – a knowledge that psychiatry was to recoup only in modern times.”

GREECE, MODERN

The modern Greeks derived their sexual mores, like their music, cuisine, and dress, from their overlords the Turks rather than from ancient Greece. During the long Ottoman domination from the fall of Byzantium in 1453 to 1821 and in Macedonia and Crete until 1911, and in Anatolia and Cyprus even today, the descendants of the Byzantines who did not convert to Islam preserved their language and religion. Orthodox bishops were given wide political authority over their flocks whom they helped the Turks fleece. The black (monastic) clergy were forbidden to marry, and they were often inclined to homosexuality. Greeks, like Armenians, often rose in the hierarchy at the Sublime Porte, sometimes as eunuchs. Also they served as Janissaries in the Ottoman regiments which were taught to revere the Sultan as their father, the regiment as their family, and the barracks as their home. Forbidden to marry, they engaged in sodomy, particularly pederasty, and in such Ottoman vices as opium and bribery. Along with the Armenians, Greeks became the chief merchants of the Empire, especially dominating the relatively backward Balkan provinces where they congregated in the cities and towns as Jews did in the Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth.”

Winckelmann e Byron morreram durante a guerra de independência da Grécia.

GREEK ANTHOLOGY

The Greek Anthology is another name for the Palatine Anthology preserved in a unique manuscript belonging to the Palatine Library in Heidelberg. It was assembled in the 10th century by the Byzantine scholar Constantine Cephalas on the basis of 3 older collections: (1) the Garland of Meleager, edited at the beginning of the 1st century BC; (2) the Garland of Philippus, which probably dates from the reign of Augustus; and (3) the Cycle of Agathias, collected in the reign of Justinian (527-535) and including only contemporary works. But in addition Cephalas incorporated in his anthology the Musa Puerilis or <Boy-love Muse> of Strato of Sardis, who probably flourished under Hadrian (second quarter of the 2nd century). It is probable that the segregation of the poems on boy-love from the rest of the anthology (with the mistaken inclusion of some heterosexual pieces) reflects the Byzantine attitude, quite different from that of the pagan Meleager who indifferently set the two themes side by side. These poems, assembled in the 12th book of the Anthology (with others scattered elsewhere in the collection), are monuments of the passion of an adult male for an adolescent boy (never another adult, as some modern scholars have suggested; XII, 4 is the most explicit testimony on this matter) that was an integral part of Greek civilization. The verses frankly reveal the mores and values of Greek pederasty, exalting the beauty and charm of the beloved youth, sounding the intensity of the lover’s attachment, and no less skillfully describing the physical practices to which these liaisons led, so that it is not surprising that the complete set of these poems was not published until 1764.

HANDBALLING

This sexual practice involves the insertion of one partner’s hand – and sometimes much of the arm – into the rectum of the other. Before attempting such insertion the nails are pared and the hand lubricated. Sometimes alcohol and drags are used by the receptive partner as relaxants. This practice acquired a certain popularity – and notoriety under the name of fistfucking – in a sector of the gay male leather/S&M community in the 1970s. A few lesbians have also reported engaging in it. A medical term, apparently uncommon, has been proposed for handballing: brachiproctic eroticism.

It need scarcely be stressed that handballing is dangerous in all its variations, as puncturing of the rectal lining may lead to infection and even death. Although handballing does not directly expose the passive partner to AIDS or to sexually transmitted diseases, by scratching or scarring the rectal wall it may create tiny portals for the invasion of microbes during a subsequent penetration. With the new emphasis on safe sex in the 1980s, handballing has greatly declined, and it will probably be relegated to history as one of the temporary excesses of the sexual revolution.”

It may be conjectured that the recent resort to the practice is due to medical knowledge of operations in which the anus is dilated, since the ordinary individual scarcely credits that such enlargement is possible or desirable. In a late Iranian version of the binding and riding of the god of darkness Ahriman by the hero Taxmoruw, the demonic figure breaks loose by means of a trick and swallows the hero; by pretending to be interested in anal intercourse the brother of Taxmoruw manages to insert his arm into Ahriman’s anus and retrieve the body from his belly. The brother’s arm – the one that entered the demon’s anus – becomes silvery white and stinking, and the brother has to exile himself voluntarily so that others will not become polluted. The myth is interesting as linking the forbidden sexual activity with stigmatization and outlawry of the perpetrator. There seems to have been no term for handballing in the Greek language, though siphniazein (from the island of Siphnos) has been defined as to <insert a finger in the anus>. This harmless practice has long been known, and it may have served as a kind of modest precedent.”

HELIOGABALUS / ELAGABALUS

O imperador teria vivido apenas 18 anos – como regente, 4!

he reigned in a style of luxury and effeminacy unprecedented even in the history of Rome. He sent out agents to comb the city for particularly well-hung partners for his couch, whom he made his advisers and ministers. His life was an endless search for pleasure of every kind, and he had his body depilated so that he could arouse the lusts of the greatest number. His extant portraits on coins suggest a sensual, even African type evolving through late adolescence. The refinements which he innovated in the spheres of culinary pleasure and of sumptuous interior decoration and household furnishing are mentioned by the historians of his reign as having survived him and found emulators among the Roman aristocracy of later times. For what Veblen called <conspicuous consumption> he set a standard probably unequaled until the Islamic middle ages.

His sexual personality cannot be reduced to a mere formula of passive-effeminate homosexuality, although this aspect of his erotic pleasure-seeking is the one stressed by his ancient biographers. He loved the role of Venus at the theatre and the passive role in his encounters with other men, yet he was married several times and even violated a Vestal virgin, but remained childless.”

As high priest of the Syrian deity Elagabal he sought to elevate the cult of the latter to the sole religion of the Empire, yet he did not persecute the Christians. Family intrigues ultimately cost him the favor of the soldiers who murdered him and his mother on March 11, 222. Unique as he was in the history of eroticism and of luxury, he has inspired writers from the 3rd century biographer Aelius Lampridius in the Scriptores Historiae Augustas through the later treatments of Jean Lombard, Louis Couperus, and Stefan George to Antonin Artaud and Alberto Arbasino.

HOLOCAUST, GAY

The genocide of Jews and Gypsies in Nazi-occupied Europe has overshadowed the persecution and murder of male homosexuals, which is only now beginning to be recognized and analyzed from the few surviving documents and memoirs. Regrettably, in the immediate post-war period most of those who wrote about the concentration and extermination camps, and even courts which dealt with the staffs and inmates of the camps, treated those sent there for violating the laws against homosexual offenses as common criminals deserving the punishment meted out to them by the Third Reich. The final insult to the victims of Nazi intolerance was the decision of the Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court) in Karlsruhe on May 10, 1957, which not only upheld the constitutionality of the more punitive 1935 version of Paragraph 175 of the Penal Code because it <contained nothing specifically National-Socialist> and homosexual acts <unquestionably offended the moral feelings of the German people>, but even recommended doubling the maximum penalty – from 5 to 10 years. If any other victims of National-Socialism had been rebuffed in this manner by a West German court, there would have been outraged demonstrations around the globe; but this one went unprotested and ignored – above all by the psychiatrists who until recently never missed an opportunity to assert that <homosexuality is a serious disease> – for which ostracism and punishment were the best if not the only therapy. Until the late 1980s homosexuals, along with Gypsies, were denied compensation by the West German authorities for their suffering and losses under the Nazis.

Günther (1891-1968), professor of rural sociology and racial science first at Berlin and then at Freiburg im Breisgau, the chief authority on such matters in the Third Reich, held that the genetically inferior elements of the population should be given complete freedom to gratify their sexual urges in any manner that did not lead to reproduction because they would painlessly eliminate themselves from the breeding pool.”

National-Socialism in Germany, like Marxism-Leninism in Russia, was a conspiracy of the 17th and the 19th centuries against the 18th-century Enlightenment” OK

Among all modern states for which figures can be compiled, Nazi Germany offers the horrible example of suicides increasing rather than decreasing in wartime.”

HOMER

Although dramatically dated to Mycenean times, the late 2nd millennium BC, the epics sometimes refer to things that cannot predate 650 or even 570, because interpolations existed in one form or another when 7th century poets cited the epics.”

It is difficult to detect all interpolations and changes, especially additions of Attic terms as high culture became increasingly centered in Athens, where the Peisistratids in the mid-6th century had the epics recited annually at a festival, and many believe the first texts written well over a century after the latest possible date for Homer’s death. A definitive text resulted only from the efforts of 2nd century editors in Alexandria. These texts became almost sacred to the Greeks, whose education was based on them even until the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453.

Homer failed to depict institutionalized pederasty, to which almost all subsequent writers referred, many making it central. Though poets and artists around 600 BC make the earliest unmistakable references to institutionalized pederasty, Homer mentioned Ganymede twice, <the loveliest born of the race of mortals, and therefore the gods caught him away to themselves, to be Zeus’ wine-pourer, for the sake of his beauty, so he might be among the immortals> (Iliad, 20, 233-35) and Zeus’ giving Tros, Ganymede’s father, <the finest of all horses beneath the sun and the daybreak> (Iliad, 5, 265ff.) as compensation for his son. Sir Moses Finley concluded that <the text of the poems offers no directly affirmative evidence at any point; even the two references to the elevation of Ganymede to Olympus speak only of his becoming cup-bearer to Zeus.> Sir Kenneth Dover denied that these passages implied pederasty: <It should not be impossible for us … to imagine that the gods on Olympus, like the souls of men in the Muslim paradise … simply rejoiced in the beauty of their servants as one ingredient of felicity.> However, the Abrahamic religions’ taboo on homosexuality did not exist in Hellenic and Etruscan antiquity. Societies that had the formula <eat, drink, and be merry> held that banquets should fittingly issue in sexual revelry. Anachronisms such as those of Finley and Dover should therefore be dismissed, even though Homer’s allusions to Ganymede may be pederastic interpolations like those ordered by the Peisistratids – successors of Solon, who introduced institutionalized pederasty into Athens – to antedate the cultural prominence of Athens.

HUMBOLDT

MAGNUM OPUS: Voyage aux regions equinoxiales du nouveau continent (30 vols.!)

Mas não só: Cosmos: Outline of a Physical Description of the World (5 vols.!) (1862)

O FIM DE UMA ERA: “It was the last attempt by a single individual to collect within the pages of a work of his own the totality of human knowledge of the universe; after his time the increasing specialization of the sciences and the sheer accumulation of data made such a venture impossible.” Embora Le Bon seja um respeitável polímata, outrossim.

Through the accounts of his findings – models for all subsequent undertakings – he made significant contributions to oceanography, meteorology, climatology, and geography, and furthered virtually all the natural sciences of his time; but above all else he was responsible for major advances in the geographical and geological sciences.”

HYDRAULIC METAPHOR

The idea that sexual energy accumulates in the body until sufficient pressure is generated to require an outlet has over the centuries had considerable appeal. The notion acquires plausibility through observation of the wet dream, which eventually occurs in males if the semen is not evacuated through intercourse or masturbation.”

The first statement of the doctrine is probably owing to the Roman philosopher-poet Lucretius who says that the semen gradually builds up in the body until it is discharged in any available body (On the Nature of Things, IV, 1.065).”

As a device for relieving erotic tension, a homosexual outlet stands on the same plane as a heterosexual one. A curious attestation of the hydraulic concept comes from colonial America. In his reflections on an outbreak of <sodomy and buggery> in the Bay Colony, William Bradford (1590-1637) noted: <It may be in this case as it is with water when their streams are stopped or dammed up; when they get passage they flow with more violence and make more noise and disturbance, than when they are suffered to run quietly in their own channels.>

Some Victorians defended prostitution as a necessary evil. Without this safety valve, they held, the pent-up desires of men would be inflicted on decent women, whose security depends, ironically, on their <fallen> sisters. The Nazi leader Heinrich Himmler even extended this belief by analogy to hustlers and male homosexuals.”

Despite its appeal, the metaphor is not unproblematic. The hydraulic idea rests upon materialist reductionism, identifying the accumulation of semen with the strengthening of sexual desire. Yet the two do not necessarily act in concert, as anyone knows who has visited some sexual resort such as a sauna and felt sexual desire far more frequently than the body is able to replenish its supply of semen.”

INCARCERATION MOTIF

This term refers not to literal incarceration or confinement but to an aspect of gender dysphoria – the idea that a human body can contain, locked within itself, a soul of the other gender. In their adhesion to this self-concept, many pre and post-operative transsexuals unknowingly echo a theme that has an age old, though recondite history.”

Foreign as this idea is to the rationalistic Jew of the 20th century, and to the Biblical and Talmudic periods of Judaism as well, it is first mentioned by Saadiah Gaon (882-942), the spiritual leader of Babylonian Jewry, who rejected it as an alien doctrine that had found its way into Judaism from the Islamic cultural milieu.”

The transmigration of a man’s soul into the body of a woman was considered by some Kabbalists a punishment for the commission of heinous sins, such as man’s refusing to give alms or to communicate his own wisdom to others.”

In the Hollywood film Dog Day Afternoon (1975), which was based upon a real incident in Brooklyn a few years earlier, the character Leon asserts that <My psychiatrist told me I have a female soul trapped in a male body> (…) So a doctrine of medieval Jewish mysticism has entered the folklore of the gay subculture, and thence passed into the mainstream of American popular culture as a metaphor for a profound state of alienation.”

JUNG

The two thinkers increasingly diverged, particularly after Jung published his own ideas in a book entitled The Psychology of the Unconscious (1912), later renamed Symbols of Transformation. At the first meeting of the International Psychoanalytic Association in Munich in 1913, the rift between Jung and Freud turned to open hostility, and the two never met again. In April 1914 Jung resigned as President of the Association. Between 1913 and 1917 Jung went through a period of deep and intensive self-analysis; he now asserted that he had never been a Freudian, and set about creating his own school, which he dubbed analytical psychology in contrast to psychoanalysis.” Diferentão…

his Collected Works amount to eighteen volumes.” “He treated not only psychology and psychotherapy, but also religion, mythology, social issues, art and literature, and such occult and mystical themes as alchemy, astrology, telepathy and clairvoyance, yoga, and spiritualism.”

KEYNES

A polymath [raça resiliente!], Keynes cultivated many interests, from book collecting to probability theory. His real importance, however, stems from the epistemic break he achieved with the classical theory of economics, changing the landscape of that discipline for all time. Keynes was no ivory-tower theorist, and the 30-year boom in Western industrial countries (1945-75) has been called the Age of Keynes.”

In the Apostles he met his lifelong friends Lytton Strachey and Leonard Woolf. Believing himself ugly, Keynes tended to be shy in the presence of the undergraduates he admired. In 1908, however, he began a serious affair with the painter Duncan Grant, whom he later said to be the only person in whom he found a truly satisfying combination of beauty and intelligence.”

In 1908, however, he obtained a lecturer-ship in economics at King’s College, and the courses he gave there were the foundation of his later writings in the field. As editor of the Economic Journal he actively promoted new trends in the discipline outside of Cambridge. Yet he did not turn immediately to the core of the subject, as he spent a number of years writing a challenging Treatise on Probability, which was published in 1921.”

ESCASSEZ DE RECURSOS (GAYS) & SEMENTES DO NAZISMO: “Keynes elected to enter the Treasury where, despite the chronic disapproval of the Prime Minister, David Lloyd George, he worked wonders in managing the wartime economy. During this period the homosexual members of Bloomsbury (Keynes included) found their supply of eligible young men cut off, and began to engage in flirtations and even liaisons with women. After the end of the war Keynes spent a frustrating period as an adviser at the Paris peace conference [for British to see!], trying to limit voracious Allied demands for reparations from defeated Germany. Returning to London, he set down his pungent reflections on the event in what became his most widely read book, The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919), which eroded the resolve of the Allies to enforce the Treaty of Versailles, at least in its financial provisions.

In 1925 Keynes, now famous, married the noted ballerina Lydia Lopokova. He became an adviser to government and business, consolidating his practical knowledge of economic affairs. These experiences contributed to his great book, General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (1936).”

[PET-ROYAL]TIES: “Economic difficulties after 1975 subjected Keynesian views, which had become orthodoxy, to contemporary reassessment.”

Surprisingly, in the decades after the conviction of Oscar Wilde, his numerous affairs with young men never caused the slightest legal or even social trouble. This charmed life can be explained only by his combination of extreme personal brilliance, family and professional connections, and remarkable self-confidence.”

KLEIST HEINRICH VON (1777-1811)

German playwright and short story writer, whose The Broken Pitcher is esteemed as possibly the greatest of (and among the few) German comedies. Overshadowed by his contemporary, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kleist’s significance came to light only after his suicide at age 34, a secretive joint pact made with a terminally ill female friend.

Kleist’s slim literary production (8 plays and 8 short stories) vividly and violently captures the historical break between Enlightenment rationalism and Romantic mysticism, often framed as either a psychological conflict (Das Käthchen von Heilbronn, Penthesilea) or a political one (Prinz Friedrich von Homburg, Die Hermannsschlacht). A profound sense of the irrational and absurd permeates Kleist’s works. In stories such as Michael Kohlhaas or Earthquake in Chile, individuals stand powerless before arbitrary circumstances. Kleist’s remarkable heroines, who bear uncanny resemblance to Kleist psychologically, act from the unconscious, for example when The Marquise of O. places a newspaper ad in hopes of discovering the gentleman responsible for her pregnant condition, or when Penthesilea’s confusion between love and war leads her, while intending to kiss her lover Achilles, instead to tear him from limb to limb with her bare hands and teeth.”

LAUTRÉAMONT, o Conde que faltava ao Marquês

Ducasse [nome de batismo] certainly shows more strongly the influence of Baudelaire and Sade than does any other writer. Like Sade, he is rarely studied in universities.”

LAWRENCE, DAVID HERBERT (1885-1930)

Born in a mining area of Nottinghamshire, Lawrence derived much of the problematic of his work from the tension between his coal-miner father, representing for him the physical and the elemental, and his mother, a former school-teacher, who stood for the world of higher culture, politeness, and civilization. Having attended a 2-year teacher training course in Nottingham (his only higher education), Lawrence wrote two early novels, The White Peacock (1911) and The Ties-passer (1912), while teaching at Croydon. In 1912 he eloped with the German-born Frieda von Richthofen Weekley, and the two led a bohemian life of wandering on the continent until the outbreak of World War I. During this period he wrote and published his first masterpiece, Sons and Lovers (1913), an intensely autobiographical novel [more so?].

Women in Love (1921) [currently reading!] has, despite the title, an extraordinary emphasis on the male love affair (though it is non-genitally expressed [forçação de barra, i.m.o.]) between the wealthy Gerald Crich and the school-teacher Rupert Birkin. These aspects were further explored in the Prologue to the book [!], which Lawrence withheld from publication.”

LORCA

In the famous Residencia de Estudiantes, he met and collaborated with such future celebrities as Luis Buñuel and Salvador Dalí, with the latter of whom he had an amorous relationship of several years’ duration.”

An extensive literature exists concerning the mechanics of and motives for his death, which immediately became an international incident and a symbol of fascist stupidity and anti-intellectualism. Lorca’s leftist sympathies, friends, and relatives would be sufficient to explain his execution, but much evidence suggests that his sexual orientation, activities, and writings were at least as important.”

A CANALHA (ESPERO QUE NÃO CUIDEM DO MEU ESPÓLIO!): “The House of Bernarda Alba, suppressed by his family, in 1945.”

MCCARTHYISM (BOECHATISMO NO BRASIL CONTEMPORÂNEO)

The political tactics of the United States Senator from Wisconsin Joseph R. McCarthy (1908-1957)(*) have since the 50s been labeled McCarthyism. They consisted in poorly founded but sensationally publicized charges against individuals in government service or public life whom McCarthy accused on the Senate floor of being Communists, security risks, or otherwise disloyal or untrustworthy. Senator McCarthy’s campaign did not spare <sex perverts in government>, and so it made homosexuality an issue in American political life for the first time since the founding of the republic.Homossexualidade restrita ao Triângulo das Bermudas.

(*) Oxalá nosso expoente morresse tão jovem! (P.S.: Escrito antes de sua inesperada – hoho, que clichê – morte!)

It is also noteworthy that the danger of blackmail which Magnus Hirschfeld and his Berlin Scientific-Humanitarian Committee had used as an argument for the repeal of Paragraph 175 was now turned against homosexuals to deny them employment in the name of <national security>. This factor and others worked so strongly in McCarthy’s favor that despite bitter opposition he was reelected in 1952 in the Eisenhower landslide that brought the Republican Party back to the White House after 20 years of Democratic rule.

Once the Republicans had become the majority party for a brief time, McCarthy’s tactics became a source of embarrassment to them [huhu, quantas semelhanças…], and in 1954 a campaign was launched against him in the Senate which included the (true) accusation that a young University of Wisconsin graduate employed in his office in 1947 to handle veterans’ affairs had been arrested as a homosexual and then promptly fired, and the (probably false) accusation that McCarthy himself was a homosexual, which Senator Ralph Flanders of Vermont included in his denunciation. However, it was alleged that McCarthy’s marriage in 1953 at the age of 45 was motivated by his need to squelch the rumors of his own sexual deviation; the marriage remained childless, though the couple did adopt a little girl. What is significant in retrospect is that Roy Cohn, a young attorney who was one of McCarthy’s chief aidés [sponsored by him] during his heyday, was a lifelong homosexual who died of AIDS in 1986 [meme Cazuza de direita]. Censured by the Senate in 1954, McCarthy thereafter faded in political importance, and when he died in 1957 no great wave of emotion went through the ranks of either his friends or his enemies.”

The policy of denying employment to homosexuals on moral grounds and as security risks, however, remained long after McCarthy himself.”

In France, after André Gide published his negative reflections on his trip to the Soviet Union in 1936-37, he was attacked by his former Communist associates as a pédé (faggot).”

The sexual aspect of McCarthyism has an ancestry going as far back as Aeschines, Cicero, and the Byzantine Emperor Justinian (r. 527-565), whose laws against sodomites forged the <crime of those to whom no crime could be imputed>, a weapon for political intimidation and blackmail that even the enlightened 20th century has not deprived of its cutting edge.”

PEDOPHILIA

the term <p(a)edophilia> was first used in English only as recently as 1906, by Havelock Ellis. It had previously appeared as a specific form of sexual pathology in a German article of 1896 by Richard von Krafft-Ebing. Because the term <pedophilia> originated in a medical context and today connotes disease, efforts have been made to replace it. Pederasty is sometimes used as a synonym, or as a term restricted to post-pubescent adolescents, but in the present writers’ view, it should properly be restricted to the Greek custom it originally designated, which, though a form of pedophilia as we understand it, is not congruent with it.” “The earlier average age for puberty within the last century also means that classical texts (and even more recent ones) which speak of relations with mid-teenage boys were not necessarily referring to sexually mature individuals. (The term ephebophile has been used to describe erotic attraction to boys in their late teens, who are considered adults in many if not all cultures.)” “woman/girl (korophile)” “<Child molestation> or <abuse>, terms current in the media, and in psychological and legal discourse, are neither descriptive of the phenomenon, nor value-free, as academic discourse requires.

