NOTAS DE LITERATURA I/III – Adorno (trad. Jorge de Almeida), ed. 34, 2003. Org. alemã Rolf Tiedemann

“Quem se propõe a traduzir os ensaios de Theodor Adorno tem de enfrentar o desafio de transpor para outra língua um texto que, para os próprios leitores alemães, muitas vezes soa quase como língua estrangeira.”

“o <estilo atonal> de Adorno não é uma simples idiossincrasia, mas uma tentativa de solucionar o antigo impasse histórico da dialética, desde que Hegel a definiu, em uma célebre conversa com Goethe, como o <espírito de contradição organizado>.” ???

“Dois dos ensaios deste 1º volume de Notas de literatura já constavam com excelentes traduções em português, realizadas na década de 70 por Modesto Carone (Posição do narrador no romance contemporâneo) e Rubens Rodrigues Torres Filho (Lírica e sociedade).”

* * *

O ENSAIO COMO FORMA (1954-8)

Ou: o melhor inimigo da filosofia

A forma do ensaio ainda não conseguiu deixar para trás o caminho que leva à autonomia, um caminho que sua irmã, a literatura, já percorreu há muito tempo, desenvolvendo-se a partir de uma primitiva e indiferenciada unidade com a ciência, a moral e a arte.

Lukács

“Ainda hoje, elogiar alguém como écrivain é o suficiente para excluir do âmbito acadêmico aquele que está sendo elogiado.” E não é assim mesmo?

O ensaio sempre fala de algo já formado ou, na melhor das hipóteses, de algo que já tenha existido; é parte de sua essência que ele não destaque coisas novas a partir de um nada vazio, mas se limite a ordenar de uma nova maneira as coisas que em algum momento já foram vivas.

Lukács

“Ser um homem com os pés no chão ou com a cabeça nas nuvens, eis a alternativa.”

“como seria possível, afinal, falar do estético de modo não-estético, sem qualquer proximidade com o objeto, e não sucumbir à vulgaridade intelectual nem se desviar do próprio assunto?”

“Na alergia contra as formas, consideradas como atributos meramente acidentais, o espírito científico acadêmico aproxima-se do obtuso espírito dogmático. …e a reflexão sobre as coisas do espírito torna-se privilégio dos desprovidos de espírito.”

“Esse processo se manifesta de modo mais evidente em Stefan Zweig, que conseguiu em sua juventude escrever alguns ensaios bastante originais, mas que acabou regredindo, em seu livro sobre Balzac, ao estudo psicológico da personalidade criativa. (…) Ensaios desse tipo acabam se confundindo com o estilo de folhetim que os inimigos da forma ensaística costumam confundir com o ensaio.”

“ensaios ruins não são menos conformistas do que dissertações ruins.”

“Com a objetivação do mundo, resultado da desmitologização, a ciência e a arte se separaram; é impossível restabelecer com um golpe de mágica uma consciência para a qual intuição e conceito, imagem e signo constituam uma unidade.”

“Onde a filosofia, mediante empréstimos da literatura, imagina-se capaz de abolir o pensamento objetivante e sua história, enunciada pela terminologia habitual como a antítese entre sujeito e objeto, e espera até mesmo que o próprio Ser ganhe voz em uma poesia que junta Parmênides e Max Jungnickel, ela acaba se aproximando da desgastada conversa fiada sobre cultura.”

“A ambiciosa transcendência da linguagem para além do sentido acaba desembocando em um vazio de sentido, que facilmente pode ser capturado pelo mesmo positivismo diante do qual essa linguagem se julga superior.”

“se a arte pretende tornar-se imediatamente ciência, adequando-se aos parâmetros científicos, então ela sanciona a manipulação pré-artística da matéria, tão carente de sentido quanto o Seyn (Ser) dos seminários filosóficos.”

“A obra de Marcel Proust, tão permeada de elementos científicos positivistas quanto a de Bergson, é uma tentativa única de expressar conhecimentos necessários e conclusivos sobre os homens e as relações sociais, conhecimentos que não poderiam sem mais nem menos ser acolhidos pela ciência, embora sua pretensão à objetividade não seja diminuída nem reduzida a uma vaga plausibilidade.” “Sob a pressão do espírito científico de seus postulados, onipresente até mesmo no artista, ainda que de modo latente, Proust se serviu de uma técnica que copiava o modelo das ciências, para realizar uma espécie de reordenação experimental, com o objetivo de salvar ou restabelecer aquilo que, nos dias do individualismo burguês, quando a consciência individual ainda confiava em si mesma e não se intimidava diante da censura rigidamente classificatória, era valorizado como os conhecimentos de um homem experiente, conforme o tipo do extinto homme de lettres, que Proust invocou novamente como a mais alta forma do diletante.”

“O jovem escritor que queira aprender na universidade o que seja uma obra de arte, uma forma da linguagem, a qualidade estética, e mesmo a técnica estética, terá apenas, na maioria dos casos, algumas indicações esparsas sobre o assunto, ou então receberá informações tomadas já prontas da filosofia em circulação naquele momento, que serão aplicadas de modo mais ou menos arbitrário ao teor das obras em questão. Caso ele se volte para a estética filosófica, será entulhado com proposições tão abstratas que nada dizem sobre as obras que ele deseja compreender, nem se identificam, na verdade, com o conteúdo que, bem ou mal, ele está buscando.”

“Mesmo as doutrinas empiristas, que atribuem à experiência aberta e não antecipável a primazia sobre a rígida ordem conceitual, permanecem sistemáticas na medida em que definem condições para o conhecimento, concebidas de um modo mais ou menos constante, e desenvolvem essas condições em um contexto o mais homogêneo possível. Desde Bacon – ele próprio um ensaísta – o empirismo tem sido um <método>.”

“Nos processos do pensamento, a dúvida quanto ao direito incondicional do método foi levantada quase tão-somente pelo ensaio.”

O grande Sieur de Montaigne talvez tenha sentido algo semelhante quando deu a seus escrito o admiravelmente belo e adequado título de Essais.” Lukács

“É por isso que o ensaio não se deixa intimidar pelo depravado pensamento profundo, que contrapõe verdade e história como opostos irreconciliáveis. (…) O ensaio desafia a noção de que o historicamente produzido deve ser menosprezado como objeto da teoria. A distinção entre uma filosofia primeira e uma mera filosofia da cultura, que pressuporia aquela e se desenvolveria a partir de seus fundamentos, é uma tentativa de racionalizar teoricamente o tabu sobre o ensaio, mas essa distinção não é sustentável.”

“Enquanto o movimento que surge com Kant, voltado contra os resíduos escolásticos no pensamento moderno, substitui as definições verbais pela concepção dos conceitos a partir do processo em que são gerados, as ciências particulares ainda insistem, para preservar a imperturbável segurança de suas operações, na obrigação pré-crítica de definir os conceitos.”

“Embora o pensamento tradicional também se alimente dos impulsos dessa experiência, ele acaba eliminando, em virtude de sua forma, a memória desse processo. (…) o ensaio procede, por assim dizer, metodicamente sem método.”

“é mera superstição da ciência propedêutica pensar os conceitos como intrinsecamente indeterminados, como algo que precisa de definição”

“A fenomenologia transforma em fetiche a relação dos conceitos com a linguagem. O ensaio é tão cético diante do procedimento fenomenológico da análise de significados quanto diante da definição pura e simples.”

“Mas o ensaio não pode nem dispensar os conceitos universais – mesmo a linguagem que não fetichiza o conceito é incapaz de dispensá-los –, nem proceder com eles de maneira arbitrária. (…) Nisso, Benjamin foi o mestre insuperável. [!]”

“O ensaio deveria ser interpretado como um protesto contra as 4 regras estabelecidas pelo Discours de la méthode

A SÉRIE INFINITA DOS ESTUDOS PRELIMINARES: “A ingenuidade do estudante que não se contenta senão com o difícil e o formidável é mais sábia do que o pedantismo maduro, cujo dedo em riste adverte o pensamento de que seria melhor entender o mais simples antes de ousar enfrentar o mais complexo, a única coisa que o atrai. Essa postergação do pensamento serve apenas para impedi-lo.”

“O ensaio continua sendo o que foi desde o início, a forma crítica par excellence; mais precisamente, enquanto crítica imanente de configurações espirituais e confrontação daquilo que elas são com o seu conceito, o ensaio é crítica da ideologia.”

“O pensamento não é poupado pela rebelião baudelairiana da poesia contra a natureza enquanto reserva social.”

“o ensaio é mais dialético do que a dialética, quando esta discorre sobre si mesma. Ele toma a lógica hegeliana ao pé da letra” “a relação entre natureza e cultura é o seu verdadeiro tema. (…) Mas a cultura não é, para o ensaio, um epifenômeno que se sobrepõe ao Ser [aqui, Adorno está tacitamente contrapondo a Escola de Frankfurt a Husserl-Heidegger ou a auto-intitulada pós-filosofia continental] e deve, portanto, ser destruído”

“O ensaio não glorifica a preocupação com o primordial como se esta fosse mais primordial do que a preocupação com o mediado, pois a própria primordialidade é, para ele, objeto de reflexão, algo negativo.”

“Astuciosamente, o ensaio apega-se aos textos como se estes simplesmente existissem e tivessem autoridade. (…) algo comparável à antiga exegese teológica das Escrituras.”

Tudo que é sólido se torna tubo de ensaio.

“o ensaio salva um momento da sofística.”

“A hostilidade do pensamento crítico oficial em relação à felicidade é perceptível sobretudo na dialética transcendental de Kant, que gostaria de eternizar as fronteiras traçadas entre o entendimento e a especulação, a fim de impedir <o divagar por mundos inteligíveis>.” Esse trecho, verdadeiro que seja, está transbordando de ironias!!

Todo ente em repouso perde a referência da sua posição e situação, apesar da sublime tranqüilidade momentânea ou aparente.

Recuperando a fé na escrita? “O ensaio coordena os elementos, em vez de subordiná-los; e só a quintessência de seu teor, não o seu modo de exposição, é comensurável por critérios lógicos.”

“A atualidade do ensaio é a do anacrônico. A hora lhe é mais desfavorável do que nunca. Ele se vê esmagado entre uma ciência organizada na qual todos se arrogam o direito de controlar a tudo e a todos e uma filosofia tornada acomodada”

“Ele escapa à ditadura dos atributos que, desde a definição do Banquete, foram prescritos às idéias como <existindo eternamente, não se modificando ou desaparecendo, nem se alterando ou restringindo> (…) e entretanto o ensaio permanece sendo <idéia>, na medida em que não capitula diante do peso do existente, nem se curva diante do que apenas é.”

Hoje dizer sim, amanhã talvez…

Não sei o porquê, hoje, 19/08, li duas citações muito antigas, que devo ter conhecido em 2008, 2009, ambas figurando Nietzsche, em duas fontes diferentes (este ensaio de Adorno e a biografia de Freud por Roazen, citando o próprio Freud em História do movimento psicanalítico): a primeira (às 19h, no metrô) a famosa declaração de Segismundo alegando que não lia Nietzsche deliberadamente para se furtar ao prazer de descobrir nele o que ele mesmo vinha descobrindo pela psicanálise; a segunda (0h, à meia-noite da eternidade, embarcando no dia 20) aquela famosíssima (fragmento póstumo), direta de Nietzsche, de que dizer sim a um momento é dizer sim a todos os momentos do universo (estranho arremate para um ensaio sobre o ensaio, para um meta-ensaio, evocar tão extemporaneamente o eterno retorno!). Mais estranha ainda esta coincidência brutal que me aconteceu…

Afirmar o presente é negar o passado – viva, viva, VIVA?!

Negar o presente é-se aborrecer em vão do eixo porta que separa!…

“Apenas a infração à ortodoxia do pensamento torna visível, na coisa, aquilo que a finalidade objetiva da ortodoxia procurava, secretamente, manter invisível.”

SOBRE A INGENUIDADE ÉPICA (1943), esboço para Dialética do Esclarecimento

“Tal como a vista da terra distante é agradável aos náufragos,

quando, em mar alto, o navio de boa feitura Posido

faz soçobrar, sob o impulso dos ventos e de ondas furiosas;

e ledos pisam a praia, enfim tendo da Morte escapado;

do mesmo modo a Penélope a vista do esposo era cara

sem que pudesse dos cândidos braços, enfim, desprendê-lo.”

Homero, Odisséia, XXIII, 234ss. – trad. Carlos Alberto Nunes

Und wie erfreulich das Land herschwimmenden Männern erscheinet,

Welchen Poseidons Macht das rüstige Schiff in der Meerflut

Schmetterte, duch die Gewalt des Orkans und geschwollener Brandung;

[…] Freudig anjetzt ersteigen sie Land, dem Verderben entronnen,

So war ihr auch erfreulich der Anblick ihres Gemahls,

Und fest hielt um den Hals sie die Lilienarme geschlungen“

trad. Voss

„O narrador foi desde sempre aquele que resistia à fungibilidade universal, mas o que ele tinha para relatar, historicamente e até mesmo hoje, já era sempre algo fungível.”

“A epopéia imita o fascínio do mito, mas para amenizá-lo. Karl Theodor Preuss chamou essa atitude de <estupidez primordial> (Urdummheit)

Murray, Five stages of Greek religion, 1925

“o narrador passa a controlar o medo”

“O elogio a essa estupidez ingênua da forma acabou transformando a narrativa épica em ideologia, cujo último resíduo está à venda na falsa concretude da antropologia filosófica atual.”

“Ao apegar-se, em sua limitação, ao que aconteceu apenas uma vez, o mito adquire um traço característico que transcende essa limitação.”

“Na ingenuidade épica vive a crítica da razão burguesa.”

“Assim como é fácil ridicularizar a simplicidade homérica, que era já o contrário da simplicidade, ou evocá-la maliciosamente como argumento contra o espírito analítico, assim também seria fácil mostrar o acanhamento de Martin Salander, o último romance de Gottfried Keller” “Nessa recordação daquilo que no fundo não se deixa mais recordar, Keller expressa em sua descrição dos 2 advogados trapaceiros, irmãos gêmeos e duplos um do outro, um quê de verdade, justamente a verdade sobre a fungibilidade hostil à memória, que só seria alcançada por uma teoria que determinasse de forma transparente, a partir da experiência da sociedade, a perda da experiência.”

“A precisão da linguagem descritiva busca compensar a inverdade de todo discurso. O impulso que leva Homero a descrever um escudo como uma paisagem [Ilíada], elaborando uma metáfora para a ação até o ponto em que, tornada autônoma, ela rasga a trama da narrativa [o velho artifício do objeto divino onisciente e simbólico: nele está desenhada a própria batalha que ora se trava], é o mesmo impulso que levou Goethe, Stifter e Keller, os maiores narradores alemães do XIX, a desenhar e pintar em vez de escrever, e os estudos arqueológicos de Flaubert podem muito bem ter sido inspirados por este mesmo impulso.”

A estupidez e cegueira do narrador – não é por acaso que a tradição concebe Homero como um cego”

“As últimas novelas de Stifter testemunham com extrema clareza a passagem da fidelidade ao objeto à obsessão maníaca, e nenhuma narrativa jamais participou da verdade sem ter encarado o abismo no qual mergulha a linguagem, quando esta pretende se transformar em nome e imagem.”

“Enquanto a linguagem, para continuar sendo de fato linguagem, ainda pretende nessas expressões [partículas de coordenação] ser a síntese judiciosa dos nexos entre as coisas, ela renuncia ao juízo quando usa palavras que dissolvem justamente esse nexo. [Poesia] Na concatenação épica, onde a condução do pensamento enfim encontra repouso, a linguagem abre mão de seu direito ao juízo, embora ao mesmo tempo continue sendo, inevitavelmente, juízo.”

Beide, da über der Freier entsetzlichen Mord sie geratschlagt,

Kamen zur prangenden Stadt der Ithaker; nämlich (o saber criticado por Adorno)

Odysseus]

Folgete nach; ihm voraus war Telemachos früher gegangen.“

Odisséia, XXIV, 135ss.

No verde vale, lá onde a fresca fonte

Desce a montanha, murmurando a cada dia,

E a amável sempre-viva no outono me floresce,

Nessa tranqüila paz, querida, pretendo

Te buscar, ou quando, à meia-noite,

A vida invisível ressoa na floresta,

E sobre mim as flores sempre felizes,

As estrelas, desabrocham brilhando”

Hölderlin, À Esperança (An die Hoffnung)

Im grünen Tale, dort, wo der frische Qwell

Vom Berge täglich rauscht und die liebliche

Zeitlose mir am Herbsttag aufblüht,

Dort, in der Stille, du holde, will ich

Dich suchen, oder wenn in der Mitternacht

Das unsichtbare Leben im Haine wallt,

Und über mir die immerfrohen

Blumen, die blühenden Sterne glänzen“

Thomson, Studies in the Odyssey, 1914

„A imagem desenvolvida pela linguagem acaba esquecendo seu próprio significado, para incorporar na imagem a própria linguagem, em vez de tornar a imagem transparente ao sentido lógico do contexto.”

“A conversão objetiva da pura exposição, alheia ao significado, em alegoria objetiva é o que se manifesta tanto na desintegração lógica da linguagem épica quanto no descolamento da metáfora em meio ao curso da ação literal.”

POSIÇÃO DO NARRADOR NO ROMANCE CONTEMPORÂNEO, originalmente conferência falada depois transposta em ensaio em 1954.

“Assim como a pintura perdeu muitas de suas funções tradicionais para a fotografia, o romance as perdeu para a reportagem e para os meios da indústria cultural, sobretudo para o cinema. O romance precisaria se concentrar naquilo de que não é possível dar conta por meio do relato. Só que, em contraste com a pintura, e emancipação do romance em relação ao objeto foi limitada pela linguagem, já que esta ainda o constrange à ficção do relato: Joyce foi coerente ao vincular a rebelião do romance contra o realismo a uma revolta contra a linguagem discursiva.”

“Noções como a de <sentar-se e ler um bom livro> são arcaicas. Isso não se deve meramente à falta de concentração dos leitores, mas sim à matéria comunicada e a sua forma. Pois contar algo significa ter algo especial a dizer, e justamente isso é impedido pelo mundo administrado, pela estandardização e pela mesmice. (…) a disseminada subliteratura biográfica é um produto da desagregação do romance.”

“numa época em que os jornalistas se embriagavam sem parar com os feitos psicológicos de Dostoiévski, a ciência, sobretudo a psicanálise freudiana, há muito tinha deixado para trás aqueles achados do romancista. (…) se porventura existe psicologia em suas obras, ela é uma psicologia do caráter inteligível, da essência, e não do ser empírico, dos homens que andam por aí. E exatamente nisso Dostoiévski é avançado.”

Se o romance quiser permanecer fiel a sua herança realista e dizer como realmente as coisas são, então ele precisa renunciar a um realismo que, na medida em que reproduz a fachada, apenas a auxilia na produção do engodo.”

“quanto mais se alienam uns dos outros os homens, os indivíduos e as coletividades, tanto mais enigmáticos eles se tornam uns para os outros.”

“Em matéria de suscetibilidade contra a forma do relato, ninguém superou Marcel Proust. Sua obra pertence à tradição do romance realista e psicológico, na linha da extrema dissolução subjetivista do romance, uma tradição que leva, sem qualquer continuidade histórica em relação ao autor francês, a obras como Niels Lyhne de Jacobsen e Malte Laurids Brigge de Rilke. Quanto mais firme o apego ao realismo da exterioridade, ao gesto do <foi assim>, tanto mais cada palavra se torna um mero <como se>”

“a precisão de Proust, impelida ao quimérico, sua técnica micrológica, sob a qual a unidade do ser vivo acaba se esfacelando em átomos, nada mais é do que um esforço da sensibilidade estética para produzir essa prova, sem ultrapassar os limites do círculo mágico da forma.”

“seu ciclo de romances se inicia com a lembrança do modo como uma criança adormece, e todo o primeiro livro não é senão um desdobramento das dificuldades que o menino enfrenta para adormecer, quando sua querida mãe não lhe dá o beijo de boa-noite.”

“O romance tradicional, cuja idéia talvez se encarne de modo mais autêntico em Flaubert, deve ser comparado ao palco italiano do teatro burguês. Essa técnica era uma técnica de ilusão. O narrador ergue uma cortina e o leitor deve participar do que acontece, como se estivesse presente em carne e osso. A subjetividade do narrador se afirma na força que produz essa ilusão e na pureza da linguagem que, através da espiritualização, é ao mesmo tempo subtraída do âmbito da empiria, com o qual ela está comprometida. Um pesado tabu paira sobre a reflexão: ela se torna o pecado capital contra a pureza objetiva. Hoje em dia, esse tabu, com o caráter ilusório do que é representado, também perde sua força.”

“A nova reflexão é uma tomada de partido contra a mentira da representação, e na verdade contra o próprio narrador, que busca, como um atento comentador dos acontecimentos, corrigir sua inevitável perspectiva.”

“Só hoje a ironia enigmática de Thomas Mann, que não pode ser reduzida a um sarcasmo derivado do conteúdo, torna-se inteiramente compreensível”

“o leitor é ora deixado do lado de fora, ora guiado pelo comentário até o palco, os bastidores e a casa de máquinas. O procedimento de Kafka, que encolhe completamente a distância, pode ser incluído entre os casos extremos, nos quais é possível aprender mais sobre o romance contemporâneo do que em qualquer das assim chamadas situações médias <típicas>. (…) Seus romances, se é que de fato eles ainda cabem nesse conceito, são a resposta antecipada a uma constituição do mundo na qual a atitude contemplativa tornou-se um sarcasmo sangrento

“O sujeito literário, quando se declara livre das convenções da representação do objeto, reconhece ao mesmo tempo a própria impotência, a supremacia do mundo das coisas, que reaparece em meio ao monólogo.”

“uma linguagem de coisa, deterioradamente associativa, como a que entremeia o monólogo não apenas do romancista, mas também dos inúmeros alienados da linguagem primeira, que constituem a massa.”

“40 anos atrás, em sua Teoria do romance, Lukács perguntava se os romances de Dostoiévski seriam as pedras basilares das épicas futuras, caso eles mesmos já não fossem essa épica. De fato, os romances que hoje contam assemelham-se a epopéias negativas.”

“Nenhuma obra de arte moderna que valha alguma coisa deixa de encontrar prazer na dissonância e no abandono.”

“Essas obras estão acima da controvérsia entre arte engajada e arte pela arte, acima da alternativa, entre a vulgaridade da arte tendenciosa e a vulgaridade da arte desfrutável.”

PALESTRA SOBRE LÍRICA E SOCIEDADE, idem anterior, porém publicada como texto em 1957.

“Quem seria capaz de falar de lírica e sociedade, perguntarão, senão alguém totalmente desamparado pelas musas?”

“Mas dizer de grandes obras de arte que elas são ideologia não é simplesmente fazer injustiça ao próprio teor de verdade dessas obras, é também falsear o conceito de ideologia.”

“A idiossincrasia do espírito lírico contra a prepotência das coisas é uma forma de reação à coisificação do mundo, à dominação das mercadorias sobre os homens, que se propagou desde o início da Era Moderna e que, desde a Revolução Industrial, desdobrou-se em força dominante da vida.”

“Aqueles grandes poetas do passado remoto que são classificados pelos conceitos histórico-literários como representantes da lírica, p.ex. Píndaro e Alceu, mas também boa parte da obra de Walther von der Vogelweide, estão a uma distância descomunal de nossa mais primária representação do que seja a lírica.”

“O eu-lírico acabou perdendo essa unidade com a natureza, e agora se empenha em restabelecê-la, pelo animismo ou pelo mergulho no próprio eu.”

“os segundos que antecedem a bem-aventurança do sono são os mesmos que separam da morte a curta vida. Essa sublime ironia, depois de Goethe, decaiu em sarcasmo.”

“Mas a linguagem também não deve ser absolutizada enquanto voz do Ser, oposta ao sujeito lírico, como agradaria a muitas das teorias ontológicas da linguagem em voga atualmente.”

“A obra de Baudelaire foi a 1ª a registrar esse processo de consumação ou ultimação da ascendência da sociedade sobre o sujeito, na medida em que, como a mais alta conseqüência do Weltschmerz (dor do mundo) europeu, não se contentou com os sofrimentos do indivíduo, mas escolheu como tema de sua acusação a própria modernidade, enquanto negação completa do lírico, extraindo dela suas faíscas poéticas, por força de uma linguagem heroicamente estilizada.”

In ein freundliches Städtchen tret ich ein,

In den Strassen liegt roter Abendschein.

Aus einem offnen Fenster eben,

Über den reichsten Blumenflor

Hinweg, hört man Goldglockkentöne schweben,

Und eine Stimme scheint ein Nachtigallenchor,

Dass die Blüten beben,

Dass die Lüfte leben,

Dass in höherem Rot die Rosen leuchten vor.

Lang hielt ich staunend, lustbeklommen.

Wie ich hinaus vors Tor gekommen,

Ich weiss es wahrlich selber nicht.

Ach hier, wie liegt die Welt so licht!

Der Himmel wogt in purpurnem Gewühle,

Rückwärts die Stadt in goldnem Rauch;

Wie rauscht der Erlenbach,wie rauscht im Grund die Mühle!

Ich bin wie trunken, irrgeführt –

O Muse, du hast mein Herz berührt

Mit einem Liebeshauch!

Mörike

O POEMA DO BEUBO POLIGLOTA

Die Welt ist eine Mühle

Quão ensolarado é o mundo sombrio!

amigável cidadinha

entardecer vermelho espectral

hic!

como cheghic!i aqui?ic

Autotola!foolaDummKopfffff

halo-do-diabo

hálito amável cidade amigável

separação cidade campo litigiosa

cândida pocilga

onde há fumaça doirada

há ouro!

“os ritmos evocam estrofes gregas sem rima” o tradutor brasileiro CAGOU pq RIMOU!

“Os traços supostamente doentios de Mörike, identificados e relatados pelos psicólogos, e mesmo o estancamento de sua produção no último período, são o aspecto negativo de sua extrema compreensão do que é possível. Os poemas desse pároco hipocondríaco de Cleversulzbach, que costuma ser incluído no rol dos artistas ingênuos, são peças de virtuosismo jamais superadas por nenhum mestre de l’art pour l’art.” Não exagera, vai.

In windes-weben

War meine frage

Nur träumerei.

Nur lächeln war

Was du gegeben.

Aus nasser nacht

Ein glanz entfacht —-

Nun drängt der mai

Nun muss ich gar

Um dein aug und haar

Alle tage

In sehnen leben.“

Stefan George

„a atitude aristocrática“ „Ela não é a pose que exaspera o burguês, incapaz de manusear esses poemas, mas o eu-lírico é fruto da dialética que nega a si mesmo a identificação com o status quo enquanto esse mesmo sujeito segue intimamente ligado à realidade vigente” “a forma é medieval de um modo quase imperceptível” “a neo-romântica ausência de qualquer arcaísmo grosseiro eleva a canção acima de toda ficção desesperada, que ela entretanto oferece”

SAID BUT THROUGH… AMMY U.!

“mágica brutal de uma varinha de condão”

“A harmonia da canção é extorquida de uma extrema dissonância: ela se baseia naquilo que Valéry denominava refus, uma implacável recusa a todos os meios pelos quais a convenção lírica imagina capturar a aura das coisas.” “o ouvido do discípulo de Mallarmé ouve sua própria língua como se fosse estrangeira.”

Paradoxo típico de tradutor, o poeta precisa se trair para não trair a si mesmo.

“Assim como, p.ex., as mais sublimes obras musicais não se esgotam puramente na sua construção, mas a transcendem com um par de notas ou compassos supérfluos, o mesmo ocorre nesse poema com o <gar>, uma goetheana <sedimentação do absurdo>, pela qual a língua escapa da intenção subjetiva que trouxe a palavra ao texto.”

EM MEMÓRIA DE EICHENDORFF, idem, e textualizada em 58.

“O ritmo do tempo está abalado. Enquanto as vielas da filosofia ecoam a metafísica do tempo, o próprio tempo, antes medido pelo andamento contínuo do transcorrer de uma vida, alienou-se do humano; precisamente por isso ele é objeto de acirradas discussões.”

“Grandes artistas de vanguarda, como Schoenberg, não precisavam provar para si mesmos, demonstrando raiva em relação aos predecessores, o quanto haviam conseguido escapar da autoridade do passado.”

“A tradição só é negada por aqueles que jamais a romperão”

Um poeta lírico que virou cancionero popular, ideal como acompanhamento de música clássica: “o ciclo Die schöne Müllerin (A bela moleira), de Schubert, só é inteiramente acessível a quem alguma vez cantou, no coro da escola, o arranjo vulgar de Das Wandern ist des Müllers Lust (Passear é o prazer do moleiro).” Devo desistir antes de tentar, então?

“Quem bebe é mais esperto,

Já sente da idéia o gostinho,

Sem nenhum guia por perto,

Sobe aos céus bem rapidinho.”


“Quando agora a noite me encontra

E tudo escurece em severa pompa.”

“Ele não foi um poeta da pátria (Heimat), mas sim um poeta da nostalgia (Heimweh), no sentido de Novalis, de quem se sabia próximo.”

“Enquanto hoje, após a decadência da tradição, o conservadorismo, como um arbitrário elogio aos <vínculos>, serve apenas para justificar um estado de coisas ruim, houve um tempo em que ele queria algo bastante diverso, que só pode ser considerado em relação a seu contrário, a barbárie emergente.”

“Sua superioridade em relação a todos os reacionários que hoje lançam mão de sua obra é comprovada pelo fato de que ele, como também a grande filosofia de sua época, compreendia a necessidade da revolução, que tanto o assustava: ele encarna algo da verdade crítica da consciência daqueles que devem pagar o preço do passo adiante dado pelo Weltgeist.”

Uma atmosfera de tempestade pairava sobre o país inteiro, todos sentiam que algo grandioso estava para acontecer, ma expectativa calada e temerosa, ninguém do quê, havia invadido todos os ânimos, em maior ou menor grau. Nessa atmosfera sufocante apareceram, como sempre ocorre em catástrofes anunciadas, personagens estranhos e aventureiros inacreditáveis, como o Conde Saint-Germain, Cagliostro e outros ‘emissários do futuro’, por assim dizer”

“quanto menos a ordem pré-capitalista pode ser restaurada, mais obstinadamente a ideologia se aferra a sua essência, imaginando-a como sendo a-histórica e absolutamente garantida.”

O toi que la nuit rend si belle

“Eichendorff participa secretamente dessa corrente subterrânea da literatura alemã, que vai do Sturm und Drang e do jovem Goethe até Wedeking, Brecht e o expressionismo, passando por Büchner e muitas obras de Hauptmann.”

“Genialmente falsa é a metáfora do riacho, que murmura <para lá e para cá>, pois o movimento dos rios tem um único sentido, mas esse lá e cá espelha a insensatez daquilo que o murmúrio tem a dizer ao eu, que o escuta, em vez de localizá-lo; expressões como essa antecipam características do Impressionismo.”

Wolken ziehen wie schwere Träume


Se tens uma corça preferida,

Não a deixes pastar sozinha

“Nos contos de fada recolhidos pelos irmãos Grimm, nenhuma floresta é jamais descrita, ou mesmo caracterizada; e que floresta seria mais floresta do que as dos contos de fada?”

SÄNGERLEBEN

Schläft ein Lied in allen Dingen,

Die da träumen fort und fort,

Und die Welt hebt an zu singen,

Triffst du nur das Zauberwort

„Nenhuma das imagens de Eichendorff é apenas aquilo que é, mas nenhuma pode ser levada ao próprio conceito: essa flutuação vacilante do momento alegórico é seu meio poético.”

“Há mais de 50 anos, o esquecido esteta alemão Theodor Meyer desenvolveu, em seu livro Das Stilgesetz der Poesie, uma teoria tão modestamente exposta quanto astuciosamente concebida, contra toda a tradição do Laocoonte de Lessing e certamente sem conhecer Mallarmé.”

Und muss ich, wie im Strome dort die Welle,

Ungehört verrauschen an des Frülings Schwelle

„o murmúrio não é som mas sim ruído”

e cada vez mais rápido, sem parar para descansar, precipitou-se pelos jardins e vinhedos em direção à pacata cidade; pois até o murmúrio das árvores ele ouviu como um sussurro claro e compreensível, e os altos e fantasmagóricos choupos lhe pareciam 3x maiores, com suas longas sombras esticadas”

“exprime um estranhamento que não pode ser superado por nenhum pensamento, apenas pelo puro som.” O grito de Laura Palmer

Dass das weiche Wasser in Bewegung mit der Zeit den Stein besiegt. Du verstehst

Brecht sobre Lao-Tsé Tung (Água mole em pedra dura tanto bate até que fura. Tu me entendes)

EU LA(R)GO DAS PALAVRAS

“O que poderia ser dito de menos interessante sobre uma paisagem noturna, além de que ela é tranqüila? Seria possível imaginar um lugar-comum mais fatal do que a trompa do postilhão? [Mais ou menos equivalente hoje ao carteiro que toca a campainha]”

Um grito no meio da rua numa noite de cidade pequena apaga luzes, não as acende!

Onde a floresta murmura suave”

“Como na recapitulação musical, o poema se fecha em círculo.”

estriBRILHO

“Há mais substância na poesia de Eichendorff do que na dos inauguradores do Romantismo alemão, que ele considerava parte da história e não compreendia tão bem. Se o Romantismo, nas palavras de outro de seus representantes tardios, Kierkegaard, consuma em cada experiência o batismo do esquecimento, consagrando-a à eternidade da lembrança, certamente essa lembrança era necessária para fazer justiça à idéia do Romantismo, em contradição com sua própria imediatidade e presença.”

CODA (dá mais corda)

“O Liederkreis opus 39 de Schumann, sobre poemas de Eichendorff, é um dos grandes ciclos líricos da história da música.”

“da melancolia do primeiro Lied, em sustenido menor, ao êxtase do último, em sustenido maior.” “o último do ciclo, em fá sustenido maior, conduz essa progressão ainda uma quinta acima.” “o quarto desce a sol maior, uma terça em relação ao Lied anterior”

“A peça Wehmut é formalmente um intermezzo, como antes a Waldgespräch, mas agora um intermezzo inteiramente lírico, um momento de <auto-reflexão> do ciclo.”

Nicht schnell

“deve-se pensar em tranqüilas mínimas, não em semínimas.”

“tom maior pálido”

Waldgespräch é uma daquelas composições modelares de Schumman das quais surgiu Brahms.” “Musicalmente, a originalidade está nos acordes discrepantes, alterados cromaticamente, que expressam a ameaçadora atração.” “Sobre a palavra wissen há um acorde de subdominante que, com a formação de um duplo retardo, assume o timbre de um triângulo.”

“a claridade que se transforma em som”

“Pelo modo como esse acorde de nona é disposto e resolvido figurativamente, esse acorde evita a opulência que tantas vezes assume em Wagner, Strauss e compositores mais recentes.”

“o ouvido persegue esses intervalos no infinito”

“Nenhum ouvido atento pode resistir à extensão rítmica das palavras finais, Als flöge sie nach Haus (Como se ele voasse para casa), onde dois compassos 3/8 se transformam em um único.”

“Também aqui a estrofe final é essencialmente um Abgesang, mas o Lied como um todo se abstém de simetrias criadas por repetição”

“arrojadas dissonâncias, provavelmente únicas em Schumann e na 1ª metade do XIX (…) como se a modernidade dessa harmonização quisesse salvar o poema de seu envelhecimento”

legato de vozes harmônicas instrumentais”

Zwielicht, talvez a mais grandiosa peça do ciclo, quanto à forma uma simples canção estrófica, é extremamente contrapontística, em forte contraste com a anterior, trazendo aquela interpretação de Bach, infinitamente produtiva, que escandaliza o historicismo, embora mantenha Bach vivo, em constante metamorfose.”

7 NOTAS

O SER EM SI

DO LADO DE LÁ

CHEGA DÁ DÓ

ANDA DE RÉ

ANTES DE MIM

O FÁDO DO SOL

NA MINHA CABEÇA


cravo bem-temperado de molho pro cozido

“submergindo toda a música em sua profundidade”

“torna mais denso o tecido contrapontístico”

“o constante retorno da oposição entre ritardando e a tempo

“O senso formal de Schumman triunfa no fato de que, para compensar os momentos obstinadamente retardantes, ele escreve um Abgesang que flui quase sem resistência, chegando por isso mesmo a ser extremamente assombroso, embora o ritmo da trompa seja sempre marcado, até as duas últimas notas da parte vocal.”

“O núcleo da melodia da Mondnacht é um acorde de 7ª transposto.” “A aflição intensifica-se quando, antes das palavras Mit dem Mondesglanz herein, omite-se um acento no compasso.” VTNC!

A FERIDA HEINE, conferência textualizada em 56.

“Os nacional-socialistas não foram os primeiros a difamá-lo. Na verdade, eles quase o honraram quando atribuíram seu poema Die Loreley a um hoje célebre <poeta desconhecido>, sancionando inesperadamente como canção folclórica esses versos dissimuladamente cintilantes, que lembram figurinos de ninfas renanas parisienses de uma ópera perdida de Offenbach.”

“O veredicto da Escola de George[?] pode ser atribuído ao nacionalismo, mas o de Karl Kraus não se deixa apagar.”

“Evitam o escândalo aqueles que se limitam ao Heine prosador, cuja estatura é algo que salta aos olhos, em meio ao nível completamente desolador do período entre Goethe e Nietzsche.”

“uma força polêmica não-inibida por nenhum servilismo, algo sempre raro na Alemanha.”

August von Platen, p.ex., teve a oportunidade de experimentar essa força quando redigiu um ataque anti-semita a Heine, sofrendo uma derrota que hoje em dia seria possível chamar de existencial, se o conceito de <existencial> não estivesse sendo tão cuidadosamente preservado do contágio com a existência real dos homens.”

“Desde que Leibniz virou as costas para Spinoza, todo o Iluminismo alemão de certa forma fracassou”

“Politicamente, Heine foi um companheiro inconstante: mesmo em relação ao socialismo. Mas, em contraste com esse movimento, Heine manteve-se fiel, na sua imagem de uma sociedade justa, à idéia de uma felicidade irrestrita, facilmente posta de lado pelo ditado <quem não trabalha não come>. Sua aversão à pureza e ao rigor revolucionários indica a desconfiança diante dos elementos rançosos e ascéticos que, além de permearem vários dos primeiros documentos do socialismo, mais tarde contribuíram para as tendências trágicas de seu desenvolvimento. Mas Heine, o individualista, e em tão alta medida que só ouviu de Hegel a voz do individualismo, não se curvou ao conceito individualista de interioridade. Sua idéia de satisfação dos sentidos compreendia a satisfação com o mundo exterior, uma sociedade sem coerção nem privações.”

“A violência da sociedade capitalista em desenvolvimento já havia se tornado tão grande que a lírica não podia mais ignorá-la, se não quisesse afundar em um intimismo provinciano. Com isso, Heine se equipara a Baudelaire como ponto alto do modernismo do séc. XIX.”

“O hein romântico, que vivia dessa felicidade da autonomia, foi desmascarado pelo Heine iluminista, que trouxa à tona o caráter de mercadoria, até então latente, de suas obras.”

“A essência de Heine não se revelou inteiramente na música daqueles que compuseram suas canções, mas somente 40 anos após sua morte, na obra de Gustav Mahler

REVENDO O SURREALISMO (1956)

“Se o Surrealismo fosse simplesmente uma coletânea de ilustrações literárias e gráficas de Jung ou mesmo de Freud, ele não apenas realizaria uma mera duplicação supérflua daquilo que a própria teoria já exprime, em vez de recorrer a metáforas, como também seria tão inofensivo que não deixaria nenhum espaço para o escândalo”

“Aquilo que é pensado como mero sonho, e isso Cocteau já havia percebido, não afeta a realidade, mesmo que sua imagem possa ser afetada.”

“a espontaneidade, mesmo nos processos psicanalíticos de associação, não é de modo algum espontânea. Todo analista sabe o quanto é trabalhoso e difícil, quanta vontade é requerida para a expressão espontânea, que ocorre na situação analítica graças justamente a esse esforço, um esforço que, certamente, também configura a situação artística pregada pelos surrealistas.”

“Depois da catástrofe européia, os choques surrealistas perderam toda sua força. É como se tivessem salvado Paris preparando a cidade para o medo: o declínio da metrópole foi um de seus temas centrais.”

“quando éramos crianças, as antigas ilustrações devem ter nos excitado como agora as imagens surrealistas.” “O ovo gigante, do qual a cada momento o monstro do juízo final ameaça nascer, parecia tão grande porque, quando pela primeira vez olhamos um ovo e nos assustamos, éramos muito pequenos.”

“A tensão no surrealismo, que se descarrega no choque, está a meio caminho entre a esquizofrenia e a reificação, e justamente por isso não pode ser confundida com uma inspiração psicológica.”

“É difícil supor que algum dos surrealistas conhecesse a Fenomenologia hegeliana, mas uma frase dessa obra, que deve ser pensada em conjunto com a idéia mais geral da história enquanto progresso na consciência da liberdade, define o teor das obras surrealistas.”

“Suas montagens são as verdadeiras naturezas-mortas.”

“As obras pornográficas seriam os melhores modelos do surrealismo. O que acontece nas colagens, o que nelas está contido de modo espasmódico, assemelha-se às alterações que ocorrem em uma imagem pornô no instante da satisfação do voyeur. Nas colagens, os seios cortados, as pernas de manequins em meias de seda, são monumentos aos objetos do instinto pervertido, que outrora despertavam a libido.”

“Como um instantâneo do momento em que se desperta, o surrealismo é parente da fotografia.”

“O surrealismo recolhe o que a Neue Sachlichkeit recusa aos homens; as deformações testemunham o efeito da proibição no que um dia foi desejado. Através das deformações, o surrealismo salva o antiquado, um álbum de idiossincrasias, no qual se desgasta a promessa de felicidade (…) Mas se hoje o surrealismo parece obsoleto, isso ocorre porque os homens já renunciaram a essa consciência da renúncia, capturada no negativo fotográfico do surrealismo.”

SINAIS DE PONTUAÇÃO (1956)

“O ! não se assemelha a um ameaçador dedo em riste? Os ?? não se parecem com luzes de alerta ou com uma piscadela? Os :, segundo Karl Kraus, abrem a boca: coitado do escritor que não souber saciá-los. Visualmente, o ; lembra um bigode caído; é ainda mais forte, para mim, a sensação de seu sabor rústico. Marotas e satisfeitas, as «» lambem os lábios.”

!

:

“Em nenhum de seus elementos a linguagem é tão semelhante à música quanto nos sinais de pontuação. A , e o . correspondem à cadência interrompida e à cadência autêntica. ! são como silenciosos golpes de pratos, ? são acentuações de frases musicais no contratempo, : são acordes de sétima da dominante; e a diferença entre , e ; só será sentida corretamente por quem percebe o diferente peso de um fraseado forte e fraco na forma musical. Mas talvez a idiossincrasia contra os sinais de pontuação, surgida há 50 anos [há 150 anos] e da qual nenhuma pessoa atenta pôde escapar, seja menos a revolta contra um elemento ornamental do que a expressão da forte divergência entre música e linguagem.”

‘ = ponto e vírgula grego

“mas talvez os sinais gregos só tenham sido inventados pelos humanistas do séc. XVI.”

“! tornaram-se insuportáveis como gestos de autoridade, com os quais o escritor pretende introduzir, de fora, uma ênfase que a própria coisa não é capaz de exercer, enquanto a contrapartida musical da exclamação, o sforzato, é ainda hoje tão imprescindível quanto no tempo de Beethoven, quando marcava a irrupção da vontade subjetiva na trama musical. Os !!, porém, degeneraram em usurpadores da autoridade, asserções de importância.”

“Nos textos expressionistas, os !! se assemelham às cifras milionárias das cédulas do período da inflação alemã.”

“O – ainda serve apenas para preparar surpresas traiçoeiras que, justamente por terem sido preparadas, já não mais surpreendem.”

* * *…

“Dispostos como estrofe, os versos destruiriam barbaramente o equilíbrio da linguagem, mas se fossem reproduzidos simplesmente como prosa causariam um efeito ridículo, porque a métrica e a rima soariam como um jogo de palavras feito ao acaso, daí a /. O travessão moderno é demasiado brusco para realizar o que deve ser feito nesses casos. A capacidade de perceber fisiognomicamente tais diferenças é, no entanto, o pressuposto para todo uso adequado dos sinais de pontuação.”

“Mas se aqueles …, tomados da repetição de frações decimais na aritmética, são reduzidos a .., como fez a Escola de George, então o que se pretende é continuar impunemente a reivindicar a infinitude fictícia, na medida em que se apresenta como sendo exato algo que, segundo seu próprio sentido, quer ser inexato.!”

“A pontuação utilizada pelo escrevinhador sem-vergonha não é melhor do que a do escritor envergonhado.”

“As abundantes “” irônicas usadas por Marx e Engels são sombras lançadas pelo procedimento totalitário sobre seus escritos, que tinham em vista justamente o contrário:”

“Quando a sintaxe e a pontuação abdicam do direito de articular e moldar os fatos, de criticá-los, a linguagem está prestes a capitular ao que meramente existe, antes mesmo que o pensamento tenha tempo de realizar outra vez, fervorosamente e por si mesmo, essa capitulação. Isso começa com a perda do ;, e termina com a ratificação da imbecilidade por uma racionalidade depurada de qualquer mistura.”

“O cauteloso se inclinará a colocar as inserções PARENTÉTICAS entre ––, e não entre (), pois estes retiram da frase aquele material, criando o que poderíamos chamar de <enclaves>, ao passo que, na boa prosa, nada deve ser imprescindível para o todo da estrutura. Ao confessar que são prescindíveis, os () renunciam implicitamente à pretensão de integridade da forma lingüística”

“Proust, a quem dificilmente se poderia chamar de filisteu, e cujo pendatismo nada mais é que um aspecto de sua grandiosa força micrológica, não hesitou em utilizar ().”

“(a ilusão de continuidade da narrativa é rompida, e o narrador a-social está disposto a se esgueirar através de todas as suas janelas para iluminar, com a lanterna cega de uma memória de nenhum modo involuntária, o obscuro temps durée.)”

“Diante dos sinais de pontuação, o escritor encontra-se em permanente perigo; se fosse possível, quando se escreve, ter o controle sobre si mesmo, seria perceptível a impossibilidade de usar corretamente qualquer sinal de pontuação, e se desistiria de escrever.”

“Ele não pode confiar nas regras – freqüentemente rígidas e grosseiras, mas também não pode ignorá-las, se não quiser cair em uma espécie de excentricidade ou ferir a essência do que não é aparente, ao sublinhá-lo – e essa não-aparência é o elemento vital da pontuação.”

“O conflito deve ser suportado a cada vez, e é preciso muita força ou muita estupidez para não perder a coragem.”

“Cada sinal cuidadosamente evitado é uma reverência feita pela escrita ao som que ela sufoca.”

O ARTISTA COMO REPRESENTANTE, conferência, texto em 1953.

“a poésie pure de Valéry, o discípulo de Mallarmé, impiedosamente fechada a qualquer comunicação com um suposto público leitor.”

“não é possível pensar o material histórico da literatura alemã sem Baudelaire, apesar –OU JUSTAMENTE POR CAUSA- da intransigência de George, seu grande tradutor.”

“Se a coletânea de poemas de Valéry esboçada por Rilke jamais alcançou o peso das grandes traduções de George, ou das traduções de Swinburne por Borchardt, isso não se deve apenas aos melindres do objeto. Rilke violou a lei fundamental de toda tradução legítima, a fidelidade ao texto

Valéry, Degas, dança, desenho, trad. 2003.

Assim como um leitor meio distraído rabisca nas margens de uma obra e produz, ao sabor da ausência ou do lápis, pequenos seres ou vagas ramagens, ladeando as massas legíveis, farei o mesmo, segundo o capricho da mente, em torno desses poucos estudos de Edgar Degas.”

“Sem dúvida, haveria razões para se escandalizar, quando se vê um filósofo falando de um livro escrito por um poeta esotérico, sobre um pintor obcecado pelo trabalho manual.”

“De um modo geral, as grandes intuições sobre arte ocorrem ou em uma absoluta distância, por uma dedução conceitual não-afetada pela chamada <compreensão artística>, como em Kant ou Hegel, ou nessa absoluta proximidade, a atitude de quem não se confunde com o público, pois se encontra nos bastidores, acompanhando a realização da obra sob o aspecto da fatura, da técnica.”

O que chamo de ‘a grande arte’ é simplesmente a arte que exige que todas as faculdades de um homem sejam nela utilizadas, e cujas obras são tais que todas as faculdades de um outro homem sejam invocadas no interesse de compreendê-las…”

Um amador, um connaisseur do tempo de Júlio II ou de Luís XIV, ficaria muito espantado se lhe contassem que quase tudo o que ele considerava essencial na pintura é hoje não somente negligenciado como está radicalmente ausente das preocupações do pintor e das exigências do público.”

O homem completo está morrendo”

É preciso ter uma idéia elevada, não do que se faz, mas do que se poderá fazer um dia; sem o quê não vale a pena trabalhar

Edgar Degas

Como o jogador perseguido por combinações de partidas, assombrado à noite pelo espectro do tabuleiro de xadrez ou do feltro onde as cartas são lançadas, obcecado por imagens táticas e soluções mais vivas que reais, assim o artista é essencialmente artista.” V.

“a teoria da obra de arte engajada, tal como ela hoje se propagou, simplesmente passa por cima do fato que domina de modo irrevogável a sociedade de troca: a alienação entre os homens e também entre o espírito objetivo e a sociedade que ele exprime e julga. Essa teoria deseja que a arte fale imediatamente aos homens, como se o imediato, em um mundo de mediação universal, pudesse ser realizado imediatamente!”

Mais um desses ermitões que sabem o horário dos trens” Degas

Por vezes me ocorre o pensamento de que o trabalho do artista é um trabalho de tipo muito antigo; o próprio artista é uma sobrevivência, um operário ou um artesão de uma espécie em via de desaparecer, que trabalha em seu próprio quarto, usa procedimentos muito pessoais e muito empíricos, vive na desordem e na intimidade de suas ferramentas, vê o que quer e não o que o cerca, usa potes quebrados, sucata doméstica, objetos condenados … Talvez essas condições estejam mudando, ao aspecto dessas ferramentas improvisadas e do ser singular que com elas se acomoda veremos opor-se o quadro do laboratório pictórico de um homem rigorosamente vestido de branco, com luvas de borracha, obedecendo a um horário muito preciso, armado de aparelhos e de instrumentos estritamente especializados, cada qual com seu lugar e com uma oportunidade exata de uso?” V.

“O artista deve transformar a si mesmo em instrumento: tornar-se até mesmo coisa, se não quiser sucumbir à maldição do anacronismo em meio ao mundo reificado.”

a grande música consiste no cumprimento de “obligations”, de obrigações que o compositor subscreve desde a primeira nota.

Schoenberg, Style and Idea

A arte moderna tende a explorar quase exclusivamente a SENSIBILIDADE SENSORIAL, em prejuízo da sensibilidade geral ou afetiva, e de nossas faculdades de construção, de adição das durações e de transformações pelo espírito. Sabe maravilhosamente bem excitar a atenção e usa todos os meios para excitá-la: intensidades, contrastes, enigmas, surpresas. Captura por vezes, pela sutileza de seus meios ou pela audácia da execução, algumas presas bastante preciosas: estados muito complexos ou muito efêmeros, valores irracionais, sensações em estado nascente, ressonâncias, correspondências, pressentimentos de uma instável profundidade … Mas há um preço a ser pago por estas vantagens” V.

“Não se tornar estúpido, não se deixar enganar, não ser cúmplice: estes são os modos de comportamento social sedimentados na obra de Valéry (…) Para ele, construir obras de arte significa recusar o ópio no qual se transformou a grande arte sensível, desde Wagner, Baudelaire e Manet

“Além disso, pode-se perguntar se, apesar da guinada objetiva que ele confere à interpretação da obra de arte, ele não acaba impondo, como Nietzsche, uma metafísica do artista. Não me atrevo a decidir se Valéry, ou também Nie., superestimaram a arte.”

“contra toda a entronização do gênio, profundamente arraigada, sobretudo na estética alemã, desde Kant e Schelling.”

SOBRE O AUTOR

Adorno doutorou-se em filosofia aos 21 anos com um trabalho sobre Husserl! Sempre nos voltamos contra aquilo que proferimos na hubris da juventude!

“A amizade com Benjamin afeta decisivamente os rumos da reflexão filosófica de Adorno nesse período [do exílio na Inglaterra, e posteriormente EUA].” Em 1949 retorna a Frankfurt. Minima moralia é de 1951.

“No confronto com as correntes positivistas e heideggerianas da época, Adorno publica diversos livros de ensaios, entre eles Prismas, Intervenções e Palavras e sinais.” “Segue escrevendo sobre música, com diversos livros de ensaios e duas grandes monografias, uma sobre Mahler e outra sobre Alban Berg [seu professor]. Em 1966 conclui sua obra filosófica mais ambiciosa, Dialética negativa, e se concentra na realização de uma Teoria estética, que seria publicada postumamente em 1971. Abalado pelo confronto com alunos, nas revoltas estudantis de 1969, Adorno morre de infarto em 6 de agosto do mesmo ano, quando passava férias na cidade de Visp, Suiça.”

+recomendações de A.:

Cartas (Benjamin, Horkheimer, Thomas Mann…)

Dissonâncias. Música no mundo administrado.

Filosofia da Nova Música

Introdução à sociologia da música

Kierkegaard. Construção do estético

Para a metacrítica da teoria do conhecimento. Estudos sobre Husserl e as antinomias filosóficas, 1956 (complemento póstumo ao doutorado precoce?).

Três estudos sobre Hegel

sobre:

Rodrigo Duarte, Adornos, 1997.

Barbara Freitag, A teoria crítica: ontem e hoje, 1986.

Flávio Kothe, Benjamin & Adorno: confrontos, 1979.

Álvaro Valls, Estudos de estética e filosofia da arte: numa perspectiva adorniana, 2002.

DICIONÁRIO

beben: vibrar, chacoalhar

leuchten: brilhar

Nachdichten: recriação poética

Rauch: fumaça

rauschen: murmurar

LYSIAS’ SELECTED SPEECHES (edição bilíngüe) (Greek Series for Colleges and Schools) – Eds. Weir Smyth & Darwin Adams, 1905.

DIC:

hoplita: soldado grego de infantaria, com pesada armadura equipada

meteco: ver “metecs” 3 parágrafos abaixo e também “metics”

Introductions

In Lysias we have the first really successful application of rhetorical theory to practical speech. The more vehement and showy style of Demosthenes, imitated by Cicero, and through him passed on to the modern world, long dominated English oratory.”

SPEECH XII. AGAINST ERATOSTHENES

Introdução e Considerações sobre o Discurso

It is an attack upon Eratosthenes (probably from the autumn of 403 BC), one of the Thirty, and involves the discussion of the whole administration of that body, and to some extent of that of the 400, the oligarchy of 411 BC.

Early in the administration of the Thirty Eratosthenes had set forth with others of their number to arrest certain rich metecs [estrangeiros domiciliados em Atenas, caso da família de Lísias]. It fell to him to seize Polemarchus, Lysias’s brother, who was immediately put to death. When, after the battle at Munychia (Spring, 403), most of the Thirty retired to Eleusis, Eratosthenes, with one other of their number, remained in Athens, though not as a member of the new governing board of Ten. In the final amnesty between the 2 parties it was provided that any one of the Thirty who was willing to risk a judicial examination of his conduct as a member of the late administration might remain in the city. Otherwise all were obliged to settle at Eleusis or remain permanently in exile. Eratosthenes, believing himself to be less compromised than the others of the Thirty, ventured to remain and submit to his <accounting>.”

The more moderate democrats, notably Thrasybulus, the hero of the Return, were totally opposed to any attempt to strike back at the city party. (…) The task then which Lysias undertook was difficult. He had to convince the jury that the one man of the Thirty who was commonly believed least responsible for their crimes was so guilty that he was not to be forgiven, at a time when the watchword of the leaders of both parties was <Forgive and forget>.” “The real question of the day was as to the power of the democracy to regain the confidence and support of the great conservative middle class, men who had formerly been represented by Theramenes, and later by Eratosthenes. If these men could be convinced that the restored democracy would use its power moderately, foregoing revenge for the past, turning its back upon the demagogue and the political blackmailer, there was hope for the future.”

No one could blame the Sicilian Lysias for seeking his personal revenge [hehehe] (…) It is this larger political aspect of the case which gives to the speech against Eratosthenes its historical interest. (…) To distinguish between those of the Thirty who had sought to establish personal tyranny and those who had honestly striven for a reformed, conservative democracy was of first importance.”

DIVISÃO DA EXPOSIÇÃO:

1. EXÓRDIO. Apresentação do caso.

2. NARRATIVA. Contextualização da procedência de Lísias e do crime dos Trinta contra esta família.

3. DIGRESSÃO. Denúncia formal do réu.

4. PROPOSIÇÃO

5. ARGUMENTAÇÃO

A. Argumentos imediatos.

i. Eratóstenes agiu de forma contraditória.

ii. Por que a tese de que Eratóstenes foi compelido ao ato é sem base.

iii. O caso pode gerar precedentes perigosos para cidadãos e estrangeiros de Atenas.

iv. É contraditório executar os generais de Arginusa e perdoar os Trinta Tiranos.

v. Reiteração.

B. Argumentos sobre a biografia de Eratóstenes. O passado reputado de Eratóstenes não entraria em jogo na acusação presente.

i. A conduta de Eratóstenes no período dos 400.

ii. A conduta de Eratóstenes no estabelecimento do governo dos Trinta.

iii. A conduta de Eratóstenes enquanto um dos Trinta.

iv. A conduta de Eratóstenes no período dos Dez.

C. Argumento-réplica sobre Eratóstenes ser amigo e apoiador de Teramenes. Ataque à carreira de Teramenes.

i. A conduta de Teramenes e suas conexões com os 400.

ii. A conduta de Teramenes depois do governo dos 400.

iii. A conduta de Teramenes na negociação da paz.

iv. A conduta de Teramenes quando do estabelecimento dos 30.

v. Conclusão: A amizade com Teramenes não é suficiente como prova de lealdade.

D. Conclusões gerais.

6. PERORAÇÃO

A. A pior pena existente ainda seria exígua perante o montante de crimes cometidos.

B. Ataque ao advogado do réu.

C. O perdão seria equivalente a aprovar a conduta dos réus.

D. Apelo aos partidos (júri).

i. Aos aristocratas

ii. Aos democratas

E. Conclusão: Sumário dos crimes; apelo ao júri para executar a vingança dos mortos.

The speaker can pass at once to the narrative of the conduct upon which he bases his attack. And here Lysias is at his best. In the simplest language he describes the life of his own family and their sufferings (…) the sentences become very short, significant details of the story follow rapidly, and the hearer is made to see the events as if passing before his eyes.”

The term digression applies to this section only as an interruption of the strictly logical order, which would require the presentation of the arguments before the attempt to move the feelings of the jury by denunciation.”

5.

B.

In the review of Eratosthenes’s conduct as one of the Thirty (§§48-52), Lysias can bring no specific charge beyond that of the arrest of Polemarchus. He tries to forestall the plea of Eratosthenes that he actively opposed certain of the crimes of the Thirty by the shrewd claim that this would only prove that he could safely have opposed them all. He finally (§§53-61) tries to give the impression that Eratosthenes was connected with the bad administration of the Board of Ten, a charge that seems to be entirely without foundation.

To a jury already prejudiced by the affecting narrative of the arrest, and hurried on from one point to another, this whole attack was convincing; but the modern reader finds little of real proof, and an abundance of sophistry.”

C.

Lysias comes now to the refutation of the main argument of the defense, that Eratosthenes was a member of that honorable minority among the Thirty who opposed the crimes of Critias’ faction, and whose leader, Theramenes, lost his life in the attempt to bring the administration to an honest course.

Whatever we may think of the real motives of Theramenes, there can be no question that at the time of this trial the people were already coming to think of him as a martyr for popular rights. All knew Eratosthenes was his friend and supporter. Lysias saw therefore that he must blacken the character of Theramenes. He accordingly turns to a rapid review of his career. In a few clear-cut sentences he pictures Theramenes at each crisis, always the same shrewd, self-seeking, unscrupulous man, always pretending to serve the state, always ready to shift to the popular side, always serving his own interests.

The attack is a masterpiece. There is no intemperate language, no hurling of epithets. <He accuses by narrating. The dramatically troubled time from 411 to 403 rises before us in impressive pictures. At every turn Theramenes appears as the evil genius of the Athenians. His wicked egoism stands out in every fact.> Bruns, Das literarische Porträt der Griechen, p. 493.

(…) but is this picture of Theramenes true to the facts? In his narrative Lysias selects those acts only upon which he can put a bad construction. He fails to tell us what appears so clearly in the narrative of Thucydides, and in the defense put into the mouth of Theramenes by Xenophon in his answer to Critias before the Senate, that his opposition to the extreme faction of the 400 was, whatever may have been his motive, an efficient cause of their overthrow, at a time when there was reason to fear that they were on the point of betraying the city to the Peloponnesians. (…) He misrepresents Theramenes’ responsibility for the hard terms of the Peace, and he ignores the fact that the final opposition to Critias which cost him his life was in every particular what would have been demanded of the most patriotic citizen. (…) Thucydides’ praise of the administration after the 400 is rather a praise of the form of government than of its leader.”

In the next generation opinions were sharply divided as to the character of Theramenes. Aristotle, to whom he stood as the representative of the ideal government by the upper class, places him among the great men of Athens.” “The best of the statesmen at Athens, after those of early times, seem to have been Nicias, Thucydides, and Theramenes. As to Nicias and Th., nearly every one agrees that they were not merely men of birth and character, but also statesmen, and that they acted in all their public life in a manner worthy of their ancestry. On the merits of Theramenes opinion is divided, because it so happened that in his time public affairs were in a very stormy state. But those who give their opinion deliberately find him not, as his critics falsely assert, overthrowing every kind of constitution, but supporting every kind so long as it did not transgress the laws; thus showing that he was able, as every good citizen, to live under any form of constitution, while he refused to countenance illegality and was its constant enemy. (Kenyon’s trans.) “Para um resumo das discussões modernas sobre o caráter de Teramenes, ver Busolt, História Grega, III. ii. 1463 [original em alemão].”

By a phrase here, a single invidious word there, he shrewdly colors the medium through which we see the events. Every statement is so turned as to become an argument. (…) even antitheses are only sparingly used.”

The study of the style of this speech is especially interesting because it is the only extant speech which Lysias wrote for his own delivery, and one of the first in his career as a practical speech writer. In preparing each of his other speeches he had to adapt the speech to the man who was to deliver it; in this he was free to follow his judgement of what a speech should be.”

* * *

At first, indeed, they behaved with moderation towards the citizens and pretended to administer the state according to the ancient constitution … and they destroyed the professional accusers and those mischievous and evil-minded persons who, to the great detriment of the democracy, had attached themselves to it in order to curry favor with it. With all of this the city was much pleased, and thought the Thirty did it with the best of motives. But so soon as they had got a firmer hold on the city, they spared no class of citizens, but put to death any persons who were eminent for wealth or birth or character” Arist. “Xenophon gives similar testimony” “The Tholus, a building near the senate-house, was the headquarters and dining-hall of the Prytanes. It was thus the natural center of the administration of the Thirty, who used the subservient Senate to give a form of legality to their own acts.”

when the Thirty took control they found the treasury exhausted by the expenses of the Peloponnesian War. They had not only to provide for the ordinary expenses of the government but to pay their Spartan garrison on the Acropolis. Xenophon says that the despoiling of the metics [a família de Lísias inclusa] was to meet the latter expense.”

This entrance into Lysias’ house was, in spirit, a violation of the principle that a man’s house is his sanctuary, a principle as jealously maintained in Athens as in modern states.”

Gardner, The Greek House, in: Journal of Hellenic Studies, 21 (1901), 293ss.

Gardner & Jevons, Greek Antiquities

One of the most common charges against them is that they condemned citizens to death without a trial, whereas the right of every citizen to trial with full opportunity for defense was one of the fundamental principles of the democracy. This right was extended to metics also.”

the doubling of words merely for rhetorical effect is as rare in the simple style of Lysias as it is common in the rhetorical style of Demosthenes” (vide anexo ao fim)

the ceremonial impurity of a murderer was so great that the accused was, after indictment, forbidden entrance to the sanctuaries or the Agora while awaiting trial. The trial itself was held in the open air, in order, as Antiphon (5:11) tells us, <that the jurors might not come into the same inclosure with those whose hands were defiled, nor the prosecutor come under the same roof with the murderer.>

whom in the world WILL you punish? KAÍ is used as an emphatic particle in questions, implying the inability of the speaker to answer his own question, or his impatience at the circumstances that raise the question. Its only English equivalent is a peculiar emphasis.” “In English we prefer the indefinite expression of place, in the world.”

We infer that some of the states friendly to Athens had made formal proclamation excluding members of the late oligarchy from taking refuge with them. While Eleusis had been set apart as an asylum for the Thirty and their supporters, it is not unlikely that some, fearing that the democracy would not keep its promise of immunity, sought refuge in other states.”

In the summer of 406 the Athenian fleet under Conon was shut up in the harbor of Mytilene by the Lacedaemonians [Spartans]. Desperate efforts were made for their rescue; a new fleet was hastily equipped and manned by a general call to arms. Seldom had an expedition enlisted so many citizens of every class. The new fleet met the enemy off the Arginusae islands, and, in the greatest naval battle ever fought between Greek fleets, won a glorious victory. The generals, wishing to push on in pursuit of the enemy, detailed 47 ships under subordinate officers to rescue the Athenian wounded from the wreckage. A sudden storm made both pursuit and rescue impossible, and more than 4,000 men, probably half of them Athenian citizens, were lost. The blow fell upon so many homes in Athens that public indignation against the generals passed all bounds, and the generals were condemned to death. Not only was the sentence in itself unjust, but it was carried by a vote against the accused in a body, in violation of the law’s guaranty of a separate vote upon the case of every accused citizen. A reaction in feeling followed, a part of the general reaction against the abuses of the democracy. That the popular repentance was not as general or as permanent as it ought to have been is clear from the fact that now, 3 years after the event, Lysias dares appeal to this precedent as ground for righteous severity in the present case; he is evidently not afraid that it will be a warning to them to beware of overseverity when acting under passion. Yet he shows his consciousness that he is on dangerous ground, for he takes pains to state the defense of the generals and the ground on which it was overruled.”

an exaggeration, as it is in §83, where he says that the death of these men and that of their children would not be sufficient punishment for them. No one ever seriously proposed at Athens to put sons to death for their fathers’ crimes, but lesser penalties were put upon them; loss of civil rights was often visited upon the sons of a man condemned, and the common penalty of death and confiscation of property brought heavy suffering to the family (so in the case of the family for which Lysias pleads in Speech XIX). Yet even here the treatment was not inhuman; Demosthenes (27:65) says, Even when you condemn any one, you do not take away everything, but you are merciful to wife or children, and leave some part for them.

For the seizure of the arms of all citizens outside the 3,000 supporters of the Thirty, see Xen. Hell., 2. 3. 20. (…) The seizure of these arms, which many of the citizens had carried through all the years of the Peloponnesian War, was one the most outrageous acts of the Thirty.”

the accused had opportunity for defense before the Senate, and, in the more serious cases, before the Ecclesia or a law court which had final jurisdiction. Under the Thirty the accused lost these privileges of defense.”

They deposed the Thirty, and they elected ten citizens, with full power, to put a stop to the war. [proto-cesarianos] Arist.

Eratosthenes was not one of the new board. The fact that he dared to remain in the city is a strong argument in his favor, which Lysias tries to counteract by throwing upon him the odium of connection with Phidon.”

There was a large conservative element in the city who were dismayed at seeing the radicals with Critias in control; they now took the lead, but were again disappointed in that the new board of Ten fell under sympathy with the Thirty at Eleusis, actively cooperated with them and continued their war policy. It was an instance, not infrequent in modern times, of the better element in a city rising up under a sudden impulse and apparently overthrowing a political machine, only to find the machine still in control after the excitement was over.”

Antiphon was the moving spirit in planning the revolution of 411; Pisander was the most prominent man in its execution; Phrynichus the most daring; and Theramenes, the son of Hagnon, was a prime mover in the abolition of the democracy, a man not without ability as a speaker and thinker.” Thucyd., 8:68

Sophocles, when asked by Pisander whether he, like the other probouloi, approved of the establishment of the 400, said, <Yes.> <But what? Did that not seem to you a bad business?> <Yes,> said he, <for there was nothing better to do.> Arist., Retórica

the people had been persuaded to accept the new form of government in the hope of ending the war through Alcibiades with Persian support; this hope had now failed”

After the deposition of the 400, Antiphon and Archeptolemus were put to death on the charge of having plotted with others of the oligarchs to betray the city to Sparta. Theramenes was at the head of the government, under a moderate constitution, from September 411 to about July 410.”

The English, and usually the Greek, more logically uses for, as giving the grounds for the general statement.”

Xenophon says that the Spartans had already announced the destruction of 10 stadia [2km] of the Long Walls as a condition of peace, and that what Theramenes offered to do was to find out from Lysander whether this was intended as a preliminary to the enslavement of the city, or only as a means of guaranteeing their faithful obedience to the other terms of peace. After remaining 3 months with Lysander he returned to Athens with the report that Lysander had no power in the matter, and that it must be determined by the government at Sparta.” “Ordinarily the Areopagus had no jurisdiction in political or military affairs, but this crisis was so extreme, involving the very existence of the city, that extraordinary action by the Areopagus is not unlikely.” “on the first mission, that to Lysander, Theramenes went alone, but had no authority to negotiate; on the second, he had authority, but it was shared with 9 fellow-ambassadors. Lysias purposely represents it as resting entirely with him.”

Os atenienses levaram meses para destruir as muralhas externas, cumprindo as condições da paz com Esparta. Tal qual a construção de um bom estádio candango, a demolição desses estádios de muro na Antiguidade estourou o prazo que havia sido fixado!…

Dracontides doubtless presented the general plan, and the Thirty were chosen to draft a constitution which should carry it out in detail.”

for the change of this word from an originally good meaning // cp. [compare] the history of English simple and silly.” RUDE SIMPLÓRIO SIMPLES HUMILDE SEM-PECADO IMBECIL DISTORCIDO ABSURDO DESORIENTADO TONTO TOLO AHHHH

THE FREE DICTIONARY.COM:

sil•ly

adj. -li•er, -li•est, adj.

1. weak-minded or lacking good sense; stupid or foolish.

2. absurd; ridiculous; nonsensical.

3. stunned; dazed: He knocked me silly.

4. Archaic. rustic; plain; homely.

5. Archaic. weak; helpless.

6. Obs. lowly in rank or state; humble.

n.

7. Informal. a silly or foolish person.

(1375–1425; Middle English sely, orig., blessed, happy, guileless, Old English gesaelig happy, derivative of sael happiness; c. Dutch zalig, German selig)

silli•ly, adv.

silli•ness, n.”

It was the plan of Sparta and her Athenian supporters to see to it that the fleet should never be restored. This was the more acceptable to the Thirty as the fleet had always been the center of democratic power. We are not surprised, then, to read in Isocrates (7:66) that the dockyards, which had cost not less than 1000 t., were sold by the Thirty for 3 t. to be broken up. But apparently the work was not completed, for 4 years after the Thirty Lysias (30:22) speaks of the dockyards as then falling into decay.”

PATERfação da MAEteria

* * *

SPEECH XVI. FOR MANTITHEUS

Introdução e Considerações sobre o Discurso

The charge was brought against Mantitheus that he had been a member of the cavalry which had supported the Thirty, and that he was therefore not a fit candidate for the office of senator.”

Before the Peloponnesian War Athens had made very little use of cavalry, but from the beginning of that war to the close of the next century a force of a thousand horsemen was maintained.”

An enrolment which thus offered opportunity for display in time of peace, and a less dangerous and less irksome form of service in war, attracted the more ambitious and proud young men of the aristocracy.”

Xenophon gives a striking testimony to the hatred of the democracy toward the cavalry corps in his statement that when, 4 years after the Return, the Spartans called upon Athens to furnish cavalry to help in the campaign in Asia Minor, the Athenians sent them 300 of those who had served as cavalrymen under the Thirty <thinking it a good thing for the Demos if they should go abroad and die there> (Hell. 3.I.4), a statement which betrays Xenophon’s own feeling toward the people.”

It must have seemed to many of the returned exiles that the men who had so actively supported the lost cause ought to be more than content with permission to live retired lives as private citizens, and that for them to come forward now, seeking public office or any political influence whatever, was the height of presumption”

Aristotle gives the following description of the examination of candidates for the archonship, which probably did not differ materially from the examination for the senatorship, with the exception of the demand on taxes below: <When they are examined, they are asked, first, ‘Who is your father, and of what demo? Who is your father’s father? Who is your mother? Who is your mother’s father, and of what demo?’ Then the candidate is asked whether he has an ancestral Apollo and a household Zeus, and where their sanctuaries are; next, if he possesses a family tomb, and where; then, if he treats his parents well, and pays his taxes, and has served on the required military expeditions.>

He had, in short, to write the speech which the young man would himself have written if he had possessed Lysias’ knowledge of law and politics, and Lysias’ training in argumentation.”

Lysias knew the Athenian audience too well to suppose that plausible proof or valid proof would carry the case.”

This omission of the usual appeal to the feelings of the hearers is quite in keeping with the confident tone of the whole speech. The omission of the peroration is also wise from the rhetorical point of view. Throughout the speech Lysias has repressed everything that could suggest artificial or studied speech; it is in keeping with this that he omits that part of the plea in which rhetorical art was usually most displayed.”

No speech of Lysias offered a better opportunity for his peculiar skill in fitting the speech to the man”

* * *

the Athenians did not venture to make universal their general principle of appointment to office by lot. The lot applied to officials whose work did not absolutely demand political or military experience or technical knowledge.”

30 mines was an average sum in a family of moderate means.”

The son of Alcibiades was alleged to have lost his property at dice.”

Thrasybulus was at first the idol of the people under the restored democracy; but his moderate and conservative policy, sternly opposed to every violation of the amnesty and every indulgence of revenge, grew vexatious to the more radical element. (…) The defeat of the expedition to Corinth in 394 was a blow to his reputation. (…) in the full tide of enthusiasm for the new navy and its commander Conon the people forgot their allegiance to Thrasybulus.”

the Homeric custom of wearing the hair long prevailed always at Sparta, but at Athens from about the time of the Persian Wars only boys wore long hair. When they became of age their hair was cut as a sign of their entering into manhood, and from that time on they wore hair about as short as modern custom prescribes; only the athletes made a point of wearing it close-cut. But there was a certain aristocratic set of young Spartomaniacs who affected Spartan appearance along with their pro-Spartan sentiments, and who were proud of wearing long hair, to the disgust of their fellow-citizens. These were the men who largely made up the cavalry corps.”