That variant of pedophilia occurring between men and boys – male homosexual pedophilia – will be the chief focus of this article. This choice is dictated by several considerations, including the context of the article, the dearth [escassez] of research on korophile relationships, and the fact that until very recently man/boy relationships were accepted as a part, and indeed were a major part, of male homosexuality.”

pedophilia might be considered a remnant, more evident in some persons than others, of the instinct to nurture and protect the young of the species, which in human development has come to serve an educational (including sex-educational) or initiatory purpose in some societies. The attempt to root pedophilia in man’s biological inheritance is controversial, but a cross-cultural survey of man/boy pedophilia at least suggests that it is a universal phenomenon, which, when accepted by a society, generally carries a socially constructed meaning related to the acculturation process for boys.”

Several of these societies (as the Melanesians) believe that without receiving the man’s semen through fellatio the boy cannot physically mature.”

TRANSIÇÃO GRÉCIA-ROMA: “As the function of same-sex relationships increasingly became hedonistic, the age limits broke down: we find increasing references to homosexuality between men (particularly in the satiric poets, who make it clear that this was still scorned) and, to a lesser extent, to the sexual use of very young children.”

That Ganymede was more than an artistic convention is shown by the number of artists who were charged with sodomy with boys, especially their studio assistants. Histories of the Renaissance record similar charges involving popes, poets, and nobles.”

Incarcerated pedophiles continue to be subject to coercive procedures to alter their sexual interest or reduce its level. Although surgical castration is no longer employed, chemical dosages and aversion therapy may be used without the subject’s consent.”

Much of the <research> that exists on pedophilia today reflects a predetermination that adult-child sexual contacts are evil or pathological, and merely documents the point of view with which the authors began. There has been no lack of evidence by which such negative pre-suppositions could be supported, because in the same way that studies of homosexuality until quite recently were limited by the source of their research subjects, resulting in a portrayal of homosexuals as criminal, troubled, and unhappy, most studies of pedophilia examine only cases which have come before either courts or psychiatrists, precisely those where the subjects are most under stress or disturbed. In many countries, research into pedophile relationships under other circumstances is legally

impossible: if a researcher should find a healthy, quietly functioning relationship he or she would be required to report it for prosecution under <child protection> laws. These factors, plus the sensationalism surrounding the topic, assure that much of what is written on the subject is, and will continue to be, worthless.”

Pedophile organizations have linked their arguments to support of the rights of children. While emphasizing that these rights most certainly include the power to say ‘no’ to any unwanted sexual contact as well as the opportunity to say ‘yes’ to contacts children desire, some groups go further than others in espousing a broad range of children’s liberation issues. Related to the question of legal rights for children is the issue of the child’s consent in pedophile relationships. Those speaking for the protection of children frequently assert that children are incapable of consenting to such sexual relationships, sometimes justifying this assertion by the child’s lack of experience or knowledge of long-range consequences of an act. It has been answered that children can and do consent, or at least are quite capable of rejecting experiences they find distasteful, and that the proper response is to empower children to be able to say ‘no’ effectively. This impasse raises the issue of what consent means – freedom to refuse, simple assent, or an <informed> consent that is probably not realized in most human relationships? Closely related to this is the issue of power, and the assertion that the power imbalance between the adult and the younger partner in a pedophile relationship is so great that it inevitably leads to coercion and exploitation. Various responses have been made: either that the power imbalance is not so clear-cut as the critics state, particularly citing the power of the child to terminate the relationship; or that while power imbalances are inherent in all human relationships, they do not necessarily lead to exploitation, but can be used for benevolent ends, and the real issue is not the power imbalance but the use of power.

Child pornography is the sharpest point of attack on pedophilia and pedophiles. Included in this attack are the imputation that children are always abused in the production of such images, and the fear that such images will stimulate the abuse of children. It has been shown that this issue has been exploited for political purposes, and the statistics on the amount of such material exaggerated beyond proportion. Despite rhetoric, it has not been demonstrated that any more connection exists between pedophilia and child pornography than between any other sexuality and its pornography: either to show that pedophiles are more likely to create or use pornography than other persons, or that child pornography encourages sexual contacts with children. Indeed, the Kutschinsky study of the Danish experience with pornography, which has never been refuted, demonstrated that sexual assaults on children declined with the availability of pornography. Pedophiles who have responded to this issue have noted that there is no reason that depictions of children nude or even engaged in sexual actions should be any more or less objectionable than such depictions of adults, and argue that the true issue, as with all pornography, is whether coercion actually is employed in making it. The issues of child prostitution and the sexual exploitation of children in Third World countries have also been used to attack pedophiles and, by implication, pedophilia. Once it is acknowledged that pedophiles are by no means the only persons who engage in <sex tourism> or patronize prostitutes, the debate again seems to resolve itself into issues of power and consent. A defense has been offered that the right of self-determination in sexual behavior for the individual choosing prostitution should apply here. Poverty, however, may diminish the individual freedom of choice in these situations.”

???, Men and Boys [“America’s first anthology of homosexual poetry”];

Bleibtreu-Ehrenberg, Tabu Homosexualität: Die Geschichte eines Vorurteils (The taboo of homosexuality: The history of a prejudice), 1978;

______., Mannbarkeitsriten: Zur institutionellen Päderastie bei Papuas und Melanesiern (Rites of passage into manhood: On institutional paederasty in Papuas and Melanesians), 1980;

______., Der Weibmann: Kultischer Geschlechtswechsel im Schamanismus, eine Studie zur Transvestition und Transsexualität bei Naturvölkern (Androgynous: Cultic sex change in shamanism, a study on transvestism and transsexualism in primitives), 1984;

______., Paidika 1/3 (The Journal of Paedophilia): Der pädophile Impuls: Wie lernt ein junger Mensch Sexualität? (The paedophile impulse: Toward the Development of an Aetiology of Child-Adult Sexual Contacts from an Ethological and Ethnological Viewpoint), 1988;

Cook & Howells, Adult Sexual Interest in Children, 1981;

Fraser, Death of Narcissus, 1976;

Mackay, Books of the Nameless Love, 1913 (sécs. XIX-XX; o pai do “associacionismo pedofílico”);

Theo Sandfort, The sexual aspect of paedosexual relations: The experiences of 25 boys with men, 2000.

SCHOPENHAUER

Through a large inheritance from his father the celebrated misanthrope enjoyed financial independence so that he could devote his life completely to philosophy. Even today Schopenhauer’s ethic of compassion possesses great philosophical significance.”

Schopenhauer’s teleologically oriented conception of nature therefore had to assume in male homosexual behavior – the only form he discussed – a <stratagem of nature> (in the words of Oskar Eichler). Referring to Aristotle he hypothesized that young men (supposedly boys just past puberty) and likewise men who are too old (the magic boundary is here the age of 54) are not capable of begetting healthy and strong offspring, because their semen is too inferior. As nature is interested in perfecting every species, in men older than 54 <a pédérastie tendency gradually and imperceptibly makes its appearance>. When he formulated this argument Schopenhauer himself was 71 years old, so that he could have harbored a homosexual tendency for some years.”

Schopenhauer was himself the father of at least two illegitimate children and had many unhappy affairs with women. He passionately admired Lord Byron and like him came to the conclusion that women could be considered beautiful only by <the male intellect clouded by the sexual instinct>. In intellectual and aesthetic respects Schopenhauer had homosexual preferences. In a letter to his admirer Julius Frauenstadt he stressed that <even women’s faces are nothing alongside those of handsome boys>. Bryan Magee hypothesizes that the philosopher systematically suppressed his gay tendencies, a view shared by Oskar Eichler and others. Thirty years after the publication of the third edition of The World as Will and Representation Oswald Oskar Hartmann adopted Schopenhauer’s teleological explanation of homosexuality, suggesting that the first champions of homosexual rights voluntarily followed Schopenhauer’s arguments.”

SEPARATISM, LESBIAN

In its strongest form, lesbian separatism means social, cultural, and physical separation from all who are not lesbians. As society is now constituted this option is possible only for a very few. Many lesbians who regard themselves as separatists seek to live and work in circumstances that are as far as possible <women’s space>, without insisting on the absolute exclusion of men.”

Aristophanes’ play Lysistrata (411 BC) shows Athenian women seceding from their city in a <sex strike>, but only temporarily – until the men agree to make peace. Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935), a pioneering American socialist and feminist, wrote a novel, Herland (1915; reprinted 1979), depicting a Utopia in Africa populated only by women.”

Outsiders tend to label lesbian separatists as <women who hate men>. In their defense, separatists often say that what they are opposed to are the domineering, aggressive aspects of male behavior, rather than men themselves. They wish to make a clear statement that will set them apart from the ambivalent stance of heterosexual women, even those who profess feminism. Separatists believe that such straight women enter too readily into complicity with the power structure of patriarchy; by continuing to meet the sexual and emotional needs of men, these women give aid and comfort to the enemy.

Some women choose to form communes on <women’s land>, setting themselves apart from all males, including male children and animals. In so doing they hold that they are creating liberated zones in which their natures can grow unhampered by the dictates of patriarchy.”

Some women have entered lesbian separatism for a number of years as part of a process of personal growth, only to emerge later with a more complex position. This seems to have been the experience of a principal theorist of the movement, Charlotte Bunch, who remains a radical lesbian feminist.”

SHAKESPEARE

Of tenant farmer stock and the son of a glover, Shakespeare was born in the provincial town of Stratford-upon-Avon in England; however, the very few facts known about his life are derived from various legal documents. In 1582, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had 3 children within the next 3 years; the following 5 years are unaccounted for, but by 1594 he was involved in the theatre world in London as both an actor and a playwright. He enjoyed an increasingly successful theatrical career until his retirement in 1612 and his return to Stratford.”

Shakespeare’s prolonged separation from his wife and the stipulation in his will that she inherit his <second best bed> has sparked much debate about his sexuality.”

Historically, theatrical companies of Shakespeare’s time did not employ women; instead, their roles were played by boys, apprentices to the companies. In adherence to the laws and sympathies of the times, the plays were, therefore, unable to display any overtly sexual behavior, but one of Shakespeare’s most frequent plot devices was to have his heroines disguise themselves as boys, particularly in the comedies. Thus, what in reality was a boy pretending to be a woman pretending to be a boy leads to some psychologically acute and complex scenes with homoerotic suggestions, such as the encounters between Rosalind (as Ganymede, a name rich in suggestiveness) and Orlando in As You Like It and Viola (as Caesario) and Orsino in Twelfth Night.

For more substantive evidence, one must turn instead to Shakespeare’s sequence of 154 poems in the form of sonnets, published surreptitiously in 1609 and immediately protested by their author. Probably intended as a personal exercise for private circulation, the sonnets may be the works that reveal something of the man himself; in them, Shakespeare names the persona Will, an obviously personal and intimate diminution of William, and, as in most of the Renaissance sonnet sequences, their subject is erotic love. Dedicated to Mr. W.H., who has been variously identified as the Earl of Southampton, a boy actor named Willy Hewes, Shakespeare himself (in a misprint of his initials), someone unknown to history, or someone invented, the first 126 are clearly homoerotic, while most of the others concern a woman conventionally called <the Dark Lady>. Historically, those scholars who begrudgingly admit to their subject matter try to discount their message. Most claim that the attraction the persona feels for the fair young man is either platonic or unconsummated; others assert that the poems are only examples of the Renaissance male friendship tradition. Still others insist on the fallacy of equating the persona with the poet and confusing literature with autobiography.”

Joseph Pequigney, Such Is My Love: A Study of Shakespeare’s Sonnets, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.

SOCRATES

In early life he was interested in the scientific philosophy of his time and is said to have associated with Archelaus the physicist, but in the period best known to posterity he had abandoned these interests and was concerned solely with the right conduct of life, a quest which he conducted by the so-called <Socratic> method of cross-examining the individuals whom he encountered. While serving in the army he gained a great reputation for bravery, and as one of the presidents of the Athenian Assembly at the trial of the generals after the battle of Arginusae, he courageously refused to put an illegal motion to the vote despite the fury of the multitude.”

There has been considerable dispute over the precise meaning of the indictment, but the first part seems not to have been serious, while the second amounted to a charge that he had a <subversive> influence on the minds of the young, which was based on his known friendship with some of those who had been most prominent in their attacks on democracy in Athens. He made no attempt to placate the jury and was found guilty and sentenced to die by drinking a cup of hemlock.”

He probably rejected the conventional Greek religious beliefs of his time, yet professed or created no heterodox religious doctrines. From time to time he had paranormal experiences, signs, or warnings which he interpreted as guideposts to his own conduct.

His sexual life, apart from the unhappy marriage, reflected the Greek custom of paiderasteia to the fullest. He was both the teacher of the young men who frequented his circle and the lover of at least some of them. As a boy of 17 he had been the favorite of Archelaus, because he was in the bloom of youthful sensuality, which later gave place to serious intellectual concerns.”

he was never given to a coarse and purely sensual pederasty; if the beauty of the young Alcibiades made an intense and lasting impression on him, he never forgot his duty as a teacher to guide his youthful pupils toward perfection.” “As a bisexual Hellene, Socrates was always responsive to the beauty of the male adolescent and craved the companionship of young men; as a philosopher he practiced and taught the virtues of moderation and self-control. He endures as one of the outstanding examples in antiquity of a teacher for whom eros was an inspiration and a guide.

Because Socrates is a major figure in Western tradition, his sexual nature posed a continual problem. From Ficino to Johann Matthias Gesner (1691-1761) scholars sought to address the question discreetly. The Marquis de Sade was bolder, using socratiser as a verb meaning to sodomize. Even today, however, many classicists choose to evade the problem.”

SODOM AND GOMORRAH

These legendary cities have been traditionally located in the vicinity of the Dead Sea, where they constituted two members of a pentapolis, the Cities of the Plain. According to the Old Testament account in Genesis 14, 18, and 19, God overthrew 4 of the 5 cities in a rain of brimstone and fire. The names of Sodom and Gomorrah, especially the former, have become proverbial. Echoes of the episode recur in the Bible and in the Koran, as well as in Jewish, Christian, and Islamic exegetical and homiletic writings. From the first city, Jewish Hellenistic Greek formed the derivative sodomites, from which medieval Latin obtained the noun of agent sodomita – as a result, the connection with male homosexuality is for many axiomatic. However the matter is more complex.”

The ancient world’s rudimentary science of geology correctly related this barrenness to the circumstance that the water level of the Dead Sea had in prehistoric times been far higher; the sinking of the water level had exposed the previously inundated, now strikingly arid and sterile region to the gaze of the traveler.”

to the Bedouin living east and south of the Dead Sea it suggested the etiological inference that at one time the area surrounding this salinized body of water had been a fruitful garden belt. Yet the inhabitants of the cities of the plain had even in the midst of their abundance and prosperity denied hospitality to the poverty-stricken and the wayfarer, while the luxury in which they wallowed led them inevitably into effeminacy and vice (the parallel in the Hellenistic world was the city of Sybaris, whose proverbial self-indulgence gave the English language the word sybaritic). For this reason they were punished by the destruction of their cities and the conversion of the whole area into a lifeless desert.”

In Genesis 14:12 Lot is taken captive when Sodom is conquered by the 4 kings who have allied themselves against the Cities of the Plain; Abraham saves him by military intervention in the manner of a tribal sheikh with his retinue of 318 warriors. In 19:4-9 the Sodomites threaten Lot’s guests with gang rape, but are miraculously blinded and repelled, and in 19:13, 15 the angelic visitors warn Lot of the imminent destruction of the city so that he and his family can leave just in time to escape the rain of brimstone and fire. This underlying motif explains why Lot later <feared to dwell in Zoar> (19:30), even though God has spared the place as a reward for his model hospitality toward the 2 visitors. Over the centuries Sodom and Gomorrah, along with the Babylon of the Book of Revelation, came to symbolize the corruption and depravity of the big city as contrasted with the virtue and innocence of the countryside, a notion cherished by those who idealized rural life and is still present, though fading in 20th century America.”

These volcanic eruptions, which have left traces still to be seen at the present day, inspired the <rain of brimstone and fire> (burning sulfur) of Genesis 19:24, which supplemented the notion that the 4 cities had been <overthrown> (destroyed by an earthquake) that figures in Genesis 19:25.” Sempre o nº 4!

+ Judges 19; Romans 1:18

the currency in antiquity of world destruction legends, in which the earth is annihilated either by water (kataklysmos) or by fire (ekvyrosis). The story of Noah and the deluge is the rendering of the first in the book of Genesis, while the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah is a localization of the second, in which the catastrophe is limited to 4 cities in the vicinity of the Dead Sea (Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim) even though the epilogue involving Lot and his daughters clearly derives from a universal conflagration myth.”

If the human race were annihilated with the exception of a single family, the earth could be repeopled only by means of sexual unions ordinarily condemned as incestuous.”

World destruction fantasies [are] associated in modern clinical experience with the early stages of schizophrenia.”

Astrological literature supplied the ancients with an entire list of calamities that betokened divine wrath, as in Luke 21:11, all of which were later ascribed to retribution for <sodomy>. Fear of homosexual aggression plays a role in these paranoid fantasies, of the sort analyzed by Freud in the classic Schreber case.”

The notion of sodomy is an innovation of Latin Christianity toward the end of the 12th century; it is not found in Jewish or Byzantine writings.” “In the late Middle Ages the tendency of the allegorizing mind to parallelism led to the notion that Gomorrah, the twin city of Sodom, had been a hotbed of lesbianism, even though there was nothing in either Testament that would suggest such a construction.”

TURING, ALAN (1912-1954)

He seems to have been a brilliant, awkward boy whose latent genius went unnoticed by all his teachers; he also had no friends until his very last years at Sherborne. Then he fell in love with a fellow science enthusiast, Christopher Morcom: the Platonic friendship was returned, and Alan Turing was for the first time in his life a happy young man. He had dreams of joining Christopher at Trinity, to pursue science together – unfortunately, Christopher Morcom suddenly died (from a much earlier infection with bovine tuberculosis).”

Turing spent two years in America, at Princeton University, and, on his return to Britain, was drafted into British cryptanalysis for the war effort. Turing was already unusual among mathematicians for his interest in machinery; it was not an interest in applied mathematics so much as something which did not really have a name yet – applied logic. His contribution to the design of code-breaking machines during the war led him deeper and deeper into the field of what would now be called computer programming, except that neither concept existed at the time. He and a colleague named Welshman designed the Bombe machines which were to prove decisive in breaking the main German Enigma ciphers. For his contribution to the Allied victory in World War II Turing was named an Officer of the British Empire (O.B.E.) in 1946. (…) He was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1951.”

The earliest inventor of such a device was the eccentric 19th century Charles Babbage, who could not obtain the necessary hardware to implement his ideas.”

He was brought to trial and sentenced to a year’s probation under the care of a psychiatrist, who proceeded to administer doses of female hormone to his patient, this being the current <wonder-therapy> which replaced castration as an attempt to kill the sexual instinct. For the entire year, Turing underwent the humiliation of femininization (<I’m growing breasts!>, he confided to a friend), but emerged seemingly intact from the public ordeal. He committed suicide in 1954, by eating an apple he had laced with cyanide.”

WHITMAN, WALT

A VIDA TEM DESSAS: “Often acclaimed as America’s greatest poet, Whitman, of working-class background, was self-taught, but as a printer, school teacher, journalist, and editor he contributed fiction and verse in the worst modes of the day to the best literary journals. There is no evidence of his genius until he suddenly began to write scraps of what was to become Leaves of Grass in his notebooks.”

It has in fact been argued that Leaves is an inverted mystical experience. This work, which encompassed his complete poetic opus, was first published in 1855 with 12 poems (Song of Myself being rather lengthy); the second edition (1857) had 32, the third (1860) 156, and so on through various printings and editions until 1881. Beginning in 1860, Whitman not only added poems (including the homoerotic Calamus collection), but dropped them, changed them, and rearranged the order. He has often been criticized for making changes, but he clearly did not do so for purposes of concealment.”

In his more programmatic poems, Whitman was always careful to say he and she, him and her. Women are permitted to have sexual lives, and he sympathizes with a prostitute, but they are generally thought of and idealized as perfect mothers for the new race of Americans.”

It was his explicitness about male-female sex that shocked his early readers. Only a few homosexuals in England and some readers in Germany caught what is now obvious to any reader who can admit what he sees on the page. The 2nd and 3rd sections of Song of Myself are homosexual in their imagery, as is the subsequent discussion of the body and soul, which climaxes in the intercourse between body and soul in the 5th section. One might also cite the tremendous sweep of eroticism from section 24 to the climax of fulfillment in male intercourse in section 29.”

He was not merely the poet of an idealized Jacksonian democracy nor of a new political structure, but of a culture bound together by love and religious faith in which each person could fulfill his or her own sexual nature.”

Whitman, who was disappointed at his contemporary reception, would have been gratified by his reputation in the 20th century, which is too widespread to more than mention. He is the democratic poet and a progenitor of the development of poetry beyond traditional metrical practice in the United States and foreign countries. A remarkable number of modern poets have paid him tribute in prose or verse, among the most notable being Ezra Pound, Pablo Neruda, Federico García Lorca, Fernando Pessoa, and Allen Ginsberg.”

WOOLF, VIRGINIA

Virginia Woolf was educated largely through reading books in the family library. Unlike her brothers, she did not go to university, and this perceived slight was later to sustain her feminist critique of discrimination against women. In 1912 she married Leonard Woolf, a brilliant Cambridge graduate who had served as a judge in Ceylon, and her sister Vanessa married the art critic Clive Bell. The two couples were major figures in the Bloomsbury group, which also included such male homosexual writers as E.M. Forster, John Maynard Keynes, and Lytton Strachey. Through much of her life Virginia suffered from severe spells of mental depression, and it was partly to provide work therapy that she and Leonard founded the Hogarth Press in 1917.”

Virginia Woolf remained a virgin until her marriage, and found the idea of sex with a man repellent. At the time of their engagement she warned Leonard of this aversion, and their sexual relations seem to have been rare. Before marriage Virginia Stephen was closely attached to her sister Vanessa – loving her almost to the point of <thought-incest> –, and was deeply involved platonically with Madge Vaughan, a daughter of John Addington Symonds, and Violet Dickinson, to whom she wrote an enormous number of letters. Throughout her life, Woolf was to draw emotional sustenance from her intense relations with other women.