SPEECH XIX. ON THE STATE OF ARISTOPHANES [um homônimo do comediante, ao que tudo indica]

Introdução e Considerações sobre o Discurso

O reclamante da fala é supostamente o filho deste Aristófanes (mas o comentário diz que pode ter sido seu cunhado), morto sem julgamento e espoliado por Atenas, em busca da devolução de seus bens familiares ou de parte deles.

The events which led to this speech were connected with two dangerous tendencies in the political life of the 4th century, the enrichment of naval commanders through their office, and the hasty and unreasonable punishment of public officers in response to a fickle public sentiment.”

The city was attempting to take her old place in international affairs, with no sufficient revenue; the people saw in each new confiscation relief for the treasury.”

The case of Nicophemus and Aristophanes is but one among many between 388-386, when these prosecutions were at their height.”

Lísias defendia vários casos de ambos os lados: como promotor de Atenas, acusando a corrupção de homens da marinha e pedindo sua execução e confisco de suas riquezas; e neste, como advogado contra o Tribunal.

Speech against Epicrates: “In my opinion, Athenians, if you should put these men to death without giving them trial or opportunity of defense, they could not be said to have perished <without trial>, but rather to have received the justice that is their due.”

Speech againt Ergocles: “Why should you spare men when you see the fleets that they commanded scattering and going to pieces for lack of funds, and these men, who set sail poor and needy, so quickly become the richest of all the citizens?”

No other proem of Lysias is so long or developed in such detail. The reason is to be found in the fact that the speaker is addressing a jury who are thoroughly prejudiced against his case. Nicophemus and Aristophanes are believed to have been guilty of the gravest crimes, and now the defendant is believed to be concealing their property to the damage of the state. The prosecution have said everything possible to intensify this feeling.

The proem falls into two parts, one general, the other based on the facts peculiar to this case. It is surprising to find that for the first part Lysias has taken a ready-made proem from some book on rhetoric, and used it with slight changes. We discover this fact by comparing §§1-6 with the proem of Andocides’ speech On the Mysteries, delivered 12 years earlier, and the proem of Isocrates’ speech XV, published 34 years after that of Lysias. Andocides has divided the section, inserting a passage applicable to his peculiar case, but the 2 parts agree closely with Lysias’ proem. Isocrates had used a small part of the same material, but much more freely, changing the order and the phraseology, and amplifying the selected parts to fit his own style.” “Blass, arguing from certain phrases of Andocides, attributes the original proem to Antiphon.” “It was possible to compose them in such general terms that any one of them would fit a large class of cases. We hear of such collections by Thrasymachus, Antiphon, and Critias, and the mss. of Demosthenes have preserved to us a large collection of proems of his composition, 5 of which we find actually used in extant speeches of his.”

This adaptation of the language to the personality of the speaker (ethos) is perfected by delicate touches here and there.”

And here lies much of the power of Lysias. We often feel that his arguments are inconclusive; he fails to appeal strongly to the passions; in a case like this, where strong appeal might be made to our pity for the widow and little children, he seems cold. But the personality of the speaker and his friends is so real and their charm so irresistible, that at the close we find ourselves on their side.”

* * *

OS 3 FEDROS DA ATENAS SOCRÁTICA: “the Pheaedrus whom we know through Plato as a young friend of Socrates (Banquete), one of the group who listened to the Sophist Hippias (Protágoras), and the friend and enthusiastic admirer of Lysias, delicately portrayed in Plato’s Phaedrus. It was not strange that when the proposition was made to confiscate the property of Aristophanes, his widow (a de Fedro) turned for help to the friend of her first husband, now at the height of his fame as an advocate, nor that when the present suit against her father’s estate came on Lysias again wrote the defense.”

we have 65 acres at about $70 an acre. This is the only passage in Greek authors which, by giving both the contents and the price of land, enables us to reckon land value. As we know neither the situation nor the nature of this land, even this information is of little worth.”

This avoidance of the common oaths of everyday impassioned speech is as fitting to the calm and simple style of Lysias as is their constant use to the vehement style of Demosthenes.”

of the 15 t. expended in the 4 or 5 years in question, the speaker has reckoned 5 t. for house and land, and 10 t. for the various public services; of this sum 2.83 t. was for ordinary liturgies of a rich citizen (service as choragus and trierarch) and for direct war taxes – an average of a little less than half a talent a year. A still more important source of information as to the public services of rich Athenian citizens is the account which Lysias gives in XXI of the public expenditures of his client for the 1st seven years after he attained his majority; the items are as follows:

1st year.

Choragus (tragic chorus) 3000 dracmae

Choragus (men’s chorus) 2000 dr.

2nd year.

Choragus (Pyrrhic) 800

Choragus (men’s chorus) 5000

3rd year.

Choragus (cyclic chorus) 300

7th year.

Gymnasiarch 1200

Choragus (boys’ chorus) 1500

Trierarch, 7 years 6 talents

War tax 3000 dr.

War tax 4000

TOTAL 9 t. 2800+ dr.

This gives an average contribution of about 1.325 t. a year. But these years were the final years of the Peloponnesian War, when public burdens were extraordinarily heavy; the same man gives smaller sums for the time immediately following. Moreover, the speaker says that the law would have required of him less than ¼ this amount. Unfortunately we have neither in this case nor in that of Aristophanes any knowledge of the total property or income from which these contributions were made, so that we have no sufficient basis for comparison with modern times. We lack the same data in the case of the speaker’s father, whose services of this kind amounted to 9 t. 2000 dr. in a period of 50 years [0.18 t./ano]. We only know that at his death the estate amounted to between 4 and 5 talents”

Callias the 2nd was reputed to be the richest Athenian of his time. Hipponicus the 3rd inherited this wealth. He had 600 slaves let out in the mines; ha gave his daughter, on her marriage to Alcibiades, the unheard-of dowry of 10 talents. His son, the Callias of our text, finally dissipated the family wealth. He affected the new learning, and we have in Plato’s Protagoras (VI-ff.) a humorous description of his house infested by foreign sophists. His lavish expenditures upon flatterers and prostitutes still further wasted his property, and he died in actual want.”

Aristophanes’ attack on Socrates in the Clouds gains much of its force in the picture of the son, corrupted and made impudent by his new learning, contradicting and correcting his old father.”

the minimum of property which subjected a citizen to the liturgies was 3 t.”

SPEECH XXII. AGAINST THE GRAIN DEALERS

Introdução e Considerações sobre o Discurso

This speech was written for a senator who was leading the prosecution of certain retail grain dealers, on the charge that, by buying up a larger stock of grain than the law permitted, they had injured the importers, and raised the price of grain to the consumers. It was probably delivered early in 386.

The successful expedition of Thrasybulus in 389-8 had brought the Hellespont under Athenian control, and thus secured the safety of the grain trade, which had been harassed by hostile fleets. But his death and the transfer of the command into less competent hands made the control of the Hellespont insecure again. At the same time the Spartans, having dislodged the Athenians from Aegina, were able constantly to endanger the grain ships at the home end of the route. The result was a period of unusual disturbance in the grain trade in the winter of 388-7.”

the dealers were forbidden by law to store up more than 1/3 of any cargo; 2/3 had to be thrown upon the market immediately. If then, a sufficient combination could be made among the retail dealers, they could hold the price down effectively.”

instead of passing the grain on to the consumers at a fair profit, the retailers used the low price to increase the stock of grain in their own storerooms, and put the retail price up according to the war rumors of the hour.”

The Senate had final jurisdiction only in case of penalties not greater than a fine of 500 dracmas (Demosthenes 47); in all other judicial cases their findings had to be passed on to a law court for final action.” Aristotle

Only one senator pressed the case against the dealers. The threatening of suits against rich men had become so common on the part of professional blackmailers that reputable men were loath to have anything to do with a case like this. The Senate found the charges sustained, and sent the case to a court under the presidency of the Thesmothetae.

The senator who had become so prominent in the prosecution felt obliged to carry the case through – otherwise he would have been believed to have been bought by the <ring of dealers>. He accordingly employed Lysias to prepare a speech for him to deliver in court. A study of this case involves a knowledge of the Athenian laws relating to commerce.

The small area of the Attic territory in proportion to population, and the poor adaptedness of the soil to grain production as compared with that of olives and figs, left the people largely dependent upon foreign sources for their grain. More than half of the supply came from foreign ports; the greater part from the Hellespont and the Euxine.”

to prevent the accumulation of grains in the retailers’ storerooms, and their consequent control of prices, it was provided by law, under penalty of death, that no retailer should buy more than 50 baskets at a time (but as to how much the standard grain basket held we have no knowledge).” “The whole retail grain trade was supervised by a board of Grain Commissioners; of their appointment and duties we learn as follows from Aristotle:

There were formerly ten, appointed by lot, 5 for the Piraeus, and 5 for the city, but now there are 20 for the city and 15 for the Piraeus.

Thus, the government followed the grain at every step from its reception in the Piraeus to the home of the consumer.” “At the first meeting of the Ecclesia in every prytany a part of the routine business was the consideration of the grain supply.”

The issue was so simple, the case so prejudiced in favor of the prosecution by the preliminary action of the Senate, and the odium of the act so certain, that Lysias was content to present every fact of the prosecution with the utmost simplicity and brevity.”

* * *

it is uncertain whether this was the Anytus who shared in the prosecution of Socrates. That Anytus, a rich tanner, was a leading democrat, associated with Thrasybulus in the Return. [But] this activity in protecting the poor man’s food supply would be quite in keeping with his democratic rôle.”

Neste tipo de caso (economia alimentar), metecos podiam integrar o júri.

SPEECH XXIV. FOR THE CRIPPLE

Introdução e Considerações sobre o Discurso

Lysias wrote this speech in support of the plea of a crippled artisan for the retention of his name on the list of disabled paupers who received a dole of an obol a day from the public treasury.” “An allowance of 2 obols/day from the treasury was all that saved many people from starvation during the last third of the Peloponnesian War.”

A system of military pensions for men who had been disabled and for the sons and dependent parents of men who had died goes back to the time of Solon and Pisistratus: the soldiers’ pension under Pisistratus, after the example of Solon in the case of a single disabled veteran (Heraclides, cited by Plutarch) support and education of sons, introduced by Solon (Diogenes Laert.). The pension of dependent parents (Plato, Menexeno) presumably goes back to the same time.”

It is to be remembered that the jury pay, available to all who cared to sit in court, and the pay for sitting in the Ecclesia offered no small relief to the poor citizens.”

The ascription of the speech to Lysias seems to have been questioned in antiquity, and has recently been vigorously attacked by Bruns. The first objection raised by Bruns is that the tone and extent of the attack on the complainant are at variance with Lysias’ uniform calmness and restraint in attack; Lysias’ defendants confine their attacks on the prosecutors to their acts in the case itself, and are far from giving a general characterization of the men; the extent of the attack is always well proportioned to the gravity of the case. But in our speech we have a bitter and scornful attack on the whole character of the opponent, and it is as vehement as though the issue were some great thing – not an obol a day. Bruns sees a 2nd violation of the Lysian manner in the failure of the defendant to press the real points at issue –his physical disability and his poverty – and the comical pose in which he is made to give, instead of argument, a picture of himself.”

We may suppose that the complainant had called attention to the horseback riding, something that only the richer citizens could afford, as indicating that the cripple had rich friends who could and would support him; the cripple pretends that the argument was that he was physically sound enough to jump unto a horse and ride it!”

The parody on the common pleas of the day is carried out in the absurd appeal based on the past life of the speaker: he has been no sycophant; he, the cripple, has not been violent; he, the pauper, refrained from sharing in the government of the aristocratic Thirty!”

SPEECH XXV. DEFENSE AGAINST THE CHARGE OF HAVING SUPPORTED THE GOVERNMENT OF THE THIRTY

Introdução e Considerações sobre o Discurso

This speech was written for a citizen who had been one of the 3,000 admitted by the Thirty to a nominal share in their government. The speaker has now, under the restored democracy, been chosen (by vote or lot) to some office.”

his eligibility is challenged on the ground that he was a supporter of the Thirty. The complainants have brought no charge of specific acts, basing their attack upon the principle that former members of the oligarchical party cannot be trusted in office under the democracy. The defense must attack this principle, and it is this fact which raises the speech above the plane of personal questions, and makes it one of the most interesting documents in the history of the period immediately after the Return.

The oath of amnesty provided for the exclusion from the city of certain specified leaders of the oligarchy; to all other citizens it guaranteed oblivion of the past. Under any fair interpretation of this agreement the former supporters of the Thirty, even senators, office holders and soldiers under them, were perfectly eligible to office under the restored democracy. But to keep their pledges in the full spirit of them proved to be a severe test of the self-control of the party of the Return.

The wiser democratic leaders fully recognized the critical nature of the situation. An attempt by one of the returned exiles to violate the agreement and take vengeance on one of the city party was met by the summary seizure of the complainant and his execution by the Senate without trial (Aristotle). This made it clear that there was to be no policy of bloody reprisals; but the feeling of hostility remained.

Then, less than 3 years after the Return, came the attempt of the survivors of the Thirty, settled at Eleusis, to organize an attack by force. The prompt march of the citizen forces, together with their treacherous seizure of the oligarchical leaders, soon put down the movement. But now more than ever it seemed to the democratic masses intolerable that members of the city party should have equal privileges with themselves. Their spokesmen began to say that the aristocrats might consider the people generous indeed in allowing their former enemies to vote in the Ecclesia and to sit on juries; that to ask for more than this was an impertinence (Lys. 26. 2, 3).

Those who had been conspicuous supporters of the Thirty, or personally connected with their crimes of bloodshed and robbery, naturally refrained from thrusting themselves into prominence; indeed, few of these had probably remained in the city. But the first test came when men whose support of the Thirty had been only passive, and against whose personal character no charge could be raised, ventured to become candidates for office.”

This speech was written by Lysias for one of the first cases of this sort – it may have been the very first. The issue was vital. If a man like the speaker, of proved ability and personal character, untainted by crime under all the opportunities offered during the rule of the Thirty, was now to be excluded from office, the reconciliation must soon break down.”

The speech cannot be placed much later than 400, for the speaker, with all his pleas based on his good conduct before and during the rule of the Thirty, says nothing of his conduct since the Return (October, 394), nor does he cite cases of other men of his party holding office. Moreover, his warnings show that there are fugitives of the oligarchical party who still hope for a reaction and a counter blow against the democracy, and are not yet sure what will be the treatment of the former supporters of the Thirty, while he speaks simultaneously of the democracy not as established, but as in process of being established. ”

The sentences are long and dignified. Only after the proem is well under way is there any touch of artificial rhetoric.”

The argument is surprising; in the most blunt way he asserts that men follow self-interest in their attitude toward one form of government or another. He gives the jury to understand that he remained in the city under the Thirty because it was for his personal safety and for the safety of his property that he do so (…) he frankly tells the jury to assume that he acts from an enlightened self-interest” “The cool frankness with which he waives aside all claim of sentimental patriotism (…) must have been refreshing to a jury weary of hearing pious protestations of loyalty and sacrifice for the sacred democracy.”

he makes the keen plea that a man who kept his hands clean in times when there was every encouragement to wrong-doing can be counted on to be a law-abiding citizen under the present settled government.”

The tone of the attack is severe and earnest, but always dignified. There is no display of personal passion. The speaker stands above petty recriminations, and in a most convincing way exposes the conduct of a group of small politicians who were coming to the front on false claims of service in the late civil war, and who were destined to succeed before long in discrediting and thrusting aside the great patriots of the Return.”

The coolness with which the client explained all political attachments on the ground of personal interest had its effect upon Lysias, and he counted upon its having its effect upon others.(*)” Bruns, Literarisches Porträt

(*) “The speech for Mantitheus (XVI) offers a marked contrast in this respect. The young cavalryman is full of talk of his own achievements.”

The style is noticeably more rhetorical than is usual with Lysias.”

* * *

blackmail by the threat of bringing innocent men before the courts on trumped-up charges was the regular work of the <sycophants>. (…) Xenophon tells how, by advice of Socrates, Crito finally supported a lawyer of his own to silence these fellows by counterattacks (Mem. 2. 9.). (…) verdicts are more a matter of chance than of justice, and that it is wise by paying a small sum to be freed from great accusations and the possibility of great pecuniary losses (Isoc. 18. 9-ss.).”

from these words, it is probable that Epigenes, Demophanes and Clisthenes were the complainants in this case.”

Every Athenian official was required every prytany (35 days) to submit an account of his receipts and expenditures to a board of 10 auditors, selected by a lot from the Senate. At the close of his term of office he was also required to present complete accounts to another board”

SPEECH XXXII. THE SPEECH AGAINST DIOGITON (fragmentos) ou: O caso do avô (e tio-avô) escroque

Introdução e Considerações sobre o Discurso

On the death of Diodotus, Diogiton, his brother, became the guardian of his widowed daughter and her 3 children. For a time he concealed from them the fact of Diodotus’ death, and under the pretext that certain documents were needed for conducting his brother’s business, he obtained from his daughter the sealed package of papers that had been left with her. After the death of Diodotus became known, the widow turned over to Diogiton, her father [ou seja, sobrinha que casara com o tio], whatever property was in her possession, to be administered for the family.

Diogiton arranged a second marriage for her with one Hegemon, but gave 1/6 less dowry than the will prescribed. In due time he arranged a marriage for his granddaughter also; there is no claim that he gave with her less than the dowry required by the will.

For 8 years Diogiton supported the boys from the income of the estate, but when the elder came of age, he called them to him and told them that their father had left for them only 2840 dr. (the sum her daughter returned him before), and that this had all been expended for their support; that already he had himself paid out much for them, and that the elder must now take care of himself.” “The elder son was the plaintiff, and his brother-in-law the one delivering this speech prepared by Lysias.”

The mother [of the plaintiff; and daughter of the accused] had documentary proof of Diogiton having received one sum of 7 t. 4000 dr. and Diogiton now acknowledge in his sworn answer that he had received that sum, but he submitted detailed accounts purporting to show that it had all been used for the family [wise scoundrel!].” “The trial can be put in 402-1 or very soon thereafter.”

Dionysius of Halicarnassus¹ [quem proporcionou o manuscrito hoje conhecido, cerca de 400 anos depois, um orador romano, discípulo genuíno de Lísias, portanto] says that in the cause of a suit against members of one’s own family the rhetoricians are agreed that the plaintiff must above all things else guard against prejudice on the part of the jury in the suspicion that he is following an unworthy and litigious course. The plaintiff must show that the wrongs which he is attacking are unendurable; that he is pleading in behalf of other members of the family nearer to him and dependent upon him for securing redress; that it would be wicked for him to refuse his aid. He must show further that he has made every attempt to settle the case out of court.”

¹ D.H., On the ancient orators

The language of the proem, like that of Lysias’s proems in general, is for the most part periodic. A larger group of thoughts than is usual with Lysias is brought together under a single sentence structure from §1 up to §3. The impression is one of dignity and earnestness. There is no rhetorical embellishment either in grouping of cola or in play on words or phrases.”

In this narrative there is a stroke of genius that places it, maybe, above all the others from Lysias. This is the introduction of the mother’s plea in her own words. The mother could not plead in court, but by picturing the scene in the family council Lysias carries the jurors in imagination to that room where a woman pleads with her father, protesting against the unnatural greed that has robbed his own grandsons, and begging him to do simple justice to her children. As the jurors heard how the hearers of that plea arose and left the room, silent and in tears, there was little need for argument.” “The result was a work of art perfect in the concealment of art.”

The examination of the alleged expenditures is sharp and clear. The overcharge seems written on the face of every item, and the series culminates in a case of the most shameless fraud. (…) Out of an accounting of 8 years Lysias selects a very few typical items, makes the most of them in a brief, cutting comment, and then passes on before the hearers are wearied with the discussion of details.”

The word play, a turn of speech rare in Lysias, but a favorite among rhetoricians, is fitted to the sarcastic tone” “The personification, a figure equally rare in Lysias, is in the same sarcastic tone”

GRAU ZERO DA ESCRITURA: “The speaker might be any Athenian gentleman; we get no impression of his age or temperament or character.”

We have certainly a personal portrait of Diogiton, and this by the simplest recital of his words and conduct. There is no piling up of opprobrious epithets. By his own conduct greed is shown to have been the one principle of his life, from the time when he married his daughter to his brother to keep hold of his increasing property, to the day when, with hollow professions of regret and with shameless lies, he turned his grandsons out of doors.”

* * *

for the seclusion of Athenian women see Becker, Charicles (Eng. trans.)

a man of ordinary standing was expected to have a slave attendant as he went about his business. Even the schoolboy had his.” Na democracia grega, os mais liberais, como Aristófanes em suas comédias, lutavam não pela extinção da escravidão, o que seria um preconceito ocidental anacrônico, mas pela equanimidade na distribuição dos escravos entre os mais ricos e a classe média!

The Athenian tombs and monuments were among the finest products of Greek art. There was a tendency to extravagant outlay, but in most artistic form. The expense was great as compared with the expenditure of the living. We know of sums ranging from 3 minae to 2 talents. For full description and illustration see Percy Gardner’s Sculptured Tombs of Hellas.”

The statement that the boys would have been as rich as any boys in the city (having about 12 t. after the payment of expenses for the 8 years and of dowries for mother and sister) seems reasonable from what we know of Athenian fortunes. (…) The fabulously rich men of the older generation, Nicias and Callias, were popularly supposed to have had fortunes of 100 and 200 talents. But a man who had 8 to 10 talents at the close of the Peloponnesian War was a rich man. (…) It was only after Alexander’s conquests had brought Oriental ideas of luxury and the means to grow rich by conquest and by trade on a large scale that the Greek family needed very much money to be <rich> [, life in old Athens being pretty simple and costless].”

SPEECH XXXIV. ON THE CONSTITUTION

Should citizenship with full political rights be open to all Athenian as before the oligarchical revolution, or should it be restricted according to the understanding with Sparta the year before in connection with the surrender?”

Usener holds that the assembly for which the speech of Lysias was written included only the men of the upper classes. (…) Wilamowitz finds confirmation of Usener’s view in the statement of Aristotle that under the amnesty the former officials of the city party were to give their accounting before the citizens whose names were on the assessor’s lists, i.e. the men of the upper classes (…) In our speech of Lysias the appeal is certainly to the property holders, but that is natural in any case (…) For the position against Usener, see Blass; Meyer, Forshungen zur alten Geschichte, II

It might well be presumed that the restoration of the democratic constitution would be considered an affront to Sparta, and it is possible that the Spartans had made definite statements to this effect. (…) Who could guarantee the loyalty of the Demos to the terms of the amnesty, when once demagogue and sycophant should resume their trade?”

Since the amendment of Pericles in 451-0, those who could not show pure Athenian descent through both parents had been by law excluded from citizenship.” “These citizens had married foreign wives, and now many of them with their families were returning to Athens, bringing with them the question of admitting their half-Athenian sons to citizenship.”

This speech of Lysias is of especial interest as being his earliest extant speech, and perhaps the first he wrote for a client. It is, moreover, the only extant speech of his composed for delivery before the Ecclesia. We owe its preservation to Dionysius of Hal., who incorporated it in his treatise on Lysias (op. cit.)” Neither of the 2 other speeches preserved by Dionysius is given in full, and it is probable that he took this part from the beginning of a longer speech.”

The plan of this part is simple: to appeal to the great middle class, men who have shared in the exile and the Return, and to convince them that the loss of the support of the non-landholding citizens will be more dangerous to the restored democracy than the chance of offending Sparta by failing to meet her wishes as to the revision of the constitution. The event proved the soundness of the argument. Sparta did not interfere, and the democracy was soon called upon to take up arms again against the oligarchs at Eleusis.”

The brevity is like Lysias, but not the obscurity. (…) The tricks of the current rhetoric are conspicuous – repeated antithesis and balance of cola, the rhyming of successive cola, and play on the sound of words. We may see in these features evidence of immaturity in practical oratory.” “How soon and how thoroughly Lysias corrected both faults, we see in the speech against Diogiton (written a year or 2 later) and that for Mantitheus (some 10 years later).”

* * *

Much property had been confiscated by the 30, much abandoned in the flight of the owners. The restored Demos put the owners back into possession, and made no attempt at a distribution of land among themselves.”

The event showed that the Spartan insistence upon dictating in the internal affairs of Athens had been due to the personal influence of Lysander. With his fall from power this policy was abandoned, and the restored Athenian democracy was left undisturbed.”

In 418 Argos was forced into alliance with Sparta, and an oligarchical government was set up. But in the next year a successful democratic reaction carried the state over to the Athenian alliance, and with more or less of vigor it supported Athens throughout the war. Mantinea, which had joined Argos against Sparta, was like forced by the events of 418 to return to the Spartan alliance, and remained nominally under Sparta’s lead throughout the war. But she maintained her democratic constitution, and gave only indifferent support to the Spartans.”

If the Spartans conquer, they know that they will not succeed in enslaving the Argives and Mantineans, for both people always rise up again after their defeats, as stubborn as ever. It is not worthwhile, then, for the Spartans to risk serious losses of their own for the slight gain of an incomplete subjugation of their neighbors.”

* * *

APPENDIX II. ATHENIAN LEGAL PROCEDURE

The following account is in general based on Lipsius’s revision of Meier & Schömann, Der Attische Process, and his revision of Schömann, Griechische Alterthümer. The conditions described are those of the early part of the 4th century, the time of Lysias’ professional activity.”

The ancient court of Areopagus, composed of the ex-archons, sitting under the presidency of the religious head of the state, had sole jurisdiction in cases of premeditated homicide and arson.”

Any citizen over 30 years of age, who was possessed of full civic rights, was eligible for jury service. (…) In the time of Lysias there was not such a pressure of legal business as in the Periclean period, when the Athenian courts were crowded with cases from the league cities (…) the service might become the regular employment of men who were quite content with small payment for light work, and of old men whose days of physical labor were over. From the time of Pericles the pay of the juryman was an obol for each day of actual service, until Cleon raised it to 3 obols, about the wages of an unskilled laborer.”

It was not customary to arrest the accused and confine him while awaiting trial, except in a special class of crimes, prosecuted by special and more summary procedures; even then the defendant was released if he could furnish sufficient security for his appearance in court.”

Many cases involved the testimony of slaves. This evidence was held valid only when given under torture, on the supposition that the desire for release from the torture on the one side would counterbalance the natural desire of the slave to testify according to his master’s orders on the other. (…) The torture was conducted by the litigants themselves or by men agreed upon by them, or in some cases by public slaves. The point to which the torture should be carried was previously agreed upon by the litigants.”

The court room had wooden seats for the jurors, provision for listeners outside the railing which shut in the jurors’ seats, and 4 platforms.”

The law required every man to deliver his plea in person. If he had not the ability to compose a speech for himself, he could employ a professional speech writer to write it for him; he then committed the speech to memory and delivered it as his own.”

No opportunity for speeches in rebuttal was given except in the case of certain private suits.”

At the close of the speeches there was no exposition of the law by the presiding magistrate, nor was there any opportunity for the jurymen to consult one with another, but the herald of the court called upon them to come forward to the platform immediately and deposit their votes.”

the secrecy of the vote was fully protected.”

Imprisonment was not used as a penalty, but only (…) until the execution of a man condemned to death.”

When one of these professional haranguers, trained in the plausible rhetorical art, popular with the masses, and skilled in moving their emotions, threatened a quiet, law-abiding, wealthy citizen with a lawsuit, the citizen might well think twice before deciding to trust to the protection of the courts; to buy off the prosecutor was the simpler and safer way.”

APPENDIX III. RHETORICAL TERMS

The Greek rhetoricians, beginning probably with Antisthenes, a contemporary of Lysias, distinguished 3 great types of prose composition.” “They found in Thucydides the perfection of the grand style.” “Lysias was the representative of the plain style.” “Isocrates was the representative of the third style, the intermediate type. His style showed a union of the best qualities of the other two.”

So long as Thucydides, Lysias and Isocrates were the greatest of prose writers these 3 <styles> served the purpose of classification; but when the critics were confronted with the problem of defining and classifying the oratory of Demosthenes, they saw the inadequacy of the old formulae. (…) If he were placed with Isocrates as a representative of the intermediate style, the term would become so inclusive as to break down by its vagueness, and he could certainly be placed with neither of the extremes. The critics solved this problem of classification in two ways: some, like Demetrius, added a 4th style, the powerful style. This new <style> was a recognition of the fact that the real characteristic of Demosthenes’ oratory was not any mingling of grand and simple language, but a great power which moved men. Other critics, like Dionysius, made no attempt to remodel the old system, or to find a place for Dem. within it. They preferred rather to treat the style of Dem. as something outside and above the 3 older types: a style which gathered up into itself the virtues of all, and so was superior to all, a power of which the 3 became the instruments. [same shit!]”

Aristotle in the next generation gives in his Rhetoric (3.9) a discussion of the periodic style, which probably represents the developed theory of Thrasymachus,¹ and which has remained the fundamental exposition of periodic theory for both ancient and modern times. Aristotle calls the running style the strung style. The separate thoughts are strung along one after another like beads; the first gives no suggestion that the 2nd is coming, not the 2nd that a 3rd is to follow; the series may stop at any point, or it may go on indefinitely.

¹ (…) Here, as in almost all matters of rhetoric, we must distinguish between the forms which the practical speakers instinctively shaped for themselves, and the names and theories which the rhetoricians afterward applied to them. The testimony as to Thrasymachus is that of Suidas and of Theophrastus, cited by Dionysius. (…)”

Roberts’s edition (Demetrius on Style, Cambridge, 1902), with its admirable translation, commentary and glossary of technical terms, makes this treatise available as the best starting point for the study of the theory of Greek prose style.”

O período não é a unidade mínima. Dentro do estilo periódico, um período se subdivide em colas.

Lysias, even in his plainest style, followed the custom of his time, and made frequent use of antithetic periods.”

In the English we lose much of the periodic effect in losing the similarity of sound at the beginning and end of the cola, which in the Greek added to the unity produced by the parallelism of thought and construction, and by the uniform length of the cola.”

Spencer, Philosophy of Style

Aristotle holds that there are periods composed of a single colon (3.9.5). (…) He probably had in mind the case of a single colon of considerable length, based on sensus suspensio of words.”

If I have attained to any clearness of style, I think it is partly due to my having had to lecture 20 years as a professor at Harvard. It was always present to my consciousness that whatever I said must be understood at once by my hearers or never. Out of this, I, almost without knowing it, formulated the rule that every sentence must be clear in itself and never too long to be carried, without risk of losing its balance, on a single breath of the speaker.” James Russell Lowell

Aristotle’s theory of the ‘period’ was faulty in that it restricted it to the 2 types of the antithetic and the parallel structure. But the modern rhetoricians have gone to the other extreme in making the sensus suspensio the only basis of the period. From that error it has resulted that they speak of a period as being always a full sentence. (…) We should obtain a better theory of the rhetorical period by returning to the sound doctrine of Demetrius, modifying it only by removing the restriction of 4 cola. We should then treat the period as something quite independent of the sentence (though often coinciding with it)”

The fondness for antithesis, already marked in the earlier literature, reached its height in the rhetorical work of Gorgias and his pupils. As compared with them, Lysias is moderate in its use.”

As rhyme was not an ordinary feature of Greek poetry, its use in prose did not seem to the Greek hearer as incongruous as it does to us.”

APPENDIX IV. MONEY AND PRICES AT ATHENS

While Solon’s other units of measure came into universal use in Athens, his linear foot failed to displace, for common purposes, the old Aeginetan foot of 330mm; but this old foot was reduced, probably to correspond to the reduction in the Solonian foot, giving the common working foot of about 328mm. Attic coinage was based on the talent, the weight of a cubic foot of water (or wine). The unit of coinage was the drachma, a coin of pure silver, weighing 1/6000 of a talent, and equal to 4.32 grams, or 66.667 + grains Troy. The modern bullion value of the drachma would be, for the period 1899-1903, $0.08+, and its value in US coined silver would be $0.1795+.”

1 obol = 3 20th century cents

6 obols = 1 drachma

100 drachmas = 1 mina ($18)

60 minas = 1 talento ($1080)

The standard silver dollar contains 371.25g of fine silver. Our silver <quarter> (our coin nearest to the drachma) contains only 347.22g of fine silver per dollar, but as our concern is chiefly with considerable sums of drachmas, the value is better taken on the dollar standard.”

The daric, a coin of pure gold, passed in Athens as equal to 20 drachmas (~$4).”

In the time of Lysias, a drachma would pay a day’s wages of a carpenter, or stone cutter, or superintendent of building operations.” = R$30 (ou seja: de 3 cents para 10 dólares em ~100 anos!)… 30.000% de inflação.

The average day’s wages in the US in 1900 for men corresponding to the Athenian 1-drachma workmen were: for carpenters, $2,63; to stone cutters, $3,45; brick layers, $3,84; stone setters, $3,82. US Bureau of Labor, Bulletin N. 53, July, 1904.”

ÉCRITS «INSPIRÉS»: SCHIZOGRAPHIE – Lacan, en collaboration avec Lévy-Valensi et Migault, 1931. In: Annales médico-psychologiques, t. II. Traduzido. Íntegra em https://escritosavulsos.com/1931/11/12/escritos-inspirados-esquizografia/

Gaëtan Gatian de Clérambault [1872-1934] é considerado, por muitos, o último e mais brilhante dos clássicos. Obteve, em 1905, o cargo de médico adjunto da Enfermaria Especial do Comando de Polícia, onde já era interno de Paul-Émile Garnier [1848-1905]. Com a morte de Ernest Dupré [1862-1921], que havia sido seu professor, torna-se médico-chefe da instituição. Lacan o considerava seu <único mestre em psiquiatria> (cf. C.M. Ramos Ferreira; J. Santiago [2014] Apresentação de pacientes: Clérambault, mestre de Lacan. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicopatologia Fundamental, vol. 17, n. 2. São Paulo, junho de 2014. Disponível em: <dx.doi.org/10.1590/1984-0381v17n2a05>). Ademais, cumpre notar que Clérambault entendeu o presente artigo como sendo uma divulgação não-autorizada das suas próprias ideias a respeito da paranoia, de modo que Lacan suprimirá o texto quando da reedição de sua tese de doutorado, onde figurarão outros de seus <Primeiros escritos sobre a paranoia>. (N. do T.)”

Jules Séglas [1856-1939] — alienista hospitalar entre os anos de 1886 e 1921 e presidente da Sociedade Médico-Psicológica (1908) — vinha minorando, desde o ano de 1914, o aspecto sensório-motor do fenômeno alucinatório; aproximava-o, assim, ainda mais do delírio e, portanto, de certa psicogên[e]se da alucinação. Anos depois, criticará sua primeira teoria da alucinação, baseada na excitação dos <centros nervosos> — teoria que, na época, já não sustentava mais a comparação com a clínica moderna da afasia. Com isso, a clínica da alucinação vai se articulando com a ideia de uma patologia da linguagem interna, e as alucinações psicomotoras acabam se equivalendo a uma exofasia (a linguagem interna se aliena do sujeito e o pensamento se articula quase que automaticamente em movimento). Séglas distingue isso da hiperendofasia, que seria o excesso da linguagem interna — que ele acredita estar mais próximo da auditivação e da perseguição. Cf. P. La Sagna, ‘Séglas et le système de l’Autre Méchant’, La cause freudienne, vol. 74, n. 1, pp. 201-221. Disponível em: <www.cairn.info/revue-la-cause-freudienne-2010-1-page-201.htm>. Cf. também: J. Séglas, ‘Hallucinations psychiques et pseudo-hallucinations verbales’, Journal de psychologie normale et pathologique, vol. 11, 1914. (N. do T.)”

Mentismo noturno: “De acordo com o alienista Philippe Chaslin [1857-1923], trata-se de um fluxo rápido e incontrolável de pensamentos e imagens que o sujeito não consegue interromper, tipicamente acompanhado de ansiedade e ocorrendo geralmente quando se está para dormir, causando insônia. (N. do T.)”

Georges Clemenceau [1841-1929] foi um médico francês que cedo se tornaria estadista, integrando a Assembleia Nacional. Atuando como jornalista, fundou o periódico La Justice e foi o responsável pela publicação do famigerado J’accuse de Émile Zola, em 13 de janeiro de 1898, no jornal L’Aurore, do qual era editor-chefe. Foi senador e primeiro-ministro, chefiando o país durante a Primeira Guerra Mundial. (N. do T.)”

Acreditei compreender que estão fazendo do meu caso uma questão parlamentar… mas é tão velado, tão difuso”

Lipotimia: “Perda de força muscular, porém sem perda de consciência, com conservação das funções respiratória e cardíaca. É acompanhada de palidez, suores frios, vertigens, zumbido nos ouvidos e a impressão de desmaio iminente. (N. do T.)”

Acrescentemos aqui algumas notas sobre o estado somático da doente. Elas são negativas, sobretudo. Cumpre reter: uma gripe em 1918 [isso é grave, doutor!!]; um cafeinismo evidente; um regime alimentar irregular; um tremor nítido e persistente nos dedos” Oops…

A LÍNGUA ESTÁ SEMPRE VOLTANDO: “Em todo caso, vale ressaltar que, no campo dos estudos da linguística diacrônica, reconhece-se a presença da forma amur na linha histórica que culmina no termo francês moderno — de modo que o neologismo da paciente poderia ser entendido, de certa maneira, também como um arcaísmo. Cf. Christian Schmitt, ‘Cultisme ou Occitanisme? Étude sur la provenance du français amour et ameur’, Romania, 1973, vol. 376, pp. 433-462. Disponível em: <www.persee.fr/doc/roma_0035-8029_1973_num_94_376_2386>. (N. do T.)”

Eu sou irmão do rato mau que te enrouca se você faz a rota da mãe do sabiá fuinha e refeito de pinho, mas, se você é sol e poeta de feitos, eu banco o Revisto, desse lugar eu vou sair. Botei a pata no teu patavina. Tempestade é uma ova, tua cova compro eu Senhor.

Marcelle Ch. no xadrez é nada cortês com os poetas sem vez, mas deixa cem vez mais esquifes que mil patifes.

Genin.(*)”

Em 10 de novembro pede-se à doente que escreva aos médicos uma carta curta em estilo normal. Ela logo o faz, em nossa presença e com sucesso. Pede-se a ela, em seguida, que escreva um post-scriptum seguindo as suas <inspirações>. Aqui está o que ela nos oferece:

Post-Scriptum inspirado.

Queria descobri-los os mais inéditos senhores na marmota do mico mas estão aterrados porque os odeio a ponto de querê-los todos salvos. Fé d’Arma e de Marna para ensafadá-los e fazê-los chorar o fardo alheio, o meu não.

Marna do diabo.”

Vale lembrar que Marne au diable [Marna do diabo] evoca La mare au diable [O charco do diabo], o título de um romance campestre da autoria de George Sand [1804-1876] e que havia sido publicado em 1846. O livro conta a história de Germain(*), um jovem viúvo que, após cair num luto profundo com o falecimento da esposa — que havia deixado o marido e três filhos —, procura se casar novamente, encorajado pelo sogro. Ao saber que havia uma viúva numa região vizinha (Catherine Guerin) que também estava procurando se casar de novo, Germain vai ao seu encontro acompanhado de Marie — uma moça cuja guarda lhe foi confiada e irá trabalhar numa fazenda perto do local onde mora a viúva — e de um dos filhos, que embarca clandestinamente na viagem. No entanto, um temporal tira o grupo do caminho, fazendo com que busquem refúgio numa floresta, onde passam a noite ao lado de um charco — episódio decisivo para o restante da história. (N. do T.)”

Frequentemente o fim da carta preenche a margem. Nenhuma outra originalidade de disposição. Não há sublinhados.

Nenhuma rasura. O ato de escrever, quando o testemunhamos, realiza-se sem interrupção, como que sem pressa.”

A doente afirma que aquilo que ela exprime lhe é imposto, não de uma forma irresistível — nem mesmo rigorosa —, mas de um modo já formulado. É, no sentido forte do termo, uma inspiração.

Essa inspiração não a perturba quando escreve uma carta em estilo normal na presença do médico. Ela advém, em contrapartida — e, ao menos episodicamente, é sempre acolhida —, quando a doente escreve sozinha. Mesmo numa cópia dessas cartas, destinada a ser guardada, ela não descarta uma modificação do texto que lhe é <inspirada>.”

Para os escritos recentemente compostos, na maioria das vezes ela oferece interpretações que aclaram o mecanismo de sua produção. Só nos damos conta disso quando nos submetemos a uma análise objetiva. Com Pfersdorff, atribuímos a toda interpretação dita <filológica> um valor apenas de sintoma.” Nota do tradutor: “Charles Pfersdorff [1875-1953], médico que havia se formado na Kaiser-Wilhelms-Universität (Estrasburgo), passou a atuar como assistente na Clínica Médica do Hospital Civil da cidade em 1899. Foi para Viena em 1901 a fim de estudar seis meses com Richard von Krafft-Ebing [1840-1902]; e no ano seguinte, para Heidelberg, onde estudou com Emil Kraepelin [1856-1926] durante um ano. Já tendo atuado como professor na Universidade de Estrasburgo antes da Guerra — que o levou à frente de batalha, mantendo-o afastado da docência —, retorna à cidade em 1917 e, em 1919, assume a cátedra de psiquiatria, da qual será titular até o ano de 1945. Suas contribuições se deram em torno de três temas principais: a demência precoce, a esquizofrenia (especialmente do ponto de vista dos aspectos linguísticos) e as crianças com deficiência intelectual.”

estado de estenia que acompanha as inspirações”

Eu faço a língua evoluir. É preciso sacudir todas essas velhas formas”

Henry Head [1861-1940] foi um neurologista inglês que realizou pesquisas pioneiras no campo dos sistemas sensoriais. Seu último grande trabalho, Aphasia and kindred disorders of speech [Afasia e outros distúrbios da fala aparentados], foi avaliado por Macdonald Critchley (The black hole and other essays [London: Pitman, 1964]) como <a melhor monografia sobre o tema da afasia na literatura neurológica”. Ao descrever a “afasia semântica> nessa obra, Head propõe um vínculo entre os aspectos linguísticos e intelectuais da fala, algo cujas implicações posteriormente receberiam crédito e ampliação de afasiologistas moderno[s]. (N. do T.)”

Numa primeira abordagem eles estão reduzidos ao mínimo. Contudo, encontram-se elisões silábicas que incidem frequentemente — ponto digno de nota — na primeira sílaba; assaz frequentemente o esquecimento de uma partícula, no mais das vezes de uma preposição: por ou de etc. Acaso se trata daqueles curtos barramentos ou inibições do curso do pensamento que fazem parte dos sutis fenômenos negativos da esquizofrenia? O fato é ainda mais difícil de afirmar por conta de a doente dar dele interpretações delirantes. Ela suprimiu esse e ou aquele de porque ele teria botado a sua iniciativa a perder. Nos escritos ela faz alusão a isso.”

A ruminação mental consiste no retorno obsedante dos mesmos pensamentos improdutivos ou das mesmas preocupações, dominados pela dúvida, sem que possam ser descartados da consciência. (N. do T.)”

as palavras pamonha, de onde derivam pamonhuda e pamonhona, que são xingamentos que designam sempre a sua principal inimiga, a Srta. G…”

Em passagens bem mais raras, o vínculo sintático é destruído e os termos formam uma sequência verbal organizada pela associação assonante de tipo maníaco (…) Em parte, a fadiga condiciona essas formas, que são mais frequentes no final das cartas.”

Os experimentos feitos por alguns escritores sobre um modo de escrita que eles chamaram de <surrealista>, e cujo método descreveram muito cientificamente, mostram o grau de notável autonomia a que podem chegar o[s] automatismos gráficos fora de toda e qualquer hipnose.”

Ao cabo de nossa análise, constatamos ser impossível isolar na consciência mórbida o fenômeno elementar, psicossensorial ou puramente psíquico, que seria o núcleo patológico ao qual a personalidade que permaneceu normal reagiria. O distúrbio mental nunca está isolado.”

Nada é, em suma, menos inspirado — no sentido do espírito — do que esse escrito sentido como inspirado. É quando o pensamento é curto e pobre que o fenômeno automático o suplementa. Ele é sentido como exterior porque suplementa um déficit do pensamento. Ele é julgado como válido porque é convocado par uma emoção estênica.”

A respeito da esquizofasia/esquizografia e seus efeitos na história da psicanálise através da teorização tardia de Jacques Lacan, bem como sua relação com a vanguarda poética e literária da época, cf. F. Hulak, ‘Schizographie, l’avant-garde d’un symptôme’, L’Évolution Psychiatrique, vol. 82, n. 2, abr.–jun. de 2017, pp. 279-290. Disponível em: <www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014385515001140>. Cf. também: J. Chénieux-Gendron, ‘Jacques Lacan, L’Autre de André Breton’. In: É. Marty,  Lacan et la littérature. Paris: Éditions Manucius, 2005, pp. 27-48. [Em português: <Jacques Lacan, ‘O Outro’ de André Breton> (Trad. R.E. Franco), Manuscrítica, n. 29, 2015. Disponível em: <www.revistas.fflch.usp.br/manuscritica/article/view/2351>.

DANIEL DEFOE, JONATHAN SWIFT & UM PANORAMA DA LITERATURA INGLESA DOS XVIII // OU AINDA: UMA CRÍTICA DA CLASSE MÉDIA E, AINDA, ALGUMAS CONSIDERAÇÕES PROTOFEMINISTAS – Excertos traduzidos de um capítulo de livro de Terry Eagleton, crítico literário britânico, intitulado “Daniel Defoe and Jonathan Swift”

Os excertos giram em torno de dois autores contemporâneos, talvez os dois mais conhecidos hoje fora da Inglaterra em termos de literatura clássica daquele país – As Viagens de Gulliver veio ao mundo menos de quinze anos depois d’As Aventuras de Robinson Crusoe. São duas obras espantosamente similares e divergentes ao mesmo tempo. Duas narrativas, eu diria, de restless wanderers, viajantes incansáveis, espécies de maníacos tragicamente involuntários por navegar o mundo, sem propósito claro em mente…

Assim como o novelista e ex-condenado Jeffrey Archer, a carreira de Daniel Defoe abrangeu dívidas e alta política, a profissão de escritor e o cárcere. Cronologicamente falando, a arte imitou a vida com Defoe, uma vez que ele começou a escrever maior parte de suas obras enquanto ativista. De outro ângulo, entretanto, sua vida imitou, sim, a arte, pois sua trajetória foi sensacionalista o bastante para que pudesse figurar tranquilamente como o protagonista de suas próprias novelas tumultuadas. Em diversos momentos ele se dedicou ao comércio de vestuário, vinho e tabaco, foi dono de uma fábrica de tijolos, um político vira-casaca, uma espécie de espião do submundo e dos bastidores da política, agente secreto oficial do governo, espécie de diplomata e assessor do império britânico por meio de suas publicações jornalísticas (o que na época chamavam de publicista). Não bastasse todo esse cartel, tomou parte ativa em uma rebelião armada contra Jaime II, excursionou incansavelmente pela Europa e teve um papel crucial nas históricas negociações da unificação política dos reinos da Inglaterra e da Escócia.

Defoe faliu mais de uma vez, foi preso por débitos e até exposto no pelourinho num processo de sedição após publicar um panfleto satírico. Mesmo depois dessa experiência, ele viria a publicar um Hino ao Pelourinho (Hymn to the Pillory), bem como um Hino às Massas (Hymn to the Mob), em que, escandalosamente para a época, enaltecia o povo de extrato inferior por sua extrema lucidez de julgamento. É difícil imaginar outro grande autor inglês fazendo a mesma coisa na mesma época. Entre suas obras, está também Uma História Política do Demônio (A Political History of the Devil), um estudo sobre fantasmas, motivado pela Grande Praga de Londres, um surto da peste bubônica que eclodiu em 1665 e durou até o biblicamente simbólico ano seguinte. Defoe publicou também uma apologia irrestrita da instituição do casamento intitulada Indecência Conjugal; ou da Prostituição Marital. Um tratado sobre a Utilidade e a Inconveniência da Cama de Casal (Conjugal Lewdness; or Matrimonial Whoredom. A Treatise Concerning the Use and Abuse of the Marriage Bed). De modo algum ele seria um ‘novelista’ no puro senso da palavra (o próprio termo em voga criou sua acepção muito mais tarde), muito embora ele tenha atacado os ‘Romances’ (o gênero pré-novelístico por excelência), que para ele eram estórias que não informavam, apenas entretinham (e isso era necessariamente ruim naquela Inglaterra). Suas obras mais consagradas, Moll Flanders e Robinson Crusoe, são ‘novelas’ apenas em retrospecto. Defoe só escrevia aquilo com que pensava poder lucrar, sendo uma espécie de autor oportunista altamente prolífico que ‘atirava para todos os lados’ no mercado literário em ebulição de seus dias. A imprensa da época não discriminava entre gêneros, muito menos Defoe o faria.

Escrever, para Defoe, pois, não passava de commodity, como ele próprio retrata o mundo em suas ‘novelas’, que podemos resumir como ‘uma série de coisas a que se dá um preço de alto a baixo’. Tampouco era Defoe um ‘homem literário’: ao contrário, sua escrita é apressada, não pesa as palavras, e é transparente demais. Um ‘grau zero’ do estilo como se sempre fosse um jornalista ou historiador relatando fatos que tendia a apagar as próprias pegadas, negando seu próprio status de escritor e, portanto, de criador de realidades. O próprio Defoe batizava seu estilo de ‘cáustico’ ou ‘abjeto’ (mean), pretensamente desprovido de conscienciosidade e ignorante dos próprios artifícios. Na linguagem lacônica e um tanto caseira e pré-fabricada de Defoe sentimos, quase pela primeira vez na Literatura, o idioma dos comuns. Linguagem despida de textura e densidade, que permite ao leitor atravessar as palavras e ver as coisas de frente e em si mesmas. ‘O conhecimento das coisas, não das palavras, molda o erudito’, comentou Daniel Defoe no Compleat English Gentleman.¹ Uma profusão de aventuras e incidentes tem forçosamente de compensar as narrativas de Defoe, devido à crueza de textura. A suprema fertilidade de sua técnica é de fato impressionante. Defoe quase não se preocupa com o sentir das coisas, não mais do que um merceeiro passaria o dia acariciando e apalpando seus queijos, que são apenas seu ganha-pão. Defoe é o utilitarista-padrão: mais interessado no valor de troca dos objetos, não em suas qualidades sensuais ou sensórias. Há sem dúvida sensualidade em Defoe, principalmente nas obras de protagonistas mulheres (Moll Flanders e Roxana), mas não sensualismo, voluptuosidade. O realismo defoeniano é um realismo das coisas, enquanto que o de Richardson, por exemplo, é um das pessoas e sentimentos.”

¹ Uma espécie de enciclopédia de seu tempo, hoje de domínio público: https://ia800900.us.archive.org/29/items/compleatenglishg00deforich/compleatenglishg00deforich.pdf. Manuscritos descobertos no séc. XIX, tudo indica que fossem anotações diversas do escritor que ele tinha a intenção de completar e publicar.

Depois de um bom tempo exercendo seu ofício errático, pau-pra-toda-obra, escrevendo meramente para sobreviver, Defoe morreu enquanto se ocultava ou fugia de seus credores, autodeterminado, quem sabe, a acabar da mesma maneira que havia começado, ignorando outros estilos de vida. Foi um Dissidente (um imoralista) numa época em que ser Dissidente (assim, com letra maiúscula mesmo) era o mesmo que não possuir direitos civis. Como muitos de seus compatriotas novelistas, provinha da classe-média baixa econômica mas que possuía um status de pequena-burguesia, devido ao fator da formação intelectual: ilustrado, completou sua educação formal, cultivava ambições de ascensão e em seu meio os jovens eram politicamente articulados. No seu Journal of the Plague Year, ou Jornal do Ano da Peste, ele tripudia de algumas superstições do povão enquanto dá crédito irrestrito a outras. Muito parecido com William Blake em sua origem social, a rebeldia de Defoe afirmava a radical igualdade entre homens e mulheres, sustentando que o handicap feminino não passava do resultado de convenções. Desigualdades sexuais eram puramente culturais, nada naturais. O que distingue suas personagens Roxana e Moll Flanders, como outras tantas prostitutas vigaristas (seja as de luxo ou as que trabalhavam em espeluncas) e objetificadas da literatura de então, é que havia a afirmação premente, em todo o livro: elas não são propriedade de homem algum, elas não são de ninguém. No mundo de Defoe, nenhuma relação é permanente, aliás.”

Quando Moll Flanders diz levianamente que está grata por ter se livrado de seu filho na barriga, todo leitor de época se sentia escandalizado e ao mesmo tempo representado. Roxana é a comerciante-mulher, que embora seja a própria mercadoria é a dona do negócio: recusa o casamento, mesmo com um bom nobre, pois isso seria a ruína total de sua independência financeira. Ser esposa, para Roxana, era o mesmo que ser escrava. Os puritanos da geração de Defoe prezavam tanto a felicidade doméstica quanto o individualismo econômico; o único problema era a completa incompatibilidade de ambos. Sobretudo no caso das mulheres, que em quaisquer das esferas, isoladamente consideradas, estavam de todo modo alijadas da autonomia. Isso não significa que não fosse também uma questão masculina: na prática o individualismo econômico significava uma castração, compelindo à afabilidade, afeição, lealdade e companheirismo que o pai de família devia simbolizar.

Para complementar as credenciais progressistas de Defoe, ele militava pela absoluta soberania do plebeu, cujo direito de não se curvar a uma soberania injusta era, ele pregava, inalienável. Ele defendia os quakers e já então propagava os méritos de uma sociedade etnicamente miscigenada. Estrangeiros, segundo ele, eram um precioso acréscimo para a nação. Defoe troçava das mitologias chauvinistas dos bretões em poemas como O Inglês Puro-Sangue (The True-Born Englishman), cujos versos não hesitam em caracterizar a raça britânica justamente pela sua alta mestiçagem, desdenhando a noção aristocrática de pureza de sangue e ridicularizando a própria idéia-título do ‘puro-sangue’ com suprema ironia: mera ficção e, aliás, contradição. Não é irrelevante para essa polêmica (à época) que Guilherme III, sob quem Defoe exerceu seus trabalhos panfletários, fosse um holandês.”

“‘O que significam as capacidades naturais de qualquer criança sem a educação?’, o autor questiona no Compleat English Gentleman. Apenas tories absolutamente reacionários como Henry Fielding seriam capazes de enaltecer só o lado das qualidades inatas. Defoe não se mostrava pudico em politizar a questão: por trás dessa doutrina pedagógica ‘inocente’ havia toda uma tentativa de impedir as reformas pedagógico-sociais necessárias à Inglaterra, mediante o argumento dos talentos e habilidades congênitos e inalteráveis, que sempre legitimariam só as crianças da nobreza.”

O homem não é rico porque é honesto, mas é honesto porque é rico.

Essa é uma doutrina escandalosamente materialista avant-la-lettre, muito mais típica de um Bertolt Brecht do que de um ardoroso cristão dos Setecentos. Valores morais são o simples reflexo das condições materiais. Os ricos são apenas privilegiados o bastante para não terem de roubar. A moralidade é para aqueles que podem cultivá-la. Ideais calham muito bem a quem tem de sobra o que comer. Defoe também exigia leis que reconhecessem a condição dos miseráveis, ao invés da replicagem de um sistema que, em primeiro lugar, criou a miséria, para depois enforcar os miseráveis por serem eles o que são.”

Se a classe média preza tanto pelo eu autônomo na teoria, como pode ser que viole tanto essa doutrina na prática? Quer ela de fato a independência de todos os seus servos, assalariados que tem tão pouco poder de barganha que são menos do que cidadãos e pouco mais que escravos, sem falar dos colonizados além-mar? Não seria preferível para o pequeno-burguês, secretamente, é claro, preferir a liberdade irrestrita para si e a negativa para todos os competidores no mercado? A pequena-burguesia acredita na autodeterminação da população; mas ao mesmo tempo seus membros, homens e mulheres, não passam de títeres de forças econômicas impessoais. Os protagonistas de Defoe – Moll, Crusoe, Roxana, Coronel Jack – estão todos enleados nessa contradição. Se eles são, num sentido, forjadores de seu próprio destino, são, inegavelmente, vítimas desafortunadas da Providência, das leis do livre comércio e de seus próprios apetites.

No ensaio A Divindade da Troca (The Divinity of Trade), Defoe vê a Natureza como um tipo de capitalista, que – em sua infinita e inapreensível sabedoria burguesa – criou corpos capazes de flutuar sobre as águas, para que se pudessem construir navios e fomentar o comércio; criou as estrelas para nortear os navegadores; e até escavou rios no seio dos continentes que levam as embarcações direto para os recursos espoliáveis de outros países. Animais foram feitos dóceis e submissos deliberadamente para que o homem os explorasse como instrumentos e também como matéria-prima; linhas costeiras pedregosas foram criadas possibilitando a construção de fortalezas; matéria-prima conveniente foi distribuída ao longo de todo o planeta para que cada nação tivesse algo para vender e algo para comprar. Ainda que estejamos falando de um período muito aquém dos oceanos de Coca-Cola e da produção da necessidade quase que instintiva de calçar um Nike, a Natureza, para Defoe, não perdia e não perdeu nada de vista.”

Ora, se o homem era divinizado e elevado de forma sem precedentes nessa nova ordem social, temos em contrapartida a desvantagem de que qualquer indivíduo é indiferentemente intercambiável. Parceiros comerciais, sexuais ou maritais em Defoe vêm e vão, às vezes com tanta individualidade quanto numa coletividade de coelhos. Mas o maior conflito se dá entre as práticas amorais de uma cultura plutocêntrica e autocentrada em excesso e os altos ideais morais que essa própria cultura insiste em pregar.”

O escritor John Dunton, também do séc. XVIII, que teve ligeiro contato com Defoe, geria um jornal mensal devotado à prostituição, ou antes a denegrir a prática da prostituição ao invés de servir como Classificados do corpo humano alheio, o Night Walker: or, Evening Rambles in Search after Lewd Women (O Caminhante Noturno [/o Homem da Noite]: ou Aventuras do Entardecer em Busca de Mulheres Lascivas). Mesmo sendo vanguardista para a época, impossível que fosse um jornal politicamente correto para nossa concepção. A novela naturalista do século XIX procedia a expedientes parecidos, num meio-termo entre a objetificação degradante e gratuita da mulher da noite e a exposição de uma espécie de mal burguês: essas escapadelas maritais tinham um odor sensual e fatalista, havia um certo prazer mórbido no retrato de becos sujos e miseráveis em que todo moralista jogava a moral fora, e a mulher podia ser vista como a vítima de uma (des)ordem social; o século XIX foi cada vez mais inquirindo sobre esta questão de forma científica, menos sensacionalista, mas Defoe não chegou a testemunhar essa evolução.”

A família, para um puritano devoto como Defoe, é um domínio sagrado, como sugere seu panfleto de costumes O Instrutor da Família (The Family Instructor). Ao mesmo tempo, ele advoga, sem constrangimento, que tais laços podem e devem ser cortados quando se tornam mais maus do que bons: quando forem sinônimo de uma degradação do casamento, quando forem sinônimo do aviltamento das relações sangüíneas, acaba sendo a conduta mais autêntica e virtuosa o corte destes laços, ignorados ou tratados como meros meios para outros fins.”

Em Crusoe, é como se o colonialista frio e moderado desse o tom do enredo. Ele (o narrador em primeira pessoa) também é aquele que dá o matiz exótico ao objeto (cenário) em questão, isto é, sua colônia involuntária no meio dos trópicos. Essas narrativas sem adornos e sem culpa de consciência não chegam a destruir os vasos capilares do decoro ideológico da Inglaterra pós-elizabetana, mas são um primeiro desnudamento de sua lógica imperialista. Não são narrativas de uma veia polêmica, ainda, são mais cândidas que outra coisa. Não há sentimentalismo, porque sentimentos não podem ser quantificados, e nesta literatura em que só o que é quantificável é real eles ainda não aparecem. Nesta atmosfera intermediária de amoralismo, o relato é fidedignamente subversivo ou subversivamente fidedigno espelhando a existência social daquelas décadas; as relações são o que são, não o que deveram ser. Não obstante, a pura e simples descrição do fato e da matéria bruta não deixa de ser explosivo em si mesmo, ou conducente à explosão da dinamite próxima. O realismo se torna de grau em grau Política.”

Moll Flanders termina sua história contando como prosperou e chegou ao sucesso após uma vida de crimes, mas acrescentando, com alguma urgência, em tom de confissão compungida, que ela se arrepende sinceramente de todo seu passado. A moral da história – o crime não compensa – é explicitamente contradita pelo final efetivo. O contraste é tão desconcertante que alguns críticos passaram seu tempo imaginando se Defoe foi ou não abertamente sarcástico. Quando o náufrago Crusoe considera a inutilidade de todo o ouro que conseguira trazer do navio até a ilha, mas, no fim, decide levá-lo consigo assim mesmo – isso é uma tirada irônica do autor ou humor involuntário? Quando Crusoe, testemunhando Sexta-Feira que escapa de seus ex-irmãos canibais para não ser comido, reflete acerca da utilidade de levar consigo um servo, sendo este acréscimo a seu ‘patrimônio’ coincidente com um suposto chamado da Providência para salvar um desgraçado, seria essa harmonia entre interesse capitalista e revelação divina um artifício do autor para produzir o riso do leitor? Defoe está ou não depreciando sua heroína Roxana quando ela declara que deve manter seu próprio dinheiro separado do de seu amo e marido, para não misturar seus ganhos ilícitos com o suado e honesto capital do cônjuge?”

Porque se essa for a opinião fática do Defoe o Realista literário e Materialista radical, dificilmente seria também o credo de sua metade dissidente e religiosa. Defoe o Cristão estabelece a moral e a religião como realidades autossuficientes e inquestionáveis. Mas autossuficientes e inquestionáveis até que ponto, cara pálida? Se esses valores transcendentais existem numa esfera própria, eles pouco impactam na conduta efetiva dos personagens. Moll sente pena de uma de suas vítimas mesmo durante o ato de roubá-la, mas sua tristeza nada impede na concretização do ato. Como o Coronel Jack, que pode muito bem ser um perfeito larápio e viver com a consciência remoída. No século XVIII, piedade e nariz empinado não eram estranhos um ao outro. E não se distinguiam muito bem. Ou a moral falha porque está muito mesclada com o mundo material, ou falha porque está, justamente, dele apartada. Defoe reconhece esta última condição quando escreve: ‘Lágrimas e orações não fazem revoluções / Não derrubam tiranos, não quebram grilhões’.”

A moralidade em Defoe é geralmente retrospectiva. Uma vez que você tenha pilhado, pode finalmente ser penitente. Como demonstra o narrador de si próprio em Crusoe, é só ao escrever seus atos que você pode julgar sua vida como um todo. Enquanto tenta entender a própria vida ao vivo, você anda ocupado demais mantendo o nariz acima do nível d’água para levar a termo qualquer reflexão, quanto mais sentir remorso. Só há dois desfechos: continuar ou se afogar. Correr e ainda assim não ganhar nenhum terreno, continuar na condição em que já estava; ou simplesmente perecer. Não é fácil se embrenhar em considerações metafísicas enquanto a necessidade imediata é fugir dos credores ou lidar com seu atual marido. A narrativa sempre ziguezagueia num passo tão frenético que um evento vai borrando o outro num contínuo. Nenhum da horda de personagens da novela Moll Flanders chega a ter um intercurso mais que casual com a heroína – a interação típica entre cosmopolitas, mas impensável na comunidade rural dos livros de uma Jane Austen ou George Eliot. As figuras que interagem com Moll entram e saem de sua vida e das páginas de sua vida como meros transeuntes cruzam pela Piccadilly. A pergunta mais premente na cabeça do leitor que atravessa este processo metonímico virtualmente infindável é: o que vem a seguir? Sentido e relato não são concordes.

Assim como um parvo, diz-se, é incapaz de mascar chiclete e caminhar ao mesmo tempo, os personagens de Defoe só podem agir ou refletir, mas nunca os dois juntos. A ação moralmente informada é rara; a reflexão moral só vem bem depois. É essa a razão da coexistência de dois formatos literários consideravelmente diferentes sob a capa do Robinson Crusoe: a história aventuresca e a autobiografia espiritual. De todos os personagens de Daniel Defoe, Crusoe é o mais feliz na combinação dessa ação racional com a reflexão moral. Mas isso se dá, em parte, por causa das circunstâncias excepcionais: Crusoe está sozinho numa ilha, tem algum trabalho a executar, mas também muito tempo ocioso para meditar.”

Como a vida é terrivelmente material mas também uma sucessão ininterrupta e agitada de eventos, cada ato parece simultaneamente vívido e sem substância. Essas novelas são tornadas artigos fascinantes pelo processo de criação em si mesmo, pelo valor de troca, e não pelo valor de uso (intenção final). Não há uma lógica conclusiva para a narrativa de Defoe, é uma narrativa pura e simples. Não há um momento do livro em que o fechamento seria mais natural que em qualquer outro fecho de capítulo. O eu-lírico apenas prossegue acumulando narrativa(s), como um capitalista jamais cessa de acumular capital. Um pedaço de enredo, como um investimento particular, acaba levando ao próximo. Crusoe mal volta à terra natal e já está em alto-mar de novo, ainda acumulando aventuras, que serão obviamente narradas e contarão com o desejo do eu-lírico de formular um propósito. A sede de narrativa é insaciável. A acumulação de capital parece ter um propósito, mas é pura aparência. Secretamente, pelo menos no mercantilismo defoeniano, subjaz a verdade de que o único fim da acumulação é a própria acumulação. Uma novela de Defoe não tem o epílogo de facto, como têm as novelas de Fielding. Todos os finais são arbitrários, e todos poderiam ser apenas novos começos, se se quisesse.¹ O viajante inquieto só repousa a fim de se preparar para a próxima viagem…”

¹ A maior prova disso é que AS AVENTURAS DE ROBINSON CRUSOE são continuadas pelas NOVAS AVENTURAS DE ROBINSON CRUSOE, por mim panoramicamente traduzidas em https://seclusao.art.blog/2018/08/25/as-novas-aventuras-de-robinson-crusoe-sendo-a-segunda-e-ultima-parte-de-sua-vida-e-contando-as-estranhezas-e-surpresas-de-suas-viagens-por-tres-cantos-do-mundo-versao-co/. O autor escolheu convenientemente que o primeiro livro é a primeira metade da vida de Crusoe, e depois veio a 2ª. Mas nada o impediria de estabelecer uma tripartição, ou uma divisão em 4. Exemplos literários correlatos é o que não falta!

E devido a essa narratividade pura poucos eventos em Defoe são fruídos com densidade o bastante para deixar uma impressão permanente ou recordação intacta. Personagens como Moll ou Roxana vivem premidas pelo pão de cada dia, contando apenas consigo próprias, flutuando conforme a maré, dançando conforme a dança, apostando tudo ou nada a cada momento. Em perfeita adaptação com o mundo altamente mutante que encontram, esses sujeitos sincopam seu ritmo. Ou seja: não há um núcleo central da personalidade, tampouco, porque memórias e aprendizados estarão sempre se acumulando sem uma síntese definitiva. A identidade é uma improvisação, um cálculo, uma estratégia de passagem. Trata-se de uma cadeia de reações possíveis para cada ação promovida pelo ambiente. Os impulsos humanos – avareza, egoísmo, autopreservação – são fixos e imutáveis, é verdade, mas para sempre alcançá-los cada personagem é obrigado a ser flexível a ponto de se converter em metamorfo. A perspicácia e cautela necessárias para lidar com o tema da epidemia no Jornal do Ano da Peste seriam versões escandalosas e exageradas das próprias exigências do cotidiano para o leitor-padrão.”

O Coronel Jack se casa quatro vezes, a despeito de poder passar tranqüilamente sem mulheres, e rompe com uma delas porque ela dilapida sua fortuna. Na veia mais hobbesiana e pragmática possível, o interesse burguês é muito mais fundamental que a o altruísmo iluminista. Só mesmo caçar para comer seria mais premente que caçar para lucrar.”

O eu-narrador deslinda a trama com ar imperturbável que sugere um presente consideravelmente distanciado do passado em que o eu-narrado aparece (anos de intervalo, com toda a certeza). Este último não se pode dar ao luxo dessa parcimônia glacial do primeiro. Há uma tensão constante entre as duas dimensões temporais.”

Embora ‘Deus não esteja morto’, pareceria, a essa altura, para o bom Protestante, que Ele se recolheu deste mundo. Essa é uma das razões para as especulações de Defoe sobre a Providência ecoarem com um quê de vacilação. Ora, lembra o autor em The True-Born Englishman: ‘O que vem da Providência, consiste no interesse de todo o universo.’. Se tomarmos a frase ao pé-da-letra, estariam justificados o estupro, o assassinato, o canibalismo. Cada um desses pecados teria seu papel na manutenção da harmonia do cosmo. Defoe declama piamente no prefácio do Crusoe como devemos honrar a sabedoria da Providência e suas obras, ‘sucedam como sucedam’; mas o protagonista, muito longe de se resignar ao destino, é hiperativo e incansável na tentativa de forjar seus próprios porquês.”

De nossa perspectiva, se Crusoe devera ser punido, não seria por ter vivido a primeira metade da vida como um pagão, mas sim por vender Xury, seu servo, à escravidão brutal e por gerir uma plantation no Brasil movida a mais trabalho escravo. Na verdade, quando naufraga, ele estava justamente prestes a comprar mais mão-de-obra escrava numa expedição clandestina para abastecer seu engenho. Mas nem o personagem nem o autor conseguiriam ver tais ações como pecaminosas, ainda que Crusoe se indigne com as condições do imperialismo espanhol nas Américas. Como com o narrador de O Coração das Trevas de Joseph Conrad, o ‘imperialismo dos outros’ é sempre mais repreensível que o nosso. O Coronel Jack defende o castigo físico dos escravos, e não há qualquer indicativo de que Defoe pensasse diferente. A liberdade era para os ingleses, não para os africanos! Como zeloso puritano, Defoe decerto cria que os ‘selvagens’ estavam condenados irremediavelmente à bestialidade nesta terra, e ao tormento eterno no além. Seu radicalismo (progressismo de vanguarda na política) tinha seus claros limites.”

A Natureza não é mais um livro aberto, mas um texto obscuro a ser decifrado com imensa dificuldade. O Protestante tateia avidamente no escuro atrás de qualquer signo ambíguo de sua própria salvação. Mas o fato é que, num universo secularizado, tudo está entregue à própria contingência, isto é, nada no mundo visível quer dizer alguma coisa nem dá qualquer pista de nada.”

Signos, nesse mundo dessacralizado, como também numa profusão de textos modernistas (dali a duzentos anos), são a priori e incontornavelmente ambíguos. Essa é a razão por que o crente nunca pode parar de trabalhar, porque se não se tem certeza da salvação agora, cada dia seu de labuta pode ser o fiel na balança para a absolvição no dia do Juízo. Ilhas tropicais, é bom lembrar, estão geralmente associadas à indolência, mas não no caso de Crusoe. Ele está sempre ocupado em melhorar e estender sua ‘propriedade paradisíaca’. ‘Eu realmente gostaria de um estábulo maior.’ Tanto é assim que o próprio Crusoe responde a si mesmo, vendo o quão ilógica é essa vontade: ‘Para quê?’. Crusoe não é um capitalista de verdade – é só um de mentirinha, sem mão-de-obra como Outro, sem mercado, consumidor, produto nem competidores ou divisão de trabalho. Mas, ainda que não tenha concorrentes, ele age como se os tivesse…”

A ilha de Crusoe é menos a utopia da pequena-burguesia numa dimensão paralela do que uma versão piorada ou distópica da situação pequeno-burguesa inglesa. Ou, antes, o que uma classe sofre no mundo, Crusoe sofre na sua ilha. Sua solidão é uma versão exponencial da solidão de todos os indivíduos da cidade moderna. Sendo absolutamente dependente num sentido, é verdade que é possível ser absolutamente autodeterminado num outro. Quão enérgico e engenhoso pode-se chegar a ser na administração de seu próprio império seria um índice de sua inclusão entre a minoria eleita. Assim poder-se-ia resolver o conflito aparente entre ser o joguete de Deus e, pelo próprio suor, pregar, no melhor estilo puritano, que o sucesso no trabalho é o melhor sinal que o mundo poderá dar de que você achou favor aos olhos da divindade.”

UM PROBLEMA ISENTO DE QUAISQUER “MEMÓRIAS PÓSTUMAS”: “A narrativa está sempre precariamente ancorada no presente que é um fio de navalha, em que a sorte do personagem é indefinida e o futuro absolutamente duvidoso; mas tudo isso é contado com um tal desassossego e afastamento, fechando um passado, que empresta certa autoridade. Supomos então que o narrador sobreviveu, nem que apenas pelo fato de estar agora, com a maior das calmas, falando de si mesmo na época em que corria perigo. Ansiedade e segurança se acoplam perfeitamente na escrita.”

E assim Defoe continua a insistir que sua estória existe com um fundo moral, embora isso seja obviamente uma farsa. O realismo, no sentido de uma atenção dedicada ao mundo material por si e nele mesmo, não está ainda avalizado neste período literário, embora se encontre em visível ascensão; embora a sociedade em que ele cresce e ascende demande-o cada vez mais, e encoraje-o mais que à moralidade, pois as pessoas passam a acreditar somente no que podem cheirar, tocar, provar. Samuel Johnson argumentava que o fato de um personagem ou evento ser fidedigno à natureza não servia de desculpa para incluí-lo num enredo ou obra de arte. Na teoria, essa colisão entre o moral e o real pode ser resolvida por justificações do autor, no estilo tabloide. Quão mais gráfica e escandalosa uma estória, mais fácil transmitir uma mensagem, poder-se-ia astuciosamente argumentar. Defoe escreve no prefácio para Roxana: ‘Se há qualquer parte da história, no relato de uma má ação, que pareça descrever as coisas de forma muito direta e impudica, todo o cuidado imaginável foi tomado para purificar o trabalho de todas as indecências e indecorosidades…’. Essas linhas, ao que parece, produziam, já naquele tempo, o mesmo efeito que hoje os avisos solenes, prévios a um audiovisual, acerca da presença de sexo e violência nos minutos que seguem: são só um chamariz a mais para a audiência (‘o que é proibido é melhor’), engenhosamente acrescentado pelo autor, sem transgredir nenhuma regra.