Her first novel, The Voyage Out (1915), concerns the trip of a young Englishwoman to South America, followed by her engagement and death there. While this novel was conventional in form, Jacob’s Room (1922) joined the mainstream of innovative modernism through its poetic impressionism and indirection of narrative development. After this work, which marks her real beginning as a literary artist, Woolf secured her place in modernism by a series of carefully wrought books. Mrs. Dalloway (1925) blends interior monologue with the sights and sounds of a single day in central London. To the Lighthouse (1927) explores the tensions of the male-female dyad in the form of a holiday trip of Mr. and Mrs. Ramsey. Its fantastic form notwithstanding, Orlando (1928) is of great personal significance, tracing the biography of the hero-heroine through 4 centuries of male and female existence. This book is a tribute to, and portrait of, her lover Vita Sackville-West, whom she had met in 1922. Woolf’s most ambitious novel is probably The Waves (1931) which presents the contrasting personalities of 6 characters through a series of <recitatives> in which their inner consciousness is revealed.

Shortly after completing her last book, Between the Acts (1941), she suffered a final bout of mental illness and drowned herself in a river near her country home. The posthumous publication of Virginia Woolf’s Letters and Diaries have revealed some unattractive aspects of her personality: she was xenophobic and snobbish, sometimes given to expressions of personal malice, as well as anti-Semitic and homophobic sides. Yet she participated wholeheartedly in the Bloomsbury ethic of individual fulfillment and social enlightenment. Her use of stream-of-consciousness techniques, and other sophisticated literary devices, places her very near the front rank – if not within it – of modernist writers in English.

With the general decline of the Bloomsbury ethos in the middle decades of the century, Woolf’s reputation seemed to fade. In the 1970s, however, feminist critics hailed her as a major champion of then-cause. There is no doubt that A Room of One’s Own (1929), and its sequel, Three Guineas (1938), are powerful pleas for women’s creative independence. Yet her own feminism was fluid and variable, and thus not easily accommodated to present-minded uses. Throughout her life she struggled valiantly against mental illness, succeeding in building up an imposing corpus of writings while expressing her own emotional feelings in her deep relationships with women.”

WORKING CLASS, EROTICIZATION OF

One of the reasons why Walt Whitman had such an impact on English homosexuals of this period was that his praise of democracy was (mis)understood in large part as a veiled plea for such prince-and-pauper liaisons.

L’ENCYCLOPÉDIE – AM – Amen, Amenthes, Amida

AMEN. mot hébreu, usité dans l’Eglise à la fin de toutes les prieres solemnelles dont il est la conclusion; il signifie fiat [faça-se]; c’est-à-dire, ainsi-soit, ainsi-soit-il. Les Hébreux avoient 4 sortes d’amen; l’un entr’autres qu’ils appelloient l’amen juste, devoit être accompagné de beaucoup d’attention & de devotion; c’est l’amen entendu dans le sens que nous venons de l’interpréter, lequel a passé dans toutes les langues sans aucune altération.

Quelques Auteurs prétendent que le mot amen n’est qu’un composé des lettres initiales de ces mots, adonaï melech neeman, Dominus rex fidelis, expression usitée parmi les Juifs, quand ils vouloient donner du poids & de l’autorité à ce qu’ils disoient. En effet, pour exprimer en abregé les mots, adonaï, melech, neeman, les Rabbins ne se servent que des lettres initiales, qui jointes ensemble forment réellement le mot amen.

(…)

PARA SER SINCERO…

La racine du mot amen est le verbe aman, lequel au passif signifie être vrai, fidele, constant, &c. d’où a été fait le nom amen qui signifie vrai; puis du nom amen on a fait une espece d’adverbe affirmatif, qui placé à la fin d’une phrase ou d’une proposition, signifie qu’on y acquiesce, qu’elle est vraie, qu’on en souhaite l’accomplissement, &c. Ainsi, dans le passage que nous venons de citer du Deutéronome, Moyse ordonnoit aux Levites de crier à haute voix au peuple: maudit celui qui taille ou jette en fonte aucune image, &c. & le peuple devoit répondre amen; c’est-à-dire, our, qu’il le soit, je le souhaite, j’y consens. Mais au commencement d’une phrase, comme il se trouve dans plusieurs passages du Nouveau-Testament, il signifie vraiment, véritablement. Quand il est répété deux fois, comme il l’est toûjours dans S. Jean, il a l’effet d’un superlatif, conformément au génie de la langue Hébraïque, & des 2 langues dont elle est la mère, la Chaldaïque & la Syriaque. C’est en ce sens qu’on doit entendre ces paroles: amen, amen, dico vobis. Les Evangélistes ont conservé le mot hébreu amen dans leur grec, excepté S. Luc qui l’exprime quelquefois par A’LHQW=, véritablement, ou NAI\, certainement. (G)”

…E a celeuma da alma continua no verbete AMENTHES, onde ficará claro, mais uma vez, que os Modernos podem compreender tudo, menos qualquer vírgula dos Antigos! “Ils n’ont imaginé que ce moyen [Mundo subterrâneo para alojar as almas, dos animais aos Faraós, reputado como criação egípcia. Num primeiro momento, não havia o que hoje chamamos de Céu e Inferno, ou seja, a divisão moral entre bons e maus na vida carnal, como castigo ou recompensa pelos seus atos temporais – castigo ou recompensa estes dentro do tempo, como não poderiam deixar de ser, ou seja, a pura loucura!] ou la métempsycose, pour accorder la Providence avec la distribution inégale des biens & des maux dans ce monde. La Philosophie les avoit suggérés l’un & l’autre aux sages, & la révélation nous a appris quel est celui des deux que nous devions regarder comme le vrai. Nous ne pouvons donc plus avoir d’incertitude sur notre existence future, ni sur la nature des biens ou des maux qui nous attendent après la mort. La parole de Dieu qui s’est expliqué positivement sur ces objets importans, ne laisse aucun lieu aux hypothèses. Mais je suis bien étonné que parmi les anciens Philosophes que cette lumiere n’eclairoit pas, il ne s’en soit trouvé aucun, du moins que je connoisse, qui ait songé à ajoûter aux tourmens du Tartare & aux plaisirs de l’Élisée, la seule broderie [bordado, costura, decoração, emenda, adorno] qui leur manquât; c’est que les méchans entendroient dans le Tartare, & les bons dans l’Élisée, ceux-ci tout le bien, & ceux-là tout le mal qu’on diroit ou qu’on penseroit d’eux, quand ils ne seroient plus. Cette idée m’est venue plusieurs fois à la vûe de la statue équestre de Henri IV. J’étois fâché que ce grand Monarque n’entendît pas où il étoit [na pose da estátua ou na sua vida?], l’éloge que je faisois de lui dans mon coeur. Cet éloge eût été si doux pour lui! car je n’étois plus son sujet. [declaração, principiando no vermelho, arrogante e enigmática de não se sabe qual co-autor da maudite encyclopédie!]”

Para elucidar um pouco mais: Henrique IV é o inaugurador da dinastia Bourbon. Parece ser a sina desse tron(c)o real ser degolado ou passar perto de sê-lo. Desistiu do Protestantismo para ser reconhecido por todas as facções católicas como chefe-mor da França de então (transição XVI-XVII). Publicador do Édito de Nantes. “Considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants, Henry became target of at least 12 assassination attempts [a diferença com relação, vamos dizer, a Hitler é que ele realmente acabou morrendo assassinado, depois de tudo!]. An unpopular king immediately after his accession, Henry’s popularity greatly improved after his death” Sua estátua foi esculpida 4 anos após sua morte, mas foi depredada à Revolução Francesa. “Henry IV’s popularity continued when the first edition of his biography, Histoire du Roy Henry le Grand, was published in Amsterdam in 1661. It was written by Hardouin de Péréfixe de Beaumont, successively bishop of Rhodez and archbishop of Paris, primarily for the edification of Louis XIV, grandson of Henry IV. A translation into English was made by James Dauncey for another grandson, King Charles II of England.” Sem saber quem escreveu o verbete e qual era exatamente sua relação com o “Bom Rei”, fica difícil aventar qualquer interpretação para suas digressões tão pessoais…

Nenhum Pequeno Rei E[dwar(f)]do gostaria de falar comigo a não ser num sonho de uma noite de (Um dia) verão, ambientada no Japão, concordam?!

Qual é o seu [co]gnome?

AMIDA, s. m. (Hist. mod.) faux Dieu adoré par les Japonois. Il a plusieurs temples dans l’empire du Japon, dont le principal est à Jedo. Sa statue composée d’un corps d’homme avec une tête de chien comme l’Anubis des Anciens, est montée sur un cheval à sept têtes proche de la ville de Meaco. On voit un autre temple dédié à cette idole, qui y est représentée sous la figure d’un jeune homme qui porte sur sa tête une couronne environnée de rayons d’or. Il est accompagné de mille autres idoles qui sont rangées aux deux côtés de ce temple. Les Japonois ont une si grande confiance dans leur idole Amida, qu’ils se persuadent de joüir d’un bonheur éternel, pourvû qu’ils puissent souvent invoquer ou prononcer son nom. Ils croyent même qu’il suffit pour se sauver, de repéter fréquemment les paroles suivantes: Nami, Amida, buth, c’est-à-dire heureux Amida, sauvez-nous. On garde une des figures de cette idole à Rome dans le cabinet de Kirker, comme on le peut voir dans le Mus. Coll. Rom. Soc. Jesu, Amft. 1678. (G)” BUDA

A CONDIÇÃO HUMANA

Hannah Arendt – revisão e apresentação de Adriano Correia, tradução de Roberto Raposo

DIC:

moulin: engenho

predicament/Verlegenheit: constrangimento

O alemão Arbeit se aplicava originalmente apenas ao trabalho agrícola executado por servos, e não à obra do artesão, que era chamada Werk. O francês travailler substituiu o mais antigo labourer e deriva de tripalium, uma espécie de tortura. (cf. Grimm e Lucien Fèbre)” “o verbo werken é pouco utilizado, enquanto o substantivo Werk ainda é usual no vocabulário alemão corrente”

Para a presente tradução foram consultadas com freqüência as traduções alemã (Vita activa – oder Vom tätigen Leben, Piper, 2007), francesa (Condition de l’homme moderne, trad. Georges Fradier, Calmann-Lévy, 2007) e espanhola (La condición humana, trad. Ramón Gil Novales, Paidós, 2005).”

Nas últimas páginas da primeira edição de As origens do totalitarismo, Arendt faz uma referência peculiar ao conceito kantiano de <mal radical>, que teria surgido <em conexão com um sistema no qual todos os homens se tornaram igualmente supérfluos>.” “o mal absoluto contido na possibilidade de erradicação da pluralidade da face da Terra”

Na última frase do livro, ela observa que <as soluções totalitárias podem bem sobreviver à queda dos regimes totalitários na forma de fortes tentações que surgirão sempre que parecer impossível aliviar a miséria política, social ou econômica de um modo digno do homem>.”

julga que o totalitarismo é uma nova forma de dominação que representa a destruição do político

o desamparo organizado é consideravelmente mais perigoso que a impotência desorganizada de todos aqueles que são governados pela vontade tirânica e arbitrária de um único homem.”

o início, antes de se tornar um evento histórico, é a suprema capacidade do homem (…) Initium ut esset homo creatus est – <para que houvesse um início o homem foi criado>, disse Agostinho (A cidade de Deus, Livro 12, cap. 20).” “Se Kant tivesse conhecido a filosofia da natalidade de Agostinho, provavelmente teria concordado que a liberdade da espontaneidade relativamente absoluta não é mais embaraçosa para a razão humana do que o fato de os homens nascerem – continuamente recém-chegados a um mundo que os precede no tempo.” “Os homens, como entes do mundo, são politicamente não seres para a morte, mas permanentes afirmadores da singularidade que o nascimento inaugura.”

no plano teórico, ao conceber o trabalho como criador de todos os valores e glorificar a atividade tradicionalmente mais desprezada, Karl Marx teria apenas radicalizado as posições de Adam Smith, para quem o trabalho era o criador de toda riqueza, e de John Locke, para quem o trabalho era a fonte do direito de propriedade.”

O trabalho, entretanto, é uma <atividade na qual o homem não está junto ao mundo nem convive com os outros, mas está sozinho com seu corpo ante a pura necessidade de manter-se vivo>, e justamente por isso é radicalmente antipolítica.”

Para Arendt, <a mais séria lacuna em As origens do totalitarismo é a ausência de uma análise conceitual e histórica adequada do pano de fundo ideológico do bolchevismo. Essa omissão foi deliberada. (…) O racismo e o imperialismo, o nacionalismo tribal dos pan-movimentos e o antissemitismo não mantinham relação com as grandes tradições filosóficas e políticas do Ocidente. A aterradora originalidade do totalitarismo (…) é facilmente negligenciada se se enfatiza demasiadamente o único elemento que tem atrás de si uma tradição respeitável e cuja discussão crítica requer a crítica de alguns dos mais importantes preceitos da filosofia política ocidental: o Marxismo>, apud Jerome Kohn” “Arendt afirma em Entre o passado e o futuro, que <a tradição de nosso pensamento político teve seu início definido nos ensinamentos de Platão e Aristóteles. Creio que ela chegou a um fim não menos definido nas teorias de Karl Marx>, que manifestavam a intenção de abjurar a filosofia e buscar realizá-la na política.” “a ruptura de Marx com a tradição da filosofia, partindo da theoria ou contemplação em direção à práxis, não foi tão profunda, uma vez que não se traduziu em uma recusa da compreensão da práxis como poiesis; da ação como fabricação, nem redundou no reconhecimento da dignidade própria ao domínio político.”

Elizabeth Young-Bruehl, na sua ainda definitiva biografia sobre Arendt” “Conferir ainda a carta a Martin Heidegger, de 8 de maio de 1954 (Hannah Arendt/Martin Heidegger – correspondência: 1925-1975, Relume-Dumará, 2001).” Curiosidade supérflua: a correspondência entre H.A. e M.H. abrange, como se pode ver, 50 anos. A correspondência entre H.A. e Karl Jaspers abrange 43 anos.

Arendt distingue o mundo moderno, que teria começado politicamente com as explosões atômicas, da era moderna, que começou cientificamente no século XVII e terminou no limiar do século XX.”

Enredada no ciclo de esgotamento e regeneração que preside os processos corporais, a atividade do trabalho experimenta o tempo como um contínuo devir de processos circulares. (…) Esses produtos não demoram no mundo tempo suficiente para formarem parte dele nem desfrutam da durabilidade necessária para transcender o tempo de vida de seus produtores – o trabalho jamais transcende a vida.”

a redenção da vida, sustentada pelo trabalho, é a mundanidade, sustentada pela fabricação.”

A despeito de conceber seus produtos no isolamento, ou na companhia de poucos ajudantes ou aprendizes, o homo faber, na medida em que também visa a exibir e trocar seus produtos, acaba por instaurar como lugar de reunião um mercado de trocas, externo ao espaço de produção e à atividade da fabricação (…), mas ainda assim uma extensão sua. (…) <ao contrário do animal laborans, cuja vida social é sem mundo e gregária, e que, portanto, é incapaz de construir ou habitar domínio público, mundano, o homo faber é perfeitamente capaz de ter um domínio público próprio, embora não possa ser um domínio político propriamente dito>. O homo faber, como fabricante de coisas e produtor do mundo, relaciona-se com os outros como homo faber apenas no mercado de trocas no qual exibe seus produtos. [Facebook, Twitter, WordPress e Recanto das Letras!] (…) Arendt assinala que já entre os antigos gregos e romanos os artífices constituíam uma comunidade a ocupar o limiar em que os produtos privados têm de ser exibidos em público e o espaço público é ocupado de um modo a-político” “O utilitarismo sistemático, que Hannah Arendt julga ser, por excelência, a filosofia do homo faber, engendra como seu inelutável efeito colateral a completa ausência de significado.”

<vemos agora surgir, de várias maneiras, a cultura de uma sociedade em que o comércio é a alma, assim como a peleja individual para os antigos gregos, e a guerra, a vitória e o direito para os romanos.> Nietzsche, Aurora (aforismo 175)

No final de Sobre a revolução, ela menciona o trecho de Édipo em Colono, no qual se traduz a sabedoria de Sileno, o sátiro companheiro de Dioniso: <não ter nascido se sobrepõe a todo significado revelado em palavras; de longe, a segunda melhor coisa para a vida, uma vez que ela tenha aparecido, é retornar o mais rapidamente possível para o lugar de onde veio.>”

A vida só começa aos -273º

se a soberania e a liberdade fossem realmente a mesma coisa, nenhum homem poderia ser livre, pois a soberania, o ideal da inflexível autossuficiência e autodomínio, contradiz a própria condição da pluralidade.”

Essa ocorrência simultânea de liberdade com não soberania parece indicar que a existência humana é mesmo absurda e que Platão teria razão ao recomendar que não levássemos muito a sério o domínio dos assuntos humanos, pois aí operamos como marionetes de algum deus.”

quanto temos de transformar as vidas privadas dos pobres?”

homem – diz ela – é a-político. A política surge no entre-os-homens: portanto, totalmente fora dos homens. Por conseguinte, não existe nenhuma substância política original.”

Agamben – L’aperto: l’uomo e l’animale

Homo sacer – o poder soberano e a vida nua

o animal laborans jamais poderia dizer, como Maquiavel o fez mais de uma vez: <amo mais Florença que minha vida ou a salvação da minha alma>”

* * *

Esse homem futuro, que os cientistas nos dizem que produzirão em menos de um século, parece imbuído por uma rebelião contra a existência humana tal como ela tem sido dada – um dom gratuito vindo de lugar nenhum (secularmente falando) que ele deseja trocar, por assim dizer, por algo produzido por ele mesmo. Não há razão para duvidar de que sejamos capazes de realizar tal troca, assim como não há motivo para duvidar de nossa atual capacidade de destruir toda vida orgânica na Terra. A questão é apenas se desejamos usar nessa direção nosso novo conhecimento científico e técnico, e essa questão não pode ser decidida por meios científicos; é uma questão política de primeira grandeza, cuja decisão, portanto, não pode ser deixada a cientistas profissionais ou a políticos profissionais.” (1957)

Se for comprovado o divórcio entre o conhecimento (no sentido moderno de conhecimento técnico [know-how]) e o pensamento, então passaríamos a ser, sem dúvida, escravos indefesos, não tanto de nossas máquinas quanto de nosso conhecimento técnico, criaturas desprovidas de pensamento à mercê de qualquer engenhoca tecnicamente possível, por mais mortífera que seja.”

atualmente as ciências são forçadas a adotar uma <linguagem> de símbolos matemáticos que, embora originariamente concebida apenas como uma abreviação de afirmações enunciadas, contém agora afirmações que de modo algum podem ser retraduzidas em discurso.”

É uma sociedade de trabalhadores a que está para ser liberada dos grilhões do trabalho, uma sociedade que já não conhece aquelas outras atividades superiores e mais significativas em vista das quais essa liberdade mereceria ser conquistada.” “Até presidentes, reis e primeiros-ministros concebem seus cargos como um emprego necessário à vida da sociedade, e, entre os intelectuais, restam somente indivíduos solitários que consideram o que fazem como uma obra, e não como meio de ganhar o próprio sustento.”

Não houve um Adão nem uma Eva no reino animal.

A pluralidade é a condição da ação humana porque somos todos iguais, isto é, humanos, de um modo tal que ninguém jamais é igual a qualquer outro que viveu, vive ou viverá.”

PONTADA NO “MARIDO TRANSATLÂNTICO”: “Além disso, como a ação é a atividade política por excelência, a natalidade, e não a mortalidade, pode ser a categoria central do pensamento político, em contraposição ao pensamento metafísico.”

Tudo o que adentra o mundo humano por si próprio, ou para ele é trazido pelo esforço humano, torna-se parte da condição humana. (…) por ser uma existência condicionada, a existência humana seria impossível sem coisas, e estas seriam um amontoado de artigos desconectados, um não-mundo, se não fossem os condicionantes da existência humana.” “A mudança mais radical da condição humana que podemos imaginar seria uma emigração dos homens da Terra para algum outro planeta. (…) O trabalho, a obra, a ação e, na verdade, mesmo o pensamento, como o conhecemos, deixariam de ter sentido. No entanto, até esses hipotéticos viajores da Terra ainda seriam humanos; mas a única afirmativa que poderíamos fazer quanto à sua <natureza> é que são ainda seres condicionados, embora sua condição seja agora, em grande parte, produzida por eles mesmos.”

a quaestio mihi factus sum (<a questão que me tornei para mim mesmo> de Agostinho” “Ag., geralmente considerado o primeiro a levantar a chamada questão antropológica na filosofia” “tu, quis es? [Confissões, x. 6]” “<O que sou então, meu Deus? Qual é a minha natureza?> – Quid ergo sum, Deus meus? Quae natura sum? [x. 17]. Pois no <grande mistério>, no grande profundum [iv. 14], há <algo do homem [aliquid hominis] que o espírito do homem que nele está não sabe. Mas tu, Senhor, que o fizeste [fecisti eum], tudo sabes a seu respeito [eius omnia]> [x. 5]” “A questão da natureza do homem é uma questão teológica tanto quanto a questão da natureza de Deus; ambas só podem ser resolvidas dentro da estrutura de uma resposta divinamente revelada.” “as tentativas de definir natureza humana resultam quase invariavelmente na construção de alguma deidade, isto é, no deus dos filósofos que, desde Platão, revela-se, em um exame mais acurado, como uma espécie de idéia platônica do homem. Naturalmente, desmascarar tais conceitos filosóficos do divino como conceitualizações das capacidades e qualidades humanas não é uma demonstração da não-existência de Deus, e nem mesmo constitui argumento nesse sentido”

RESUMO DA TESE DO LIVRO: “as condições da existência humana – a vida, a natalidade e a mortalidade, a mundanidade, a pluralidade e a Terra – jamais podem <explicar> o que somos ou responder à pergunta sobre quem somos, pela simples razão de que jamais nos condicionam de modo absoluto. Essa sempre foi a opinião da filosofia em contraposição às ciências (antropologia, psicologia, biologia, etc.) que também se ocupam do homem. Mas hoje podemos quase dizer que já demonstramos, mesmo cientificamente, que, embora vivamos sob condições terrenas, e provavelmente viveremos sempre, não somos meras criaturas terrenas. A moderna ciência natural deve os seus maiores triunfos ao fato de ter considerado e tratado a natureza terrena de um ponto de vista verdadeiramente universal, isto é, de um ponto de vista arquimediano escolhido, voluntária e explicitamente, fora da Terra.”

o artesão, ao fazer um contrato de trabalho, abria mão de 2 dos 4 elementos de seu status de homem livre (a saber, liberdade de atividade econômica e direito de movimentação irrestrista), mas por vontade própria e temporariamente” Westermann

o modo de vida do déspota, pelo fato de ser <meramente> uma necessidade, não podia ser considerado livre e nada tinha a ver com o bios politikos.”