A novela realista se torna popular num marco da história em que o cotidiano banal começa a se tornar atrativo por si mesmo. Essa mescla do ordinário e exótico é a síntese do trabalho de Defoe. Parte do prazer extraído da leitura emana da excitação que deriva do puramente mundano. Defoe viveu em tempos turbulentos, e ninguém pode dizer que ele não viveu esses tempos intensa e perigosamente. Em épocas revolucionárias, a teatralidade adquire maior importância, mesmo fora da arte. Como a nova arte imita a vida, o teatral tem de despontar também na arte. Por último: Defoe também sabia o que era sofrer uma bancarrota, ser trancafiado nas galés e embarcar em expedições insólitas das quais não se sabia se se ia voltar.”

James Joyce, que, para nossa surpresa, enumera Defoe entre seus autores prediletos, escreveu do Crusoe que ele encarna ‘todo o espírito anglo-saxão … a independência masculina; a crueldade inconsciente; a persistência; a inteligência devagar mas eficaz; a apatia sexual; a religiosidade prática e metódica; a taciturnidade calculada’. Poderíamos dizer que essa é exatamente a visão que Sexta-Feira tem de Crusoe: Joyce é um súdito colonial da coroa britânica, e com certeza, quando alistado para a guerra, combateu muitos soldados com este perfil, em Dublin. Um ou dois assim são vistos no Ulisses. A passagem acima, que Joyce redigiu enquanto no exílio italiano, tem ainda algo do genial vislumbre do caráter imperial, que era meio-compatível com Joyce (colonizado, mas ao mesmo tempo da elite, ou seja, colonizador pela ótica dos subalternos, das massas irlandesas): outro materialista, o irlandês devia apreciar a fisicalidade intensa de Defoe. Uma vez o dublinense se descreveu como tendo a mente de um verdureiro. Defoe, por sua vez, destila em sua obra o autêntico espírito de uma nação de sapateiros.”

Quem é ele, ele se pergunta no mesmo estilo hipocondríaco do devoto liberal ou do pós-modernista, para interferir com a prática do canibalismo num povo primitivo? Mas o fato de maior parte da novela tratar justamente do know-how do homem civilizado e prático empresta lentes peculiares à tese do universalismo. A racionalidade ortodoxa, no sentido de ensinar quando o importante é se preservar, como não cair de um precipício, por exemplo, é mais plausível como universalidade de todos os povos do que qualquer outro tipo de raciocínio utilitário. É por isso que Sexta-Feira pode ajudar Crusoe nos trabalhos braçais muito antes de poder falar Inglês, porque a lógica do mundo material é comum a todas as culturas. Pedras caem em ambas (a ocidental e a autótocne) porque obedecem à gravidade, seja no Haiti ou em Huddersfield; quatro mãos aplicadas sempre trabalham melhor que duas para carregar objetos pesados; alguém pode jogar-lhe uma corda para evitar que você se afogue ainda que no sistema cultural de quem jogou a corda a água simbolize algo totalmente diferente do que você aprendeu em seus dogmas e valores. A racionalidade prática é, nesse aspecto, o epítome do Anglicismo: se o gentleman chegar de fato aos céus, está na cara que examinarão o lugar com bastante escrutínio, para tirarem o melhor proveito do que ele terá a oferecer. Mas eis um tipo de comportamento, senão onipresente, pelo menos atemporal.”

Não é escassa a literatura da tradição do comerciante-criminoso e vice-versa, dos vigaristas de John Gay em A Ópera do Vagabundo ao Vautrin de Balzac e o Mr. Merdle de Dickens. Como Bertolt Brecht disse: ‘O que é roubar um banco comparado com abrir um?’. A cozinha dos ladrões é a companhia de comércio sem a ideologia da respeitabilidade. O Coronel Jack começa como um ladrão de meia-tigela e termina como um bem-sucedido capitalista na Virgínia, sem nenhum talento a mais do que quando começara sua ‘carreira’. O mestre do crime de Fielding, Jonathan Wild, é um retrato satírico do político Robert Walpole, que funde em sua figura o mundo da alta política e da contravenção chic ou do colarinho branco. A idéia de ir parar numa terra virgem e construir do zero uma civilização deve constituir uma das fantasias mais intensas para a classe média. Sem dúvida isso ajuda a justificar a permanência de Crusoe como clássico sem o menor sinal de que vá ceder o posto tão cedo.”

Ao desafiar a influência do gentil-homem e da nobreza, era necessário, para lograr êxito, desacreditar o poder da antiguidade no processo. Defoe é sardônico sobre a obsessão aristocrática com a pureza de sangue e o matrimônio: Por que – ele pergunta no Compleat English Gentleman – os nobres permitem de boa vontade que amas-de-leite plebéias amamentem seus filhos, já que, ironicamente, elas lhes estão repassando, conforme a própria teoria eugênica dos sangue-azul, um sangue degenerado? N’O Inglês Puro-Sangue ele admite explicitamente a irrelevância do tópico da ancestralidade. Destarte, é uma fantasia muito benquista pelo homem branco imaginar-se num território virgem, poder desfazer toda a história até suas origens, recomeçando-a melhor, já com a ‘classe média’ no poder.”

O MESMO EFEITO DA ESTÁTUA DA LIBERDADE NO PRIMEIRO LONGA DE PLANETA DOS MACACOS: “O que nos deixa derrotados em Robinson Crusoe, e um dos momentos mais insólitos da literatura universal, é aquela misteriosa única pegada encontrada na areia.”

Ainda assim, Robinson Crusoe segue muitos anos sem preocupações em sua ilha; O Gulliver, de Jonathan Swift, não tem a mesma sorte.”

Como Defoe, Swift escreve numa prosa prática, transparente, célere, com o perdão do trocadilho,¹ sem muita textura ou ressonância. Seu texto não possui, como um crítico bem apontou, recessos ou raízes e ramificações mil. Há uma alarmante ausência de metáforas. É um estilo da superfície, sem muita profundeza nem interioridade.² Swift desconfia de toda reflexividade textual como de toda metafísica ou especulação abstrusa. Essa indiferença à verdade filosófica nos conta algo sobre o clero do século XVIII, do qual Swift fazia parte. É quase como um ladrão de banco ser indiferente ao dinheiro. Um aristocrata tory da época de Swift era necessariamente um amador, não um especialista: acreditava num certo número necessário de princípios básicos que o século do Iluminismo vinha tornar acessíveis a todos. Swift não poderia entender, ainda que sobrevivesse a sua época, a era da prosa de gêneros especializada. As Viagens de Gulliver não são, no sentido hodierno da palavra, uma obra ‘literária’, e não teriam saído do papel se o autor pensasse em escrever uma novela. A linguagem de Swift, como a de Defoe, tenta apagar a si mesma desdobrando o real no real, e na época não havia palavra para batizar esse zero fictício. As palavras perdem o valor e privilegiam os objetos, que ocupam o centro do palco. A própria linguagem ideal que o autor imaginou – uma língua que abole a língua – é a transparência do modelo. Isso acontece entre os laputianos gramáticos que, ao invés de conversar entre si usando as cordas vocais e convenções aceitas unicamente pelo seu povo, carregam para um e outro lado uma sacola com diversos objetos que eventualmente precisem comunicar, e vão-nos mostrando ao interlocutor, desempenhando uma caricata ‘linguagem de Babel’. A verdade é que a linguagem humana é este saco, mas sem fundo e diáfano, uma forma de levar o mundo conosco sem carregar peso algum (ainda que com a inconveniência de cada povo ter a sua língua). Os Houyhnhnms evitam elaborações verbais e mantêm uma perfeita correspondência entre palavra e coisa – a tal ponto, aliás, que são incapazes de mentir. Perfeitos como são em sua representação do mundo, se houvera dentre eles um escritor, seria este capaz de produzir uma bela novela realista!”

¹ Swift em inglês é ágil, veloz.

² Sublinhei em verde porque não posso estar minimamente de acordo com Eagleton neste trecho!

As Viagens de Gulliver, muito ao contrário do Crusoe, é um libelo do ‘anti-progressismo’ em que um protagonista amnesíaco parece não aprender nada ou aprender muito pouco em cada uma de suas jornadas; assim que ele parte para uma nova aventura, volta a aparentar ser uma tabula rasa. De fato as viagens de Gulliver são mais entrecortadas que as de Crusoe. Estas, mesmo que possam ser segmentadas pelo autor em capítulos e tomos, parecem bem-costuradas narrativamente. Gulliver vive literalmente episódios desconexos um do outro. Não em vão fala-se d’As Viagens como a suprema paródia do livro de viagem, gênero literário¹ usualmente otimista e cheio de ‘lições e aprendizados’.”

¹ O leitor de minha tradução deve ter percebido que em seu afã descritivo o crítico costuma se contradizer bastante. Aqui, vemos que na verdade o europeu do século XVIII contemporâneo de Defoe e Swift já reconhecia, senão o realismo ou o romantismo, pelo menos certos gêneros literários…

O tory Swift, ao contrário do whiggiano Defoe,¹ nada quer ter a ver com indivíduos. Sua única descrição é a de uma verdade universal, enquanto Gulliver e os personagens secundários servem apenas como meios para ilustrá-la. Gulliver não passa de um dispositivo narrativo bem conveniente, não é um ‘personagem’ propriamente dito, não é possível se identificar resolutamente com ele. Crusoe é bem diferente e vai crescendo em nossa concepção conforme avançam as páginas. Gulliver apenas ‘pede’ que observemos e julguemos os lugares que ele visitou.”

¹ Ver tabelas no final.

Os lilliputianos são cruéis, gananciosos e sectários, como se fossem réplicas em miniatura dos políticos de Westminster. Esse retrato da raça humana como corrupta e imutável é típica do conservantismo anglicano swiftiano. Ele desdenha a possibilidade de qualquer progresso dramático e mudança revolucionária para melhor no campo social, e logo se vê que a tal verdade universal que ele tenta mostrar é uma só: já conhecíamos essa verdade antes de viajarmos. Deus nos deu tudo de que precisávamos logo de partida, e velejar a esmo tropeçando em criaturinhas de uma polegada ou esbarrando no tornozelo de gigantes pouco importa nesse quadro. Talvez todos os indivíduos exóticos que encontramos não passem de distrações válidas unicamente para o momento.”

Mas só sabemos que os lilliputianos são diferentes de nós porque conservamos com eles a identidade do conceito de tamanho. Chamamos tarântulas de tarântulas e não de humanos porque usamos a linguagem, pela qual descrevemos e nomeamos as tarântulas, e elas não. Se as tarântulas fossem tão alienígenas assim à espécie humana, não seria esse o caso. Não se pode falar da diferença sem a comparação e o diagnóstico de algo igual. Os únicos diferentes reais de nós são aqueles que passam invisíveis, de cócoras, bem diante do nosso nariz, e que jamais percebemos.”

A escrita de uma viagem é, mais do que antes, como se vê, um gênero muito duvidoso para um tory se engajar naquele tempo. De um livro como esse esperam-se sobretudo novidades, que são indesejáveis para os conservadores. Defoe escreveu cedo na vida um Ensaio sobre Projetos (Essay on Projects), que era o perfeito contraponto dessa ânsia de imobilismo do tory: exibia grande entusiasmo quanto às reformas técnico-científicas. Crusoe rejeita implicitamente, ao querer sair de casa, os valores benquistos pela aristocracia (o lar, a coroa, a nação). Toda essa sede mercantilista de Crusoe não parece mais do que a pornografia do progresso para muitas mentes mais estreitas ou mais clássicas. Fantasiar com monstros desconhecidos é indecoroso; tudo que não é verossímil só pode nublar nosso julgamento. Crusoe encoraja caprichos tolos e emoções extravagantes que são péssimos para a lei e a ordem. Fora que, quanto mais viaja, mais Crusoe se sente um relativista cultural, algo igualmente insidioso para um tory. Pode ser perigoso para o viajante chegar a se tornar tão sonhador e apegado a coisas estrangeiras, a ponto de bradar, por exemplo, que se deparou com selvagens que, eles sim, são felizes e vivem em harmonia com a natureza. Isso seria negar o pecado original e inspirar nas gentes utopias cândidas e pueris, coisa contra a qual se deve lutar. Além do mais, de que vale, se o aventureiro acabaria sempre voltando ao solo inglês, muito longe dessas tais utopias inúteis? As alusões anti-monárquicas e anti-establishment de tais peregrinações pareceram, em todos os tempos, muito grosseiras aos tories.

Muito do debate em curso no século XVIII girava em torno de um consenso político que pudesse superar as terríveis dissensões do século anterior, mais animoso, de guerras civis e de queda e restauração da monarquia. Swift se referiu em vida a Defoe com toda a prepotência de um patrício: ‘Aquele sujeito que foi exibido no pelourinho – esqueci o nome dele…’. Mas não podemos deixar de observar em Swift o mesmo entusiasmo pelo comércio que em Defoe. Swift é irlandês e a Irlanda estava sempre em posição mais combalida que a metrópole. Além disso, Swift também não dava crédito à teoria da pureza da raça, e gostava de se ver como um burguês em que tudo de seus antepassados já se diluíra há muito tempo, a ponto de torná-lo irreconhecível para estes. Swift foi um tory, mas um tory radical, um exemplar do animal oximorônico que muito enriqueceu a cultura inglesa se formos considerar outros escritores tories e radicais ao mesmo tempo, como William Cobbett e John Ruskin.

Defoe era ‘progressista’ e rebelde, mas chegava a delírios de esnobeza episódicos tão altaneiros que chegou a alterar seu nome de Daniel Foe para Daniel De Foe, e que hoje escrevemos Defoe. A conjunção ‘de’ implica origem nobre. Swift e autores como Pope viam a sociedade britânica como desprovida desde os primórdios de mérito congênito, uma raça venal que além de tudo foi muito corrompida pelo poder e pelo dinheiro com o passar do tempo, atributos que eles viam encarnados pelo odioso primeiro-ministro whig Robert Walpole (já comentado). Mas Defoe não deixava, idem, de criticar a obsessão cega e sem qualquer pano de fundo pelo dinheiro.

Poderíamos ver os mesmos entrelaçamentos complementares e/ou contraditórios em pares como Henry Fielding e Samuel Richardson. Richardson era filho de um carpinteiro de Derbyshire, não completou a escola básica e se tornou impressor, enquanto Fielding era um egresso do colégio de Eton repleto de conexões com figurões. Richardson tinha estilo agressivo, era um campeão das classes médias, e afirmava que o ofício do comércio ‘é infinitamente de mais conseqüência, e devia ser muito mais estimulado que qualquer outra posição ou ranking social, sobretudo as dos títulos inócuos típicas da Inglaterra’. E não obstante Richardson se punha estupefato diante da quantidade de personalidades decrépitas e mesquinhas das novelas de Fielding: chegou a afirmar que se não soubesse quem Fielding era, pensaria se tratar de um cavalariço. Fielding rebatia. Disse uma vez que Pamela de Richardson encorajava jovens aristocratas a se casarem com as camareiras de suas mamães, e que não conseguiria por nada pôr-se no lugar dos nobres de suas novelas. Com efeito, em vez de casar-se com a empregada de sua mãe, Henry Fielding casou-se, no segundo matrimônio, com a empregada de sua primeira esposa!” HA-HA-HA-HA!

O nome Gulliver está muito bem-dado, por sinal.¹ Sua credulidade é o mais das vezes seu ponto fraco. Ele de alguma forma se sente pateticamente (afetivamente) ligado a pessoas que conhece em suas viagens um tanto rápido demais, sem muito senso crítico. Em Lilliput, vangloria-se de seu título de Nardac, espécie de análogo a cavaleiro da rainha, lança-se como líder militar, envolve-se em intrigas as mais pavonescas, tendo de enfrentar um processo para provar que não cometeu fornicação com uma lilliputiana. A impossibilidade física do ato sexual entre seu corpo descomunal perto de um lilliputiano não parece ter passado ora alguma pela cabeça do réu que tentava, afobado, se defender. (…) De herói a vilão da pátria, Gulliver parece ser sempre o mesmo, tanto num pólo como noutro, levado unicamente pelas circunstâncias e vilezas dos outros personagens.”

¹ “Gullible” é bobo, ingênuo.

E a despeito do inconveniente de ser um inglês e de explorar terras tão remotas, ele é um ótimo aluno de idiomas, aprendendo rápido a falar como os nativos em suas jornadas, apesar de que isso soa mais como recurso estilístico para justificar a comunicação de Gulliver nessas praças do que uma característica que Swift gostaria de ter dado sem mais a seu protagonista. Se essa parte da personalidade de Gulliver se mostra tão expedita para se adaptar aos costumes forasteiros, sua outra metade é a de um inglês chauvinista cabeça oca, complacente e cego quanto aos defeitos dos seus conterrâneos. Seu relato visivelmente galante da história do reino britânico ao rei Brobdingnag logo produz um efeito contrário ao esperado, horrorizando-o, a ponto deste rei considerar que, se Gulliver fala mesmo a verdade, todos os bretões não passam de uns vermes.”

Ou ele é um imperialista ou um relativista cultural, sem meio-termo. A questão é que a novela serve para demonstrar a secreta afinidade entre os dois extremos. Não há tanta diferença entre defender acriticamente a Coroa inglesa ou o poder soberano de Lilliput. Se devêramos simpatizar com outras culturas, se isso fosse um imperativo, então por que não simpatizar com a própria civilização? Se devemos desculpar os canibais, por que não as grandes multinacionais que poluem a atmosfera? Se todas as culturas estão em ordem e seguem na supracitada ‘harmonia cósmica’, então na realidade não há nada o quê escolher, e nenhum indício de que os brobdingnaguianos seriam superiores, em qualquer sentido, aos ingleses.”

Swift com certeza conhecia o que era preconceito: difamador dos bons, satirista vituperador altamente imaginativo e polemista de vocação, capaz de ignorar a verdade só para terminar com a razão, acabava inadvertidamente por levantar a bandeira da intolerância política e religiosa. Se a sátira de Fielding é genial, a de Swift é tão brusca e amalucada em contraste que parece até semipatológica. Ele era misógino, autoritário, troçador da canalha, e acima de tudo um representante da Irlanda de seu tempo, isto é, a colônia inglesa que era quase um pária e que, caso houvesse uma corrida entre todos os povos colonizados pela Inglaterra decerto não chegaria em primeiro lugar, no juízo inglês. Eis aqui, outra vez, o incômodo e involuntário papel ambíguo de diplomata e capataz, exercido, como vimos, por James Joyce.”

Enfim, o que As Viagens parece querer ensinar? Que você deveria apreciar todas as culturas humanas em sua parcialidade, sem ser um Gulliver, mas também sem recair no niilismo. Homens e mulheres precisam cultivar ideais, como as virtudes plácidas e racionais dos Houyhnhnms, caso queiram ser mais do que reles materialistas. O problema é deixar que esses ideais exerçam um papel predatório na própria consciência. Isso seria ser tão ao revés de um materialista que representaria a negação do próprio corpo, tão ruim quanto a falta de ideais. Não se deve chegar a esse ponto, o de perceber-se com desgosto por causa do Outro. Não se conformar inteiramente com o próprio corpo, é certo, mas nem por isso chegar a reprimi-lo.”

Se não fosse por terem 4 patas e cauda, os Houyhnhnms talvez não estivessem totalmente fora do lugar num salão janeausteniano, tomando chá com Mr. Knightley. Mas convenhamos que este é o ponto: os Houyhnhnms são menos uma possibilidade humana do que, como um ensaísta bem colocou, uma impossibilidade insultante.”

Qual perspectiva é a correta? Difícil responder na época em que inventaram o microscópio. Quão distanciado ou aproximado dos fatos você precisa estar para vê-lo ‘direito’? O que se vê na lente de um microscópio é a verdade ou a distorção da verdade?”

Os novelistas do Dezoito, tendo estabelecido uma distância do mundo romanesco, estão a maior parte das vezes cônscios de que a crença no fato nu e cru é tão mítica quando o próprio ideal do Romance. A novela, sendo a forma literária que é, nada pode fazer no tocante a decidir qual perspectiva é mais ‘verdadeira’, embora exerça um importante papel na definição do ‘mundo real’. Gulliver é um empiricista ultimado ou crente no fato bruto, um ponto de vista que anda de mãos dadas com seu interesse ‘progressista’ nos problemas técnicos e mecânicos (em contraponto ao próprio Swift, parecendo-se, desse ângulo, uma reedição de Crusoe). Ele é um exemplar do ‘novo homem’: cabeça-dura, ou melhor, obstinado, pragmático, aposta todas as suas fichas na religião chamada progresso, é fascinado por esquemas quiméricos e projetos de reforma social, ansioso por galardoar sua narrativa em primeira pessoa com mapas e provas documentais que para ele atestam a veracidade absoluta do que observa nas nações forasteiras.”

Mas Swift não nos brinda com uma solução ao dilema fundamental. Ele desaparece de vista e dá espaço para o leitor lidar com as contradições postas. É da natureza de sua sátira deixar de propor qualquer resposta construtiva – em parte porque um gentleman não carece de se envolver com esses problemas, ninharia de pequeno-burguês; e em parte porque qualquer solução logo se denunciaria como parcial.”

Swift e Defoe escrevem ambos numa sociedade que acredita na verdade, na razão e na justiça teóricas, mas cuja conduta contumaz se tornou tão falsa, injusta e irracional que já não é possível acreditar em nenhum indivíduo na prática.”

Se ‘primitivos’ como os irlandeses (que não são civilizados como os ingleses, ainda) e os aborígenes do Pacífico Sul forem realmente Yahoos, parece que isso justificaria o imperialismo britânico. Mas se os Yahoos são a humanidade inteira, então os colonizadores são (metaforicamente) bestiais e vivem também cobertos de fezes, o que suprime qualquer direito de soberania que tanto se arrogam. Por esta via, o colonialismo se torna uma questão de um bando de selvagens hipócritas liderando outros selvagens, não-hipócritas. Os mestres seriam tão imprestáveis quanto os súditos – uma opinião que, n’O Coração das Trevas, desautoriza qualquer colonialismo mas confirma, ainda, alguns de seus preconceitos (sim, os nativos são mesmo uns imprestáveis).”

Yahhoo boss (Quintanilla)
O chefe Yahoo

No fim, o que cavalos pensam de nós não é o suficiente para nos rotular como Houyhnhnms nem Yahoos – exceto, talvez, para os antepassados dos nobres anglo-irlandeses, para quem era regra amar um cavalo mais do que seus entes queridos, quem dirá o povão.”

comparison gulliver vs crusoe
comparison swift vs defoe

COMPARATIVE STYLISTICS OF FRENCH AND ENGLISH – Darbelnet & Vinay

1. INTRODUCTION

We believe that it would be a great disservice to translation were we summarily to range it among the arts — perhaps as the 8th art.” Then fuck you.

Naïve: “We are probably justified to assume that, with a better understanding of the rules governing the transfer from one language to another, we would arrive at an ever-increasing number of unique solutions. If we had a quantitative criterion for measuring the depth of exploration of a text, we might even be able to give percentages for the cases which still escape full identity.”

The experience of correcting translation papers for competitive examinations should convince anyone that, in general, success comes with methodical approaches and methods are learnt from practitioners with experience in an often thankless profession who know that being bilingual is not enough to embark on this career.”

THE 3 MAIN TYPES OF TRANSLATION

Translation in education can serve both for language acquisition, where it is variously frowned upon or praised, and for confirmation of knowledge acquisition. Translation into the foreign language, also called prose composition or thème, allows checking whether learners have assimilated the words and expressions of the foreign language and translation out of the foreign language, also called version, can show that learners are capable of grasping and expressing the sense and the nuances of a foreign text.”

(ii) transmission of an understood content

Translation can be given a third role. A thoughtful comparison of two languages allows a more effective identification of the characteristics and the behaviour of each. In this respect it is not the sense of an expression that matters but the way a language chooses to present it.” “French does not feel the need to add the directional indication represented by <north>. Intuitive in concrete situations, French allows the reader a greater freedom to reconstitute the contextual environment. Given his point of departure, Vienna or Munich for example, the traveller in question cannot help but going north.”

This book is intended for people who have a sound knowledge of both contemporary French and English. Its purpose is not to explain details of grammar or vocabulary but to examine how the constituent parts of a system function when they render ideas expressed in the other language.”

With experience translators can develop automatic reflexes which make it unnecessary to consider the detailed meaning of a text. Such skills are, however, only developed with regular professional practice. Nor are we referring here to computational linguistics which is concerned with automatic translation, a topic we shall discuss further.” “interest in the automation of the translation process is not unimportant and cannot be ignored by translators. We have sometimes found ourselves faced with a difficult text after a long and tiring day. In such cases a <mechanical> application of translation procedures would permit us to obtain a first draft, which would then only need re-reading to correct the inevitable rigidity of such a method.”

We are thinking, for example, of the translation of ‘école maternelle’ by ‘Motherly School’, which could have been avoided if account had been taken of the fact that in English ‘motherly’ is a purely affective word, whereas ‘maternelle’ can be both intellectual and affective.”

SEM TEMPO PARA POR ACENTOS NEM FLEXOES DE VOZ

When, in a given context, a word has an exact counterpart in another language, there is practically only one signified for two signifiers. For example: ‘knife’ and ‘couteau’ in the context of: ‘couteau de table : table knife’.”

English bread has neither the same appearance nor the same importance as food as French bread.”

bread the pain of hunger le pain de brigitte bardot baguette the bagatelle tel quel

UM VELHO CONHECIDO MARCA PRESENÇA

to repeat one of Darmesteter’s examples, ‘vaisseau’ stresses the form, ‘bâtiment’ the structure and ‘navire’ the floating capacity of the object named.” I’m not fully aware of those nuancés…

It is quite normal to forget the etymology of words and it is even inevitable and necessary so that a word can identify completely with the things it represents.”

équipe de dépannage : wrecking crew (gangue ou bando, galera)

Le berger garde ses moutons.

Le chef a préparé un gigot de mouton.

Langue corresponds to our traditional notions of the grammar and the lexicon; parole lives in the written or spoken stylistic manifestations which characterise every utterance [afirmação; sentença].”

langue parole

sense meaning

it is a fact of the French language that there is a form called ‘l’imparfait du subjonctif’. It is no longer in general use, and since it is no longer obligatory it has become an option. Today this form is considered obsolete.”

the distinction between servitude and option is important”

There is an example of overtranslation in the following passage from a book about the French Resistance movement to the German occupation of France during the Second World War in which the author relies too heavily on information translated inadequately from French.

The striking miners were given food by the occupation authorities, but they were not won over. It went so far that the families of the strikers were compelled to go to the City Hall to look for the soup which their men had refused.

(H.L Brooks, Prisoners of Hope, New York, 1942)

<To go to look for> is a case of overtranslation. It should have read: <to get the soup> or <for the soup> or even better <for the food>.” FOR THE S4K3 OF EATING, MA’AM!

Overtranslation consists principally of seeing two units when there is only one.”

We could also say that grammar is the domain of servitudes whereas options belong to the domain of stylistics, or at least to a certain type of stylistics, namely that which Bally has treated in his Traité de stylistique française (1951).”

the predominance of pronominal verbs in French does not strike us unless we contrast English with French. Through such comparisons we can also note the preference of English for the passive voice. By contrast, the study of pejorative words can be made within a single language without reference to any other. Though translators are mainly concerned with external stylistics, they must not ignore the fact of internal stylistics.”

“‘deceased/dead’; it presupposes an option and consequently the existence of stylistic variants.”

it is undeniable that even in our present period of linguistic relaxation, a French educated speaker is unlikely to say <Je vous cause>. This expression gives the text a certain tone which a translation into English must try to replicate, if only by compensation; for example, by using ‘me’ instead of ‘I’, or <It don’t matter>. The fact that <Je m’en rappelle> has become less clear in its tonal attribution bears witness to the fluctuation in these demarcation lines, but does not deny their existence.”

some linguists, notably Delacroix, have gone so far as describing the word as a <nébuleuse intellectuelle>, or even refused to consider it as having any concrete existence at all.”

There is first of all the capricious use of the hyphen: the French write ‘face à face’, but ‘vis-à-vis’, ‘bon sens’, but ‘non-sens’ and ‘contresens’, ‘portefeuille’, but ‘porte-monnaie’, ‘tout à fait’, but ‘sur-le-champ’. These irregularities are just as common in English, with the added complication that there is variance in the use of the hyphen between British English and American English, which uses hyphens more sparingly [raramente]. The following sentence would seem ludicrous to a British reader without a hyphen, yet its absence is perfectly normal to an American:

His face turned an ugly brick(-)red.

Son visage prit une vilaine couleur rouge brique.

Translators, let us remind ourselves, start from the meaning and carry out all translation procedures within the semantic field. They therefore need a unit which is not exclusively defined by formal criteria, since their work involves form only at the beginning and the end of their task. In this light, the unit that has to be identified is a unit of thought, taking into account that translators do not translate words, but ideas and feelings.”

unidade de pensamento

unidade lexicológica

unidade de tradução

There may be superposition of ideas within the same unit. For example, to loom conveys both the idea of a ghost hanging in mid-air and, at the same time, that of imminence or threat, but, whether seen as a single lexical item in a dictionary or from the point of view of the morpho-syntactic structure in which the word might occur, the two ideas cannot be separated. They are superimposed. This is the reason why it is almost impossible to fully translate poetry.”

Je suis à deux paaaaas du paradise

acon-tecer é tomar lugar mas se você toma minha vaga veja só o que irá su-ceder!

with effect, of fact

de efeito, com fato

black-bird vs. black bird

blackmail vs. black mail

He was good and mad. : Il était furieux.

Ele estava BEM brabo.

stoned deaf metul

pelado como um verme

cansado de estar doente e morto de cansado

ensoulpado da palavra de Cristo

subir em tentação

faire un somme : to take a nap [!]

une petite voiture : a wheel-chair

Dictionaries give numerous examples of these, but there are no complete lists, and all for good reason. The following examples have been selected at random”

The more two languages are alike in structure and civilisation, the greater the risk of confusing the meanings of their respective lexicons, as we see, for example, in the problem caused by faux amis.”

amigos da fossa

Do not walk in the street. : Ne marchez pas sur la chaussée.

Ne marchez pas sur la chausée. : Do not walk on the roadway.[UK]

Do not walk on the street. : Ne marchez pas dans la rue.

head bang tête-détonation

figure 1.3

In some cases the discovery of the appropriate TL unit or sentence is very sudden, almost like a flash, so that it appears as if reading the SL text had automatically revealed the TL message.”

At first the different methods or procedures seem to be countless, but they can be condensed to just 7, each one corresponding to a higher degree of complexity. In practice, they may be used either on their own or combined with one or more of the others.” 3 processos diretos; 4 oblíquos

1. borrowing

manutenção do termo; consagração do estrangeirismo

exs. comuns: comidas típicas, produtos tecnológicos, moedas, cidades

moral da estória: não traduzir nem sempre é crime

redingote (capa longa masculina);

hangar, chic, déjà vu, enfant terrible, rendez-vous, tête-à-tête

The decision to borrow a SL word or expression for introducing an element of local colour is a matter of style and consequently of the message.”

O calco é um calco.

Como calco-carbono de algo.

2. calque

Translators are more interested in new calques which can serve to fill a lacuna, without having to use an actual borrowing (cf. ‘économiquement faible’, a French calque taken from the German language). In such cases it may be preferable to create a new lexical form using Greek or Latin roots or use conversion (cf. ‘l’hypostase’; Bally, 1944:257 ff.).”

awkward calques

terapia ocupacional

banco para o comércio e o desenvolvimento (anti-lucro!)

50-50

o homem das ruas (l’homme dans la rue = o homem médio)

Oriente-Médio

3. literal translation

w-4-w

In principle, a literal translation is a unique solution which is reversible and complete in itself. It is most common when translating between two languages of the same family (e.g. between French and Italian), and even more so when they also share the same culture. If literal translations arise between French and English, it is because common metalinguistic concepts also reveal physical coexistence, i.e. periods of bilingualism, with the conscious or unconscious imitation which attaches to a certain intellectual or political prestige, and such like. They can also be justified by a certain convergence of thought and sometimes of structure, which are certainly present among the European languages (cf. the creation of the definite article, the concepts of culture and civilization), and which have motivated interesting research in General Semantics.” “If this were always the case then our present study would lack justification and translation would lack an intellectual challenge since it would be reduced to an unambiguous transfer from SL to TL. The exploration of the possibility of translating scientific texts by machine, as proposed by the many research groups in universities and industry in all major countries, is largely based on the existence of parallel passages in SL and TL texts, corresponding to parallel thought processes which, as would be expected, are particularly frequent in the documentation required in science and technology. The suitability of such texts for automatic translation was recognised as early as 1955 by Locke & Booth. (For current assessments of the scope of applications of machine translation see: Hutchins & Somers 1992, Sager 1994.)”

If there were conceptual dictionaries with bilingual signifiers, translators would only need to look up the appropriate translation under the entry corresponding to the situation identified by the SL message. But such dictionaries do not exist and therefore translators start off with words or units of translation, to which they apply particular procedures with the intention of conveying the desired message. Since the positioning of a word within an utterance has an effect on its meaning, it may well arise that the solution results in a grouping of words that is so far from the original starting point that no dictionary could give it. Given the infinite number of combinations of signifiers alone, it is understandable that dictionaries cannot provide translators with ready-made solutions to all their problems.”

* * *

4. transposition

procedimento banal em traduções intra-linguísticas.

5. modulation

The difference between fixed and free modulation is one of degree. In the case of fixed modulation, translators with a good knowledge of both languages freely use this method, as they will be aware of the frequency of use, the overall acceptance, and the confirmation provided by a dictionary or grammar of the preferred expression.

Cases of free modulation are single instances not yet fixed and sanctioned by usage, so that the procedure must be carried out anew each time. This, however, is not what qualifies it as optional; when carried out as it should be, the resulting translation should correspond perfectly to the situation indicated by the SL. To illustrate this point, it can be said that the result of a free modulation should lead to a solution that makes the reader exclaim, <Yes, that’s exactly what you would say>.” “a free modulation does not actually become fixed until it is referred to in dictionaries and grammars and is regularly taught.”

ex: inversões do tipo: “ele não achou nada fácil a tarefa.” “ele achou a tarefa bem difícil.”

La transposition correspondrait en traduction à une équation du premier degré, la modulation à une équation du second degré, chacune transformant l’équation en identité, toutes deux effectuant la résolution appropriée.” Panneton:1946

6. equivalence

cocorico: cock-a-doodle-do

miaou: miaow

hi-han: heehaw

provérbios & clichés *hm, meio-calque meio-borrow, dependendo do acento!)

Tá chovendo canivete/o céu vai desabar : It’s raining cats and dogs.

Tô num mato sem cachorro : I’m in a heap big trouble.

deux patrons font chavirer la barque

bucalque é uma sacanagem

in Canadian French the idiom <to talk through one’s hat> has acquired the equivalent <parler à travers son chapeau>.”

galicismos

politique des xénophobiques

altright coroner

7. adaptation

a situational equivalence”

Let us take the example of an English father who would think nothing of kissing his daughter on the mouth, something which is normal in that culture but which would not be acceptable in a literal rendering into French.”

Adaptations are particularly frequent in the translation of book and film titles”

Trois hommes et un couffin. : Three men and a baby. [film]

Le grand Meaulne. : The Wanderer. [book title]

MELHOR APOSTAR NO FUTEBOL: “The method of adaptation is well known amongst simultaneous interpreters: there is the story of an interpreter who, having adapted cricket into Tour de France in a context referring to a particularly popular sport, was put on the spot when the French delegate then thanked the speaker for having referred to such a typically French sport. The interpreter then had to reverse the adaptation and speak of cricket to his English client.”

something that does not sound quite right”

All the great literary translations were carried out with the implicit knowledge of the methods described in this chapter, as Gide’s preface to his translation of Hamlet clearly shows.”

80% of the world will have to live on nothing but translations, their intellect being starved by a diet of linguistic pap.” “Quatro quintos do mundo terão de viver apenas de traduções, seu intelecto sofrendo uma dieta de papinha linguística.”

8. my reign

mon oeuvre

OK é o maior EMPRÉSTIMO de todos os tempos.

Wet paint : Prenez garde à la peinture, though ‘peinture fraîche’ seems to be gaining ground in French-speaking countries

CHÃO MOLHADO (pô valeu cara, mas quem te perguntou alguma coisa?)

peso de papel de papel

Você pode falar à francesa mas odiar crases e saídas discretas de festinhas. Hoot-hoot!

shallow girl : BURRINHA

hollow triumph : Vitória de Pirro

casa de areia

castelo de cartas

casa d’arraia

sand-castle horses

Tom Araya

tel est ton cas

Teleton Caval

Clark Kant Übermas

comme un chien commun

En un clin d’oil Before you could say Jack Robinson.

FUTIBA FUTERA FUTZ

PELADA

JOGUIN

spectacle only with a suspect referee

THE ART OF DIVERSION

COLLIDING TIME

Travel abroad was at one time considered the classical means of acquiring a language. This was not perceived as remedying a shortcoming of teaching, but rather as a recognition that it is easier to teach the forms of a language than its usage which is dependent on metalinguistic information. Travel permits a constant adjustment to the situation, which formal grammar teaching cannot achieve.” “A substitute for travel are documentaries and other films which capture the spirit of a place or a people in natural settings. In both French and English considerable attention must be paid to regional variations in the language. Canadian French, for example, has created words for objects and phenomena unknown in France (e.g. the words ‘poudrerie’ for ‘blizzard’ since snow storms are common occurrences in Canada but rare in France), and there are words of French customs and traditions which are not used in Canada. When dialogues are written in contemporary colloquial language, they serve as examples of current usage and provide ready-made situation-conditioned utterances which are difficult to identify in dictionaries. Older films or films set in a historical period can even provide evidence of the evolution of a language. Specialised books on customs and traditions, specially when they are written with a keen sense of observation, are equally important for translators. Phrase books are equally very useful as are specialised vocabularies with contextual examples which alone can illustrate the use of a word in its context. (Cf. the excellent Vocabulaire de géomorphologie, by H. Baulig, Paris, Belles Lettres, 1956 and the more recent Vocabulaire de l’éditique, Walton on the Naze: GnoufGnouf 1990).” (???)

J.-C. Corbeil & A. Archambault (Dictionnaire thématique visuel français-anglais, Montréal: Québec-Amérique, 1987): Without personal experience or a photograph it is impossible to imagine what an English country lane looks like or the campus of an American university, or even these strange combinations of chemist shops and iron-mongers called ‘drugstores’.”

Though we can always learn from other translations, translators should be suspicious of the, normally unconscious, influence an original can exert. Even if the target language terminology is flawless, it is always possible that parts of the metalinguistic attitudes of the SL have discoloured the TL text, especially in official international documents where the pressure on closeness of structures is great.”

a. Comparison of texts dealing with identical or parallel situations. [me parece um exercício inútil, dado o gap entre as obras]

Examples:

Shipwreck of an ocean liner:

Edouard Peisson, Parti de Liverpool, Paris: Grasset, 1934;

W.C. Wade, The Titanic, End of a Dream, New York: Rawson, 1979.

Description of a tropical storm:

Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, Paul et Virginie, Paris: Flammarion, 1972;

Richard Hughes, A High Wind in Jamaica, London: Chatto, 1960.

War situations:

Ernest Hemingway, Men at War, New York: Crown, 1942;

Henri Barbusse, Le feu, Paris: LFG, 1988.

Descriptions of Venice:

John Ruskin, The Stones of Venice, London: Allen, 1892;

Marcel Proust, La fugitive, Paris: Gallimard, 1954.”

French is more explicit when it says:

texte des épreuves for: questions

début de la séance for: appointed hour

candidats for: students

donner lecture for: read.”

Contrary to all expectations, [eu diria que em nada me surpreende] books on translation written in English seem to be produced by monolingual speakers or at least by people who dislike reading other languages. So it is not surprising that only exceptionally do we find a full discussion, rather than a passing reference, to this book in English publications, while the opposite is certainly not true. The result is that until recently Vinay & Darbelnet were almost completely ignored by English-speaking writers in the United States and are only cursorily referred to in Great Britain. It must, however, also be observed that concern with translation in the English-speaking world has only very recently turned to applied aspects.”

2. THE LEXICON

In the same way as the French ‘grincement’ is more concrete than the French ‘son’ or the English ‘sound’, the English ‘scrub’ is more concrete, because it refers to a more specific action than the French ‘brosser’.” “Generally, it can be said that French words function at a higher degree of abstraction than the corresponding English words. They tend to be less cluttered with details of reality. Bally’s comment on the comparison between French and German is equally true when it is applied to English”

To translate an English sentence into French, is like copying a coloured image in pencil. By reducing in this way the aspects and properties of things, the French mind arrives at general, i.e. simple, ideas which it places in a simplified order, i.e. that of logic. (Taine, quoted by A. Chevrillon in: Revue des deux mondes, May 1908)”

Il est du génie de notre langue de faire prévaloir le dessin sur la couleur.

(Gide, Lettre sur le langage, Amérique française, November 1941)

promenade : walk [i.e. on foot]

: ride (on a bicycle or on horseback)

: sail (by boat)

: drive/ride (by car)

allée (a roadway) : walk (e.g. Birdcage walk in London)

: drive [in streetnames]

: ride [a path for horses]

“‘Ici’ normally corresponds to ‘here’ but frequently this is not specific enough for English which may want to express the difference between ‘up here’, ‘down here’, ‘in here’, ‘out here’, ‘back here’ or ‘over here’; this is disconcerting for French which does not normally go into such details. An Englishman in Australia may say ‘out here’, and in Canada ‘over here’, i.e. in relation to England, his home country.”

A Frenchman may ask ‘Où voulez-vous que je me mette?’, leaving it to the context or the situation whether this refers to sitting or standing. This general expression ‘se mettre’ can only be matched by specific English words and thus yields two possible translations. ‘Where do you want me to stand?’ or ‘Where do you want me to sit?’ In the same manner the French would use ‘être’ and a preposition for indicating the position of objects, when English, though ‘is’ can use the same construction, prefers a concrete verb of action, e.g.:

Le tableau est au mur. : The picture hangs on the wall.

La bibliothèque est dans un coin. : The bookcase stands in a corner.

Le livre est sur la table : The book lies on the table.” [!]

The French word ‘coup’ is extremely useful because it can be applied to a great number of situations in which it expresses what they have in common: a strong impact. The corresponding English ‘blow’ is not nearly as wide-ranging. It has to compete with a whole range of words:

coup : cut (of a sword)

: thrust (of a lance or a rapier)

: shot (of a firearm)

: kick (with a foot)

: clap (of thunder)

: gust (of wind)

: crack (of a whip)

: stroke (of a brush), etc.”

: coup d’État (revolution of the State) – ah, gringos… Não sabem nem do que se trata, a dizer verdade…

+

grincement : grating (of a key)

: screeching (of chalk on a blackboard)

: squeaking (of a door hinge)

sifflement : whistle (a modulated human or mechanical sound)

: hiss (of a serpent or steam)

: whiz (of a bullet)

: swish (of a curtain being pulled)

Você ouviu o zunido da bala agora há pouco?

Americans happen to whistle in approval of a show; they also whistle in disapproval, but it is not the same form of whistling. English cannot distinguish between these two varieties of whistling, though it has two quite distinct words: ‘whistle’ and ‘hiss’ which in such circumstances always has a disapproving connotation.”

le bruit à peine perceptible des morceaux de glace dans un verre (Julien Green)

: the faint clink of ice in a glass

Often French does not differentiate between the movement and the noise, e.g.:

coup de fouet : the crack of a whip (sound)

: the lash of a whip (movement)”

the slam of a door : le bruit d’une porte…

a dull thud (of a sack being dropped) : un bruit mat…

a confused buzz of voices : un bruit confus de voix

the splash of water (over a weir) : le bruit du barrage

the pop of a cork (when a bottle is opened) : le bruit d’une bouteille qu’on débouche

the clatter of dishes (being moved) : le bruit de vaisselle remuée

the dripping of rain water (from trees) : les bruit des arbres qui s’égouttent

luire light : to glimmer (feeble & trembling)

: to gleam (pale)

: to glow (reddish)

shine : to glisten (of a wet surface)

: to glint (of a dark surface)

…objets de cuivre qui luisaient doucement dans l’ombre.

: …copper objects glinting in the dark.

a French soldier must address an officer by his rank: ‘mon lieutenant’, ‘mon capitaine’, etc.; a sailor must be equally specific but without the use of the possessive: e.g. ‘oui, commandant’. A schoolboy will say ‘M’sieur’, a teacher speaking formally to one of his superiors would have to say ‘monsieur le Proviseur’, ‘monsieur l’Inspecteur’; an employee ‘monsieur le Directeur’; a French member of parliament: ‘monsieur le Président’, etc. Religious persons are addressed with the possessive pronoun, e.g. ‘Mon Père’, ‘Ma Révérende Mère’.”

…E VICE-VERSA:

bell : cloche, clochette, sonnette, grelot, timbre, etc.

size : dimensions, taille, grandeur, pointure, modèle, format

one no longer goes to the butcher but to the meat counter, which in French corresponds to ‘rayon de la viande’, ‘section de la viande’ or ‘comptoir des viandes’ (C.F.). The simplification of shopping leads to the elimination of many specific words, but the diversity of French expressions also indicates that the usage is not yet fully consolidated because the situation is relatively new.”

While dictionaries give the meanings of words, they rarely have enough space to indicate the full range of differences in meaning. A methodology of translation must, however, propose a classification of semantic values and consider types of meaning, because it permits a better understanding why certain words, which on the surface appear to be synonymous, belong to different classes of meaning. Translation errors sometimes result when translators have not noted the distance between the meanings of words which at first seemed freely interchangeable.”

An even more striking example is provided by the word ‘clerc’ whose extension varies from French to British English and again to US English. In French a ‘clerc’ is an assistant to a lawyer or an ecclesiastic; in British English ‘clerk’ is widened to apply to anybody whose function is to deal with paper work. In American English the function of selling is added to the French and British English meanings, e.g. ‘a shoe clerk’.”

French distinguishes between:

poêle – fourneau = stove

autobus – car (autocar) = bus (coach)

ruines – décombres = ruins

reflet – réflexion = reflection

écharpe – cache-col = scarf

hébreu – hébraïque = Hebrew

herbe – gazon = grass

cartouche – gargousse = cartridge

atterrir – débarquer = land

éclairs – foudre = lightning

os – arête = bone

remplacer – replacer = replace

classe – cours = class

différence – différend = difference

guichet – fenêtre – devanture = window

chandelle – bougie – cierge = candle

English distinguishes between:

convent – priory = couvent

sticker – label – tag = étiquette

experience – experiment = expérience

stranger – foreigner – alien = étranger

Arab – Arabian – Arabic = arabe

general and technical

du petit lait : whey

adhérence : adhesion

adhésion : adherence

As they get older, some words lose their literal meaning and survive only in their figurative usage. Dictionaries have no means of indicating the stages of this evolution and apprentice translators may get it wrong. There is no external sign that the English words ‘dwell’, ‘delve’ and ‘shun’ are today only used in their figurative meanings, and that their general meanings have to be rendered by ‘live’, ‘dig’ and ‘avoid’. ‘Motherly’ is the same as ‘maternal’ but only in the figurative sense, whereas ‘maternal’ can be used both literally and figuratively. ‘Thunderstruck’ has given way in its literal usage to ‘struck by lightning’ and is now used only figuratively. Equally ‘seething’ is only used figuratively. Such differences can be tabulated”

literal and figurative

intellectual and affective
GADO E PORCO D+

In French, the objective position of the adjective is after the noun; a small number of adjectives function as specifiers and are then normally placed before the noun (beau, bon, petit, grand, long, joli, etc.). When such adjectives occur in the modifiers position, i.e. after the noun, they acquire a subjective (affective) meaning, e.g.:

un beau jour : one of these days

une journée belle : a beautiful day”

The signified may not exist or not be acknowledged in one of the two languages; or it may exist in both but is only named independently in one of them. In such cases it is also possible to speculate whether the omission is not a sign of how little importance the respective linguistic community attributes to the concept in question. Of particular interest are cultural lacunae in the same language but on either side of the Atlantic. The French Canadian ‘dépanneur’ has a counterpart in the US ‘convenience store’. The concept of a 24-hour store is not yet such an established part of the realia of the European speakers of English and French to have been named separately. The nearest European equivalent would be ‘l’épicerie du coin’ which has the English counterpart of ‘corner shop’.”

Among French lacunae for generic English words we can list:

nuts : walnuts (noix)

hazelnuts (noisettes),

almonds (amandes), etc.

awards : all sorts of study grants (bourses d’études), and distinctions based on merit (distinctions honorifiques).

utilities : services of water, gas, electricity, telephone. French ‘services publics’ with the exception of public transport.”

In the United States a Delicatessen is a restaurant specialising in smoked meat. The French ‘mie’ can be described as ‘the soft part of the bread’ but not named because in English-speaking countries most bread does not permit a clear distinction to be made between hard and soft parts. The English ‘crumb’ partially covers the French ‘miette’ and is therefore generally used in the plural. It is probably because ‘hocher la tête’ (shake one’s head) is not a frequent gesture in the English semiotic repertoire that it does not readily translate into English. English, on the other hand, has ‘nod’ which can only be rendered by the phrase ‘faire oui de la tête’, ‘acquiescer(*) (d’un signe de la tête)’ or simply ‘dire oui’.”

(*) Seria a saída natural em Português.

O QUE É, O QUE É?

Quanto mais periférico, pior? Só vale a pena mesmo é no miolo?

O pão.

O

Q de p ã o.

O

O P C O

C Ã O V

O O M O

Cases in which a lacuna exists because one language has not gone as far as the other in the exploration of reality are among the most interesting. French has no special word for ‘curb’ (bordure/bord du trottoir) [meio-fio], and English has no single word for ‘margelle’ (curb stone of a well) [borda]. French ‘chaussée’ has the English alternatives ‘street’ and ‘road’, but the English ‘street’ cannot then distinguish between ‘chaussée’ and ‘rue’” “For ‘to bob’ there is therefore a lacuna in French which good translators fill as best they can. English words without straightforward French counterparts are e.g.: ‘pattern’, ‘privacy’, ‘emergency’, and ‘facilities’ (already mentioned above).”

The vastness of the hall below…

This is a perfectly natural English expression, especially in written language. Its translation should not present any problems, but we immediately run up against ‘vastness’. There is ‘vastitude’, but it is hardly used. ‘Immensité’ goes too far. Translators therefore have to either transpose by means of an adjective, i.e. ‘le vaste hall en bas’; but this goes against the French tradition of using qualifying nouns; or find a noun to which they can add the adjective ‘vaste’, such as: ‘les vastes proportions’.”

stately unquestionableness of the classical languages

(P.G. Hamerton)

While it is easy to match ‘unquestionable’ with the French ‘incontestable’, would the French use ‘incontestabilité’ for ‘unquestionableness’, even though the dictionary permits it? The translation of this phrase requires a transposition and an amplification. The transposition concerns the replacement of a noun by an adjective, ‘incontestable’ or even better in this context ‘indiscutable’. If we add to this ‘stately’ as ‘majestueux’ or ‘hautain’ and a noun to support these two adjectives, we arrive at: ‘L’autorité hautaine et indiscutable des langues classiques’, or possibly ‘le prestige indiscutable’.”

It is easy to understand ‘eye witness’, but ‘témoin oculaire’ requires a greater effort of interpretation and a greater understanding of the language. The vocabulary tests used in the United States are often easier for French speakers than for native Americans because the learned vocabulary is almost the same in both languages and more accessible to French speakers.”

horse show : concours hippique

flower show : exposition d’horticulture

dogshow : exposition canine

family tree : arbre généalogique

five-year plan : plan quinquennal

fingerprints : empreintes digitales

horse-drawn vehicle : véhicule hippomobile

drinking water : eau potable

baldness : calvitie

land reform : réforme agraire

taste bud : papille gustative

sound proofing : isolation phonique

weather ship : frégate météorologique

watershed : domaine hydrographique

overtime : heures supplémentaires

rear (or driving) mirror : miroir rétroviseur

wing load : charge alaire

chain reaction : réaction caténaire

daily : quotidien

monthly : mensuel

weekly : hebdomadaire

quarterly : trimestriel

blindness : cécité

short-sighted : myope

deafness : surdité

stainless : inoxydable

roller blades : patins à roues alignées

CD player : lecteur de disques compacts

contact lens : lentille cornéenne (de contact)

progressive education : l’éducation nouvelle

basic English : le français élémentaire

bifocal lenses (bifocals) : verres à double foyer

With reference to a child’s toy ‘confisquer’ is not translated by ‘confiscate’ but by ‘take away’, because it would sound pompous. Equally ‘condoléances’ is not normally translated as ‘condolences’. However, ‘He expressed the government’s condolences’ was found in the New York Times. But in his private life, the same person would express his sympathy, e.g. ‘Please accept my sympathy…’. The English translation of a French-Canadian article reads: ‘If we asked one or the other to consummate the divorce…’. This is a literal rendering of the French ‘consommer le divorce’, but the English translation is not idiomatic; it would be better to say: ‘to go through with the divorce’.”

Parler só se usa em contextos duráveis:

He never speaks to me. : Il ne m’adresse jamais la parole.

A man spoke to me on the street. : Un homme s’est adressé à moi dans la rue (m’a abordé).

He spoke at the meeting. : Il a pris la parole à la réunion.”

journée :

matinée : [no direct corresponding English forms]

soirée :

veillée :

to iron : passar roupa

In English the gradual aspect is often indicated by the particle ‘away’, which is the opposite to ‘out’ which indicates the perfective, e.g.:

to fade away : baisser : encolher, desmilingüir

to fade out : fondre : derreter, fundir, dissolver

to die away : s’éteindre, mourir : apagar, queimar, falecer

to die out : disparaître : desaparecer, ser aniquilado”

souffler une bougie : to blow out a candle

He wiped the muddy roots clean(-ly) in the current. (Hemingway) : Il lava soigneusement dans le courant les racines pleines de boue.”

continent : in the United States, can refer both to the American continent and to Europe.

réactionnaire : in France, a person of the extreme right

in Canada, formerly a person of the extreme left

tricolore : in France, refers to the national flag

gradé : in France, is a synonym for ‘sous-officier’

Historically the French words ‘succès’ and ‘chance’ were ambivalent but are today univocal.”

The gross line between filthy and dirty.

brunette : is exclusively diminutive in French, but not in English.

a tall brunette : une grande brune

À ENTRADA DO INFERNO

Leave your hopes deep below.

Livin’ your hopes while you can.

Drink it slowly as it fades away.

Like a cool drink in a precious can.

Could live your life and leave it well.

Sweet leafs, sweatin’ bullet-proof minds.

Sorcerors of mankind

Live versions too save

Even farther you’ll die.

There is no escape

from the tides of being.

<Madame est servie> can only be translated as <Dinner is served>.”

in 1914, aeronautics was at the same level as infantry, artillery, engineers and cavalry. It has since been promoted to the rank of aviation and is now parallel to army and navy.”

danser : faire de la danse

skier : faire du ski

patiner : faire du patin

on the occasion of the blockade of Berlin in 1948, for ‘airlift’ the French created the modulation ‘pont aérien’, which illustrates the move from the dynamic to the static and from the concrete word to metaphor. This was a case of a free modulation, but with continued use this expression became fixed and lexicalised as part of the French lexicon. The same happened to a number of other expressions of the ‘cold war’, whose French expressions are calques from English rather than modulations”

the top floor : o suprassumo

jusqu’à une heure avancée de la nuit : until the small hours of the morning

firing party : peloton d’exécution

to wash one’s hair : se laver la tête

a box car : un wagon couvert

papier peint : wallpaper (o de computador também?)

lanterne vénitienne : Chinese lantern [UK]

Japanese lantern [US]

de la première page à la dernière : from cover to cover

d’un bout à l’autre : from beginning to end : do Oiapoque ao Chuí, de cabo a rabo

d’une mer à l’autre : from coast to coast

Space Ghost transatlântico!

pâle comme un linge : white as a sheet

branco como a narina do Aécio

branco como lingerie gozada

branquinho, cheiradinho e gozadinho

For general reading we refer the reader to the substantial grammars of Quirk et al. (1972) and Leech & Svartvik (1975) for English and Grevisse (1988) for French.” “A more detailed treatment of the lexicon is given by Cruse (1986) and Lehrer (1974).” “Word-formation and neology are discussed generally in Mitterand (1976) for French and in Bauer (1983) for English; and in greater detail in the admirable book by Louis Guilbert (1975) and with respect to English complex nominals in Levi (1978). For the formation of compounds which are frequently calqued according to inappropriate patterns, see Zwanenburg (1992) for French and for both languages Bennett (1993).”

3. STRUCTURES

Translators are, after all, neither grammarians nor linguisticians.”

APENAS PESSOAL AUTORIZADO

FAZEMOS ENTREGA

PROIBIDO ESTACIONAR

Le style administratif est un genre littéraire” R. Catherine

Pior para a literatura!

It is no accident that the English style of notices is more personal, direct and at the level of concrete expression than its French counterpart.”

Bien loin de rechercher (comme le fait l’allemand) le devenir dans les choses, le français présente les événements comme des substances.” Bally, 1944

In the course of its history French has consistently resisted the formation of derived verbs. For example, ‘recruter’ was banned ‘til the 18th century. Stendhal was offended by ‘progresser’ and would probably have been outraged by ‘contacter’ and ‘originer’. It is only recently that ‘poster’ has come into use beside ‘mettre à la poste’. ‘Tester’ is increasingly being used and the letter in Le Monde (21.10.1953) which complained about the use of ‘être agressé’ instead of ‘être victime d’une agression’ will strike most readers today as anachronistic. English has no such scruples; consequently many simple English verbs can only be rendered by means of verb phrases.”

a hopeless undertaking : une entreprise sans espoir

an orderly withdrawal : une retraite en bon ordre

a Pyrrhic victory : une victoire à la Pyrrhus

He will board the night express for Germany : Il montera dans le rapide de nuit à destination de l’Allemagne.

Within two weeks… : Dans un délai de deux semaines…

From: J.B.Smith : Expéditeur: J.B. Smith

From a friend : De la part d’un ami

Within the city… : À l’intérieur de la ville…

The reluctance of French to use ‘ceci’ and ‘cela’ for referring to a previous sentence leads to the introduction of nouns which indicate the reference more clearly and consequently change from case to case.

This does not surprise me. : Cela ne me surprend pas.

: Cette attitude ne me surprend pas.

: Cette réaction ne me surprend pas.

: Cette réponse ne me surprend pas, etc.”

Legouis & Cazamian – A History of English Literature

The Time Machine : La machine à mesurer le temps.

(H.G. Wells)

Qu’est-ce que c’est que cette lettre : What is this letter?

Because ‘à’ indicates both position and direction, French signs would be ambiguous if they read ‘À la gare’, instead of: ‘Direction de la gare’. For similar reasons French prepositions cannot be followed by conjunctions.”

English demonstratives remain on the level of concrete expression, whereas the combination of demonstrative adjectives followed by a noun leads French frequently back to the level of abstract expression.”

As a language of abstract expression, French is internally logical when it uses the definite article on all occasions when things or persons represent a category or a concept. English, working more closely to the level of concrete expression, prefers the indefinite article for presenting indeterminate objects, which it does not feel a need to conceptualise.” “The English plural without an article corresponds to a singular with an indefinite article.”

He had his arm in a sling. : Il avait le bras en écharpe.

He speaks with his hands in his pockets. : Il parle les mains dans les poches.

He reads with a pen in his hand. : Il lit la plume à la main.

in the great majority of cases, there is no choice as regards gender, and translators must be prepared for this in their training. There are, nevertheless, certain difficulties which we shall emphasize here, recalling the well-known, but essential distinction, between natural gender (male, female, asexual being or hermaphrodite) and grammatical gender (masculine, feminine, neuter; epicene).” “na grande maioria dos casos não há escolha quanto ao gênero, e os tradutores têm de estar preparados e treinados. Há, não obstante, algumas dificuldades que devemos enfatizar aqui, relembrando a sabida distinção, e que nem por isso deixa de ser essencial, entre gênero natural (masculino, feminino, ser assexuado ou hermafrodita) e gênero gramatical (masculino, feminino, neutro, epiceno¹).”

¹ Ex: a onça-macho, o jacaré-fêmea…

We know that English has almost completely lost the grammatical gender, which allows the natural gender to surface; French, on the other hand, is entirely dominated by grammatical gender. Though this latter feature obscures the actual physiology of the sexes and produces ambiguities of the type: ‘his hat, her hat : son chapeau’; on the other hand, grammatical agreements based on gender can lead to useful clarifications”

In recent years new feminine forms have been adopted so that ‘une auteure’, ‘une professeure’, ‘une docteure’ etc. are now recommended usage, especially in Canada.”

in 17th century French, ‘jeunes personnes’ meant young women, rather than young people as it does today”

Inversely, a French epistolary novel will sometimes lose some of its savour in English, because letters written in the first person are deprived of a part of their gender distinction. In such cases translators have to resort to compensations to re-establish the masculine or feminine tone: use of a proper noun, or certain lexical elements specific to one sex or the other, compounds of the type – ‘girl-friend’, ‘boy-friend’, etc.

As to ‘it’, used to refer to very young children, this can be translated by an equally ambiguous French epicene word: ‘l’enfant’, ‘le bébé’. Sir Ernest Gowers quotes a very ambiguous phrase on this subject: ‘If the baby does not thrive on raw milk, boil it.’”

domestic animals are readily given a gender in English, which is sometimes surprising to a French reader. ‘She’s a good girl’, or ‘He’s a good boy’, is often said of a dog.”

CHRISTINE, THE KILLER LADY ON WHEELS: “Better known is the feminine personification of machines towards which English speakers feel closely linked: ‘ship’, ‘packet’, ‘merchantman’, ‘motorcar’, ‘automobile’, ‘watch’. However, there are cases where the masculine is used (pipe). Pascoe (quoted by Jespersen) sums up this inconsistency, using bakery as his example: ‘Any cake is termed a he, but a cold plum-pudding of a more stodgy nature is termed a she’.”

the sea is sometimes ‘She’, sometimes ‘He’, sometimes ‘It’.”

Though English does not have a special word to indicate sex, except in kinship words and such rare cases as ‘bridegroom – bride’, it can use a special morpheme; e.g. ‘-ess’ (‘manager/manageress’, ‘author/ authoress’); but it should be noted that this suffix has a strong pejorative connotation; <There is a derogatory touch in it which makes it impossible when we wish to show respect>, (Curme, 1931). In this matter English is closer to French which, for the same reasons, also dislikes ‘-esse’ as the feminine form of the morpheme ‘-eur’, as in ‘docteur’, ‘doctoresse’; this may explain the absence of the form ‘professoresse’.

The introduction of French morphemes allows English to create some terms such as: ‘confidante’, ‘fiancée’, as opposed to ‘confidant’, ‘fiancé’, but the morpheme ‘-ette’ does not carry any evocation of gender in ‘kitchenette: petite cuisine’, ‘roomette: compartiment de wagon lit’, ‘leatherette: similicuir’, etc.”

In the collective sense, English uses words which remain singular, but can only be translated by a plural in French. In French-speaking countries we sometimes find the inscription ‘Informations’, aimed at English-speaking visitors, a plural which is translated literally from the French ‘Renseignements’. It is, in fact, the English singular ‘Information’ which is the equivalent to the French plural; to say ‘un renseignement’, English has to use a special expression form, called here the singulative (Determiner + non-count noun): ‘a piece of information’.”

advice : des conseils a piece of advice : un conseil

poetry : des vers a piece of poetry : une poésie

evidence : des preuves a piece of evidence : une preuve

furniture : des meubles a piece of furniture : un meuble

news : des nouvelles a piece of news : une nouvelle

But: The news : la nouvelle

toast : des toasts a piece of toast : une rôtie [Canadá, C.F.]

: des rôties (C.F.) : un toast

But: a toast : un toast porté à quelqu’un

flying glass : des éclats de verre|a piece of flying glass : un éclat de verre

In English, the singulative is not only expressed by ‘piece’, but a whole range of other words can be used:

English French

Singulative – Collective : Singular – Plural

a suit of armour – armour : une armure – des armures

a flash of lightning – lightning : un éclair – des éclairs

a clap of thunder – thunder : un coup de tonnerre – tonnerre

a blade of grass – grass : un brin d’herbe – de l’herbe

a firework display – fireworks : un feu d’artifice – des feux d’artifice

a round of ammunition –

ammunition : une cartouche, un coup – des munitions”

OS REIS DO YE YE YE

Winding road the shortest straw between two good and evils

Black-end

pit[y]

& d[e]ad

medical students : des étudiants en médecine

her married name : son nom de marriage

mental hospital : hôpital psychiatrique (nada científicos esses gringos!)

that wretched man : ce diable d’homme

a strange fellow : un drôle de type

idiot : espèce d’imbécile

Not only do adverbs in ‘-ment’ seem cumbersome, they are restricted in their application. Conversely, the suffix ‘-ly’ in English can be attached to any adjective and even to participles.”

angrily : avec colère

ecstatically : avec extase

tolerantly : avec tolérance

tactfully : avec tact

concisely : avec concision

effortlessly : sans effort

unashamedly : sans honte

abruptly : sans transition

unrythmically : sans suivre le rythme

unaccountably : sans qu’on sût pourquoi

conditionally : sous condition

reliably : de source sûre

authoritatively : de source autorisée

inadvertently : par inadvertance

deservedly : à juste titre

repeatedly : à plusieurs reprises

He is reportedly in Paris. : On dit qu’il est à Paris.

He is reputedly the best man in the field. : Il passe pour le meilleur spécialiste dans ce domaine.

In certain cases there is no choice in French. While there are forms in ‘-ment’ for ‘certain’ and ‘vif’, neither ‘certainement’ nor ‘vivement’ would be suitable in the contexts shown above. There is option and gain in the French in ‘à tête reposée’ (compared with ‘tranquillement’), and option with no clear gain in the use of ‘d’une main habile’ and ‘en termes ironiques’.”

When the comparison is explicit, the comparative or superlative are as vital in French as they are in English. However, we note, as do most grammars, that following Latin usage, English employs the comparative in place of the superlative when the comparison is limited to two objects or two people. This is why ‘aîné’ is sometimes translated as ‘elder’ and sometimes as ‘eldest’.”

l’abrégé du dictionnaire d’Oxford : the Shorter Oxford Dictionary

Le Petit Larousse

L’abrégé Comte de Monte-Cristo!

abridged

I’m at my best.

In the next example, the French version makes it clear that the management refuses all responsibility even before the event.

La direction n’est pas responsable des objets perdus. : The management will not be responsible for lost articles.

This will be your little grandson? : Je suppose que ce jeune garçon est votre petit-fils?”

We can say that in English there is dilution, the passage of time being indicated both by the preposition ‘since’ and by the tense. In French only ‘depuis’ indicates passage of time.

Je suis ici depuis dix heures. : I have been here since ten.

But it is useful to note that French, like English, uses the passé composé or the plus-que-parfait when it is a matter of an intermittent activity.

Je ne l’avais pas vu depuis trois mois. : I had not seen him for three months.

C’est n’est pas faute d’avoir essayé : Not for want of trying.

The use of the imparfait arises as a problem in translation from English into French.”

The French imparfait is not, as is often said in a simplified view, the tense that indicates duration, but the tense that considers an action irrespective of its beginning and its end.” “if duration can be measured, time has passed. We can say: Il habitait Londres pendant la guerre, but not Il habitait Londres pendant dix ans.”

English grammarians recognise the existence of the présent historique which Jespersen suggested be called the ‘présent dramatique’. In contrast, Hilaire Belloc, in his article on translation (The Bookman, October 1931), describes it as a form which is alien to the nature of English. It is difficult to ignore this observation by a good English writer who also had an intimate knowledge of French. However, these 2 positions can be reconciled if we say that, though the présent historique occurs in English, it is much less frequent in English than in French. Translators must therefore use their discretion.”

The passé simple is commonly found in fiction texts (novel, science-fiction, tales, etc.) because they do not necessarily have to be linked to reality. The passé simple is usually rendered by the English past tense.”

He has never forgiven her. : Il ne lui a jamais pardonné.

: Il ne lui pardonna jamais.

Up to the beginning of the 20th century the passé simple was commonly used in narrative literary discourse. Today it is never used in spoken language, and only survives in some forms of written discourse.”

in English pronominal verbs are always literal whereas in French they can also be figurative.”

Inherent pronominal verbs have no transitive counterparts and are exclusively encountered in pronominal form, e.g. ‘s’absenter’ but not ‘absenter’, or take a completely different meaning from their transitive part.

Il se gargarisa à l’eau et au sel. : He gargled with water and salt.

Il se replongea dans sa lecture. : He went back to his reading.

Il plongea dans la piscine. : He dived into the pool.

Vous vous plaignez trop. : You complain too much.

Vous les plaignez trop. : You pity them too much.

Voici ce qui s’est passé. : This is what happened.

Il est passé te voir. : He came to see you.”

Os EUA são tão capitalistas que lá quem não tem CARTÃO VISA pode até ser deportado!!

The frequency of the English passive is part of the nature of the language. English verbs do not have to be transitive to have passive forms; they simply keep their preposition regardless of voice, e.g.:

The doctor was sent for. : On envoya chercher le docteur.

The bed had not been slept in. : Le lit n’avait pas été défait.”

There may be a connection between this construction and the reluctance of English speakers to express a definitive opinion or judgement.”

As manchetes da imprensa aumentam o buraco do cu dos homens.

The French ‘devoir’ has become weakened; similar to the evolution of ‘shall’, it tends to become an auxiliary verb for the future.” This shall not be a pipe.

Devo, não nego; devenho quando puder.

Books may not be returned to the shelves. : Il est interdit de remettre les livres sur les rayons.

Il ne faut pas qu’il parte. : He must not go.

Il n’est pas nécessaire qu’il parte. : He does not have to go.

It won’t roll, without time, brodah!

To express the idea of probability French has ‘probablement’, and the expression ‘il est probable que’ followed by the indicative. French does not have a personal form equivalent to ‘He is likely to’. On the other hand, among the structural faux amis, ‘without doubt’ is the equivalent of ‘sans aucun doute’ and not of ‘sans doute’, whose equivalent is ‘no doubt’.”

Contrary to French, the English future anterior cannot express probability. ‘Il aura oublié’ can only be translated as ‘He must have forgotten’, which is the same equivalent as for ‘Il a dû oublier’.”

In a sentence starting with ‘si’, introducing a weak probability of an eventuality, the most suitable English correspondence is ‘should’. In such sentences French does not use ‘devoir’; it has many other alternatives.”

It must be so. : Cela ne peut pas ne pas être.

The two things must be related. : Les deux choses sont nécessairement liées. [!]

A distinction common to both languages separates ‘je ne sais’ from ‘je ne sais pas’ and ‘I dare not’ from ‘I do not dare’. But ‘I don’t know’ is the equivalent of both ‘je ne sais’ and ‘je ne sais pas’.” WTF?!? Qu’est-ce que c’est? Pas possible!

In principle, the nuance of ‘je ne sais’ is untranslatable. Nevertheless, at the end of a sentence, it has an equivalent in such phrases as: ‘it is hard to say’.”

Seria agora o melhor momento para beber vossa água e em conseqüência possivelmente utilizar vosso lavabo?!?

Vô cagá, ok?

May I fuck you?

The English infinitive cannot be used to express an imperative. In the language of instructions and notices, where the use of the French infinitive is most frequent, English often uses its middle form which, unlike the French middle, is not pronominal.”

Il s’est tu. : He fell silent.

Il se tut.

He did do it : En effet, il l’a fait. (as he said he would).

I did warn you!, says the adult.

escada rolante : tapis roulant!

carne mal-passada : PINK MEAT

Literal translation is sometimes possible, e.g.:

the trampled grass : l’herbe piétinée

his torn coat : sa veste déchirée”

Parvenu près de la porte… : Having reached the door…

Lui parti, j’ai retrouvé le calme. (A. Camus) : Once he had left, I regained my composure.

…as they covered mile after mile… : …à mesure que les kilomètres

s’allongeaient derrière eux…

It appears that English prefers to proceed by repetition, with the aid of ‘on’ or ‘after’, in cases where French prefers an abstract word which concludes rather than describes.”

English cannot form certain types of compounds. For example, the French ‘un bruit de roues’, i.e. any wheels whose sound is heard, can only be translated by the noun phrase ‘a sound of wheels’.”

the will to power : la volonté de puissance

the room on the second floor : la chambre du second

Lady with a parrot : Femme au perroquet

(the title of a picture)

Without going as far as German, English can create synthetic expressions which in French have to be expressed by analytic means. Most of the examples below come from newspapers and publicity material which abound in such expressions. Professional translators encounter them all the time.”

It is time-consuming. : Cela prend beaucoup de temps.

It is a full-time job. : Cela prend tout votre temps.

Le pape envoie le formulaire tel qu’on lui demandait. (Racine) – This kind of syntax exists in English, but no longer in French. One way of explaining this difference is to say that French works by representation where English works by ellipsis. For this reason French refers to the complement of a verb by means of a pronoun, either in order to announce it, or to remind us of it.”

Ele não disse!

Ele não o disse!

Ele não te disse!

Ele não lho disse, pois, ora, traste!

J’y suis arrivé. : I’ve got there.

He came sooner than you thought. : Il est arrivé plus tôt que que vous ne pensiez.

Mets-en ! (C.F.) : You bet!

Skip it! : Ça suffit! : Dexa queto!

Cut it out! : En voilà assez! Ça va! : Tá bom!

Further reading:

The question of English gender is discussed in Corbett (1991).”

For a general treatment of mood and modality of English see Palmer (1986).”

4. THE MESSAGE

THE TECHNOLOGICAL SLAVERY: “When this book was written — in the mid-1950s — research in units larger than the sentence had only reached the stage of general description and the authors were obliged to extrapolate from necessarily incomplete observations. Besides, at the level of the message, which is the subject of the present chapter, it seems impossible to explore this subject in depth without the support of computer analyses of textual corpora which was unavailable at the time.”

teachers rightly insist that translation should never be started before the entire text has been read and re-read.” HM

Je suis votre femme is either I am your wife or I am following your wife

Bêbados britânicos lacônicos:

He was having his usual. : Il prenait son verre comme d’habitude.

[drink]

He stopped at the local. : Il entra au bistro du coin.

[pub]

Il est entré au Métro. : He got a job at the Métro.

Il est entré dans le Métro. : He boarded the Underground.

Je vais vous mettre à la porte. : I’ll throw you out.

Je vais vous mettre à votre porte. : I’ll see you home.

[to your front door]

Demain, je serai à la rue. : Tomorrow I’ll be in the street.

[penniless]

Demain, je serai dans la rue. : Tomorrow I’ll be out in the street

[fighting, demonstrating, etc.]

Il est entré curé. (Canada) : He became a priest.

Il est entré chez un curé. : He went to visit a priest.

When the situation is properly analysed and reconstituted, one of the two languages, and not necessarily always the source language, may reflect the situation with greater precision.”

translators are superior to machines because they can introduce gain in the message, though, of course, not in the situation.”