Com o desaparecimento da antiga cidade-Estado, o bios theoretikos, traduzido como vita contemplativa, era agora o único modo de vida realmente livre.

Contudo, a enorme superioridade da contemplação sobre qualquer outro tipo de atividade, inclusive a ação, não é de origem cristã.” “a posterior pretensão dos cristãos de serem livres de envolvimento em assuntos mundanos, de todos os negócios deste mundo, foi precedida pela apolitia filosófica da Antiguidade tardia, e dela se originou.”

A palavra grega skhole, como a latina ocium, significa basicamente isenção de atividade política e não simplesmente lazer, embora ambas sejam também usadas para indicar isenção do trabalho e das necessidades da vida. De qualquer modo, indicam sempre uma condição de liberação de preocupações e cuidados.”

Fustel de Coulanges – A cidade antiga

Todo movimento, os movimentos do corpo e da alma, bem como do discurso e do raciocínio devem cessar diante da verdade. Esta, seja a antiga verdade do Ser ou a verdade cristã do Deus vivo, só pode revelar-se em meio à completa tranqüilidade humana. Tomás de Aquino ressalta a tranqüilidade da alma, e recomenda a vida activa porque ela extenua e, portanto, <aquieta as paixões interiores> e prepara para a contemplação (Suma teológica, ii. 2. 182. 3).”

Até o início da era moderna, a expressão vita activa jamais perdeu sua conotação negativa de <in-quietude>, nec-octium, a-skholia.”

nenhuma obra de mãos humanas pode igualar em beleza e verdade o kosmos físico, que revolve em torno de si mesmo, em imutável eternidade, sem qualquer interferência ou assistência externa” “Do ponto de vista da contemplação, não importa o que perturba a necessária quietude, mas que ela seja perturbada. § Tradicionalmente, portanto, a expressão vita activa recebe seu significado da vita contemplativa

der Bedürftigkeit eins lebendigen Köpers, an den die Kontemplation gebunden bleibt – à necessidade de um corpo vivo, ao qual a contemplação permanece vinculada”

Agostinho fala do dever da caridade, que seria insuportável sem a <doçura> (suavitas) e o <deleite da verdade> obtido na contemplação (A cidade de Deus, xix. 19).”

títulos de livro: O ÔNUS DO ÓCIO

MÁSCARA DO MASCARADO

O consagrado ressentimento do filósofo contra a condição humana de possuir um corpo não é a mesma coisa que o antigo desprezo pelas necessidades da vida; a sujeição à necessidade era apenas um dos aspectos da existência corpórea, e uma vez libertado dessa necessidade o corpo era capaz daquela aparência pura que os gregos chamavam de beleza.”

se o uso da expressão vita activa, como aqui o proponho, está em manifesta contradição com a tradição, é que duvido não da validade da experiência subjacente à distinção, mas antes da ordem hierárquica inerente a ela desde o início.” “o enorme valor da contemplação na hierarquia tradicional embaçou as diferenças e articulações no âmbito da própria vita activa (…) a despeito das aparências, essa condição não foi essencialmente alterada pelo moderno rompimento com a tradição nem pela inversão final da sua ordem hierárquica, em Marx e Nietzsche. A estrutura conceitual permaneceu mais ou menos intacta, e isso se deve à própria natureza do ato de <virar de cabeça para baixo> os sistemas filosóficos ou os valores atualmente aceitos, isto é, à natureza da própria operação.” Agora, dá a mão a Heidegger.

o sábio estóico deixou de ser um cidadão do seu país e passou a ser um cidadão do universo.”

Ao discutir formas asiáticas de adoração e as crenças em um Deus invisível, Heródoto menciona explicitamente que, em comparação com esse Deus transcendente (como diríamos hoje), situado além do tempo, da vida e do universo, os deuses gregos eram antropophyeis, i.e., tinham a mesma natureza e não apenas a mesma forma do homem.” “Os homens são <os mortais>, as únicas coisas mortais que existem, porque, ao contrário dos animais, não existem apenas como membros de uma espécie cuja vida imortal é garantida pela procriação.” “Essa vida individual difere de todas as outras coisas pelo curso retilíneo do seu movimento, que, por assim dizer, trespassa o movimento circular da vida biológica.”

Homero ainda não conhece a palavra pragmata, que em Platão (ta ton anthropon pragmata) é mais bem traduzida como <negócios humanos> e tem a conotação de inquietação e futilidade.”

só os melhores (os aristoi), que constantemente provam serem os melhores (aristeuein, verbo que não tem equivalente em nenhuma outra língua) e que <preferem a fama imortal às coisas mortais>, são realmente humanos” “Essa era ainda a opinião de Heráclito, opinião da qual dificilmente se encontra equivalente em qualquer filósofo depois de Sócrates.” “é somente em Platão que a preocupação com o eterno e a vida do filósofo são vistas como inerentemente contraditórias e em conflito com a luta pela imortalidade, que é o modo de vida do cidadão, o bios politikos.”

nunc stans (<aquilo que é agora>)”

Politicamente falando, se morrer é o mesmo que <deixar de estar entre os homens>, a experiência do eterno é uma espécie de morte, e a única coisa que a separa da morte real é que ela não é definitiva, porque nenhuma criatura viva pode suportá-la durante muito tempo.”

A queda do Império Romano demonstrou claramente que nenhuma obra de mãos mortais pode ser imortal”

nem mesmo a ascendência do secular na era moderna e a concomitante inversão da hierarquia tradicional entre ação e contemplação foram suficientes para resgatar do oblívio a procura da imortalidade”

nem um animal nem um deus é capaz de ação: o bardo canta feitos de deuses e homens, não histórias de deuses e histórias de homens. De modo análogo, a Teogonia de Hesíodo trata não dos feitos dos deuses, mas da gênese do mundo (116)”

Essa reação especial entre e ação e estar junto parece justificar plenamente a antiga tradução zoon politikon de Aristóteles como animal socialis, que já encontramos em Sêneca e depois, com Tomás de Aquino, tornou-se a tradução consagrada: homo est naturaliter politicus, id est, socialis. Melhor que qualquer teoria elaborada, essa substituição inconsciente do político pelo social revela até que ponto havia sido perdida a original compreensão grega da política. É significativo, mas não decisivo, que a palavra <social> seja de origem romana e não tenha equivalente na língua ou no pensamento gregos.” “somente com o ulterior conceito de uma societas generis humani, uma <sociedade da espécie humana>, é que o termo <social> começa adquirir o sentido geral de condição humana fundamental.”

Ou a cidade desagregava a família, com o tempo, ou não poderia perdurar” Fustel de Coulanges “Não só o abismo entre o lar e a cidade era muito mais profundo na Grécia do que em Roma, mas somente na Grécia a religião olímpica, que era a religião de Homero e da cidade-Estado, era separada da religião mais antiga da família e do lar, e superior a esta. Enquanto Vesta, a deusa da lareira, passou a ser a protetora de uma <lareira da cidade> e tornou-se parte do culto político oficial após a unificação e segunda fundação de Roma, sua equivalente grega”

A tradução literal das últimas linhas de Antígona (1350-54) é a seguinte: <Mas as grandes palavras, neutralizando (ou revidando) os grandes golpes dos soberbos, ensinam a compreensão na velhice.> O conteúdo dessas linhas é tão enigmático para a compreensão moderna que raramente se encontra um tradutor que ouse dar a elas seu sentido estrito. Uma exceção é a tradução de Hölderlin: <Grosse Blicke aber, / Grosse Streiche der hohen Schultern / Vergeltend, / Sie haben im Alter gelehrt, zu denken.> Uma anedota contada por Plutarco ilustra, em nível muito menos elevado, a ligação entre agir e falar. Certa vez, um homem aproximou-se de Demóstenes e disse o quanto foi violentamente espancado. <Mas>, disse Demóstenes, <não sofreste nada do que estás me dizendo>. O outro levantou a voz em seguida e exclamou: <Eu não sofri nada?><Agora>, disse Demóstenes, <escuto a voz de quem foi ofendido e sofreu> (Vidas, <Demóstenes>). Um último vestígio dessa antiga conexão entre o discurso e o pensamento, ausente em nossa noção de exprimir o pensamento por meio de palavras, pode ser encontrado na popular frase de Cícero: ratio et oratio.”

a maioria das ações políticas, na medida em que permanecem fora da esfera da violência, são realmente realizadas por meio de palavras; mais fundamentalmente, o ato de encontrar as palavras certas no momento certo, independentemente da informação ou comunicação que transmitem, constitui uma ação.” “Na pólis, a ação e o discurso separaram-se e tornaram-se atividades cada vez mais independentes. (…) Característico desse desdobramento é o fato de que todo político era chamado de <rétor> e que a retórica, a arte de falar em público, em oposição à dialética, que era a arte do discurso filosófico, era definida por Aristóteles como a arte da persuasão (cf. Retórica, 1354a12ss., 1355b26ss.). (A distinção, aliás, vem de Platão, Górgias, 448.) É nesse sentido que devemos compreender a opinião grega acerca do declínio de Tebas, atribuído ao fato de terem os tebanos abandonado a retórica em favor do exercício militar (veja-se Jacob Burckhardt, Griechische Kulturgeschichte, ed. Kroener, III, 190).”

Ser político, viver em uma pólis, significava que tudo era decidido mediante palavras e persuasão, e não força e violência. Para os gregos, forçar pessoas mediante violência, ordenar ao invés de persuadir, eram modos pré-políticos de lidar com as pessoas típicos da vida fora da pólis, característicos do lar e da vida em família, em que o chefe da casa imperava com poderes incontestes e despóticos, ou da vida nos impérios bárbaros da Ásia, cujo despotismo era freqüentemente comparado à organização doméstica.” rePOLInização familiar

A antiga liberdade do cidadão romano desapareceu quando os imperadores romanos adotaram o título de dominus, <ce nom qu’Auguste et que Tibère encore repoussaient comme une malédiction et une injure> (H. Wallon, Histoire de l’esclavage dans l’antiquité (1847), III, 21).”

O pensamento político que corresponde a esse desdobramento já não é a ciência política, e sim a <economia nacional> ou a <economia social>” “Assim, é-nos difícil compreender que, segundo o pensamento dos antigos sobre esses assuntos, o próprio termo <economia política> teria sido contraditório: pois o que fosse <econômico>, relacionado com a vida do indivíduo e a sobrevivência da espécie, não era assunto político, mas doméstico por definição.”

Não pretendemos negar com isso que o Estado-nação e sua sociedade surgiram do reino feudal e do feudalismo, em cuja estrutura a família e a casa têm importância jamais igualada na Antiguidade Clássica. A <nação> medieval era um conglomerado de famílias”

Coulanges vê na lei ateniense que tornou dever filial sustentar os pais a prova da perda do poder paterno. Contudo, o poder paterno só era limitado quando entrava em conflito com os interesses da cidade, e nunca em benefício do membro da família como indivíduo. Assim, a prática de vender crianças e enjeitar [deserdar] filhos pequenos foi exercida durante toda a Antiguidade (cf. R. H. Barrow, Slavery in the Roman Empire (1928))”

O que impediu a pólis de violar as vidas privadas dos seus cidadãos, e a fez ver como sagrados os limites que cercavam cada propriedade, não foi o respeito pela propriedade privada como a conhecemos, mas o fato de que, sem possuir uma casa, um homem não podia participar dos assuntos do mundo porque não tinha nele lugar algum que fosse propriamente seu. Até Platão, cujos planos políticos previam a abolição da propriedade privada e a expansão da esfera pública ao ponto de aniquilar completamente a vida privada, ainda falava com grande reverência de Zeus Herkeios, o protetor das fronteiras, e chamava de divinos os horoi, os limites entre os Estados, sem nisso ver qualquer contradição. É interessante notar que havia cidades gregas onde os cidadãos eram obrigados por lei a dividir entre si suas colheitas e consumi-las em comum, embora cada um deles tivesse propriedade absoluta e inconteste do seu pedaço de terra.”

a violência é o ato pré-político de liberar-se da necessidade da vida para conquistar a liberdade no mundo.” “ser um escravo significava estar sujeito, também, à violência praticada pelo homem. Essa <infelicidade> dupla e redobrada da escravidão é inteiramente independente do efetivo bem-estar subjetivo do escravo. Assim, um homem livre e pobre preferia a insegurança de um mercado de trabalho que mudasse diariamente a uma ocupação regular e garantida; esta última, por lhe restringir a liberdade de fazer o que desejasse a cada dia, já era considerada servidão (douleia), e até o trabalho árduo e penoso era preferível à vida tranqüila de muitos escravos domésticos. (…) vd. Xenofonte – Memorabilia (ii.8)

Ser livre significava nem governar nem ser governado. Segundo Coulanges, todas as palavras gregas e latinas que exprimem algum tipo de governo de um homem sobre os outros, como rex, pater, anax, basileus, referiam-se originariamente a relações domésticas e eram nomes que os escravos davam a seus senhores.”

A igualdade, portanto, longe de estar ligada à justiça, como nos tempos modernos, era a própria essência da liberdade” Finalmente um lugar para aplicar o lema francês.

Em alemão, a palavra Volkswirtschaftslehre sugere que existe um sujeito coletivo da atividade econômica”

O que continua a ser surpreendente é que tenha sido Maquiavel o único teórico político pós-clássico que, em um extraordinário esforço para restaurar a antiga dignidade da política, percebeu o abismo e compreendeu até certo ponto a coragem necessária para transpô-lo, que o descreveu na elevação <do Condottiere de uma baixa posição para um alto posto> vd. Discursos, Livro II, Cap. 13.”

<Já no tempo de Sólon, a escravidão era considerada pior que a morte> (Robert Schlafer, <Greek theories of slavery from Homer to Aristotle>, Harvard studies in classical philology (1936), 47.)” “convém lembrar que a maioria dos escravos era de inimigos derrotados. E os escravos gregos eram geralmente da mesma nacionalidade que os seus senhores; haviam demonstrado sua natureza escrava por não terem cometido suicídio e, como a coragem era a virtude política par excellence, haviam demonstrado com isso sua indignidade <natural>. A atitude em relação aos escravos mudou no Império Romano, não só devido à influência do estoicismo, mas porque uma proporção muito maior da população escrava era escrava de nascimento.”

Era <[vida] boa> exatamente porque, tendo dominado as necessidades do mero viver, tendo se libertado do trabalho e da obra e superado o anseio inato de sobrevivência comum a todas as criaturas vivas, deixava de ser limitada ao processo biológico da vida.” !!!

O primeiro eloqüente explorador da intimidade e, até certo ponto, o seu teórico foi Jean-Jacques Rousseau, que, de modo bastante característico, é o único grande autor ainda citado freqüentemente pelo primeiro nome.” “A intimidade do coração, ao contrário do lar privado, não tem lugar objetivo e tangível no mundo, e a sociedade contra a qual ela protesta e se afirma não pode ser localizada com a mesma certeza que o espaço público.”

A observação de Sêneca, que, ao discutir a utilidade de ter escravos altamente instruídos (que sabem de cor todos os clássicos) para um senhor supostamente um tanto ignorante, comenta: <O que a casa sabe, o senhor sabe> (Ep. 27:6, citado por Barrow).”

o domínio público era reservado à individualidade; era o único lugar em que os homens podiam mostrar quem realmente eram e o quanto eram insubstituíveis.”

É o mesmo conformismo, a suposição de que os homens se comportam ao invés de agir em relação aos demais, que está na base da moderna ciência da economia, cujo nascimento coincidiu com surgimento da sociedade e que, juntamente com seu principal instrumento técnico, a estatística, se tornou a ciência social por excelência.” “A economia clássica pressupunha que o homem, na medida em que é um ser ativo, age exclusivamente por interesse próprio e é movido por um único desejo, o desejo de aquisição. A introdução, por Adam Smith, de uma <mão invisível para promover um fim que não fazia parte da intenção (de ninguém)> demonstra que mesmo esse mínimo de ação, com a sua motivação uniforme, contém ainda demasiada iniciativa imprevisível para o estabelecimento de uma ciência. Marx desenvolveu a economia clássica mais ainda ao substituir os interesses individuais e pessoais por interesses de grupo ou de classe, e ao reduzir esses interesses de classe a duas classes principais, de capitalistas e operários, de sorte que só lhe restou um conflito em que a economia clássica enxergava uma multidão de conflitos contraditórios. O motivo pelo qual o sistema econômico de Marx é mais consistente e coerente, e, portanto, aparentemente muito mais <científico> que os de seus predecessores, reside primordialmente na construção do <homem socializado>, que é um ser ainda menos ativo que o <homem econômico> da economia liberal.”

Aplicar à política ou à história a lei dos grandes números e dos longos períodos equivale a obliterar voluntariamente o próprio objeto dessas duas” “Politicamente, isso significa que, quanto maior é a população de qualquer corpo político, maior é a probabilidade de que o social, e não o político, constitua o domínio público. Os gregos, cuja cidade-Estado foi o corpo político mais individualista e menos conformista que conhecemos, tinham plena consciência do fato de que a pólis, com a sua ênfase na ação e no discurso, só poderia sobreviver se o número de cidadãos permanecesse restrito. Grandes números de pessoas amontoadas desenvolvem uma inclinação quase irresistível na direção do despotismo, seja o despotismo de uma pessoa ou o do governo da maioria” Imagine só 9 bilhões de Aloísios…

Estatisticamente, isso resulta em um declínio da flutuação. (…) A uniformidade estatística não é de modo algum um ideal científico inócuo; é sim o ideal político, não mais secreto, de uma sociedade que, inteiramente submersa na rotina da vida cotidiana, aceita pacificamente a concepção científica inerente à sua própria existência.”

Não Karl Marx, mas os próprios economistas liberais tiveram de introduzir a <ficção comunista>, i.e., supor a existência de um único interesse da sociedade como um todo, que com <uma mão invisível> guia o comportamento dos homens e produz a harmonia de seus interesses conflitantes.”

Myrdal – The political element in the development of economic theory

O que Marx não compreendeu – e em seu tempo seria impossível compreender – é que os germes da sociedade comunista estavam presentes na realidade de um lar nacional, e o que atravancava o completo desenvolvimento dela não era qualquer interesse de classe como tal, mas somente a já obsoleta estrutura monárquica do Estado-nação.”

O que tradicionalmente chamamos de Estado e de governo cede lugar aqui à mera administração – um estado de coisas que Marx previu corretamente como o <definhamento do Estado>, embora estivesse errado ao presumir que somente uma revolução pudesse provocá-lo, e mais errado ainda quando acreditou que essa completa vitória da sociedade significaria o eventual surgimento do <reino da liberdade>.”

a economia, que altera padrões de comportamento somente nesse campo bastante limitado da atividade humana, foi finalmente sucedida pela pretensão oniabrangente das ciências sociais, que, como <ciências do comportamento>, visam a reduzir o homem como um todo, em todas as suas atividades, ao nível de um animal comportado e condicionado. Se a economia é a ciência da sociedade em suas primeiras fases, quando suas regras de comportamento podiam ser impostas somente a determinados setores da população e a uma parcela de suas atividades, o surgimento das <ciências do comportamento> indica claramente o estágio final desse desdobramento, quando a sociedade de massas já devorou todas as camadas da nação e o <comportamento social> converteu-se em modelo de todas as áreas da vida.”

Todas as palavras européias para <trabalho> – o latim e o inglês labor, o grego ponos, o francês travail, o alemão Arbeit – significam dor e esforço e são usadas também para as dores do parto. Labor tem a mesma raiz etimológica que labare (<cambalear sob uma carga>); ponos e Arbeit têm as mesmas raízes etimológicas que <pobreza> (penia em grego e Armut em alemão). Mesmo Hesíodo, tido como um dos poucos defensores do trabalho na Antiguidade, via ponon alginoenta (<o trabalho penoso>) como o primeiro dos males que atormentavam os homens (Teogonia, 226). Quanto ao uso grego, conferir G. Herzog-Hauser, Ponos, em Pauly-Wissowa. As palavras alemãs Arbeit e arm derivam ambas do germânico arbma-, que significava solitário e desprezado, abandonado. Veja-se Kluge & Götze, Etymologisches Wörterbuch (1951). No alemão medieval, usam-se essas palavras para traduzir labor, tribulatio, persecutio, adversitas, malum (cf. Klara Vontobel, Das Arbeitsethos des deutschen Protestantismus (Dissertation, Berna, 1946)).”

A tão citada observação de Homero – de que Zeus retira metade da excelência (areté) de um homem no dia em que ele sucumbe à escravidão (Odisséia, 17:320ss.) – é colocada na boca de Eumeu, ele mesmo um escravo, significando uma mera afirmação objetiva, e não uma crítica ou um julgamento moral. O escravo perde a excelência porque perde a admissão ao domínio público, onde a excelência pode se revelar.”

Embora nos tenhamos tornado excelentes na atividade do trabalho que realizamos em público, a nossa capacidade de ação e de discurso perdeu muito de seu antigo caráter desde que a ascendência do domínio social baniu estes últimos para a esfera do íntimo e do privado. Essa curiosa discrepância não passou despercebida do público, que geralmente a atribui a uma suposta defasagem entre nossas capacidades técnicas e nosso desenvolvimento humanístico em geral, ou entre as ciências físicas, que alteram e controlam a natureza, e as ciências sociais, que ainda não sabem como alterar e controlar a sociedade.”

Para nós, a aparência – aquilo que é visto e ouvido pelos outros e por nós mesmos – constitui a realidade. Em comparação com a realidade que decorre do ser visto e ouvido, mesmo as maiores forças da vida íntima – as paixões do coração, os pensamentos do espírito, os deleites dos sentidos – levam uma espécie de existência incerta e obscura, a não ser que, e até que, sejam transformadas, desprivatizadas e desindividualizadas, por assim dizer, de modo que assumam um aspecto adequado à aparição pública. Esse é também o motivo pelo qual é impossível <traçar o perfil de qualquer escravo que viveu […]. Até alcançarem a liberdade e a notoriedade, todos os escravos são tipos obscuros, mais que pessoas> (Barrow, Slavery in the Roman Empire, p. 156).”

Goethe observou certa vez que envelhecer é <retirar-se gradualmente da aparência> (stufenweises Zurücktretenaus der Erscheinung); a verdade dessa observação, bem como o aspecto real desse processo de desaparecimento, tornam-se bastante tangíveis nos autorretratos dos grandes mestres quando velhos – Rembrandt, Leonardo, etc. –, nos quais a intensidade dos olhos parece iluminar e presidir uma carne que fenece.”

Dada a sua inerente não-mundanidade (worldlessness), o amor só pode ser falsificado e pervertido quando utilizado para fins políticos, como a transformação ou a salvação do mundo.”

O moderno encantamento com <pequenas coisas>, embora pregado pela poesia do início do século XX em quase todas as línguas européias, encontrou sua apresentação clássica no petit bonheur do povo francês. Desde o declínio de seu outrora vasto e glorioso domínio público, os franceses tornaram-se mestres na arte de serem felizes entre <pequenas coisas>, no espaço de suas quatro paredes, entre a cômoda e a cama, a mesa e a cadeira, entre o cachorro, o gato e o vaso de flores, estendendo a essas coisas um cuidado e uma ternura que, em um mundo onde a industrialização rápida extermina constantemente as coisas de ontem para produzir os objetos de hoje, podem até parecer o último recanto puramente humano do mundo.”

Encontrar um vínculo entre as pessoas suficientemente forte para substituir o mundo foi a principal tarefa política da primeira filosofia cristã; e foi Agostinho quem propôs edificar sobre a caridade não apenas a <fraternidade> cristã, mas todas as relações humanas. Essa caridade, porém, muito embora a sua desmundanidade (worldlessness) corresponda claramente à experiência humana geral do amor, é ao mesmo tempo nitidamente diferente dele por ser algo que, como o mundo, está entre os homens”

A não mundanidade como um fenômeno político só é possível com a premissa de que o mundo não durará; mas, com tal premissa, é quase inevitável que a não mundanidade venha, de uma forma ou de outra, a dominar a cena política. Foi o que sucedeu após a queda do Império Romano e parece estar ocorrendo novamente em nosso tempo – embora por motivos diferentes e de forma muito diversa, e talvez bem mais desalentadora.”

Se o mundo deve conter um espaço público, não pode ser construído apenas para uma geração e planejado somente para os que estão vivos, mas tem de transcender a duração da vida de homens mortais.”

nas condições modernas, é tão improvável que alguém aspire sinceramente à imortalidade terrena que possivelmente temos razão de ver nela apenas a vaidade.”

o que importa não é que haja falta de admiração pública pela poesia e pela filosofia no mundo moderno, mas sim que essa admiração não constitui um espaço no qual as coisas são salvas da destruição pelo tempo.”

Verlassenheit

embora a condição dos escravos fosse provavelmente um pouco melhor em Roma que em Atenas, é bastante característico que um escritor romano, Plínio, o Moço, tenha acreditado que, para os escravos, a casa do senhor era o mesmo que a res publica para os cidadãos.” “Essa atitude <liberal>, que podia, em certas circunstâncias, originar escravos muito prósperos e altamente educados, significou apenas que o fato de ser próspero não tinha qualquer realidade na pólis grega, e que ser filósofo não tinha muita importância na república romana.” “Os escravos romanos desempenharam um papel muito maior na cultura romana que o dos escravos gregos na Grécia, onde, por outro lado, o papel destes últimos na vida econômica foi muito mais importante (cf. Westermann, em Pauly-Wissova, p. 984).”

Coulanges (A cidade antiga, Anchor, 1956) afirma: <O verdadeiro significado de familia é propriedade: designa o campo, a casa, dinheiro e escravos> (p. 107). Mas essa <propriedade> não é vista como vinculada à família; pelo contrário, <a família é vinculada ao lar, o lar é ligado ao solo> (p. 62). O importante é que <a fortuna é imóvel como o lar e o túmulo aos quais está vinculada. O homem é que se vai> (p. 74).”

O peculium (as <posses privadas de um escravo>) podia representar somas consideráveis e mesmo incluir escravos próprios (vicarii). Barrow fala da <propriedade que mesmo o mais humilde de sua classe possuía> (Slavery in the Roman Empire, p. 122. Esta obra constitui a melhor descrição do papel do peculium).”

Coulanges menciona uma observação de Aristóteles de que, nos tempos antigos, o filho não podia ser cidadão enquanto o pai estivesse vivo; quando este morria, somente o filho mais velho gozava de direitos políticos.”

todos podiam participar dos mistérios, mas a ninguém era lícito falar deles.” Karl Kerenyi, Die Geburt der Helena (1943-45)

a idéia de que a atividade política é fundamentalmente o ato de legislar, embora de origem romana, é essencialmente moderna e encontrou sua mais alta expressão na filosofia política de Kant”

A palavra pólis tinha originariamente a conotação de algo como <muro-circundante> (ring-wall) e, ao que parece, o latim urbs exprimia também a noção de um <círculo> e derivava da mesma raiz de orbis. Encontramos a mesma relação na palavra inglesa <town>, que, originariamente, como o alemão Zaun, significava cerca (cf. R. B. Onians, The origins of European thought (1954), p. 444, n. 1).”

Os <Livros dos Costumes> ingleses ainda traziam uma <nítida distinção entre o artífice e o cidadão livre, o franke homme da cidade. (…) Se um artífice se tornasse tão rico que desejasse vir a ser um homem livre, devia renegar a sua arte e desfazer-se de todos os seus instrumentos> (W. J. Ashley)”

Caso o dono de uma propriedade preferisse ampliá-la ao invés de utilizá-la para viver uma vida política, era como se ele sacrificasse prontamente a sua liberdade e voluntariamente se tornasse aquilo que o escravo era contra sua vontade, ou seja, um servo da necessidade. Essa me parece ser a solução do <conhecido enigma com que se depara no estudo da história econômica do mundo antigo, o fato de ter a indústria se desenvolvido até certo ponto, mas tenha estancado inesperadamente de realizar o progresso que se podia esperar […], (considerando-se o fato de que) os romanos demonstravam eficiência e capacidade de organização em larga escala em outros setores, nos serviços públicos e no exército> (Barrow, op. cit., p. 109-110). Esperar a mesma capacidade de organização em questões privadas como em <serviços públicos> parece ser um preconceito devido às condições modernas. Max Weber, em seu notável ensaio (<Agrarverhältnisse im Altertum>, Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Sozial und Wirtschaftsgeschichte (1924)), já havia insistido sobre o fato de que as cidades antigas eram mais <centros de consumo que de produção>, e que o antigo proprietário de escravos era um <rentier e não um capitalista (Unternehmer)> (p. 13, 22 ss. e 144). A indiferença dos autores antigos no tocante a questões econômicas, aliada à falta de documentos a esse respeito, aumenta o peso do argumento de Weber.”

Todas as histórias da classe operária, isto é, uma classe de pessoas completamente destituídas de propriedade e que vivem somente da obra de suas mãos, comportam o mesmo ingênuo pressuposto de que sempre existiu tal classe. Contudo, como vimos, nem mesmo os escravos eram destituídos de propriedade na Antiguidade, e geralmente se verifica que os chamados trabalhadores livres da Antiguidade não passavam de <vendeiros, negociantes e artífices livres> (Barrow, p. 126). M. E. Park (The plebs urbana in Cicero’s day (1921)) conclui, portanto, que não existiam trabalhadores livres, visto que o homem livre parecia ser sempre algum tipo de proprietário. W. J. Ashley resume a situação na Idade Média até o século XV: <Não existia ainda uma grande classe de assalariados, uma ‘classe operária’ no sentido moderno da expressão. Chamamos hoje de ‘operários’ a um grupo de homens entre os quais alguns indivíduos podem, realmente, ser promovidos a mestres, mas cuja maioria jamais pode esperar galgar uma posição mais alta. No século XIV, porém, trabalhar alguns anos como diarista era apenas um estágio pelo qual os homens mais pobres tinham que passar, enquanto a maioria provavelmente se estabelecia como mestre-artífice assim que terminava o aprendizado> (An introduction to English economic history and theory, p. 93-94).”

Conferir o engenhoso comentário sobre a frase <a propriedade é um roubo> que ocorre na Théorie de la proprieté, p. 209-210, de Proudhon, publicada postumamente, na qual ele apresenta a propriedade em sua <natureza egoísta e satânica> como o <meio mais eficaz de resistir ao despotismo sem derrubar o Estado>.”

Logo que ingressou no domínio público, a sociedade assumiu o disfarce de uma organização de proprietários (property-owners), que, ao invés de requererem o acesso ao domínio público em virtude de sua riqueza, exigiram dele proteção para o acúmulo de mais riqueza.”

Devo confessar que não vejo em que se baseiam os economistas liberais da sociedade atual (que hoje se chamam de conservadores) para justificar seu otimismo, quando afirmam que a apropriação privada de riqueza será bastante para proteger as liberdades individuais – ou seja, que desempenhará o mesmo papel da propriedade privada. Em uma sociedade de detentores de empregos, essas liberdades só estão seguras na medida em que são garantidas pelo Estado, e ainda hoje são constantemente ameaçadas, não pelo Estado, mas pela sociedade, que distribui os empregos e determina a parcela de apropriação individual.”

É verdade que a riqueza pode ser acumulada a tal ponto que nenhuma vida individual será capaz de consumi-la, de sorte que a família, mais que o indivíduo, vem a ser sua proprietária. No entanto, a riqueza não deixa de ser algo destinado ao uso e ao consumo, não importa quantas vidas individuais ela possa sustentar. Somente quando a riqueza se transformou em capital, cuja função principal era gerar mais capital, é que a propriedade privada igualou ou avizinhou a permanência inerente ao mundo partilhado em comum.”

CABEÇALISMO: “Quando à história da palavra <capital> como derivada do latim caput, que, na legislação romana, era empregada para designar o principal de uma dívida, veja-se W. J. Ashley, An introduction to English economic history and theory, p. 429 e 433, n. 183. Somente no século XVIII os autores passaram a empregar essa palavra no sentido moderno de <riqueza investida de forma a trazer proveito>.”

A contradição óbvia desse moderno conceito de governo, em que a única coisa que as pessoas têm em comum são os seus interesses privados, já não deve nos incomodar como ainda incomodava Marx, pois sabemos que a contradição entre o privado e o público, típica dos estágios iniciais da era moderna, foi um fenômeno temporário que trouxe a completa extinção da diferença entre os domínios privado e público, a submersão de ambos na esfera do social.”

A teoria econômica medieval ainda não concebia o dinheiro como denominador comum e como padrão, mas considerava-o como um dos consumptibiles.”

a propriedade moderna perdeu seu caráter mundano e passou a situar-se na própria pessoa, isto é, naquilo que o indivíduo somente podia perder juntamente com a vida. Historicamente, a premissa de Locke, de que o trabalho do corpo de uma pessoa é a origem da propriedade, é mais que duvidosa: no entanto, dado o fato de que já vivemos em condições nas quais a única propriedade em que podemos confiar é o nosso talento e a nossa força de trabalho, é mais do que provável que ela venha a se tornar verdadeira.”

A necessidade e a vida são tão intimamente aparentadas e conectadas que a própria vida é ameaçada quando se elimina totalmente a necessidade. (…) (As modernas discussões sobre a liberdade, nas quais esta última nunca é vista como um estado objetivo da existência humana, mas constitui um insolúvel problema de subjetividade, de uma vontade inteiramente indeterminada ou determinada, ou resulta da necessidade, evidenciam o fato de que já não se percebe uma diferença objetiva e tangível entre ser livre e ser forçado pela necessidade.) [Sartre]”

a <socialização do homem> (Marx) é mais eficazmente realizada por meio da expropriação, mas esta não é a única maneira. Nesse, como em outros aspectos, as medidas revolucionárias do socialismo ou do comunismo podem muito bem ser substituídas por uma <decadência>, mais lenta, porém não menos certa, do domínio privado em geral e da propriedade privada em particular.” [!]

Pierre Brizon, Histoire du travail et des travailleurs (4. ed., 1926), p. 184, quanto às condições de trabalho em uma fábrica do século XVII.”

nec ulla magis res aliena quam publica”

no instante em que uma boa obra se torna pública e conhecida, perde o seu caráter específico de bondade” “<Não dês tuas esmolas perante os homens, para seres visto por eles.> A bondade só pode existir quando não é percebida, nem mesmo por aquele que a faz; quem quer que se veja a si mesmo no ato de fazer uma boa obra deixa de ser bom (…) <Que a tua mão esquerda não saiba o que faz a tua mão direita.>

Talvez seja essa curiosa qualidade negativa da bondade, a ausência de manifestação fenomênica exterior, o que torna o aparecimento de Jesus de Nazaré na história um evento tão profundamente paradoxal; certamente parece ser por isso que ele pensava e ensinava que nenhum homem pode ser bom: <Por que me chamais de bom? Ninguém é bom a não ser um, isto é, Deus.> A mesma convicção se expressa no relato talmúdico dos 36 homens justos, em atenção aos quais Deus salva o mundo (…) Isso nos lembra a grande percepção de Sócrates de que nenhum homem pode ser sábio, da qual nasceu o amor à sabedoria, ou filo-sofia”

Sempre houve tentativas de dar vida ao que jamais pode sobreviver ao momento fugaz do ato, e todas elas sempre levaram ao absurdo. Os filósofos da Antiguidade tardia, que exigiam de si mesmo serem sábios, eram absurdos ao afirmar serem felizes quando queimados vivos dentro do famoso Touro de Falera. E não menos absurda é a exigência cristã de ser bom e oferecer a outra face, quando não é tomada como metáfora, mas tentada como um autêntico modo de vida.” Abraão e o milagre inaudito

Mesmo quando o filósofo decide, com Platão, deixar a <caverna> dos assuntos humanos, não precisa esconder-se de si mesmo” “O filósofo sempre pode contar com a companhia dos pensamentos, ao passo que as boas ações não podem ser companhia para ninguém” “Além disso, os pensamentos podem ser transformados em objetos tangíveis que, como a página escrita ou o livro impresso, se tornam parte do artifício humano.”

a bondade e o desamparo têm muito mais relevância para a política que a sabedoria e a solitude; mas somente a solitude pode constituir um autêntico modo de vida, na figura do filósofo, ao passo que a experiência muito mais geral do desamparo está em tal contradição com a condição humana da pluralidade que simplesmente não pode ser suportada durante muito tempo: requer a companhia de Deus, a única testemunha imaginável das boas obras, para que não venha a aniquilar inteiramente a existência humana.”

as <novas ordens> que, por <salvar a religião de sua destruição por conta da licenciosidade dos prelados e dos chefes da Igreja>, ensinam as pessoas a serem boas e a não <resistir ao mal> -, em decorrência do que <os governantes perversos podem fazer todo o mal que quiserem>.” Maquiavel – Discursos, Livro III, Capítulo I.

No capítulo seguinte, Karl Marx será criticado. Isso é lamentável em uma época em que tantos escritores que outrora ganharam a vida pela apropriação, tácita ou explícita, da grande riqueza de idéias e intuições marxianas, decidiram tornar-se antimarxistas profissionais; no decurso de tal processo, um deles até descobriu que o próprio Karl Marx era incapaz de se sustentar [to make a living], esquecendo-se por um instante das gerações de autores que ele <sustentou> [supported].”

a declaração feita por Benjamin Constant, quando se sentiu compelido a atacar Rousseau: <J’éviterai certes de me joindre aux détracteurs d’un grand homme. Quand le hasard fait qu’en apparence je me rencontre avec eux sur un seul point, je suis en défiance de moi-même; et pour me consoler de paraître un instant de leur avis […] j’ai besoin de désavouer [repudiar] et de flétrir [conservar distantes de mim], autant qu’il est en moi, ces prétendus auxiliaires.>[Cours de politique constitutionelle]

Mais uma vez, encontramos aqui completa unanimidade: a palavra <trabalho> [labor], compreendida como um substantivo, jamais designa o produto final, o resultado da ação de trabalhar, mas permanece como um substantivo verbal classificado com o gerúndio, enquanto o nome do próprio produto é invariavelmente derivado da palavra para obra (…) a forma verbal da palavra <obra> se tornou um tanto antiquada. Em ambas as línguas, alemão e francês, diferentemente do uso corrente do inglês labor, as palavras travailler e arbeiten quase perderam seu significado original de dor e atribulação (…) Grimm (Wörterbuch): <Währendin älterer Sprache die Bedeutung von molestia und schwerer Arbeit vorherrschte, die von opus, opera, zurücktrat, tritt umgekehrt in der heutigen diese vor und jene erscheint seltener.> É interessante também o fato de que os substantivos work, oeuvre, Werk apresentam uma tendência crescente de serem usados em relação a obras de arte nas três línguas.”

J-P. Vernant: <Le terme (dêmiourgoi), chez Homère et Hésiode, ne qualifie pas à l’origine l’artisan en tant que tel, comme ‘ouvrier’: il définit toutes les activités qui s’exercent en dehors du cadre de l’oikos, en faveur d’un public, dêmos: les artisans – charpentiers et forgerons – mais non moins qu’eux les devins, les héraults, les aèdes.>

Burckhardt menciona que não se conhece nenhum tratado sobre escultura. Em vista dos muitos ensaios sobre música e poesia, é provável que não se trate de acidente da tradição, como não é acidental o fato de conhecermos tantos relatos acerca do grande sentimento de superioridade e até da arrogância de famosos pintores, dos quais não existem correspondentes quando se trata de escultores. Essa valoração dos pintores e dos escultores sobreviveu muitos séculos. Encontramo-la ainda na Renascença, quando a escultura era classificada entre as artes servis, enquanto a pintura tinha uma posição intermediária entre as artes liberais e as servis (veja-se Otto Neurath…)”

Aristóteles, Política 1256a30ss.: <Há grandes diferenças nos modos de vida humanos. Os mais preguiçosos são os pastores, pois conseguem alimento sem trabalho (ponos) a partir de animais domésticos, e gozam de tempo livre (skholazousin)>” “O leitor moderno em geral tem de estar ciente de que aergia (preguiça) e skholê não são a mesma coisa. A preguiça tinha as mesmas conotações que tem para nós, e uma vida de skholê não era considerada uma vida indolente. Não obstante, o equacionamento de skholê com a inatividade é característico de uma evolução ocorrida dentro da pólis. Assim, Xenofonte nos conta que Sócrates fôra acusado de haver citado um verso de Hesíodo: <A obra não é uma desgraça, mas sim a preguiça.> A acusação era que Sócrates havia instilado em seus discípulos um espírito escravo (Memorabilia 1:2:56). Historicamente, é importante ter em mente a diferença entre o desprezo com que, nas cidades-Estados gregas, eram vistas todas as ocupações não políticas, resultante da enorme demanda de tempo e de energia dos cidadãos, e o desprezo anterior, mais original e mais geral, pelas atividades que serviam apenas para sustentar a vida – ad vitae sustentatione, como são definidas as opera servilia ainda no século XVIII. No mundo de Homero, Páris e Odisseu ajudam na construção de suas casas e a própria Nausicaa lava as roupas dos irmãos etc. Tudo isso faz parte da autossuficiência do herói homérico, de sua independência e da supremacia autônoma de sua pessoa. Nenhuma obra é sórdida quando significa maior independência; a mesma atividade pode ser sinal de servilismo se o que estiver em jogo não for a independência pessoal, e sim a mera sobrevivência, se não for uma expressão de soberania, mas de sujeição à necessidade.”

A opinião de que o trabalho e a obra eram desdenhados na Antiguidade pelo fato de que somente escravos os exerciam é um preconceito dos historiadores modernos.”

Não é surpreendente que a distinção entre trabalho e obra tenha sido ignorada na Antiguidade Clássica.”

O motivo da promoção do trabalho na era moderna foi a sua <produtividade>; e a noção aparentemente blasfema de Marx de que o trabalho (e não Deus) criou o homem, ou de que o trabalho (e não a razão) distingue o homem dos outros animais, era apenas a formulação mais radical e consistente de algo com que toda a era moderna concordava.” “Parece que foi Hume, e não Marx, o primeiro a insistir em que o trabalho distingue o homem do animal (Adriano Tilgher, Homo Faber (1929); ed. inglesa: Work: what it has meant to men through the ages (1930)); Como o trabalho não desempenha qualquer papel importante na filosofia de Hume, esse fato tem interesse apenas histórico; para ele, essa característica não tornava a vida humana mais produtiva, mas somente mais árdua e mais dolorosa que a vida animal.” “Eine unmittelbare [imediata] Konsequenz davon, dass der Mensch dem Produkt seiner Arbeit, seiner Lebenstätigkeit [condição vital], seinem Gattungswesen [condição natural, neologismo especificamente marxiano] entfremdet [alienada] ist, ist die Entfremdung des Menschen vom dem Menschen” Jugendschriften, p. 89 “dass der Arbeiter zum Produkt seiner Arbeit als einem fremden Gegenstand sich verhält [se comporta como]” Jugends., p. 83

Se o trabalho não deixa atrás de si vestígio permanente, o pensamento não deixa absolutamente coisa alguma de tangível. Por si mesmo, o pensamento jamais se materializa em objetos. Sempre que o operário [worker] intelectual deseja manifestar seus pensamentos, tem de usar as mãos e adquirir qualificação manual como qualquer outro que realiza uma obra.” Eis o nosso botar a mão na massa!

a lembrança prepara o intangível e o fútil para sua materialização final”

Cícero – De officiis

A classificação da agricultura entre as artes liberais é, naturalmente, especificamente romana. Não se deve a alguma <utilidade> especial da lavoura, como suporíamos, mas antes tem a ver com a idéia romana de patria, segundo a qual o ager Romanus, e não só a cidade de Roma, é o lugar ocupado pelo domínio público.”

em toda a história antiga, os serviços <intelectuais> dos escribas, quer atendessem a necessidades do domínio público quer a do domínio privado, eram realizadas por escravos e classificados consoante a condição deles. Somente a burocratização do Império Romano e a concomitante ascensão política e social dos imperadores levaram a uma reavaliação dos serviços <intelectuais>. Antes desse enaltecimento dos serviços públicos, os escribas eram classificados na mesma categoria dos vigias de edifícios públicos ou mesmo daqueles que conduziam os gladiadores à arena” “ele se assemelha mais ao <criado doméstico> de Adam Smith que a qualquer outro, ainda que a sua função seja menos manter intacto o processo da vida e proporcionar sua regeneração que cuidar da manutenção das várias máquinas burocráticas gigantescas, cujos processos consomem os seus serviços e devoram os seus produtos tão rápida e impiedosamente quanto o processo biológico da vida. <O trabalho de algumas das mais respeitáveis categorias da sociedade não produz, como no caso dos criados domésticos, valor algum>, diz Adam Smith, incluindo entre elas <todo o exército e a marinha>, <os funcionários públicos> e as profissões liberais, tais como as dos <clérigos, advogados, médicos, homens de letras de toda espécie>. A obra dessas pessoas, <como a declamação dos atores, a arenga do orador ou a canção do músico […] perece no próprio instante de sua produção> (A riqueza das nações, Livro I, p. 295-296, Ed. Everyman). É óbvio que Smith não encontraria dificuldade alguma para classificar o nossos <funcionários de escritório>.