A CASA É SUA, MAS NÃO FAÇA BARULHO: “Since French does not have phrasal verbs, a notice hanging on a door, saying Entrez sans frapper! is more precise than the English equivalent Walk in!. While to English speakers the meaning is perfectly clear, its correct interpretation depends much more on the situation than the corresponding French notice.”

Titles are thus examples of the purest state of explicitation. As the stylistic abridgement which leads to a title is rooted in the nature of the language, we readily understand that titles have to

be translated by means of modulation”

Hollow Triumph : Château de Cartes

Wuthering Heights : Les Hauts de Hurlevent

(Transposition of the sound-effect of the proper name)

Fatal in My Fashion : Cousu de fil rouge

(Wordplay on ‘fashion’; the work deals with murder in a fashion house)

The Man with My Face : Comme un frère

(History of a double)

Le Grand Meaulnes : The Wanderer

Out of the Past of Greece and Rome : Tableaux de la vie antique

(Transposition with noun)

Blackboard Jungle : Graine de violence

(Film about juvenile delinquents)

Le compteur est ouvert : Twice Tolled Tales

(Wordplay on ‘compteur-conteur’) : (Wordplay on ‘toll-told’)

Mixed Company : De tout pour faire un monde

Thicker than Water : Les liens du sang

Figure it out for yourself! : C’est le bouquet!

An Alligator named Daisy : Coquin de saurien

(Wordplay on the idiom ‘coquin de sort’)

the expression ‘César de Carnaval’ hides an allusion to Mussolini and has been aptly translated as ‘Sawdust Caesar’ [César de serragem]. It is formed by a modulation on the idea of carnival, hence the circus and its arena which is covered in sawdust. There is also wordplay on ‘sawdust’ which is used for the stuffing of puppets.”

Depuis quand répond-on comme cela à ses parents? : Since when do children answer their parents in this way?

Dear Sir, : Monsieur

Dear Mr. Smith, : Cher Monsieur

His wife of 16 years… : Après seize ans de mariage, sa femme…

His 16 year-old wife : Sa femme de seize ans

You asked for it. : Vous me l’avez demandé.

: C’est bien fait pour vous.

: BEM-FEITO FELADAPOTA

He is talking through his hat. : Ele nem sabe do que está falando…

Give me Beethoven any time. : Não é lá uma Brastemp (Beethoven)…

E quem poderia imaginar que a brastemp se tornaria um dos meus maiores pesadelos recentes?

If, for example, in Canada we find ‘SVP’ written on a notice stuck on a lawn, we understand it to mean that we should not walk on the grass. Or, if in the English-speaking parts of Canada, a roadside sign reads ‘WORMS’ we know it to refer to the sale of bait for fisherman.”

a French teacher : a teacher of French/from France

Stage door : Entrée des artistes

Unlike the lexicological units, situations are not recorded in dictionaries. They are rarely mentioned in books on stylistics, except by Bally who treats situations in his Traité de Stylistique française and more extensively in Le langage et la vie (1952).”

Mensagens contextuais de difícil apreensão quando isoladas:

i. Le mécanicien n’a pas aperçu le signal.

A railway signalman, which in French is indicated by the semantic markers ‘mécanicien’, and ‘signal’ which excludes, for example, a motor mechanic or a dental mechanic; it is further likely that there has been a railway accident, otherwise the message would be pointless.”

ii. Saignant?

The situation explains that this is a waiter in a restaurant asking a customer whether the meat should be grilled ‘rare’, as opposed to, medium or well-done.”

iii. Et avec ça, Madame? MAIS ALGUMA COISA?

This sentence is appropriate for a sales assistant in a store addressing a female customer who has already bought something.”

iv. You can’t miss it. VAI NA FÉ, IRMÃO!

This is said by someone who has just given an indication to a stranger who has asked for a direction.”

v. You’re on! AÇÃO!

This expression is typical for a stage manager who sends a performer onto the stage.”

vi. Wrong number. QUE NÚMERO VOCÊ DISCOU?

This is a response to a wrongly dialled telephone call.”

vii. You’re a stranger here. / Hello, stranger! E AÍ, SUMIDO!

This expression fits the case where we greet someone whom we have not seen for a long time. Suddenly encountering someone at one’s doorstep, the French equivalent might be <On ne vous voit plus!>. The familiar tone also indicates a certain close acquantaince between the interlocutors.”

would a telephone operator greet a new subscriber with ‘Hello stranger!’? This is very unlikely and demonstrates that any one situation normally and almost automatically calls for a particular message. For example, ‘Do you think we’ll make it?’ seems only appropriate for someone who is late for an appointment, e.g. a departing train, and fears that he/she may miss it. It also expresses anxiety, and an atmosphere of tension, etc. The specific limitation of the message to a single situation is all the more remarkable in that the general sense of the verb ‘make’ is totally unrestricted.”

when a British English speaker fears that his message ‘Smith called this morning’ might be misinterpreted, the alternative ‘Smith called here this morning’ or ‘called by this morning’, would be chosen, making it clear that it was a personal visit and not a telephone call. In American English the ambiguity is less likely to occur because the expression ‘stop by’ is widely used in such cases.”

Accordingly, in August 55, he (Julius Caesar) made a start by crossing from Boulogne with some 10,000 men, etc.”

IS EUROPEAN PHILOSOPHY DEAD? “To understand this sentence from an English book on archaeology we need to add the implied topographical details, namely ‘the Channel’. The text was written from the point of view of someone in England and reflects the same attitude as when the English speak of the Continent when referring to the rest of Europe. (…) This particular meaning of ‘Continent’ is now also found in American English and then the appropriate equivalent would be ‘Europe’.”

UM CURSO PARA +30: “Translation can therefore be regarded as a truly humanistic activity which has its place among the highest intellectual pursuits. This is a well-known fact though it is rarely fully acknowledged.”

Regardless of any special usage, question marks are important in comparative stylistics because translators frequently have to deal with elliptical sentences, especially in dialogues.”

Finally, and this is the most critical point, morphological links are not usually indicated in writing. Before translating, a thorough segmentation of the text is therefore necessary which can only be carried out by a careful reading which restores the prosodemes and correctly separates the stress groups. In French, the distinction between the two meanings of the following example is made in speaking by a liaison after ‘savant’. Only the use of orthographic liaison markers would clarify the difference.

un savant aveugle : a blind scientist

phonetically: [õesavãvoegl]

un savant aveugle [+liaison] : a learned blind man

phonetically: [õesavãtavoegl]

L’usage laisse une certaine latitude dans l’emploi des signes de ponctuation; tel écrivain n’use jamais du point virgule. Une relation peut-être marquée au moyen d’une virgule par celui-ci, au moyen d’un point-virgule par un autre, au moyen d’un double point par un troisième. L’abondance des raisons peut s’expliquer tantôt par des raisons purement logiques, tantôt par

des références à un rythme oral qui multiplie les pauses. (Grevisse 1988: paragraph 1058)”

Needless to say translators must convert the English decimal point into the French ‘virgule décimale’, e.g. $10.50 → 10,50 $ and put the currency sign after the symbol. See Ramat (1989) for a discussion on that subject. The corresponding update to English punctuation is Nunberg (1990). Stylistic or optional punctuation serves to provide greater semantic precision in a message.”

The absence of commas is not considered an error in English which uses commas more sparingly than French.”

The absence of commas frequently leads to backtracking in order to correct an erroneous segmentation of the text and avoid a misinterpretation. This is particularly acute in cases of successive particles” “it is strongly suggested that translators read their text aloud so that they can be guided by the articulation.”

termos curtos x termos longos (sinônimos perfeitos) (FRANTUGUÊS!)

weeds : les mauvaises herbes

: les voiles d’une veuve

model : modèle réduit

to make amends : faire amende honorable

to inhale : avaler la fumée

sold at cost : vente au prix coûtant

as : au fur et à mesure que

ruminer : to chew the cud

He talked himself out of a job. : Il a perdu sa chance pour avoir trop parlé. : Ele falou mais do que devia. : Se fufu.

CALOU OS CRÍTICOS. ARRAZOU.

In general it appears that English is shorter than French. This, at least, emerges when English texts are contrasted with their French translations. But we also have to take account of the fact that all translations tend to be longer than the original. Translators lengthen their texts out of prudence but also out of ignorance.”

retirement → to retire : prendre sa retraite

We’ll price ourselves out of the market. : Nous ne pourrons plus vendre si nous sommes trop exigeants.

“‘Before, after, until, etc.’ have the advantage of being prepositions and conjunctions at the same time.”

We conclude that economy is a relative concept and what matters is only how it is achieved. Each language has its own cases of comparatively greater economy which translators have to be aware of in order to find the most appropriate expression.” “In English, in the absence of the surname or the first name, the familiar register is often marked by the use of such familiar forms of address as ‘man’, ‘chum’, ‘Bud’, ‘Mac’, ‘boy’, ‘girl(ie)’, ‘brother”, ‘sister’, etc. In French many of these forms of address, used as interjections or in appositions, can be omitted because the use of ‘tu’ compensates. French also has such non-specific, familiar forms of address, e.g. the very familiar ‘Jules’ to address someone whose names one does not know. The US equivalent might be ‘Mac’, whereas in England ‘Jack’ or ‘George’ would correspond, but it must also be noted that such terms often change with fashion. On the whole, however, the use of the forename is more widespread in the United States than in England.”

Disliking abbreviations, especially of names, French can reproduce the tone by a dislocation of the constituent elements of the message.” O estruturalista L.-S.

There are three possible cases:

a. The SL elaboration can be transferred directly to the TL.

b. The SL elaboration can only be expressed by means of an equivalent form.

c. The SL elaboration cannot be reproduced, but is compensated in some other way.

Elaboration is a matter of stylistics. It relies on levels of expression, which in the written language are used for certain literary effects to satisfy technical requirements, as in legal discourse. Elaboration is therefore mainly found in literary, diplomatic or political texts. Elaboration is not a property in itself. One of its extreme forms was the precious style; a contemporary elaboration is the ‘jargon’ of some social scientists.”

by retracing the process backwards, translators may be faced with alternative possibilities leading by parallel routes to the same global effect and choose the alternative to the original text.

We must therefore recognise that back-translation cannot constitute a precise measurement since it is unlikely that the original will be reconstructed verbatim. Like writers, translators enjoy a certain freedom of expression or work within a range of expressions which does not affect the meaning of the message.”

TRADUTOR FRANCÊS-FRANCÊS: “A French Canadian translation may differ slightly from a French or Belgian one in its choice of synonyms, variants or regionalisms which do not affect the global meaning of the message.”

Two versions of a text which are considered fully equivalent at one time may be considered to diverge greatly at other times. Conversely, texts which we find divergent, may be considered equivalent by a later generation of readers. Historians of the language will then have to prove equivalence or divergence.”

“‘Gloom’ is appropriate to the extent that it is an external state which the soul suffers, but it is stronger than ‘morne’ which accounts for the stronger back-translations of ‘détresse – chagrin – jours sombres’ and perhaps also for ‘tristesse’.” Gloom é uma péssima palavra do Inglês, sempre problemática!

METÁFORAS IDIOMÁTICAS TRADUZÍVEIS

It went like clockwork. : Cela a marché comme sur des roulettes.

His life hangs by a thread. : Sa vie ne tient qu’à un fil.

In the case of dead metaphors translators simply have to look for an equivalent metaphor in the TL.”

flotter dans l’indécision : to dilly-dally, to vacillate

la marche à suivre : the procedure

as cool as a cucumber [!] : avec un sang-froid parfait

before you could say Jack Robinson : en moins de rien / en deux temps trois mouvements

as like as two peas : comme deux gouttes d’eau : separados na maternidade

In cases where proverbs are constructed around dead metaphors, the search for equivalents can range widely. In the case of live metaphors, translators can look for an equivalent or, if it cannot be found, translate the idea. Any metaphor can be reduced to its basic meaning, which Bally calls the ‘terme d’identification’.”

NATIONS TEDUNI NEW WORD ORDER

un sale type : a bad guy

un type sale : a dirty guy


comer pelas beiradas

run like an invisible guy and, despite all the other runners being the favourites, win the race cofcof in one word underdog

Yoda’s ontological expectations

Since in both languages the goal tends to be placed towards the end of the sentence, in French, adverbial modifiers, which qualify it without being the real core of the message, are preferably placed in the earlier part of the sentence or before the verb. This is particularly applicable to causal expressions, a manifestation of the abstract approach in which the cause precedes its effect.

Sûr d’obtenir gain de cause, il attendit sans inquiétude l’ouverture du procès.

Il y a Untel qui donne une conférence ce soir. : X gives a lecture tonight.

the cold, ugly little town : la petite ville froide et laide

English, like German, remains more objective and therefore often represents a state or an activity outside any subjective interpretation of reality.”

There’s a knock at the door. : On frappe à la porte.

Today is Thursday. : Nous sommes jeudi aujourd’hui.

Marseilles compte une population de près d’un million d’habitants. : The population of Marseilles is close to the million mark.

English frequently uses italics or underlining for signalling an emphatically stressed word. Such marks are less clear in French where italics and capital letters do not necessarily indicate a phonemic emphasis, but rather a graphemic highlighting. Besides, French cannot at will stress any element of the sentence. Nevertheless the following uncodified means of emphasis are available in French:

Vous trouvez ça <formidable>, vous?

Permettez….. J’ai aussi mon mot à dire!

C’était hénaurme! (instead of énorme)

Si, si : Yes, indeed.

Si, si, si, si! : Yes, I assure/tell you!

C’est très, très bien. : That’s excellent.

Il n’est pas gentil, gentil. : He’s not very nice.

Il n’est pas beau, beau (Canada) : He’s not what you call handsome.”

Céline,…le Roi! Ah, quoi, mais non!…

formidable : super

écoeurant : disgusting/or : splendid (C.F.)

refus carré : flat refusal : UM FORA REDONDO

un temps dégeu (C.F.) : rotten weather

un programme sensas : a brilliant programme : TÓÓPzêra

Je te connais bien, moi!

En ce qui me concerne,…

He was excruciatingly funny : Il était impayable.

He was good and sorry. : Il le regrettait amèrement.

He was good and mad. : Il était absolument furieux.

Elle est stupide, ton idée! : This is utter nonsense.

More will be said about this later. : Nous en reparlerons.

“‘Beaucoup’ can be used in initial position only when it refers to people. (Beaucoup n’ont pas pu entrer).”

The ample use of the rhetorical question is native to ordinary French prose, not to English. It is also native to French prose to define a proposition by putting the data of it first into question form. (Belloc, 1931)”

Où est-il le temps où quand on lisait un livre on n’y mettait pas tant de raisonnements et de façons. (Saint-Beuve) : Gone are the days when the reading of a book did not require so much fuss and bother.”

There is only a step from the rhetorical question to the exclamation. English freely uses exclamations, which incidentally employ the same inversion required for questions, possibly because it constitutes an affective type of emphasis without the artifice of rhetoric.” É isso. O Português é o idioma universal que reúne as características de todos os demais. É isso! Não é isso mesmo? Creio que seja assim…, sim, de fato, assim o é, eu não me engano! Ó! Engano-me eu por um acaso?!?

Though in French exclamations are quite common in every day language, they do not occcur with the negative form. But note the fixed highly literary expression: ‘Quelle ne fut pas ma surprise…’.”

such ambiguities as ‘le tiroir est tout vert — le tiroir est ouvert’. Because spoken French does not strongly mark word or morpheme boundaries, articulation is based on sense and breath groups some of which can be quite long and difficult to analyse.”

fait no pé que le reste we cours derrièr

CASOS DE INTERVENÇÃO DA ORALIDADE NA ESCRITA (INVENÇÃO DO ‘DE’):

Mon innocent de frère : My stupid brother

deux dollars de l’heure : two dollars an hour

Il y en a trente de blessés. : Thirty were wounded.

Il n’est rien d’impossible à l’homme. : Nothing is impossible to man.

Voilà du bon travail de fait. : Well done!

Il est honteux de mentir. : Lying is despicable.

It has also been described as the film of reality. English offers excellent examples of this style in sentences such as:

He crept out from under the bed. : Il sortit de dessous le lit.

He walked leisurely into the room. : Il entra dans la chambre sans se presser.

He drank himself to death. : C’est la boisson qui l’a tué.

Off with you. : Va-t-en! Sauve-toi! File!”

Among 21 titles of novels, 16 titles are ‘static’ of the type <Vol d’essai>, but 5 resemble the dynamic nature of the English titles above.

Je me damnerai pour toi.

Quand les genêts refleuriront.

Vous verrez le ciel ouvert.

Quand le diable a soif.

Quand l’amour refleurit.”

A intradutibilidade dos títulos de música.

Writers may somehow delay the development of the ideas until they have found time to absorb and order them by establishing a sequence, hidden connections, cause and effect, etc. This is, broadly speaking[,] the French attitude, which resembles that of a spectator commenting on events rather than that of a participant stating them gradually as they appear. This second attitude requires taking a specific stance and applying value judgments, and can therefore be called rational development, which is achieved by the greater use of the level of abstract expression. Generally speaking, English adopts the first, i.e. the intuitive or sensorial point of view, whereas French prefers the second. This observation is confirmed by the English critic and writer Robert Graves, whose comment on this issue, being subjective, is also quite revealing:

…French, Italian… are reasonable codifications of as much of human experience as can be translated into speech. They give each separate object, process or quality a permanent label duly docketed, and ever afterwards recognize this object, process or quality by its label rather than by itself; … these languages are therefore also the rhetorical languages, rhetoric being the poetry of labels and not the poetry of things themselves. English proper has always been very much a language of ‘conceits’, … the vocabulary is not fully dissociated from the imagery from which it is developed; words still tend to be pictorial and not typographic… It is the persistent use of this method of ‘thought by association of images’ as opposed to ‘thought by generalised preconceptions’ that distinguishes English from the more logical languages. (Graves, 1926)”

Quant à la coordination, elle devient une véritable charpente du langage, très apparente, solide et souple à la fois, abondante et variée. Nombre de ‘particules’ lient les phrases et les propositions entre elles pour bien en marquer le rapport logique: opposition, explication, exemple, résumé, conclusion, objection. C’est encore une des grosses difficultés du grec pour les jeunes héllenistes, et même pour les traducteurs chevronnés. Si l’on traduit toutes les particules, on alourdit intolérablement la phrase française. Si on les escamote, on fait disparaître un des traits essentiels du génie grec: la démarche prudente et sûre de la pensée,… (Bernelle, 1955)”

O Novo Testamento e seu PESO incômodo bem-ilustrados… Por outro lado, não outro senão Platão podia ser o rei-filósofo…

In the translation of French diplomatic or legal texts the omission of connectors which mark the flow of the utterance would be a disservice to the language; but as these connectors can vary considerably between languages, it has to be accepted that what is explicit in one language may have to be implied in the other and vice versa, even in texts that are otherwise considered to require as literal a translation as possible.”

sentient sentence

in the last paragraph, the phrase ‘in other words’ is a semantic connector and ‘but’ a lexical connector. Dictionaries rarely list semantic connectors which are difficult to identify and characterise outside their immediate context.”

“‘furthermore’ can mean both ‘de plus’ and ‘enfin’.” Ademais, ou seja…

In all this immense variety of conditions, the objective must be… : Et cependant, malgré la diversité des conditions…

This sentence contains two enumerations, (i) of the difficulties presented by the diverse conditions and (ii) the choice of objective. ‘This’ has a recall function and at the same time stresses the complexity of the difficulties to be resolved. French prefers to indicate clearly the opposition between the obstacles and the goal to be attained.”

Dictionaries cannot offer suitable equivalents for ‘en effet’ because they would need as many examples as there are situations in which it can occur. Many translators equate ‘en effet’ with ‘in fact’ which however is the equivalent of ‘en fait’. Basically, the expression ‘en fait’ is the opposite of ‘en effet’.”

Com efeito e de fato são sinônimos perfeitos em Português.

Em efeito já seria um arcaísmo, se é que aceitável hora alguma…

Porém no parágrafo acima en fait e in fact seriam : Na verdade…

Na verdade, en fait e in fact seriam…

(idéia de oposição)

In fact I was gonna kill her, but she is indeed adorable!

Absolutely, ma friend.

It is part of Hemingway’s style to use few connectors. In modern French this style can be imitated up to a certain point. There may nevertheless come a moment when, as we have seen, the nature of the language resists close parallel translation. Even if a translator tried to imitate Hemingway’s style, it is doubtful whether French could cope with two ‘and’ in sequence. Also, the ‘when’ would normally be translated by a tighter link.”

OXIDENTE (enferruja mas demora): “In both languages the expansion of a point of view is represented by the colon, the introduction of additional information by brackets, and especially by hyphens. The indentation of a sentence, the separation into paragraphs in order to list a number of arguments, blank spaces of varying size, are all graphic means of articulating a text.”

For an English reader the semicolon [;] reinforces the comma which would normally be expected in this position and has thus the role of final element connector.”

Alemães e franceses curtem mais um

Paragraph structure is an important stylistic device; for example long paragraphs as we find them in Proust or Ruskin and short paragraphs of a few words as in Victor Hugo are intended to achieve specific reactions in readers.”

Freedom at the formal level, which has to be channelled by subtle and rule-governed techniques, is the main concern of this book. It is very difficult to make rules or even set guidelines for organising the macrostructure of texts because of the great diversity of text types and the enormous variation in the length of texts. It is nevertheless very important because it is quite easy to distort the flow of an argument by a wrong segmentation into paragraphs.” “in multilingual publications of the United Nations there seems to be an excessive concern with preserving identical paragraphs in all languages. This practice certainly facilitates cross-references among multilingual texts in a discussion, but it is dangerous to elevate it to an absolute rule. A simple count of paragraphs in bilingual Canadian or European documents shows that for the same text English uses fewer paragraphs than French and that paragraph borders do not always coincide.”

THANK GOD: “as long as the rules we have discovered here are reversible, we are dealing with a structured and classifiable system which to a certain extent is even automatic. Everything else in translation is subjective and is related to literary creation.”

Inexperienced or incurious translators do not spontaneously feel the need for a change of the point of view in a message. The more familiar a syntactic structure is to translators, the less they think of oblique solutions. This tendency is also prevalent in bilingual populations where translation is often no more than a simple calque of structures from the source language. It is, of course, true to say that bilingual populations usually also share a fair amount of culture and therefore background knowledge which influences their verbalisation. They are therefore less likely to use the method of modulation which is built on the recognition of extralinguistic differences.”

French pragmatics to express imperatives positively: French uses ‘Taisez-vous!’ rather than ‘Ne parlez pas!’. Hence ‘Tenez-vous droit!’ rather than ‘Ne soyez pas penché!’”

The advert which states Coca-Cola refreshes without filling (and its variant: Coca-Cola does not fill) cannot be translated literally, especially since the meaning of ‘fill’ is rather subjective. The Canadian translator of this slogan clearly felt the need for a modulation by inversion, which is quite common. ‘La boisson légère, qui rafraîchit!’

Phone for a taxi. : Appelez donc un taxi. (French does not specify the mode of calling or asking.)”

He stood looking at the sea : Il s’arrêta pour contempler la mer.

SOFT DENYING

I’m afraid we’re not on the telephone. : Je regrette, nous n’avons pas le téléphone.

I’m afraid I’m not on e-mail yet. : Je regrette, pour l’instant je n’ai pas accès au courier électronique.

Pôxa féra, recêio naum pôder tiajudá!

O senhor queira nos acompanhar.

Estender a roupa no varal: denota a origem do hábito das lavadeiras de estenderem a roupa sobre a grama. Diferentemente do que seria se disséssemos “pendurar a roupa”.

The move from abstract to concrete reminds us of metonymy; the change of part and whole is like synecdoque; the argument by the negation of the opposite is like litotes; the use of space and time intervals is like metalepsis; etc.” ??? – esclarecimentos na sequência

…and I don’t mean maybe. : …et je ne plaisante pas.

to sleep in the open : dormir à la belle étoile

She can do no other. : Elle ne saurait faillir à sa mission. / Elle ne saurait agir autrement.

This is your receipt. (on a bill) : Reçu du client.

Buy Coca-Cola by the carton. : Achetez Coca-Cola en gros / Achetez Coca-Cola à la douzaine.

Give a pint of your blood. : Donnez un peu de votre sang.

This parcel may be opened for inspection. : Peut être ouvert d’office.

Nous sommes des Napoléons jusqu’à la moelle!

SE VOCÊ NÃO É PRONOME VOCÊ É CONTRA NOMES: “False abstractions in English are a special case under the guise of metonymy. Some English words express rather general abstractions which may cause difficulties in French. These words can be recognised both by the fact that they often stand for a previously expressed sentence and by the use of an abstract deictic. Contrary to expectations French renders these words by concrete expressions. This movement is a form of reverse modulation, moving from the general to the particular, and is motivated by the deictic and seemingly abstract nature of the English text.”

The French ‘installation’ often corresponds to ‘facilities’, a very general word of even wider range than ‘installation’.”

I saw two men with huge beards. : Je vis deux hommes à la barbe de fleuve.

Soldado de estômago vazio não agüenta fuzil: pun intended.

I wouldn’t lift a finger. : Je ne lèverais pas le petit doigt.

Estômago soldado não caga em funil.

4.6.3.3 The part for the whole (synecdoque)

Ex: ‘Le Palais Bourbon’ for the French Parliament; a Sétima Arte; Marseille é a cité Phénicienne; Windy City é Chicago.

A arena onde as bestas se devoram NÃO seria um exemplo de synecdoque (qual o termo traduzido?) quando em uma prosa poética eu estiver me referindo, p.ex., aos nossos queridos congressistas. Neste caso temos uma substituição metonímica, e não a referência a um todo por um “nome próprio” ou alcunha estabelecida.

Mais exemplos onde há substituição:

Ele limpou a garganta : Ele clareou a voz.

He read the book from cover to cover. : Il lut le livre de la première à la dernière page.

“Ele flutuava dentro de suas vestes”: construção possível no Francês para denotar a frouxidão e largueza das roupas em alguém.

Don’t call up the stairs. : N’appelle pas du bas de l’escalier. [??]

Yield right of way. [US] : Priorité à gauche.

4.6.3.6 Negation of the opposite (litotes)

It does not seem unlikely. : Il est fort probable.

He has a guilty conscience. : Il n’a pas la conscience tranquille.

Come along quietly. (Policeman to man being arrested) : Suivez-moi sans protester.

Don’t make me laugh. : Laissez-moi rire. [??]

I know as little as you do about it. :Je n’en sais pas plus que vous.

4.6.3.8 Space for time (metalepsis)

Where my generation was writing poetry… these youngsters are studying radio scripts. : Alors que ma génération faisait des vers… les jeunes d’aujourd’hui travaillent des textes pour la radio.

* * *

the white man’s burden : le fardeau de la civilisation

Fixed expressions representing modulations, e.g. the type ‘fireboat : bateau-pompe’ exist both at the lexical level and for whole messages. In the latter case we speak of equivalences, which are discussed in the next section, e.g.:

Vous l’avez échappé belle. : You’ve had a narrow escape. : Essa foi por pouco : Escapou fedendo. : Foi por um triz.”

There is thus a difference between the parallelism of equivalences which have emerged independently in each language in an identical situation and the equivalences created by translation which have become an integral part of the TL.” “There exists a phased process of creation of new expressions some of which become fixed with time, e.g. the phrase ‘a new deal’, spontaneously written by Mark Twain, became a fixed expression with a political meaning, i.e. New Deal, when it was taken up by President Roosevelt and led later to similar expressions in politics, e.g. Fair Deal.”

semantic equivalences can be recorded in glossaries as collections of gallicisms, idioms, proverbs, idiomatic expressions, etc. (see: Dony, 1951). We intend to show that the scope of equivalences is wider and that such collections can never be exhaustive.”

French cleaning : (in France) Nettoyage américain

invisible mending : stoppage

French stick : baguette

French toast : Pain perdu. Pain doré (Canada)

French leave : filer à l’anglaise [!]

German measles : rubéole

Spanish fly : cantharide

LE BON NÖEL: “(The habit of exchanging impersonal preprinted cards at Christmas is of relatively recent date in France. Before that people sent visiting cards or letters for the New year which, though also containing ready-made phrases, were not so general as the English phrase above.)”

alusões (sínteses) culturais:

A Tomada da Bastilha : Le quatorze Juillet : Bastille Day / the storming of Bastille

Le quatre Septembre : The fall of the French 2nd Empire (1870)

L’homme du dix-huit Juin : De Gaulle (particularmente seu discurso de 18/06/1940)

la fille aînée de l’Église : Catholic France

la chute du Mur : The re-unification of Berlin

elephant : Partido Republicano

the deep south: Georgia, Carolina, Florida, Louisiana, Alabama e Mississippi

the Boston tea-party : o incêndio de navios carregados de chá no porto de Boston que iniciou a Revolução Americana de 1776

no taxation without representation : o slogan que fez eclodir a guerra de independência

epítetos retóricos:

the Granite City (Aberdeen)

the Athens of the North (Edinburgh)

um Bourbon (republicano americano!)

the Old Dominion (the state of Virginia)

Old Glory (the flag of the US) [que nojo]

the Old Colony (the state of Massachusetts) [quem adorou foi o Moro]

The simplest external indicator of allusions is to be found in words with a deictic, anaphoric or cataphoric function. In the process of analysis we could indicate anaphoric references by a left pointing arrow (←) and cataphoric references by a right pointing arrow (→); this distinction could be useful in identifying the nature of the reference so that the translation can properly account for them.

The English definite article has a greater deictic value than the French definite article and must therefore at times be rendered by a French demonstrative. Some are anaphoric, i.e. they refer to previous events or situations”

There is no future in the country if this is allowed to prevail. : Avec un pareil → état d’esprit le pays est voué à la stagnation.

Probably under the influence of the English ‘this’, many French language newspapers use ‘Ce’ in headlines, even when no explicit allusion would appear to justify such a deictic. In order to conform to the French tradition these headlines should have used nominal expressions”

CETTE SITUATION NE PEUT PAS DURER. : SITUATION QUI NE PEUT PAS DURER.

: SITUATION INTOLÉRABLE.

French has followed English in this use of deictics, as we can see in the example of the advertising slogan C’est une chaise Flambo!. In this case an accompanying photograph or drawing can explain and even justify the use of the deictic.”

France’s Pineau. : M. Pineau, représentant de la France.

Renowned European Cuisine. : Sa cuisine.

Epicurean Wine Cellar. : Ses vins fins.

Scenic Aerial Chair Lifts. : Son monte-pente pittoresque.

Private Heated Swimming Pool : Sa piscine.

clichés are single units of translation and should wherever possible be replaced by an equivalent target language cliché. The motivation for the use of clichés can be found in the desire to avoid repetition, i.e. the wish to produce ‘elegant variations’. It may occur that there is no need for a cliché in the target language. English is not as averse to repetition as French. We can therefore expect to find more clichés in French than in English.” Cf. Partdrige, Dictionary of Clichés (1980)

You could have knocked me down with a feather. : J’en suis resté sidéré, estomaqué,…

You could have heard a pin drop. : On aurait pu entendre voler une mouche.

Was my face red!? : Je ne savais plus où me mettre.

It was sitting there all the time. : Il me crevait les yeux.

He had it coming to him. : C’est bien fait; ça lui apprendra.

be fruitful and multiply : croissez et multipliez

Genesis 1.28

old and well-stricken in years : vieux et avancés en âge

Genesis 18.11

signs and wonders : prodiges et miracles

Exodus 7.3

Fixed allusions differ from clichés in that they have a specific origin which can be traced back to an author, a book, or a well-known historic fact. They form part of a people’s heritage, and it is quite possible that 2 people, though speaking the same language do not share the same literary or historical allusions. This is frequently the case with British and North American texts.”

a certain flair is needed to recognise citations which are not identified by quotation marks or reference to the author or the book but are hidden in the text.”

Different periods and social classes have their own preferences for sources of allusions but the French classical authors have been cited for centuries and are likely to continue to do so. Many have full English equivalents and occur in English dictionaries of quotations, but English users of such phrases would not necessarily make the same cultural association to the original author and his historical period.”

a whole series of books took their title from a film by the American comedian Woody Allen, Everything you ever wanted to know about sex, but were ashamed to ask. For example, in 1981 the highly respected philosopher James D. McCawley [who?] published Everything that linguists have always to know about Logic but were ashamed to ask.”

Estude por cem dias. Quem sabe lhe servirá para um.

Em Roma fechada não entra mosca.

Como diria um português em 1530: o melhor é sempre ir par’oeste.

Her ghost in Phileas Fogg

Moçoila como a neblina (fille as fog)

O caminho mais curto para a verdade não é uma linha reta, afinal a terra é geóide.

O menor caminho entre dois pontos é uma parábola, até Einstein saberia disso.

Diz a razão, diz a abstração, que nada há mais prático e rápido que uma linha reta do início ao fim: eis porque a vida é irracional, imediata, enrolada e demora a passar! Não confie em conselhos, prefira viver sem celhos!

Pierre est vraiment séraphin. : Pierre is very avaricious.

The book by J. Heller Catch-22, later made into a film and long running television series, has given us an expression for a situation in which one cannot win, in the sense of the proverb <Heads I win, tails you lose>.”

Down! (to a dog) : Couché! Bas les pattes!

Keep off the grass! : Ne marchez pas sur le gazon! : A grama ainda está muito verde para receber caminhantes.

Under new management. : Changement de propriétaire.

: Nouvelle administration (C.F)

Desculpe, mas em Português essa não colou!

Slippery when wet. : Chaussée glissante par temps humide.

Winding Road. : Virage sur x kilomètres.

In the last example French indicates a distance, whereas English readers are expected to note by themselves when the curves stop. The greater precision expressed in French road signs by the use of precise measurements, e.g. PARIS À 600 MÈTRES (Gare St-Lazare), may add to the impression some tourists have gained that French is a clear and transparent language.”

Ceci c’est pas un spa!

Slowly you can go forever

There’s never a game over if you can fill this form.

Cof cof

Eles se parecem como dois flocos de neve. Yin e yang.

– Vocês são como Mario e Luigi.

– Irmãos inseparáveis?

– Não: todo mundo agradeceria se aparecesse só um por vez.

– Detesto hospitalidade.

– Como?

– Eu disse que detesto essas duas coisas.

– Mas você só disse uma.

– Hospital e idade. Detesto ser bem-tratado só porque sou um velho doente.

A caridade começa onde a hospitalidade acaba: no limiar da porta da sua casa.

Take, for example, the fact that most American cities are built on two sides of a railway line. Because of the distribution of population on either side, Americans speak of a right side and a wrong side of the track when they want to make general class distinctions. Translators must understand this situation before they can attempt to create the following equivalent message.

He lives on the wrong side of the track. : Il n’est pas de notre milieu.”

Ela é Julieta e eu Romeu, com essa diferença: não nos gostamos. Aí tens.

The text book examples are usually taken from Indian languages which do not differentiate between the colours red and brown, or red-brown-black, or between white-grey-pale blue, etc. Nearer to European languages, the standard example is Welsh, for which the following table shows the division of colours”

The now obsolete French expression ‘demi-tasse’ is still used in the English-speaking America to refer to the small cups used for after-dinner coffee.”

We can cite an incident of the First World War. A misunderstanding about the English troops was based on the translation of ‘tea’, the name for the English soldiers’ evening meal, by the French ‘thé’ [quando não passava de uma ração ordinária de soldado].”

The English ‘residential areas’ refers to parts of towns without shops, offices or factories. This type of town planning is often unknown in France and consequently the concept does not exist. Even in the ‘beaux quartiers’ of Paris — another metalinguistic problem — there are shops and offices in elegant residential streets.”

the French ‘quartier des affaires’, ‘centre ville’ or ‘centre’ would correspond to the US ‘downtown’ or ‘business centre’ or the ‘City’ of London.”

In the English speaking world ‘science’ does not include mathematics, the ‘humanities’ does not include history and geography and possibly linguistics.”

PROFESSOR É QUEM TEM PROFESSORADO: “the title of professor followed by the proper name is in France usually reserved for medical professors. Other university professors are more frequently called simply ‘M. X’.”

The word ‘hospital’ is not always best translated by ‘hôpital’ which in French has certain connotations of poverty if not outright misery. Therefore, in certain cases it is better to translate:

I went to see him at the hospital. : Je suis allé le voir à sa clinique.”

Yours truly, : Salutations distinguées,

Yours sincerely, : Veuillez agréer l’expression de mes sentiments les meilleurs,

Yours ever, : Amitiés

* * *

As a form of conclusion we can do not better than critically examine André Gide’s observations in the preface to his translation of the first act of Hamlet.

The study of messages, originally proposed by Zellig Harris (1952), had to wait another 2 decades before it was granted its own theories under the heading of text linguistics. Halliday (1976) discussed criteria for textual cohesion, Hoey (1983) presents the criterion of coherence. A global view of text linguistics is given in Dressler (ed.) (1978).” “There is a substantial literature on the linguistic aspects of metaphor, e.g. the excellent collection of articles edited by Ortony (1979) and Lakoff (1980); in French metaphor is discussed by Henry (1971).”

A psycholinguistic interpretation of the criterion of relevance in translation is given by Gutt (1991).”

Bernelle, M.A. 1955. “Présentation du grec ancien”. in: Vie et Langage 44. 492.

Cassirer, E. 1979. Symbol, Myth and Culture. Essays and Lectures of E. Cassirer. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Dony, Y.P. de 1951. Léxico del Lenguaje Figurado (Castellano, Français, English, Deutsch. Buenos Aires: Desclée de Brouwer.