É duvidoso que qualquer pintura fosse jamais tão admirada quanto a estátua do Zeus de Fídias em Olímpia, cujo poder mágico, segundo se dizia, fazia qualquer um esquecer suas aflições e penas; quem não a tinha visto vivera em vão etc.”

zeus.png

O que os bens de consumo são para a vida humana, os objetos de uso são para o mundo humano.”

Sem a lembrança e sem a reificação de que a lembrança necessita para sua realização – e que realmente a tornam, como afirmavam os gregos, a mãe de todas as artes –, as atividades vivas da ação, do discurso e do pensamento perderiam sua realidade ao fim de cada processo e desapareceriam como se nunca houvessem existido.”

Sem um mundo no qual os homens nascem e do qual se vão com a morte, haveria apenas um imutável eterno retorno, a perenidade imortal da espécie humana como a de todas as outras espécies animais. Uma filosofia da vida que não chegue, como Nietzsche, à afirmação do <eterno retorno> (eiwige Wiederkehr) como o princípio supremo de todo ente simplesmente não sabe do que está falando.” “Somente quando ingressam no mundo feito pelo homem os processos da natureza podem ser descritos como crescimento e declínio”

Trabalho é a eterna necessidade natural de efetuar o metabolismo entre o homem e a natureza.” Das Kapital, v. I, Parte 1, Cap. 1, Seção 2 / Parte 3, Cap. 5.

A despeito de hesitações ocasionais, Marx permaneceu convencido de que <Milton produziu o Paraíso Perdido pela mesma razão pela qual o bicho-da-seda produz seda> (Theories of surplus value, Londres, 1951, p. 186).”

Do ponto de vista da natureza, é a obra que é destrutiva, mais que o trabalho, uma vez que o processo da obra subtrai a matéria das mãos da natureza sem a devolver a esta no curso rápido do metabolismo natural do corpo vivo.”

Hércules, entre cujos 12 <trabalhos> heróicos constava o de limpar os estábulos de Augias. (…) Mas a luta que o corpo humano trava diariamente para manter limpo o mundo e evitar-lhe o declínio tem pouca semelhança com feitos heróicos; a persistência que ela requer, para que se repare novamente a cada dia o esgotamento de ontem, não é coragem, e o que torna o esforço tão doloroso não é o perigo, mas a implacável repetição.”

O indício duradouro do trabalho produtivo é o seu produto material – geralmente um artigo de consumo. Essa curiosa formulação ocorre em Thorstein Veblen, The Theory of the leisure class [em breve no Seclusão], 1917, p. 44.”

reificação (Vergegenständlichung)” “mundo objetivo de coisas (gegenständlichen Welt)” “O termo vergegenständlichen não ocorre muito freqüentemente em Marx, mas, quando ocorre, é sempre em um contexto crucial. Cf. Jugends., p. 88: <Das praktische Erzeugen einer gegenständlichen Welt, die Bearbeitung der unorganischen Natur ist die Bewährung [prova] des Menschen als eines bewussten Gattungswesens (…) (Das Tier [máquina]) produziert unter der Herrschaft [linha de produção, cadeia de comando] des unmittelbaren Bedürfnisses [necessidades imediatas], während der Mensch selbst frei vom physischen Bedürfnis produziert und erst wahrhaft produziert in der Freiheit von demselben.>” (…) Das Kapital (v. I, Parte 3, Cap. 5): <(Die Arbeit) ist vergegenständlicht und der Gegenstand ist verarbeiter [processado, digerido]>. O jogo de palavras em torno de Gegenstand torna obscuro o que de fato sucede no processo: por meio da reificação, uma coisa nova é produzida, mas o <objeto> que esse processo transformou em coisa é, do ponto de vista do processo, apenas matéria-prima, e não uma coisa. (A tradução inglesa editada pela Modern Library, p. 201, deixa escapar o significado do texto alemão e, assim, esquiva-se do equívoco.)” “<Des Prozess erlischt [se extingue, termina, subsume] im Produkt> op. cit. Quando Marx insiste que <o processo de trabalho termina no produto>, esquece sua própria definição desse processoo como o <metabolismo entre o homem e a natureza>, no qual o produto é imediatamente <incorporado>, consumido e destruído pelo processo vital do corpo.” “As <boas coisas> destinadas ao consumo jamais perdem completamente seu caráter natural, e o grão de trigo jamais desaparece totalmente no pão como a árvore desapareceu na mesa.”

L’être et le travail (1949), de Jules Vuillemin, é um bom exemplo do que acontece quando se tenta resolver as contradições e equívocos do pensamento de Marx. Isso só é possível se se abandona inteiramente a evidência fenomênica e se começa a tratar os conceitos de Marx como se constituíssem, por si mesmos, um complicado quebra-cabeça de abstrações.” “Kautsky perguntou a Marx em 1881 se ele não pretendia editar suas obras completas, ao que Marx respondeu: <Primeiro, é preciso escrever essas obras> (Kautsky, Aus der Frühzeit des Marxismus, 1935, p. 53).”

Contradições fundamentais e flagrantes como essas raramente ocorrem em escritores de segunda categoria; no caso dos grandes autores, conduzem ao cerne de sua obra. No caso de Marx, cuja lealdade e integridade na descrição dos fenômenos, tal como estes se apresentavam aos seus olhos, são indubitáveis, as discrepâncias importantes, observadas por todos os estudiosos de sua obra, não podem ser atribuídas à diferença <entre o ponto de vista científico do historiador e o ponto de vista moral do profeta> (Edmund Wilson), nem a um movimento dialético que exigisse o negativo, ou o mal, para produzir o positivo, ou o bem. O fato é que, em todos os estágios de sua obra, ele define o homem como um animal laborans, e então o conduz para uma sociedade na qual essa força, a maior e mais humana de todas, já não é necessária. Ficamos com a alternativa muito angustiante entre a escravidão produtiva e a liberdade improdutiva.

A mais grosseira superstição da era moderna – de que <dinheiro produz dinheiro> – e sua mais aguda intuição política – de que poder gera poder – devem sua plausibilidade à metáfora subjacente da fertilidade natural da vida. De todas as atividades humanas somente o trabalho, e não a ação nem a obra, é interminável, prosseguindo automaticamente em consonância com a vida, fora do escopo das decisões voluntárias ou dos propósitos humanamente significativos.”

<A bênção ou a alegria> do trabalho é o modo humano de experimentar a pura satisfação de estar vivo que temos em comum com todas as criaturas vivas; e é ainda o único modo de os homens também poderem permanecer e voltear com contento no círculo prescrito pela natureza, labutando e descansando, trabalhando e consumindo, com a mesma regularidade feliz e sem propósito com a qual o dia e a noite, a vida e a morte sucedem um ao outro. A recompensa das fadigas e penas repousa na fertilidade da natureza, na confiança serena de que aquele que, nas fadigas e penas, fez sua parte, permanece uma parte da natureza, no futuro de seus filhos e nos filhos de seus filhos. (…) Segundo Gêneses, o homem (adam) fôra criado para cuidar e zelar pelo solo (adamah), como o seu próprio nome, que é a forma masculina de <solo>, indica (Gn 2:5, 2:7, 2:15). <Nem havia ainda Adam para cultivar adamah (…) Formou, pois, o Senhor Deus a Adam do pó de adamah (…). E Ele, Deus, tomou a Adam e pô-lo no jardim do Éden, para ele o cultivar e guardar> (utilizo aqui a tradução de Martin Buber e Franz Rosenzweig, Die Schrift (Berlim, n.d.)). A palavra <cultivar>, leawod, que mais tarde se tornou a palavra para trabalhar em hebraico, tem a conotação de <servir>. A maldição (3:17-19) [maldita é a terra; devorarás a ti mesmo sem cessar] não menciona essa palavra, mas o significado é claro: o serviço para o qual o homem havia sido criado tornava-se agora servidão. O corrente mal-entendido popular da maldição se deve a uma interpretação inconsciente do Antigo Testamento à luz do pensamento grego. Esse mal-entendido é geralmente evitado pelos autores católicos. Conferir, por exemplo, Jacques Leclerc, Leçons de droit naturel, v. IV, Parte 2, <Travail, proprieté>, 1946, p. 31: <La peine du travail est le résultat du péché original […] L’homme non déchu eût travaillé dans la joie, mais il eût travaillé>; ou J. Chr. Nattermann, Die moderne Arbeit, soziologisch und theologisch betrachtet [O trabalho moderno, analisado sociológica e teologicamente], 1953, p. 9. É interessante, nesse contexto, comparar a maldição do Ant. Test. com a explicação aparentemente semelhante da aspereza do trabalho em Hesíodo. Diz o poeta que os deuses, para punir o homem, esconderam dele a vida, de sorte que ele tinha de procurá-la, ao passo que aparentemente tudo o que precisava fazer antes era colher os frutos da terra nos campos e nas árvores. Aqui, a maldição consiste não apenas na aspereza do trabalho, mas no próprio trabalho.”

Não existe felicidade duradoura fora do ciclo prescrito de exaustão dolorosa e regeneração prazerosa; e tudo o que desequilibra esse ciclo – a pobreza e a miséria nos quais a exaustão é seguida pela penúria ao invés da regeneração, ou grande riqueza e uma vida inteiramente isenta de esforço na qual o tédio toma o lugar da exaustão e os moinhos da necessidade, do consumo e da digestão trituram até a morte, impiedosa e esterilmente, um corpo humano impotente – arruína a felicidade elementar que advém de se estar vivo.”

Como nenhuma teoria política anterior ao socialismo e ao comunismo propusera estabelecer uma sociedade inteiramente destituída de propriedade, e como nenhum governo, antes do século XX, demonstrara séria inclinação para expropriar seus cidadãos, o conteúdo da nova teoria não podia ser inspirado pela necessidade de proteger os direitos de propriedade contra uma possível intrusão da administração governamental. O fato é que, naquela época, ao contrário de agora, quando todas as teorias da propriedade encontram-se obviamente na defensiva, os economistas não estavam absolutamente na defensiva; ao contrário, eram abertamente hostis a toda a esfera do governo que, na melhor das hipóteses, era tido como um <mal necessário>, um <reflexo da natureza humana>, e, na pior, como parasita da vida da sociedade que sem ele seria sadia.”

O homem pobre não é senhor de si mesmo (pênes ôn kai heautou mê kratôn) (Sétima Carta, 351A). Nenhum dos autores clássicos jamais pensou no trabalho como uma possível fonte de riqueza. Segundo Cícero, a propriedade é adquirida por antiga conquista, vitória ou divisão legal (aut vetere occupatione aut victoria aut lege) (De officiis, 1:21).”

O que Marx tinha ainda em comum com Locke era a pretensão de ver o processo de crescimento da riqueza como um processo natural, seguindo automaticamente suas leis, fora dos intuitos e decisões voluntárias. Se alguma atividade humana haveria de estar, de alguma forma, envolvida em tal processo, só podia ser uma <atividade> corporal cujo funcionamento natural não pudesse ser interrompido, mesmo se se desejasse.” Curiosa coincidência entre “liberais”.

LOCKE O MORIBUNDO: “o corpo realmente passa a ser a quintessência de toda propriedade, uma vez que é a única coisa que não se pode compartilhar, ainda que se desejasse. Nada, de fato, é menos comum e menos comunicável – e, portanto, mais seguramente protegido contra a visibilidade e a audibilidade do domínio público – que o que se passa dentro do nosso corpo, seus prazeres e suas dores, seu trabalho e seu consumo. (…) nada expele o indivíduo mais radicalmente do mundo que a concentração exclusiva na vida corporal, concentração à qual o homem é compelido pela escravidão ou pelo extremo da dor insuportável. Quem, por algum motivo, desejar tornar inteiramente <privada> a existência humana, independente do mundo e consciente apenas de seu próprio estar vivo, deve basear seus argumentos nessas experiências (…) a experiência <natural> subjacente à independência estóica e epicurista em relação ao mundo não é o trabalho nem a escravidão, mas a dor. A felicidade alcançada no isolamento do mundo e desfrutada dentro das fronteiras da existência privada do indivíduo jamais pode ser outra coisa senão a famosa <ausência de dor>, uma definição com a qual qualquer variante consistente do sensualismo tem de concordar. O hedonismo, a doutrina que afirma que somente as sensações corporais são reais, é apenas a forma mais radical de um modo de vida não-político, totalmente privado, a verdadeira realização do lathe biôsas kai mê politeuesthai de Epicuro (<viver oculto e não se importar com o mundo>).

Normalmente, a ausência de dor é a condição corporal suficiente para a experiência do mundo; somente se o corpo não está irritado, e, por meio da irritação, lançado para dentro de si mesmo, nossos sentidos corporais podem funcionar normalmente e receber o que lhes é oferecido.”

Parece-me que certos tipos de vícios em drogas, moderados e um tanto freqüentes, geralmente atribuídos a propriedades formadoras de hábito dessas drogas, talvez se devam ao desejo de repetir o prazer alguma vez experimentado com o alívio da dor, acompanhado por sua intensa sensação de euforia. O próprio fenômeno era bem conhecido na Antiguidade, ao passo que na literatura moderna encontro o único apoio para minha suposição em Isak Dinesen [pseudônimo de Karen Blixen], <Converse at night in Copenhagen> (Last tales, 1957, p. 388ss.), em que ela considera <a cessação da dor> um dos <três tipos de felicidade perfeita>. Platão já se opunha àqueles que, <ao deixarem de sentir dor, acreditam firmemente ter atingido a meta do […] prazer> (Rep., 585A), mas admite que esses <prazeres misturados> que se seguem à dor ou à privação são mais intensos que os prazeres puros, como o de cheirar um aroma agradável ou o de contemplar figuras geométricas. Curiosamente, foram os hedonistas que tornaram o assunto confuso e não quiseram admitir que o prazer da cessação da dor fosse mais intenso que o <prazer puro>, para não falar da mera ausência da dor. Assim é que Cícero acusava Epicuro de ter confundido a mera ausência de dor com o prazer do alijamento da dor (cf. V. Brochard, Études de philosophie ancienne et de philosophie moderne, 1912, p. 252ss.).”

Realmente, a dor causada por uma espada ou a cócega provocada por uma pluma nada me diz da qualidade ou sequer da existência mundana da espada ou da pluma. É característico de todas as teorias que argumentam contra a capacidade dos sentidos de nos fornecer o mundo que retirem a visão de sua posição como o mais alto e mais nobre dos sentidos, e substituam-na pelo tato ou o gosto que, na verdade, são os sentidos mais privados, ou seja, aqueles nos quais o corpo, ao perceber um objeto, sente primeiramente a si mesmo. Todos os pensadores que negam a realidade do mundo exterior teriam concordado com Lucrécio, que disse: <Pois o tato e nada mais que o tato (por tudo o que homens chamam sagrado) é a essência de todas as nossas sensações corporais> (The nature of the universe, p. 72). Isso, porém, não é suficiente: o tato ou o gosto em um corpo não-irritado ainda transmite demais a realidade do mundo: quando como um prato de morangos, sinto o gosto dos morangos e não o próprio gosto; ou, para usar um exemplo de Galileu, quando <passo a mão, primeiro sobre uma estátua de mármore, depois sobre um homem vivo>, percebo o mármore e o corpo vivo, e não primeiramente a minha mão a tocá-los. Assim, ao tentar demonstrar que as qualidades secundárias, como cores, gostos, cheiros, <não passam de meros nomes (que) residem unicamente no corpo sensível>, Galileu é forçado a desistir do seu próprio exemplo e a introduzir a sensação de ser titilado por uma pluma, com o que conclui: <Acredito que as várias qualidades atribuídas aos corpos naturais, tais como gostos, cheiros, cores e outras, possuem precisamente existência semelhante e não maior (Il Saggiatore, em Opere, IV, p. 333ss.; tradução citada por E. A. Burtt, Metaphysical foundations of modern science, 1932).” “Seguindo linha semelhante de raciocínio, Descartes diz: <O mero movimento de uma espada que corta parte de nossa pele causa-nos dor, mas nem por isso nos faz perceber o movimento ou a forma da espada. E é certo que essa sensação de dor não é menos diferente do movimento que a provoca […] do que são as sensações que temos de cores, sons, cheiros ou sabores (Principles, Parte 4; trad. por Haldane e Ross, Philosophical works, 1911).”

dupla dor: o doloroso esforço envolvido na reprodução da própria vida e na vida da espécie.”

Em uma sociedade de proprietários, em contraposição a uma sociedade de trabalhadores ou de assalariados, é ainda o mundo, e não a abundância natural nem a mera necessidade da vida, que está no centro do cuidado e da preocupação humanos.”

Somente se a vida da sociedade como um todo, ao invés da vida limitada dos indivíduos, é considerada como sujeito gigantesco do processo de acumulação, pode esse processo seguir totalmente livre e em plena velocidade, isento dos limites impostos pela duração da vida individual e pela propriedade possuída individualmente.”

O que todas essas teorias [filosofia do trabalho, evolução natural, desenvolvimento histórico] têm em comum, nas várias ciências – economia, história, biologia, geologia –, é o conceito de processo, virtualmente desconhecido antes da era moderna.”

Se, na virada do século (com Nie. e Bergson), a vida, e não o trabalho, foi proclamada <criadora de todos os valores>, essa glorificação do mero dinamismo do processo vital aboliu aquele mínimo de iniciativa presente até mesmo em atividades que, como o trabalho e a procriação, são impostas ao homem pela necessidade.”

Marx predisse corretamente, embora com injustificado júbilo, o <definhamento> do domínio público nas condições de um desenvolvimento desenfreado das <forças produtivas da sociedade>; e estava igualmente certo, isto é, consistente com a sua concepção do homem como um animal laborans, quando previu que os <homens socializados> gozariam sua liberação do trabalho naquelas atividades estritamente privadas e essencialmente sem-mundo que hoje chamamos de <passatempos> (hobbies). Na sociedade comunista ou socialista, todas as profissões se tornariam, por assim dizer, passatempos (hobbies): não haveria pintores, mas apenas pessoas que, entre outras coisas, gastariam seu tempo também com a pintura; ou seja, pessoas que <hoje fazem uma coisa, amanhã fazem outra, que caçam pela manhã, pescam à tarde, criam gado ao anoitecer, são críticos após o jantar, conforme julgarem conveniente, sem por isso jamais chegarem a ser caçadores, pescadores, pastores ou críticos> (Deutsche Ideologie, p. 22 e 373).”

Os produtos do trabalho, produtos do metabolismo do homem com a natureza, não permanecem no mundo tempo suficiente para se tornarem parte dele, e a própria atividade do trabalho, concentrada exclusivamente na vida e em sua manutenção, esquece-se do mundo até o extremo da não-mundanidade.” Majin Boo e a eterna “coisidade”

O fato de que a escravidão e o banimento no lar constituíam, de modo geral, a condição social de todos os trabalhadores antes da era moderna deve-se basicamente à própria condição humana; a vida, que para todas as outras espécies animais é a própria essência do seu ser, torna-se um ônus para o homem em virtude de sua inata <repugnância à futilidade>.”

Omnis vita servitium est.” Sêneca, Da tranqüilidade da alma

A condição humana é tal que a dor e o esforço não são meros sintomas que podem ser eliminados sem que se transforme a própria vida”

Se alguém soubesse que o mundo acabaria quando ele morresse, ou logo depois, esse mundo perderia toda a sua realidade, como perdeu entre os primeiros cristãos, na medida em que estavam convencidos de que as suas expectativas escatológicas seriam imediatamente realizadas. A confiança na realidade da vida, ao contrário, depende quase exclusivamente da intensidade com que a vida é experimentada, do impacto com que ele se faz sentir.”

Já se observou muitas vezes que aquilo que a vida dos ricos perde em vitalidade, em proximidade com as <boas coisas> da natureza, ganha em refinamento, em sensibilidade às coisas belas do mundo. O fato é que a capacidade humana de vida no mundo implica sempre uma capacidade de transcender e alienar-se dos processos da vida, enquanto a vitalidade e a vivacidade só podem ser conservadas na medida em que os homens se disponham a arcar com o ônus, as fadigas e as penas da vida.”

instrumentos humanos dotados de fala (o instrumentum vocale, como eram chamados os escravos no lar, entre os antigos)”

o duplo trabalho da vida: manutenção e geração

a vida de um escravo testemunhava diariamente o fato de que a <vida é escravidão> (…) O perigo aqui é óbvio. (…) sua liberdade é sempre conquistada mediante tentativas, nunca inteiramente bem-sucedidas, de libertar-se da necessidade. (…) é ainda provável que as enormes mudanças da revolução industrial, no passado, e as mudanças ainda maiores da revolução atômica, no futuro, permaneçam como mudanças do mundo, e não mudanças da condição básica da vida humana na Terra.

As ferramentas e instrumentos, que podem suavizar consideravelmente o esforço do trabalho, não são produtos do trabalho, mas da obra; não pertencem ao processo do consumo, mas são parte integrante do mundo de objetos de uso. (…) Nenhuma obra pode ser reproduzida sem ferramentas, e o nascimento do homo faber e o surgimento de um mundo de coisas feito pelo homem são, na verdade, contemporâneos da descoberta de ferramentas e de instrumentos.”

os serviços de um único criado jamais podem ser inteiramente substituídos por uma centena de aparelhos na cozinha ou por meia dúzia de robôs no subsolo (…) Um testemunho curioso e inesperado desse fato é que ele pôde ser previsto milhares de anos antes de se dar o fabuloso desenvolvimento moderno de instrumentos e de máquinas. Em tom meio fantasioso e meio irônico, Aristóteles imaginou, certa vez, aquilo que se tornou realidade tempos depois, ou seja, que <cada ferramenta fosse capaz de executar sua própria obra quando se lha ordenasse […] como as estátuas de Dédalo ou as trípodes de Hefesto que, segundo diz o poeta, ‘ingressaram por conta própria na assembléia dos deuses’>. Assim, a <lançadeira teceria e o plectro tocaria a lira sem que uma mão os guiasse>. E prossegue afirmando que isso significaria realmente que o artífice já não necessitaria de assistentes humanos, mas não que os escravos domésticos pudessem ser dispensados.”

o processo vital que exige o trabalho é uma atividade interminável, e o único <instrumento> à sua altura teria de ser um perpetuum mobile, isto é, o instrumentum vocale, tão vivo e ativo quanto o organismo a que serve.” Arednt não conheceu a “mulher do Google” ou “do Avast”

enquanto a especialização da obra é essencialmente guiada pelo próprio produto acabado, cuja natureza é exigir diferentes habilidades que são então reunidas e organizadas em um conjunto, a divisão do trabalho, pelo contrário, pressupõe a equivalência qualitativa de todas as atividades singulares para as quais nenhuma habilidade especial é necessária.” “como se fosse um só (…) o oposto da cooperação”

Não importa o que façamos, supostamente o faremos com vistas a <prover nosso próprio sustento>; é esse o veredicto da sociedade, e vem diminuindo rapidamente o número de pessoas capazes de desafiá-lo, especialmente nas profissões que poderiam fazê-lo. A única exceção que a sociedade está disposta a admitir é o artista, que, propriamente falando, é o único <operário> (worker) que restou em uma sociedade de trabalhadores (laboring society).”

não resta nem mesmo a <obra> do artista: ela foi dissolvida no divertir-se (…) Compreende-se que o divertimento do artista desempenha a mesma função que o jogo de tênis no processo vital do trabalho da sociedade ou a que a manutenção de um passatempo desempenha na vida de um indivíduo.”

em toda a Antiguidade Ocidental, a tortura, <a necessidade que nenhum homem pode suportar>, só podia ser aplicada a escravos, que, de qualquer forma, já estavam sujeitos à necessidade. <On croyait recueillir la voix même de la nature dans le cris de la douleur. Plus la douleur pénétrait avant, plus intime et plus vrai sembla être ce témoignage de la chair et du sang> Wallon. A psicologia dos antigos era muito mais cônscia do que nós do elemento de liberdade, de invenção livre, que existe na mentira. Foram as artes da violência, da guerra, da pirataria, e, finalmente, do governo absoluto, que colocaram os vencidos a serviço dos vencedores, e com isso mantiveram a necessidade em suspenso durante o mais longo período de que se tem registro na história”

Wallon demonstra, de modo brilhante, como a posterior generalização estóica de que todos os homens são escravos baseava-se nos desdobramentos do Império Romano, no qual a antiga liberdade foi gradualmente abolida pelo governo imperial, até que finalmente ninguém era livre e todos tinham seu senhor. O momento decisivo ocorreu quando primeiro Calígula e depois Trajano consentiram em ser chamados dominus, palavra usada antes somente para designar o chefe de uma casa. A chamada moralidade escrava da Antiguidade tardia e sua premissa de que não havia diferença real entre a vida do escravo e a vida do homem livre tinham um pano de fundo muito realista.

Talvez não seja exagero dizer que La condition ouvrière (1951), de Simone Weil, é o único livro na imensa literatura sobe a questão do trabalho que lida com o problema sem preconceitos e sem sentimentalismo.”

O perigo da futura automação não é tanto a tão deplorada mecanização e a artificialização da vida natural, quanto o fato de que, a despeito de sua artificialidade, toda a produtividade humana seria sugada por um processo vital enormemente intensificado e seguiria automaticamente, sem dor e sem esforço, o seu ciclo natural sempre-recorrente.”

Calcula-se que, durante a Idade Média, as pessoas raramente trabalhavam mais que a metade dos dias do ano. Havia 141 feriados oficiais (cf. Levasseur).” “superestima-se o progresso alcançado em nosso tempo, uma vez que este é medido em comparação com uma <era sombria>. É possível que a expectativa de vida na maioria dos países altamente civilizados hoje corresponda apenas à de certos séculos da Antiguidade. Não o sabemos, naturalmente, mas somos levados a essa suspeita quando refletimos sobre a idade em que morreram muitas pessoas famosas.”

na ilusão de uma filosofia mecanicista que supõe que a força de trabalho, como qualquer outra energia, não pode ser perdida, de modo que, se não for gasta e exaurida na labuta da vida, nutrirá automaticamente outras atividades <superiores>.” “Cem anos depois de Marx conhecemos a falácia desse raciocínio: o tempo excedente do animal laborans jamais é empregado em algo que não seja o consumo, e quanto maior é o tempo de que ele dispõe, mais ávidos e ardentes são os seus apetites.”

O resultado é aquilo que eufemisticamente é chamado de cultura de massas; e o seu arraigado problema é uma infelicidade universal” “A universal demanda de felicidade e a infelicidade extensamente disseminada em nossa sociedade são alguns dos mais persuasivos sintomas de que já começamos a viver em uma sociedade de trabalho que não tem suficiente trabalho para mantê-la contente.”

<se opor> [staind against]: Isso está implicado no verbo latino obicere, do qual nossa palavra <objeto> é uma derivação tardia, e na palavra alemã Gegenstand, objeto. <Objeto> significa literalmente <algo lançado> ou <posto contra>.”

os homens, a despeito de sua natureza sempre cambiante, podem recobrar sua mesmidade [sameness]”

Somente nós, que erigimos a objetividade de um mundo nosso a partir do que a natureza nos oferece, que o construímos dentro do ambiente natural para assim nos proteger dele, podemos observar a natureza como algo <objetivo>. Sem um mundo interposto entre os homens e a natureza, há eterno movimento, mas não objetividade.”

O uso contém, realmente, certo elemento de consumo, na medida em que o processo de desgaste [wearing-out process] ocorre por meio do contato do objeto de uso com o organismo consumidor vivo, e quanto mais estreito for o contato entre o corpo e a coisa usada, mais plausível parecerá o equacionamento dos dois.”

o homo faber, criador do artifício humano, sempre foi um destruidor da natureza. O animal laborans, que com o próprio corpo e a ajuda de animais domésticos nutre o processo da vida, pode ser o amo e o senhor de todas as criaturas vivas, mas permanece ainda o servo da natureza e da Terra; só o homo faber se porta como amo e senhor de toda a Terra.”

É interessante notar que Lutero, rejeitando conscientemente o compromisso escolástico com a Antiguidade grega e latina, procura eliminar da obra e do trabalho humanos todo e qualquer elemento de produção e fabricação. O trabalho humano, segundo ele, apenas <encontra> os tesouros que Deus colocou na Terra.” “Sage an, wer legt das Silber und Gold in die Berge, dass man es findet? Wer legt in die Äcker [campos] solch grosses Gut als heraus wächst…? Tut das Menschen Arbeit? Ja wohl, Arbeit findet es wohl; aber Gott muss es dahin legen, soll es die Arbeit finden… So finden wir denn, dass alle unsere Arbeit nichts ist denn Gottes Güter finden und aufheben, nichts aber möge machen und erhalten (Luther, Werke, Ed. Walch, V, 1873).

Le travailler travaille pour son oeuvre plutôt que pour lui-même: loi de générosité métaphysique, qui définit l’activité laborieuse” Chenu

Essa qualidade da permanência do modelo ou da imagem, o fato de existir antes que a fabricação comece e de permanecer depois que esta termina, sobrevivendo a todos os possíveis objetos de uso que continua ajudando fazer existir, exerceu uma forte influência na doutrina das idéias eternas de Platão. Na medida em que os seus ensinamentos foram inspirados pela palavra idea ou eidos (<aspecto> ou <forma>), que ele foi o primeiro a usar em um contexto filosófico, eles baseavam-se em experiências de poiêsis, de fabricação (fabrication), e embora Platão empregasse a sua teoria para exprimir experiências muito diferentes e talvez muito mais <filosóficas>, nunca deixou de buscar seus exemplos no campo da produção (making) quando desejava demonstrar a plausibilidade do que dizia. [Interpretações em Platão: o texto mais importante do “casal”] O testemunho de Aristóteles de que foi Pl. quem introduziu o termo idea na terminologia filosófica ocorre no 1º livro de sua Metafísica (987b8). Excelente relato do uso anterior da palavra e do ensinamento de Pl. encontra-se em Gerard F. Else, <The terminology of ideas>, Harvard studies in classical philology, v. XLVII (1936). (…) As palavras eidos e idea referem-se, sem dúvida, a formas e aspectos visíveis, especialmente de criaturas vivas; assim, é improvável que Platão concebesse a doutrina sob a influência de formas geométricas. A tese de Francis M. Cornford (Plato and Parmenides, Ed. Liberal Arts, p. 69-110), de que a doutrina é provavelmente de origem socrática, uma vez que Sócrates procurava definir a justiça em si ou a bondade em si, que não podem ser percebidas pelos sentidos, bem como pitagórica, uma vez que a doutrina da existência (chõrismos) das idéias eternas e separadas de todas as coisas perecíveis implica <a existência separada de uma alma consciente e conhecedora, à parte do corpo e dos sentidos>, parece-me muito convincente. Minha apresentação, porém, deixa em suspenso todos esses pressupostos. Ela se refere simplesmente ao Livro X da República, no qual o próprio Pl. explica sua doutrina tomando <o caso comum> de um artífice que faz camas e mesas <de acordo com a idéia <dessas camas e mesas> (…) Não é preciso dizer que nenhuma dessas explicações vai ao fundo da questão, que é a experiência especificamente filosófica subjacente ao conceito de idéia”

O homo faber é realmente amo e senhor, não apenas porque é o senhor ou se estabeleceu como senhor de toda a natureza, mas porque é senhor de si mesmo e de seus atos.Isso não se aplica ao animal laborans, sujeito às necessidades de sua própria vida, nem ao homem de ação, que depende de seus semelhantes.”

O trabalho, mas não a obra, requer, para obter melhores resultados, uma execução ritmicamente ordenada e, na medida em que muitos operários se aglomeram, exige uma coordenação rítmica de todos os movimentos individuais. A conhecida compilação feita por Karl Bücher, em 1897, de canções rítmicas de trabalho (Arbeit und Rhythmus (6. ed.; 1924)), foi seguida de volumosa literatura de caráter mais científico. Um dos melhores desses estudos (Joseph Schopp, Das deutsche Arbeitslied (1935)) ressalta o fato de que não existem canções da obra, mas somente canções de trabalho. As canções dos artífices são sociais e cantadas após o trabalho. O fato é, naturalmente, que não existe ritmo <natural> algum para a obra. Nota-se às vezes a surpreendente semelhança entre o ritmo <natural> inerente a toda operação de trabalho e o ritmo das máquinas, sem contar as repetidas queixas de que as máquinas impõem ao trabalhador um ritmo <artificial>. (…) Bücher, que acreditava que o <trabalho rítmico é um trabalho espiritual> (vergeistigt), já dizia: <Aufreibend werden nur solchen einförmigen Arbeiten, die sich nicht rhythmisch gestalten lassen> op. cit. p. 443. (…) Hendrik de Man: <diese von Bücher […] gepriesene Welt weniger die des […] handwerkmässig schöpferischen Gewerbes als die der einfachen schieren […] Arbeitsfron (ist)> (Der Kampf und die Arbeitsfreud, p. 244). (…) os próprios operários apresentam razão inteiramente diferente para sua preferência pelo trabalho repetitivo. Preferem-no porque é mecânico e não requer atenção, de sorte que, ao executá-lo, podem pensar em outra coisa. (Podem <geistig wegtreten>, nas palavras de operários berlinenses. Cf. der Rationalisierung (1954), p. 35ss…) Essa explicação é bastante digna de nota, uma vez que coincide com as muito antigas recomendações cristãs quanto aos méritos do trabalho manual, que, por exigir menor atenção, tende a interferir menos na contemplação que as outras ocupações e profissões (cf. Étienne Delaruelle, <Le travail dans les règles monastiques occidentales du 4e au 9e siècle>, Journal de psychologie normale et pathologique, v. XLI, n. 1 (1948)).”

o homem <ajustou-se> a um ambiente de máquinas desde o instante em que as concebeu. Sem dúvida, as máquinas tornaram-se condição tão inalienável de nossa existência como os utensílios e ferramentas o foram em todas as eras anteriores. (…) Nunca houve dúvida de que o homem se ajustava ou precisava de ajuste especial às ferramentas que utilizava, da mesma forma como uma pessoa se ajusta às próprias mãos. (…) enquanto dura a obra nas máquinas, o processo mecânico substitui o ritmo do corpo humano. Mesmo a mais sofisticada ferramenta permanece como serva, incapaz de guiar ou de substituir a mão. Mesmo a mais primitiva máquina guia o trabalho do nosso corpo até finalmente substituí-lo por completo.”

Uma das importantes condições da Rev. Industrial foi a extinção das florestas e a descoberta do carvão mineral como substituto de madeira. (…) Barrow (…) sustenta que o único fator que <impediu a aplicação das máquinas à indústria […] (foi) a inexistência de combustível bom e barato […]”

é somente ao mundo da eletricidade que as categorias do homo faber, para quem todo instrumento é um meio de atingir um fim prescrito, já não se aplicam. Pois agora já não usamos o material como a natureza nos fornece, matando processos naturais, interrompendo-os ou imitando-os. Em todos esses casos, alteramos e desnaturalizamos a natureza para nossos próprios fins mundanos, de sorte que o mundo ou o artifício humano, de um lado, e a natureza, de outro, permanecem como duas entidades nitidamente separadas.”

Diebold: a linha de montagem é o resultado <do conceito da manufatura como um processo contínuo>, e se poderia acrescentar que a automação é o resultado da maquinização (machinization) da linha de montagem.”

Günther Anders, em um interessante ensaio sobre a bomba atômica (Die Antiquiertheit des Menschen (1956)), sustenta de modo convincente, que a palavra <experimento> já não se aplica aos experimentos nucleares envolvendo explosões das novas bombas. Pois era característico dos experimentos o fato de que o espaço no qual ocorriam era estritamente limitado e isolado do meio ambiente. Os efeitos das bombas são tão gigantescos que <seu laboratório tornou-se coextensivo com o globo> (p. 260).”

nossa palavra <natureza>, quer a derivemos da raiz latina nasci, nascer, quer a remetamos à sua origem grega, physis, que vem phyein, surgir de, aparecer por si mesmo.”

Chamamos de automático todo movimento autopropulsado e, portanto, fora do alcance da interferência voluntária ou intencional. (…) As categorias do homo faber e do seu mundo não se aplicam aqui, como jamais poderiam aplicar-se à natureza e ao universo natural.”

a questão não é tanto se somos senhores ou escravos de nossas máquinas, mas se estas ainda servem ao mundo e às coisas do mundo ou se, pelo contrário, elas e o movimento automático de seus processos passaram a dominar e mesmo a destruir o mundo e as coisas.”

Em seu contínuo processo de operação, este mundo de máquinas está perdendo inclusive aquele caráter mundano independente que as ferramentas e utensílios e a primeira maquinaria da era moderna possuíam em tão alto grau. Os processos naturais de que se alimenta o relacionam cada vez mais com o próprio processo biológico, de sorte que os aparelhos, que outrora manejávamos livremente, começam a mostrar-se como se fossem <carapaças integrantes do corpo humano tanto quanto a carapaça é parte integrante do corpo da tartaruga>.”

a madeira justifica matar a árvore e a mesa justifica destruir a madeira.”

todo fim pode novamente servir como meio em algum outro contexto. Em outras palavras, em um mundo estritamente utilitário, todos os fins são constrangidos a serem de curta duração e a transformarem-se em meios para alcançar outros fins. Quanto à interminabilidade da cadeia de meios e fins (o Zweck-progressus in infinitum) e à destruição do significado que lhe é inerente, comparar com Nietzsche, Afor. 666, em Wille zur Macht.” Não entendo que edição é essa que possui mais de 583/594 aforismos! (*)

O ideal de utilidade, como os ideais de outras sociedades, já não pode ser concebido como algo necessário a fim de se obter alguma outra coisa; esse ideal simplesmente impugna o questionamento sobre seu próprio uso. É óbvio que não há resposta à pergunta que Lessing, certa vez, dirigiu aos filósofos utilitaristas do seu tempo: <E qual o uso do uso?> A perplexidade do utilitarismo é que ele é capturado pela cadeia interminável de meios e fins sem jamais chegar a algum princípio que possa justificar a categoria de meios e fim (…) O <a fim de> torna-se o conteúdo do <em razão de>; em outras palavras, a utilidade instituída como significado gera a ausência de significado.” “Só em um mundo estritamente antropocêntrico, onde o usuário, i.e., o próprio homem, torna-se o fim último que põe termo à cadeia infindável de meios e fins, pode a utilidade como tal adquirir a dignidade da significação. A tragédia, porém, é que, no instante em que o homo faber parece ter se realizado nos termos de sua própria atividade, ele passa a degradar o mundo das coisas, que é o fim e o produto final de sua mente e de suas mãos. Se o homem como usuário é o mais alto de todos os fins, <a medida de todas as coisas>, então não somente a natureza, tratada pelo homo faber como o <material quase sem valor> sobre o qual ele opera, mas as próprias coisas <valiosas> tornam-se simples meios e, com isso, perdem o seu próprio <valor> intrínseco.

O utilitarismo antropocêntrico do homo faber encontrou sua mais alta expressão na fórmula de Kant: nenhum homem pode jamais tornar-se um meio para um fim, todo ser humano é um fim em si mesmo. Embora encontremos antes de Kant uma percepção das funestas conseqüências que um desobstruído e desorientado pensamento em termos de meios e fins invariavelmente tem para o domínio político (p.ex., na insistência de Locke em que não se deve permitir que um homem seja dono do corpo de outro ou use a força do seu corpo), é somente em Kant que a filosofia das primeiras fases da era moderna liberta-se inteiramente das trivialidades do bom senso, encontradas sempre onde o homo faber dita os padrões da sociedade. Naturalmente, o motivo disso é que Kant não pretendia formular ou conceitualizar os princípios do utilitarismo do seu tempo, mas, ao contrário, desejava antes de tudo pôr em seu devido lugar a categoria de meios-e-fim e evitar que fosse empregada no campo da ação política. Não obstante, sua fórmula não pode renegar sua origem no pensamento utilitário, como é o caso de sua outra famosa e também inerentemente paradoxal interpretação da atitude do homem em relação aos únicos objetos que não são <para o uso>, a saber, as obras de arte, com as quais ele disse que experimentamos um <prazer sem qualquer interesse>. A expressão de K. é <ein Wohlgefallen ohne alles Interesse> (Kritik der Unteilskraft, ed. Casssirer, V, 272). Pois a mesma operação que faz do homem o <fim supremo> permite-lhe <sujeitar, se puder, toda a natureza a esse fim>, isto é, degradar a natureza e o mundo a simples meios, privado-os de sua dignidade independente. Nem mesmo Kant foi capaz de resolver o dilema ou iluminar a cegueira do homo faber no tocante ao problema do significado sem voltar ao paradoxal <fim em si mesmo>, e essa perplexidade reside no fato de que, embora somente a fabricação, com sua instrumentalidade, seja capaz de construir um mundo, esse mesmo mundo torna-se tão sem valor quanto o material empregado, simples meios para outros fins, quando se permite que os padrões que presidiram o seu surgimento prevaleçam depois que ele foi estabelecido.”

(*) Tudo é uma questão de edição!

I AM AN END (THE SUPREME GOOD, A PRETEXT):

666.

For ages we have always ascribed the value of an action, of a character, of an existence, to the intention, to the purpose for which it was done, acted, or lived: this primeval idiosyncrasy of taste ultimately takes a dangerous turn—provided the lack of intention and purpose in all phenomena comes ever more to the front in consciousness. With it a general depreciation of all values seems to be preparing: <All is without sense.> —This melancholy phrase means: <All sense lies in the intention, and if the intention is absolutely lacking, then sense must be lacking too.> In conformity with this valuation, people were forced to place the value of life in a <life after death,> or in the progressive development of ideas, or of mankind, or of the people, or of man to superman; but in this way the progressus in infinitum of purpose had been reached: it was ultimately necessary to find one’s self a place in the process of the world (perhaps with the disdaemonistic outlook [perspectiva irracional], it was a process which led to nonentity).

In regard to this point, <purpose> needs a somewhat more severe criticism: it ought to be recognised that an action is never caused by a purpose; that an object and the means thereto are interpretations, by means of which certain points in a phenomena are selected and accentuated, at the cost of other, more numerous, points; that every time something is done for a purpose, something fundamentally different, and yet other things

happen; that in regard to the action done with a purpose, the case is the same as with the so-called purposefulness of the heat [Moira] which is radiated from the sun: the greater part of the total sum is squandered [desperdiçada]; a portion of it, which is scarcely worth reckoning, has a <purpose,> has <sense>; that an <end> with its <means> is an absurdly indefinite description, which indeed may be able to command as a precept, as <will,> but presupposes a system of obedient and trained instruments, which, in the place of the indefinite, puts forward a host of determined entities (i.e. we imagine a system of clever but narrow intellects who postulate end and means, in order to be able to grant our only known <end,> the rôle of the <cause of an action,>—a proceeding to which we have no right: it is tantamount to solving a problem by placing its solution in an inaccessible world which we cannot observe).

Finally, why could not an <end> be merely an accompanying feature in the series of changes among the active forces which bring about the action—a pale stenographic symbol stretched in consciousness beforehand, and which serves as a guide to what happens, even as a symbol of what happens, not as its cause?—But in this way we criticise will itself: is it not an illusion to regard that which enters consciousness as will-power, as a cause? Are not all conscious phenomena only final phenomena—the lost links in a chain, but apparently conditioning one another in their sequence within the plane of consciousness? This might be an illusion.

<a Terra em geral e todas as forças da natureza> perdem seu <valor porque não apresentam a reificação resultante da obra> (<Der Wasserfall, wie die Erde überhaupt, wie alle Naturkraft hat keinen Wert, weil er keine in ihm vergegenständlichte Arbeit darstellt>) (Das Kapital, III, 698). Não foi por outro motivo senão essa atitude do homo faber em relação ao mundo que os gregos, em seu período clássico, declararam que todo o campo das artes e ofícios, no qual os homens operavam com instrumentos e faziam algo não pela satisfação de fazê-lo, mas para produzir outra coisa, era banáustico, palavra talvez mais bem-traduzida como <filisteu>, conotando a vulgaridade de pensar e agir em termos de conveniência.”

A instrumentalização de todo o mundo e de toda a Terra, essa ilimitada desvalorização de tudo o que é dado, esse processo de crescente ausência de significado no qual todo fim é transformado em um meio e que só pode ser interrompido quando se faz do próprio homem o amo e senhor de todas as coisas, não provém diretamente do processo de fabricação; pois, do ponto de vista da fabricação, o produto acabado é um fim em si mesmo, uma entidade independente e durável, dotada de existência própria, tal como o homem é um fim em si mesmo na filosofia política de Kant.” “É bastante óbvio que os gregos temiam essa desvalorização do mundo e da natureza, assim como seu inerente antropocentrismo – a opinião <absurda> de que o homem é o ente mais elevado e de que tudo o mais está sujeito às exigências da vida humana (Arist.) (…) Talvez o melhor exemplo do quanto eles estavam conscientes das conseqüências de se considerar o homo faber como a mais elevada possibilidade humana seja o famoso argumento de Platão contra Protágoras e sua declaração aparentemente auto-evidente de que <o homem é a medida de todas as coisas de uso (chrmata), da existência das que existem e da inexistência das que não existem> (Teeteto, 152 & Crátilo, 385E). (Evidentemente, Protágoras não disse que <o homem é a medida de todas as coisas>, como a tradição e as traduções consagradas o fizeram dizer. O suposto dito de Protágoras – <o homem é a medida de todas as coisas> – seria, em grego, anthrôpos metron pantôn, correspondendo, p.ex., à frase de Heráclito: polemos patêr pantón, <o conflito é o pai de todas as coisas>.) O que importa nesse assunto é que Platão percebeu imediatamente que, quando se faz do homem a medida de todas as coisas de uso, é ao homem como usuário e instrumentalizador a quem se relaciona o mundo, e não ao homem como orador, homem de ação ou pensador.” “Nessa interpretação platônica, Protágoras se afigura, realmente, como o primeiro precursor de Kant, pois se o homem é a medida de todas as coisas, então o homem é a única coisa que escapa à relação de meios-e-fim, o único fim em si mesmo, capaz de usar tudo o mais como meio.”

Se se permitir que os critérios do homo faber governem o mundo depois de construído, como devem necessariamente presidir o nascimento desse mundo, então o homo faber finalmente se servirá de tudo e considerará tudo o que existe como simples meios à sua disposição. Julgará cada coisa como se ela pertencesse à categoria de chrêmata ou de objetos de uso, de sorte que, seguindo o ex. de Platão, o vento deixará de ser concebido como força natural, existente por si mesmo, para ser considerado exclusivamente consoante as necessidades humanas de calor e refrigério – e isso, naturalmente, significaria que o vento, como algo objetivamente dado, seria eliminado da experiência humana. Por conta de tais conseqüências, Platão, que no fim da vida lembra mais uma vez n’As Leis (716D) o dito de Protágoras, responde com uma fórmula quase paradoxal: não o homem – que, em virtude de suas necessidades e talentos, quer usar tudo e, portanto, termina por privar todas as coisas de seu valor intrínseco –, mas <o deus é a medida até dos simples objetos de uso>.”

Marx – em um dos muitos apartes que testificam seu eminente senso histórico – observou certa vez que a definição do homem por Benjamin Franklin como um fazedor de instrumentos é tão típica do <ianquismo>, i.e., da era moderna, quanto a definição do homem como um animal político o era da Antiguidade. (DK, p. 358, n. 3)”

No alemão medieval, a palavra Störer [artífice] equivale exatamente à palavra grega dêmiourgos. <Der griechische dêmiourgos heisst ‘Störer’, er geht beim Volk arbeiten, er geht auf die Stör.> Stör significa dêmos (<povo>). (Cf. Jost Trier…1950).”

os tiranos nutriam a ambição, sempre frustrada, de dissuadir os cidadãos da preocupação com os assuntos políticos” Já hoje os Boechats neocons estimulam a participação desenfreada.

O domínio público do homo faber é o mercado de trocas, no qual ele pode exibir os produtos de sua mão e receber a estima que merece. Essa inclinação para a habilidade na exibição pública (showmanship) é intimamente conectada com a <propensão de barganhar, permutar e trocar uma coisa por outra>, que, segundo Adam Smith, distingue os homens dos animais, e possivelmente não menos arraigada que ela. E ele acrescenta, com ênfase: <Ninguém jamais viu um cão fazer uma troca eqüitativa e deliberada de um osso por outro com outro cão> (Wealth of nations, ed. Everyman’s, I, 12).”

A privatividade exigida nos primórdios da era moderna como direito supremo de cada membro da sociedade era efetivamente a garantia de isolamento, sem a qual nenhuma obra pode ser produzida. (…) Esse isolamento em relação aos outros é a condição de vida necessária a toda maestria, que consiste em estar a sós com a <idéia>, a imagem mental da coisa que irá existir. (…) e as palavras <operário> e <mestre> – ouvrier e maître – eram originalmente empregadas como sinônimos. (Levasseur e Pierre Brizon)” “a diferença entre a qualificação do mestre e a ajuda não-qualificada é temporária, como a diferença entre adultos e crianças.”

Sewall – The theory of value before Adam Smith (1901) in: “Publications of the American Economic Association”

O valor é aquela qualidade que nenhuma coisa pode ter na privatividade, mas que adquire automaticamente assim que aparece em público.”

a primeira coisa sobre a qual insistem os professores medievais é que o valor não é determinado pela excelência intrínseca à própria coisa, pois, se fosse assim, uma mosca seria mais valiosa que uma pérola, uma vez que é intrinsecamente mais excelente” George O’Brien – An essay on medieval economic teaching, 1920

Weisskopf – The psychology of economics (1955)

A palavra mais antiga para <valia> (worth), que ainda encontramos em Locke, foi suplantada pela expressão <valor de uso> (use value), aparentemente mais científica.” “a perda de toda valia intrínseca começa com a sua transformação em valores (values) ou mercadorias” “A relatividade universal, o fato de que uma coisa só existe em relação a outras, e a perda do valor intrínseco, o fato de que tudo deixa de possuir valor <objetivo>, independente da avaliação mutável da oferta e da procura, são inerentes ao próprio conceito de valor.” “preço justo”

Mas a resposta de Platão – de que não o homem, mas um <deus é a medida de todas as coisas> – seria um gesto moralizante vazio se realmente fosse verdadeiro que, como presumia a era moderna, a instrumentalidade, disfarçada em utilidade, governa o âmbito do mundo acabado tão exclusivamente quanto governa a atividade por meio da qual o mundo e todas as coisas nele contidas passaram a existir.”

Ainda que a origem histórica da arte tivesse caráter exclusivamente religioso ou mitológico, o fato é que a arte sobreviveu magnificamente à sua separação da religião, da magia e do mito.” Anti-Benjamin

certo pressentimento de imortalidade – não a imortalidade da alma ou da vida, mas de algo imortal alcançado por mãos mortais” Anti-Unamuno

O pensar relaciona-se com o sentimento e transforma seu desalento mudo e inarticulado, do mesmo modo como a troca transforma a ganância crua do desejo e o uso transforma o anseio desesperado das necessidades – até que todos se tornem adequados a adentrar o mundo e serem transformados em coisas, serem reificados. (…) uma capacidade comunicativa e aberta-ao-mundo (world-open) transcende e libera no mundo uma apaixonada intensidade que estava aprisionada no si-mesmo (self).”

Rilke (Aus Taschen-Büchern und Merk-Blättern, 1950):

Aus unbeschreiblicher Verwandlung stammen

solche Gebilde -: Fühl! und glaub!

Wir leidens oft: zu Asche werden Flammen,

doch, in der Kunst: zur Flamme wird der Staub.

Hier ist Magie. In das Bereich des Zaubers

scheint das gemeine Wort hinaufgestuft (…)

und ist doch wirklich wie der Ruf des Taubers,

der nach der unsichtbaren Taube ruft”

é sempre na <letra morta> que o <espírito vivo> deve sobreviver, uma morte da qual ele só pode ser resgatado quando a letra morta entra novamente em contato com uma vida disposta a ressuscitá-lo, ainda que essa ressurreição dos mortos tenha em comum com todas as coisas vivas o fato de que ela também tornará a morrer.”

Na música e na poesia, que são as menos <materialistas> das artes porque seu <material> consiste em sons e palavras, a reificação e a manufatura (workmanship) necessárias são mínimas. O jovem poeta e a criança prodígio na música podem atingir a perfeição sem muito treino e experiência, fenômeno que dificilmente ocorre na pintura, na escultura ou na arquitetura.”

É essa proximidade com a lembrança viva que permite que o poema perdure, retenha sua durabilidade fora da página escrita ou impressa; e, embora a <qualidade> de um poema possa estar submetida a vários padrões diferentes, sua <memorabilidade> inevitavelmente determinará sua durabilidade, i.e., a possibilidade de ficar permanentemente fixado na lembrança da humanidade.”

<fazer um poema> (…) O mesmo se aplica ao alemão dichten, que provavelmente deriva do latim dictare: <das ausgesonnene geistig Geschaffene niederschreiben order zum Nietderschreiben vorsagen> (Grimm, Dicionário) (…) A mesma ênfase no artesanato do poeta está presente na expressão grega para a arte da poesia: tektônes hymnôn.”

COMO ENTENDER MEU NAMORADO”

o processo cognitivo termina. O pensamento, ao contrário, não tem outro fim ou propósito além de si mesmo, e não chega sequer a produzir resultados; não só a filosofia utilitária do homo faber, mas os homens de ação e os entusiastas por resultados nas ciências jamais se cansaram de assinalar quão inteiramente <inútil> é o pensamento – realmente, tão inútil quanto as obras de arte que inspira. E nem mesmo esses produtos inúteis o pensamento pode reivindicar para si, pois estes, como os grandes sistemas filosóficos, dificilmente podem ser propriamente chamados de resultados do pensamento puro (…) é precisamente o processo do pensar que o artista ou o filósofo que escreve têm de interromper e transformar para a reificação materializante de sua obra. A atividade de pensar é tão incessante e repetitiva quanto a própria vida; perguntar se o pensamento tem algum significado configura o mesmo enigma irrespondível que a pergunta sobre o significado da vida”

Por outro lado, a cognição toma parte em todos os processos, não somente nos da obra intelectual ou artística, cuja finalidade pode ser posta à pova e, se não produzir resultados, terá fracassado, como fracassa a maestria do carpinteiro quando ele fabrica uma mesa de duas pernas.”

Os processos mentais que se alimentam da força cerebral são geralmente chamados de inteligência, e essa inteligência pode realmente ser medida em testes de inteligência, da mesma forma como a força física pode ser medida por outros meios. Suas leis, as leis da lógica, podem ser descobertas como outras leis da natureza”

Se fosse verdadeiro que o homem é um animal rationale no sentido em que a era moderna compreendeu essa expressão – ou seja, uma espécie animal que difere das outras pelo fato de ser dotada de uma força cerebral superior –, então as recém-inventadas máquinas eletrônicas, que às vezes para consternação e outras vezes para confusão dos seus inventores, são tão espetacularmente mais <inteligentes> que os seres humanos, seriam realmente homunculi. Na realidade elas são, como todas as máquinas, meras substitutas e aperfeiçoadoras artificiais da força de trabalho humana, adotando o consagrado expediente da divisão do trabalho de subdividir toda operação em seus movimentos constitutivos mais simples – substituindo, p.ex., a multiplicação pela adição iterativa. (…) graças a essa velocidade superior, a máquina pode dispensar a multiplicação, que é o expediente técnico pré-eletrônico para acelerar a adição. Tudo o que os computadores gigantes provaram é que a era moderna estava errada ao acreditar, com Hobbes, que a racionalidade, no sentido de <calcular as conseqüências>, é a mais alta e a mais humana das capacidades do homem, e que os filósofos da vida e do trabalho, Marx ou Bergson ou Nietzsche, estavam certos quando viam nesse tipo de inteligência, que confundiam com a razão, uma mera função do processo vital, ou, como dizia Hume, uma mera <escrava das paixões>.

os homens que agem e falam necessitam da ajuda do homo faber em sua capacidade suprema, i.e., da ajuda do artista, dos poetas e historiadores, dos construtores de monumentos ou escritores, porque sem eles o único produto da atividade dos homens, a estória que encenam e contam, de modo algum sobreviveria. (…) Não precisamos escolher aqui entre Platão e Protágoras, ou decidir se o homem ou um deus deve ser a medida de todas as coisas; o que é certo é que a medida não pode ser nem as necessidades coativas da vida biológica e do trabalho, nem o instrumentalismo utilitário da fabricação e do uso.

Nihil igitur agit nisi tale existens quale patiens fiere debet.”

nada age, a menos que ao agir torne patente seu si-mesmo latente.”

Dante

INCIATIVA & SEGUNDO NASCIMENTO

O Dilema Hindu de Zaratustra: “Os homens podem perfeitamente viver sem trabalhar, obrigando outros a trabalharem para eles; e podem muito bem decidir simplesmente usar e fruir do mundo de coisas sem lhe acrescentar um só objeto útil; a vida de um explorador ou senhor de escravos e a vida de um parasita podem ser injustas, mas certamente são humanas. Por outro lado, uma vida sem discurso e sem ação – e esse é o único modo de vida em que há sincera renúncia de toda aparência e de toda vaidade, na acepção bíblica da palavra – é literalmente morta para o mundo”

Arnold Gehlen – Der Mensch: Seine Natur und seine Stellung in der Welt (1955)

iniciar (como indica a palavra grega archein, <começar>, <conduzir> e, finalmente, <governar>), imprimir movimento a alguma coisa (que é o significado original do termo latino agere).”

para que houvesse um início o homem foi criado, sem que antes dele ninguém o fosse” Sto. Agostinho

Para Agostinho, havia tanta diferença entre os dois começos que ele empregava uma palavra diferente para indicar o começo que é o homem (initium), chamando de principium o início do mundo, que é a tradução consagrada do primeiro versículo da Bíblia. Como se vê em A cidade de Deus 11:32, a palavra principium portava, para Ag., um sentido muito menos radical; o início do mundo <não significa que nada houvesse sido feito antes (uma vez que os anjos o foram)>, enquanto, na frase acima citada, referente ao homem, ele acrescenta explicitamente que ninguém existia antes dele.”

Com a criação do homem, veio ao mundo o próprio princípio do começar”

SURPREENDENTE IMPRESCIÊNCIA: “a origem da vida a partir da matéria inorgânica é uma infinita improbabilidade dos processos inorgânicos, como o é o surgimento da Terra, do ponto de vista dos processos do universo, ou a evolução da vida humana a partir da vida animal. O novo sempre acontece em oposição à esmagadora possibilidade das leis estatísticas e a sua probabilidade que, para todos os fins práticos e cotidianos, equivale à certeza: assim, o novo sempre aparece na forma de um milagre.”

o ato primordial e especificamente humano deve conter, ao mesmo tempo, resposta à pergunta que se faz a todo recém-chegado: <Quem és?>” “A ação muda deixaria de ser ação, pois não haveria mais um ator”

se aqui estivesse em questão apenas o uso da ação como meio para um fim, é evidente que o mesmo fim poderia ser alcançado muito mais facilmente com a violência muda, de tal modo que a ação parece uma substituta pouco eficaz da violência, da mesma forma que o discurso, do ponto de vista da mera utilidade, parece um substituto inadequado da linguagem de signos.”

é quase certo que o <quem>, que aparece tão clara e inconfundivelmente para os outros, permanece oculto para a própria pessoa, à semelhança do daimón, na religião grega, que acompanha cada homem durante toda sua vida, sempre observando por detrás, por cima de seus ombros, de sorte que só era visível para aqueles que ele encontrava.”

deve-se estar disposto a correr o risco de se desvelar, e esse risco não pode ser assumido nem pelo realizador de boas obras, que deve ser desprovido do si-mesmo (self) e manter-se em completo anonimato, nem pelo criminoso, que precisa esconder-se dos outros. Ambos são figuras solitárias, o primeiro é <pró> e o segundo <contra> todos os homens; ficam, portanto, fora do âmbito do intercurso humano e são figuras politicamente marginais, que, em geral, surgem no cenário histórico em épocas de corrupção, desintegração e ruína política.”

soldadodesconhecido

Os monumentos ao <Soldado Desconhecido>, erigidos após a Primeira Guerra Mundial, comprovam a necessidade de glorificação, subsistente ainda na época, de encontrar um <quem>, um alguém identificável a quem quatro anos de carnificina deveriam ter revelado. A frustração desse desejo e a recusa a se resignar ao fato brutal de que o agente da guerra havia sido realmente ninguém inspiraram a construção desses monumentos ao <desconhecido>, a todos aqueles a quem a guerra fracassou em tornar conhecidos, roubando-lhes, com isso, não suas realizações, mas sua dignidade humana. O livro de William Faulkner, Uma fábula (1954), supera em discernimento e clareza quase toda a literatura sobre a I G. M. pelo fato de que o seu herói é o Soldado Desconhecido.”

a notória impossibilidade filosófica de se chegar a uma definição do homem”

A crermos em Xenofonte, Sócrates comparava seu daimonion aos oráculos, e insistia em que ambos deviam ser utilizados somente para os assuntos humanos, em que nada é certo, e não para as questões das artes e ofícios, em que tudo é previsível (ibid., 7-9).”

Na teoria política, o materialismo é pelo menos tão antigo quanto a suposição platônico-aristotélica de que as comunidades políticas (poleis) – e não apenas a vida familiar ou a coexistência de várias unidades familiares (oikiai) – devem sua existência à necessidade material. (…) ambos são precursores da teoria do interesse, já plenamente desenvolvida por Bodin – tal como os reis governam os povos, o Interesse governa os reis.”

Que toda vida individual entre o nascimento e a morte possa afinal ser narrada como uma estória com começo e fim é a condição pré-política e pré-histórica da história (history), a grande estória sem começo nem fim.”

É digno de nota o fato de que Platão, que não tinha indício algum do moderno conceito de história, tenha sido o primeiro a inventar a metáfora do ator que, nos bastidores, por trás dos homens que atuam, puxa os cordões e é responsável pela estória. O deus platônico é apenas um símbolo do fato de que as estórias reais, ao contrário das que inventamos, não têm autor; como tal, é o verdadeiro precursor da Providência, da <mão invisível>, da Natureza, do <espírito do mundo>, do interesse de classe e de outras noções semelhantes mediante as quais os filósofos da história cristãos e modernos tentaram resolver o desconcertante problema de que embora a história deva a sua existência aos homens, obviamente não é, todavia, <feita> por eles.”

o simples fato de que Adam Smith tenha precisado de uma <mão invisível> a guiar as transações econômicas no mercado de trocas mostra claramente que as relações de troca envolvem algo mais que a mera atividade econômica”

embora saibamos muito menos a respeito de Sócrates, que jamais escreveu uma linha sequer nem deixou obra alguma atrás de si, que acerca de Platão ou Aristóteles, sabemos muito melhor e mais intimamente quem foi Sócrates, por conhecermos sua estória, do que sobre quem foi Aristóteles, acerca de cujas opiniões estamos muito mais bem informados.”

Em Homero a palavra hêrôs sem dúvida tinha uma conotação de distinção, mas uma distinção de que era capaz qualquer homem livre. Em parte alguma aparece com o significado ulterior de <semideus>, resultante talvez da deificação dos antigos heróis épicos.” “A dimensão dessa coragem original, sem a qual a ação, o discurso e, portanto, segundo os gregos, a liberdade seriam impossíveis, não é menor se o <herói> for um covarde – pode ser até maior.”

o teatro é a arte política por excelência; somente no teatro a esfera política da vida humana é transposta para a arte. Pelo mesmo motivo, é a única arte cujo assunto é, exclusivamente, o homem em sua relação com os outros homens.”

A crença popular em um <homem forte>, que, isolado dos outros, deve sua força ao fato de estar só, é ou mera superstição, baseada na ilusão de que podemos <produzir> algo no domínio dos assuntos humanos – <produzir> instituições ou leis, p.ex., como fazemos mesas e cadeiras, ou produzir homens <melhores> ou <piores> (Platão já recriminava Péricles por não haver <tornado melhor o cidadão>, pois, no fim de sua carreira, os atenienses eram piores que antes – Górgias, 515) –, ou é, então, a desesperança consciente de toda ação, política e não política, aliada à esperança utópica de que seja possível tratar os homens como se tratam outros <materiais>.”

A história está repleta de exemplos de impotência do homem forte e superior que não sabe como angariar o auxílio ou o agir conjunto (co-acting) de seus semelhantes – fracasso que é freqüentemente atribuído à fatal inferioridade do grande número e ao ressentimento que as pessoas eminentes inspiram nas medíocres.”

Aos dois verbos gregos archein e prattein (<atravessar, <realizar>, <acabar>) correspondem os dois verbos latinos agere e gerere (cujo significado original é <conduzir>). (…) Em ambos os casos, a palavra que originalmente designava apenas a segunda parte da ação, ou seja, sua realização – prattein e gerere –, passou a ser o termo aceito para designar a ação em geral, enquanto a palavra que designava o começo da ação adquiriu um significado especial, pelo menos na linguagem poética. Archein passou a significar, principalmente, <governar> e <liderar>, quando empregada de maneira específica, e agere passou a significar <liderar>, mais do que <pôr em movimento>.”

a força do iniciador e líder mostra-se em sua iniciativa e nos riscos que assume, não na efetiva realização. No caso do governante bem-sucedido, ele pode reivindicar para si aquilo que, na verdade, é a realização de muitos – algo que jamais teria sido permitido a Agamêmnon, que era rei, mas não governante.”

a tentação política por excelência é realmente a hybris, e não a vontade de poder, como somos inclinados a acreditar.”

a luz que ilumina os processos da ação e, portanto, todos os processos históricos só aparece quando eles terminam – muitas vezes quando todos os participantes já estão mortos. A ação só se revela plenamente para o contador da estória (storyteller), ou seja, para o olhar retrospectivo do historiador, que realmente sempre sabe melhor o que aconteceu do que os próprios participantes. Todo relato feito pelos próprios atores, ainda que, em raros casos, constitua versão fidedigna de suas intenções, finalidades e motivos, torna-se uma mera fonte de material útil nas mãos do historiador”

O velho ditado de que ninguém pode ser considerado eudaimon antes de morrer talvez dê uma indicação do assunto em questão, se formos capazes de ouvir seu significado original após 2500 anos de trivializante repetição; nem mesmo a tradução latina, proverbial e corriqueira já em Roma – nemo ante mortem beatus esse dici potest –, transmite o significado original, embora talvez tenha inspirado a prática da Igreja Católica de só beatificar os santos depois de há um bom tempo seguramente mortos. Porque eudaimonia não significa felicidade nem beatitude; é intraduzível e talvez até inexplicável. Tem a conotação de bem-aventurança, mas sem qualquer implicação religiosa, e significa, literalmente, algo como o bem-estar do daimôn que acompanha cada homem durante a sua vida, que é a sua identidade distinta, mas só aparece e é visível para os