Galichet, 1958. Physiologie de la Langue française

Hutchins, J. & Somers, H. 1992. Introduction to Machine Translation. London: Academic Press.

Locke, W.N. & Booth, A.D. 1955. Machine Translation of Languages. New York: Wiley. Lyons, J. 1977. Semantics (2vols.) Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Malblanc, A. 1944. Stylistique comparée du français et de l’allemand. (5ed. 1968) Paris: Didier.

* * *

Rivers perhaps are the only physical features of the world that are at their best from the air. Mountain ranges, no longer seen in profile, dwarf to ant-hills; seas lose their horizons; lakes have no longer depth but look like bright pennies on the earth’s surface; forests become a thin, impermanent film, a moss on the top of a wet stone, easily rubbed off. But rivers, which from the ground one usually seen only in cross sections, like a small sample of ribbon — rivers stretch out serenely ahead as far as the eye can reach. Rivers are seen in their true stature.” Anne Morrow Lindbergh, North to the Orient

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF HOMOSEXUALITY

PREFACE

Biographies of gay men and lesbian women discuss their orientation only when unavoidable, as with Oscar Wilde. There have been several encyclopedias and dictionaries of sexuality (beginning with a German one of 1922, the Handbuch der Sexualwissenschaft), but this work is the first to treat homosexuality in all its complexity and variety.

all the efforts of church and state over the centuries to obliterate homosexual behavior and its expression in literature, tradition, and subculture have come to naught, if only because the capacity for homoerotic response and homosexual activity is embedded in human nature, and cannot be eradicated by any amount of suffering inflicted upon hapless individuals.”

The editors are persuaded that the phenomenology of lesbianism and that of male homosexuality have much in common, especially when viewed in the cultural and social context, where massive homophobia has provided a shared setting, if not necessarily an equal duress.”

Perhaps the most difficult obstacle to a simple focus on <homosexuality> is the growing realization that what has been lumped together under that term since its coinage in 1869 is not a simple, unitary phenomenon. The more one works with data from times and cultures other than contemporary middle-class American and northern European ones, the more one tends to see a multiplicity of homosexualities.”

The Greeks who institutionalized pederasty and used it for educational ends take a prominent role, as does the Judeo-Christian tradition of sexual restriction and homophobia that prevailed under the church Fathers, Scholasticism, and the Reformers, and – in altered form – during the 20th century under Hitler and Mussolini, Stalin and Castro.

ACHILLES

He is a tragic hero, being aware of the shortness of his life, and his devoted friendship for Patroclus is one of the major themes of the epic. Later Greek speculation made the two lovers, and also gave Achilles a passion for Troilus. The homoerotic elements in the figure of Achilles are characteristically Hellenic. He is supremely beautiful, kalos as the later vase inscriptions have it; he is ever youthful as well as short-lived, yet he foresees and mourns his own death as he anticipates the grief that it will bring to others. His attachment to Patroclus is an archetypal male bond that occurs elsewhere in Greek culture: Damon and Pythias, Orestes and Pylades, Harmodius and Aristogiton are pairs of comrades who gladly face danger and death for and beside each other. From the Semitic world stem Gilgamesh and Enkidu, as well as David and Jonathan. The friendship of Achilles and Patroclus is mentioned explicitly only once in the Iliad, and then in a context of military excellence; it is the comradeship of warriors who fight always in each other’s ken: <From then on the son of Thetis urged that never in the moil of Ares [nas confusões da guerra] should Patroclus be stationed apart from his own man-slaughtering spear.>”

The friendship with Patroclus blossomed into overt homosexual love in the fifth and fourth centuries, in the works of Aeschylus, Plato, and Aeschines, and as such seems to have inspired the enigmatic verses in Lycophron’s third-century Alexandra that make unrequited love Achilles’ motive for killing Troilus. By the IV century of our era this story had been elaborated into a sadomasochistic version in which Achilles causes the death of his beloved by crushing him in a lover’s embrace. As a rule, the post-classical tradition shows Achilles as heterosexual and having an exemplary asexual friendship with Patroclus. The figure of Achilles remained polyvalent. The classical Greek pederastic tradition only sporadically assimilated him, new variations appeared in pagan writings after the Golden Age of Hellenic civilization, and medieval Christian writers deliberately suppressed the homoerotic nuances of the figure.”

W. M. Clarke, Achilles and Patroclus in Love (1978)

AESCHINES

Athenian orator. His exchanges with Demosthenes in the courts in 343 and 330 reflect the relations between Athens and Macedon in the era of Alexander the Great. Aeschines and Demosthenes were both members of the Athenian boule (assembly) in the year 347-46, and their disagreements led to 16 years of bitter enmity. Demosthenes opposed Aeschines and the efforts to reach an accord with Philip of Macedon, while Aeschines supported the negotiations and wanted to extend them into a peace that would provide for joint action against aggressors and make it possible to do without Macedonian help. In 346-45 Demosthenes began a prosecution of Aeschines for his part in the peace negotiations – Aeschines replied with a charge that Timarchus, Demosthenes’ ally, had prostituted himself with other males and thereby incurred atimia, <civic dishonor>, which disqualified him from addressing the assembly. Aeschines’ stratagem was successful, and Timarchus was defeated and disenfranchised. The oration is often discussed because of the texts of the Athenian laws that it cites, as well as such accusations that Timarchus had gone down to Piraeus, ostensibly to learn the barber’s trade.

AESCHYLUS

QUEM DISSE, JAEGER, QUE NÃO SE PODE SER SOLDADO E POETA AO MESMO TEMPO? First of the great Attic tragedians. Aeschylus fought against the Persians at Marathon and probably Salamis. Profoundly religious and patriotic, he produced, according to one catalogue, 72 titles, but 10 others are mentioned elsewhere. He was the one who first added a second actor to speak against the chorus. Of his 7 surviving tragedies, none is pederastic. His lost Myrmidons, however, described in lascivious terms the physical love of Achilles for Patroclus’ thighs, altering the age relationship given in Homer’s Iliad – where Patroclus is a few years the older, but as they grew up together, they were essentially agemates – to suggest that Achilles was the lover (erastes) of Patroclus.

Plato had Phaedrus point out the confusion, and argue that Patroclus must have been the older and therefore the lover, while the beautiful Achilles was his beloved (Symposium, 180a). Among Attic tragedians Aeschylus was followed by Sophocles, Euripides, and Agathon.

Sophocles (496-406 B.C.), who first bested Aeschylus in 468 and added a third actor, wrote 123 tragedies of which 7 survive, all from later than 440. At least 4 of his tragedies were pederastic. Euripides (480-406 B.C.) wrote 75 tragedies of which 19 survive, and the lost Chrysippus, and probably some others as well, were pederastic. Euripides loved the beautiful but effeminate tragedian Agathon until Agathon was 40. The latter, who won his first victory in 416, was the first to reduce the chorus to a mere interlude, but none of his works survive.

All four of the greatest tragedians wrote pederastic plays but none survive, possibly because of Christian homophobia. The tragedians seem to have shared the pederastic enthusiasm of the lyric poets and of Pindar, though many of their mythical and historical source-themes antedated the formal institutionalization of paiderasteia in Greece toward the beginning of the sixth century before our era.”

(o artigo de William Percy foi transcrito na íntegra)

AFRICA, NORTH

Pederasty was virtually pandemic in North Africa during the periods of Arab and Turkish rule. Islam as a whole was tolerant of pederasty, and in North Africa particularly so. (The Islamic high-water points in this respect may tentatively be marked out as Baghdad of The Thousand and One Nights, Cairo of the Mamluks, Moorish Granada, and Algiers of the 16th and 17th centuries.) The era of Arabic rule in North Africa did, however, witness occasional puritan movements and rulers, such as the Almohads and a Shiite puritanism centered in Fez (Morocco). This puritanism continues with the current King Hassan II of Morocco, who is, however, hampered by an openly homosexual brother.”

400 Franciscan friars left the Spain of Isabel the Catholic and embraced Islam rather than <mend their ways>, as she had commanded them to do.”

Universal throughout pre-colonial North Africa was the singing and dancing boy, widely preferred over the female in café entertainments and suburban pleasure gardens. A prime cultural rationale was to protect the chastity of the females, who would instantly assume the status of a prostitute in presenting such a performance. The result was several centuries of erotic performances by boys, who were the preferred entertainers even when female prostitutes were available, and who did not limit their acts to arousing the lust of the patrons. A North African merchant could stop at the café for a cup of tea and a hookah [narguilé], provided by a young lad, listen to the singing, and then proceed to have sex with the boy right on the premises, before returning to his shop.

The present writer has spoken with a Tunisian supervisor of schools who firmly believes in the death penalty for all homosexuals. Thus, in their rush to modernism, Third World leaders often adopt the sexual standards of medieval Christendom, even as Europe and America are moving toward legalization and tolerance of same-sex activity. Such, at least in part, is also the plight of modern North Africa.”

Tunisia. A small and impoverished country of some 4 million, Tunisia’s high birthrate keeps the country very young – about half the people are under 18. Although it is common to see men walking hand-in-hand (as in all Islamic countries), it would not be wise for a foreigner to adopt the practice with a male lover. Tunisians can easily tell the difference between two friends of approximately equal status (where hand-holding is expected) and a sexual relation (which is <officially> disapproved of and therefore not to be made public).” “In the days of Carthage, the city was known for its perfumed male prostitutes and courtesans. After Carthage was destroyed in the Punic wars, Tunisia became a Roman colony. The country did not regain its independence until modern times. The Romans were supplanted by the Vandals, who in turn surrendered the country to the Byzantine Empire. The rise of the followers of Muhammad swept Tunisia out of Christendom forever, and the country eventually passed into the Turkish Empire, where it remained until the French protectorate.”

Marxist societies abominate homosexuality, and this influence has had a chilling effect on Algeria. The passing tourist will see nothing of such activity, although residents may have a different experience. Another fact is that Algerians do not like the French (because of the war) and this dislike is frequently extended to all people who look like Frenchmen, though they may be Canadian or Polish. It is a strange country, where you can spot signs saying <Parking Reserved for the National Liberation Front> (the stalls are filled with Mercedes Benzes), and also the only place in all of North Africa where the present writer has even seen a large graffito proclaiming <Nous voulons vivre français!> (We want to live as Frenchmen!).

The adventures of Oscar Wilde and André Gide in Tunisia and Algeria before the war are good evidence that this modern difference between the two countries was in fact caused by the trauma of the war. There is better evidence in the history of Algiers long before. During the 16th and 17th centuries, Algiers was possibly the leading homosexual city in the world. It was the leading Ottoman naval and administrative center in the western Mediterranean, and was key to Turkey’s foreign trade with every country but Italy. Of the major North African cities, it was the furthest from the enemy – Europe. It was the most Turkish city in North Africa, in fact the most Turkish city outside Turkey.”

The bath-houses (hammams) of Fez were the object of scandalous comments around 1500. Two factors assume a bolder relief in Morocco, although they are typical of North Africa as a whole. One is a horror of masturbation. This dislike, combined with the seclusion of good women and the diseases of prostitutes, leads many a Maghrebi [africano setentrional] to regard anal copulation with a friend as the only alternative open to him, and clearly superior to masturbation. It also leads

to such behavior being regarded as a mere peccadillo. The other, more peculiarly Moroccan tradition is that of baraka, a sort of <religious good luck>. It is believed that a saintly man can transmit some of this baraka to other men by the mechanism of anal intercourse. (Fellatio has traditionally been regarded with disgust in the region, although the 20th century has been changing attitudes.)”

Malek Chebel, L’Esprit de sérail: Perversions et marginalités sexuelles au

Magreb, Paris: Lieu Commun, 1988.

ALCIBIADES

Reared in the household of his guardian and uncle Pericles, he became the eromenos and later intimate friend of Socrates, who saved his life in battle. His, brilliance enabled him in 420 to become leader of the extreme democratic faction, and his imperialistic designs led Athens into an alliance with Argos and other foes of Sparta, a policy largely discredited by the Spartan victory at Mantinea. He sponsored the plan for a Sicilian expedition to outflank Sparta, which ended after his recall in the capture of thousands of Athenians, most of whom died in the salt mines where they were confined, but soon after the fleet reached Sicily his enemies recalled him on the pretext of his complicity in the mutilation of the Hermae, the phallic pillars marking boundaries between lots of land. He escaped, however, to Sparta and became the adviser of the Spartan high command. Losing the confidence of the Spartans and accused of impregnating the wife of one of Sparta’s two kings, he fled to Persia, then tried to win reinstatement at Athens by winning Persian support for the city and promoting an oligarchic revolution, but without success. Then being appointed commander by the Athenian fleet at Samos, he displayed his military skills for several years and won a brilliant victory at Cyzicus in 410, but reverses in battle and political intrigue at home led to his downfall, and he was finally murdered in Phrygia in 404 [Sócrates, mais velho, foi condenado apenas em 399]. Though an outstanding politician and military leader, Alcibiades compromised himself by the excesses of his sexual life, which was not confined to his own sex, but was uninhibitedly bisexual, as was typical of a member of the Athenian aristocracy. The Attic comedians scolded him for his adventures; Aristophanes wrote a play (now lost) entitled Triphales (The man with three phalli), in which Alcibiades’ erotic exploits were satirized. In his youth, admired by the whole of Athens for his beauty, he bore on his coat of arms an Eros hurling a lightning bolt. Diogenes Laertius said of him that <when a young man, he separated men from their wives, and later, wives from their husbands,> while the comedian Pherecrates declared that <Alcibiades, who once was no man, is now the man of all women>. He gained a bad reputation for introducing luxurious practices into Athenian life, and even his dress was reproached for extravagance. He combined the ambitious political careerist and the bisexual dandy, a synthesis possible only in a society that tolerated homosexual expression and even a certain amount of heterosexual licence in its public figures. His physical beauty alone impressed his contemporaries enough to remain an inseparable part of his historical image.”

Walter Ellis, Alcibiades, New York: Routledge, 1989;

Jean Hatzfeld, Alcibiade: Étude sur l’histoire d’Athènes à la fin du Ve siècle, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1951.

ANARCHISM

Étienne de la Boétie (1530-1563) and William Godwin (1756-1836) wrote two proto-anarchist classics. Boétie’s Discours de la servitude voluntaire (1552-53) (translated as The Politics of Obedience and as The Will to Bondage) is still read by anarchists.” Ver excertos em Português em http://xtudotudo6.zip.net/arch2012-11-01_2012-11-30.html.

Pederasty comes not so much from lack of marriage bed as from a hazy yearning for masculine beauty.” Proudhon

The boy-lover John Henry Mackay (1864-1933), who wrote widely on both pederastic (under the pseudonym Sagitta) and anarchist topics, prepared the first (and only) biography of Stirner in 1898.”

Karl Marx & Frederick Engels had a personal disgust for homosexuality (Engels told Marx to be grateful that they were too old to attract homosexuals). Marx published full-length diatribes against Proudhon, Stirner, and Bakunin. He used Bakunin’s relationship to Nechaev as an excuse for expelling the anarchists from the International in 1872. Lenin later denounced anarchists as politically <infantile>, just as Freudians argued that homosexuality was an arrested infantile (or adolescent) development.”

Thomas Bell, a gay secretary of Frank Harris and a trick[?] of Wilde’s, has written a book on Wilde’s anarchism, available only in Portuguese.[!]”

In Spain during the Civil War (1936-39), anarchists fought against both the fascists and the communists, and for a time dominated large areas of the country. Many gay men and lesbians volunteered to fight in the war, while others worked as ambulance drivers and medics.”

Emma Goldman (1869-1940) is unquestionably the first person to lecture publicly in the United States on homosexual emancipation”

Whether from choice or necessity, anarchists have written extensively against prisons and in favor of prisoners, many of whom either from choice or necessity have experienced prison homosexuality. William Godwin opposed punishment of any kind and all anarchists have opposed any enforced sexuality.”

Both anarchists and gays can be found in the Punk Rock movement. Since many anarchists do not really believe in organizations, they can often be as hard to identify as homosexuals once were. During the early 80s at the New York Gay Pride marches, gay anarchists, S/M groups, gay atheists, NAMBLA, Pag Rag and others all marched together with banners as individual members drifted back and forth between all the groups.”

A major question is whether homosexuals are inherently attracted to anarchism or whether homosexuals have been equally attracted to democracy, communism, fascism, monarchy, nationalism or capitalism. Because of the secrecy, no one can ever figure what percentage of homosexuals are anarchists and what percentage of anarchists are homosexual. But only among anarchists has there been a consistent commitment, rooted in basic principles of the philosophy, to build a society in which every person is free to express him- or herself sexually in every way.”

ANDERSEN, HANS CHRISTIAN

His fame rests upon the 168 fairy tales and stories which he wrote between 1835 and 1872. Some of the very first became children’s classics from the moment of their appearance; the tales have since been translated into more than 100 languages. Some are almost child-like in their simplicity; others are so subtle and sophisticated that they can be properly appreciated only by adults.”

It has been speculated that the fairy tale The Little Mermaid, completed in January 1837, is based on Andersen’s self-identification with a sexless creature with a fish’s tail who tragically loves a handsome prince, but instead of saving her own future as a mermaid by killing the prince and his bride sacrifices herself and commits suicide – another theme of early homosexual apologetic literature.”

ANDROGYNY

There is a tendency to consider androgyny primarily psychic and constitutional, while hermaphroditism is anatomical.”

with reference to male human beings <androgynous> implies effeminacy. Logically, it should then mean <viraginous, masculinized> when applied to women, but this parallel is rarely drawn. Thus there is an unanalyzed tendency to regard androgynization as essentially a process of softening or mitigating maleness. Stereotypically, the androgyne is a half-man or incomplete male. In addition to these relatively specific usages there is a kind of semantic halo effect, whereby androgyny is taken to refer to a more all-encompassing realm. Significantly, in this broader, almost mystical sense the negative connotations fall away, and androgyny may even be a prized quality. For example the figures in the Renaissance paintings of Botticelli and Leonardo are sometimes admired for their androgynous beauty. It comes as no surprise that these aspects of the artists were first emphasized by homosexual art critics of the 19th century.”

In Hinduism and some African religions there are male gods who have female manifestations or avatars. A strand of Jewish medieval interpretation of Genesis holds that Adam and Eve were androgynous before the Fall. If this be the case, God himself must be androgynous since he made man <in his own image>. Working from different premises, medieval Christian mystics found that the compassion of Christ required that he be conceived of as a mother. Jakob Böhme (1575-1624), the German seer, held that all perfect beings, Christ as well as the angels, were androgynous. He foresaw that ultimately Christ’s sacrifice would make possible a restoration of the primal androgyny.”

androgyny points the way to a return to the Golden Age, an era of harmony unmarred by the conflict and dissension of today which are rooted in an unnatural polarization.”

Mircea Eliade, Mephistopheles and the Androgyne, New York: Harper and Row, 1965.

ANIMAL HOMOSEXUALITY

In the 1970s the well-publicized reports of the German ethologist Konrad Lorenz drew attention to male-male pair bonds in greylag geese. Controlled reports of <lesbian> behavior among birds, in which two females share the responsibilities of a single nest, have existed since 1885. Mounting behavior has been observed among male lizards, monkeys, and mountain goats. In some cases one male bests the other in combat, and then mounts his fellow, engaging in penile thrusts – though rarely with intromission. In other instances, a submissive male will <present> to a dominant one, by exhibiting his buttocks in a receptive manner. Mutual masturbation and fellatio have been observed among male stump-tailed macaques. During oestrus female rhesus monkeys engage in mutual full-body rubbing. Those who have observed these same-sex patterns in various species have noted, explicitly or implicitly, similarities with human behavior. It is vital, however, not to elide differences. Mounting behavior may not be sexual, but an expression of social hierarchy: the dominant partner reaffirms his superiority over the presenting one. In most cases where a sexual pairing does occur, one partner adopts the characteristic behavior of the other sex. While this behavioral inversion sometimes occurs in human homosexual conduct, it is by no means universal. Thus while (say) Roman homosexuality, which often involved slaves submitting to their masters, may find its analogue among animals, modern American androphilia largely does not. This difference suggests that the cultural matrix is important.” “In the light of this complexity, a simple identification of human homosexual behavior with same-sex interactions among animals is reductive, and may block or misdirect the search for an understanding of the remaining mysteries of human sexuality. Still, for those aspects to which they have relevance, animal patterns of homosexual behavior help to place human ones in a phylogenetic perspective – in somewhat the same way as animal cries and calls have a relation to human language, and the structures built by birds and beavers anticipate the feats of human architecture.

ARISTOCRATIC VICE

In the 17th century Sir Edward Coke attributed the origin of sodomy to <pride, excess of diet, idleness and contempt of the poor>. The noted English jurist was in fact offering a variation on the prophet Ezekiel (16:49). This accusation reflects the perennial truism that wealth, idleness, and lust tend to go together – a cluster summed up in the Latin term luxuria.

The stereotype of aristocratic vice has a sequel in the early 20th-century Marxist notion that the purported increase of homosexuality in modem industrial states stems from the decadence of capitalism; in this view the workers fortunately remain psychologically healthy and thus untainted by the debilitating proclivity. In the Krupp and von Moltke-Eulenburg scandals in Germany in 1903-08, journalists of the socialist press did their best to inflame their readership against the unnatural vices of the aristocracy, which were bringing the nation to the brink of ruin.”

ARISTOTLE

As a thinker Aristotle is outstanding for the breadth of his interests, which encompassed the entire panorama of the ancient sciences, and for his efforts to make sense of the world through applying an organic and developmental approach. In this way he departed from the essentialist, deductive emphasis of Plato. Unfortunately, Aristotle’s polished essays, which were noted for their style, are lost, and the massive corpus of surviving works derives largely from lecture notes. In these the wording of the Greek presents many uncertainties”

Although Aristotle is known to have had several male lovers, in his writings he tended to follow Plato’s lead in favoring restraints on overt expression of homoerotic feelings. He differs, however, from Plato’s ethical and idealizing approach to male same-sex love by his stress on biological factors. In a brief but important treatment in the Nicomachean Ethics (7:5) he was the first to distinguish clearly between innate and acquired homosexuality. This dichotomy corresponds to a standard Greek distinction between processes which are determined by nature (physis) and those which are conditioned by culture or custom (nomos). The approach set forth in this text was to be echoed a millennium and a half later in the Christian Scholastic treatments of Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas (Summa Theologiae, 31:7). In The History of Animals (9:8), Aristotle anticipates modem ethology by showing that homosexual behavior among birds is linked to patterns of domination and submission. In various passages he speaks of homosexual relations among noted Athenian men and boys as a matter of course. His treatment of friendship (Nicomachean Ethics, books 8 and 9) emphasizes its mutual character, based on the equality of the parties, which requires time for full consolidation. He takes it as given that true friendship can occur only between two free males of equal status, excluding slaves and women. Aristotle’s ideas on friendship were to be echoed by Cicero, Erasmus, Michel de Montaigne, and Francis Bacon.

The Problems (4:26), a work attributed to Aristotle but probably compiled by a follower, attributes desire for anal intercourse in men to the accumulation of semen in the fundament. This notion derives from the common Greek medical view that semen is produced in the region of the brain and then transferred by a series of conduits to the lower body.

In England and America a spurious compilation of sexual and generative knowledge, Aristotle’s Masterpiece, enjoyed a long run of popularity. Compiled from a variety of sources, including the Hippocratic and Galenic medical traditions, the medieval writings of Albertus Magnus, and folklore of all kinds, this farrago was apparently first published in English in 1684. A predecessor of later sex manuals, the book contains such lore as the determination of the size of the penis from that of the nose.

ART, VISUAL

Before the 16th century, we find only representations of friendship between women; then in the Venetian school there begins an imagery of lesbian dalliance – but only for male entertainment. Only in recent decades has there been a substantial production of lesbian art by lesbians and for lesbians.”

pe(re)nial tradition

In antiquity the Greeks were noted for their national peculiarity of exercising in the nude. Out of this custom grew the monumental nude statue, a genre that Greece bequeathed to the world. The tradition began a little before 600 B.C. with the sequence of nude youths known as kowoi. (Monumental female nudes did not appear until ca. 350 B.C.) Although archeologists have maintained a deafening silence on the matter, it seems clear that the radiance of these figures can only be explained in the light of the Greek homoerotic appreciation of the male form. Whatever else they may have been, the kowoi were the finest pin-ups ever created.

The Romans did not share the Greek fondness for nude exercise and their attitude toward homosexual behavior was more ambiguous. Perhaps it is not surprising that they favored the old religious subject of the hermaphrodite, the double-sexed being, but now reduced largely to a subject of titillation [erotização – vulgarização]. They also were capable of depicting scenes of peeping toms [machos, provavelmente felinos] that recall the atmosphere of Petronius’s Satyricon.”

After the reign of Hadrian, who died in 138, the great age of ancient homoerotic art was over. Consequently, the adoption of Christianity cannot be said to have killed off a vibrant tradition, but it certainly did not encourage its revival.”

Since Freud’s essay of 1910 the enigmatic figure of Leonardo has offered a special appeal.”

By the turn of the century magazines began to appear in Germany presenting, by means of photographic reproduction, works appealing exclusively to male homosexual taste; lesbian magazines were only to emerge after World War I. Exceptionally, the American George Piatt Lynes (1907-1955) pursued a career in both mainstream and gay media (the latter in his extensive work for the Swiss magazine, Dei Kreis).”

Although the Surrealists sought to explore sexuality, the homophobia of their leader André Breton placed a ban on gay subjects – or at least male ones. Two related figures did explore in this realm however, the writer Jean Cocteau (1889-1963), with his drawings of sailors, and the Argentine-born painter Leonor Fini (b. 1908), with enigmatic scenes of women. The ambitious Russian-born Pavel Tchelitchev (1898-1957), connected with several avant-garde circles in Europe and America, also belongs in this company.”

It may be doubted that the long-standing premises of the modernist aesthetic – its sense of discontinuity, irony, and high seriousness – have been definitively overcome, but there is no doubt that the boundaries of the acceptable have been broadened. This enlargement creates opportunities for gay and lesbian artists. At the same time, however, the tyranny of the market and of critical stereotypes is as great as ever, so that artists are under great pressure to settle into niches that have been prepared for them. It should be remembered that many painters, sculptors, and photographers whose personal orientation is homosexual are as reluctant to be styled <gay artists> as they are to be called neo-expressionist, neo-mannerist, or some other label.”

BALZAC

Vautrin’s secret is that he does not love women, but when and how does he love men? He does so only in the rents of the fabric of the narrative, because the technique of the novelist lies exactly in not speaking openly, but letting the reader know indirectly the erotic background of the events of his story. The physical union of Vautrin with Lucien he presents with stylistic subtlety as a predestined coupling of two halves of one being, as submission to a law of nature. The homosexual aspect of the discourse must always be masked, must hide behind a euphemism, a taunting ambiguity that nevertheless tells all to the knowing reader. The pact struck between Vautrin and Lucien is a Faustian one. Vautrin dreams of owning a plantation in the American South (sic) where on a 100,000 acres he can have absolute power over his slaves – including their bodies. Balzac refers explicitly to examples of the pederasty of antiquity as a creative, civilization-building force by analogy with the Promethean influence of Vautrin upon his beloved Lucien. Vautrin is almost diabolical as a figure of exuberant masculinity, while Lucien embodies the gentleness and meekness of the feminine. The unconscious dimension of their relationship Balzac underlines with magnificent symbolism. He characterizes Vautrin as a monster, <but attached by love to humanity>. Homosexual love is not relegated to the margin of society, as in the dark underworld of the prison, but expresses the fullness of affection with all its physical demands and its spiritual powers.”

Having revealed to the hero and heroine an ideal love, Séraphitus-Séraphita departs for a heaven free of the earthly misery that human beings must endure.”

BARTHES, ROLAND

Barthes introduced into the discussion of literature an original interpretation of semiotics based on the work of the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure. His work was associated with the structuralist trend as represented by Claude Lévi-Strauss, Julia Kristeva, Tzvetan Todorov, and others. Attacked by the academic establishment for subjectivism, he formulated a concept of criticism as a creative process on an equal plane with fiction and poetry. Even those favorable to his work conceded that this could amount to a <sensuous manhandling> of the text. The turning point in his criticism is probably the tour de force S/Z (Paris, 1970), analyzing Balzac’s novella about an aging castrato, Sarrasine. Here Barthes turns away from the linear, goal-oriented procedures of traditional criticism in favor of a new mode that is dispersed, deliberately marginal, and <masturbatory>. In literature, he emphasized the factor of jouissance, a word which means both <bliss> and <sexual ejaculation>. Whether these procedures constitute models for a new feminist/gay critical practice that will erode the power of patriarchy, as some of his admirers have asserted, remains unclear.

Barthes, who never married, was actively homosexual during most of his life. Although his books are often personal, in his writing he excluded this major aspect of his experience, even when writing about love. Because of the attacks launched against him for his critical innovations, he was apparently reluctant to give his enemies an additional stick with which to beat him. Barthes’ posthumously published Incidents (Paris, 1987) does contain some revealing diary entries. The first group stems from visits he made, evidently in part for sexual purposes, to North Africa in 1968-69. The second group of entries records restless evenings in Paris in the autumn of 1979 just before his death. These jottings reveal that, despite his great fame, he frequently experienced rejection and loneliness. Whatever his personal sorrows, Barthes’ books remain to attest a remarkable human being whose activity coincided with an ebullient phase of Western culture.”

Sanford Freedman, Roland Barthes: A Bibliographical Reader’s Guide, New York: Garland, 1983.

BEAT GENERATION

The origins of this trend in American culture can be traced to the friendship of three key figures in New York City at the beginning of the 1940s. Allen Ginsberg (1926-[1997]) and Jack Kerouac (1922-1969) met as students at Columbia University, where both were working at becoming writers. In 1944 Ginsberg encountered the somewhat older William Burroughs (1914-[1997]), who was not connected with the University, but whose acquaintance with avant-garde literature supplied an essential intellectual complement to college study. Both Ginsberg and Burroughs were homosexual; Kerouac bisexual. At first the ideas and accomplishments of the three were known only to a small circle. But toward the end of the 1950s, as their works began to be published and widely read, large numbers of young people, <beatniks> and <hippies>, took up elements of their life-style.”

The word beat was sometimes traced to <beatific>, and sometimes to <beat out> and similar expressions, suggesting a pleasant exhaustion that derives from intensity of experience. Its appeal also reflects the beat and improvisation of jazz music, one of the principal influences on the trend. Some beat poets tried to match their writings with jazz in ballroom recitals, prefiguring the more effective melding of words and music in folk and rock. The ideal of spontaneity was one of the essential elements of the beat aesthetic. These writers sought to capture the immediacy of speech and lived experience, which were, if possible, to be transcribed directly as they occurred. This and related ideals reflect a new version of American folk pragmatism, preferring life to theory, immediacy to reflection, and feeling to reason. Contrary to what one might expect, however, the beat generation was not anti-intellectual, but chose to seek new sources of inspiration in neglected aspects of the European avant-garde and in Eastern thought and religion.”

First published in Paris in 1959, his novel Naked Lunch became available in the United States only after a series of landmark obscenity decisions. With its phantasmagoric and sometimes sexually explicit subject matter, together with its quasi-surrealist techniques of narrative and syntactic disjunction, this novel presented a striking new vision. This novel was followed by The Soft Machine and The Ticket That Exploded to form a trilogy. Nova Express (1964) makes extensive use of the <cut-up> techniques, which Burroughs had developed with his friend Brion Gysin. A keen observer of contemporary reality in several countries, Burroughs has sought to present a kind of <world upside down> in order to sharpen the reader’s consciousness. One of his major themes has been his anarchist-based protest against what he sees as increasingly repressive social control through such institutions as medicine and the police. Involved with

drugs for some years, he managed to kick the habit, but there is no doubt that such experiences shaped his viewpoint. His works have been compared to pop art in painting and science fiction in literature. Sometimes taxed for misogyny, his world tends to be a masculine one, sometimes exploiting fantasies of regression to a hedonistic world of juvenile freedom. Burroughs’s hedonism is acerbic and ironic, and his mixture of qualities yields a distorting mirror of reality which some have found, because perhaps of the many contradictions of later 20th-century civilization itself, to be a compelling representation.”

Ted Morgan, Literary Outlaw: The Life and Times of William Burroughs, New York: Henry Holt, 1988.

BEATS AND HIPPIES

The journalistic word <beatnik> is a pseudo-Slavic coinage of a type popular in the 1960s, the core element deriving from <beat> (generation), the suffix -nik being the formative of the noun of agent in Slavic languages. The term <hippie> was originally a slightly pejorative diminutive of the beat <hipster>, which in turn seems to derive from 1940s jivetalk adjective <hep>, meaning <with it, in step with current fashions>. The original hippies were a younger group with more spending money and more flamboyant dress. Their music was rock instead of the jazz of the beats. Despite differences that seemed important at the time, beats and hippies are probably best regarded as successive phases of a single phenomenon.

Attracted by the prestige of the beat writers, many beats/hippies cultivated claims to be poets and philosophers. In reality, once the tendency became modish only a few of the beat recruits were certifiably creative in literature and the arts; these individuals were surrounded by masses of people attracted by the atmosphere of revolt and experiment, or just seeking temporary separation – a moratorium as it was then called – from the banalities of ordinary American life. At its height the phenomenon supported scores of underground newspapers, which were read avidly by curious outsiders as well.”

Significantly, the street term for the Other, <straight>, could refer either to non-drug users or heterosexuals.”

Mysticism exerted a potent influence among beats and hippies, and some steeped themselves in Asian religions, especially Buddhism, Taoism, and Sufism. This fascination was not new, inasmuch as ever since the foundation of Theosophy as an official movement in 1875, American and other western societies had been permeated by Eastern religious elements. Impelled by a search for wisdom and cheap living conditions, many hippies and beatniks set out for prolonged sojourns in India, Nepal, and North Africa. Stay-at-homes professed their deep respect for American Indian culture.”

Most hippies were heterosexual, but their long hair exposed them to jibes of effeminacy. In this way they could experience something of the rejection that had always been the lot of homosexuals.”

With its adoption of a variant of jive talk, largely derived from black urban speech, the movement has left a lasting impression on the English vernacular, as seen in such expressions as <cool>, <spaced out>, and <rip off>.”

Marco Vassi, The Stoned Apocalypse, New York: Trident, 1972.

BENTHAM, JEREMY (1748-1832)

English philosopher and law reformer. Bentham was the founder of the Utilitarian school of social philosophy, which held that legislation should promote the greatest happiness of the greatest number. (…) His Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789) was eventually extremely influential in England, France, Spain, and Latin America where several new republics adopted constitutions and penal codes drawn up by him or inspired by his writings.

Bentham’s utilitarian ethics led him to favor abolition of laws prohibiting homosexual behavior. English law in his day (and until 1861) prescribed hanging for sodomy and during the early 19th century was enforced with, on the average, 2 or 3 hangings a year. Bentham held that relations between men were a source of sexual pleasure that did not lead to unwanted pregnancies and hence a social good rather than a social evil. He wrote extensive notes favoring law reform about 1774 and a 50-page manuscript essay in 1785. In 1791, the French National Assembly repealed France’s sodomy law but in England the period of reaction that followed the outbreak of the French Revolution made reforms impossible. In 1814 and 1816 Bentham returned to the subject and wrote lengthy critiques of traditional homophobia which he regarded as an irrational prejudice leading to <cruelty and intolerance>. In 1817-18 he wrote over 300 pages of notes on homosexuality and the Bible. Homophobic sentiment was, however, so intense in England, both in the popular press and in learned circles, that Bentham did not dare to publish any of his writings on this subject. They remained in manuscript until 1931 when C.K. Ogden included brief excerpts in an appendix to his edition of Bentham’s Theory of Legislation. Bentham’s manuscript writings on this subject are excerpted and described in detail in Louis Crompton’s 1985 monograph on Byron. Bentham’s views on homosexuality are sufficiently positive that he might be described as a precursor of the modern gay liberation movement. Bentham not only treats legal, literary, and religious aspects of the subject in his notes, but also finds support for his opinions in ancient history and comparative anthropology.”

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The emergence of systematic bibliographical control had to await the birth of the first homosexual emancipation movement in Berlin in 1897. This movement firmly held that progress toward homosexual rights must go hand in hand with intellectual enlightenment. Accordingly, each year’s production was noted in the annual volumes of the Jahrbuch fur sexuelle Zwischenstufen (1899-1923); by the end of the first ten years of monitoring over 1,000 new titles had been recorded. Although surveys were made of earlier literature, up to the time of the extinction of the movement by National-Socialism in 1933, no attempt had been made to organize this material into a single comprehensive bibliography of homosexual studies. Nonetheless, much valuable material was noted in the vast work of Magnus Hirschfeld, Die Homosexualität des Mannes und des Weisses (Berlin, 1914).”

Athenaeus (fl. ca. A.D. 200), Deipnosophists, Book 13;

Félix Buffiére, Eros adolescent: la pederastie dans la Grece antique (Paris, 1980);

Vern Bullough et al., Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality (2 vols., New York, 1976);

Wayne R. Dynes, Homosexuality: A Research Guide (New York, 1987).

BRAZIL [HOMOPHOBIA NEWLAND] & PORTUGAL

The Colonial Era. When the Portuguese reached Brazil in 1500, they were horrified to discover so many Indians who practiced the <unspeakable sin of sodomy>. In the Indian language they were called tivira, and André Thevet, chaplain to Catherine de Medici, described them in 1575 with the word bardache, perhaps the first occasion on which this term was used to describe Amerindian homosexuals. The native women also had relations with one another: according to the chroniclers they were completely <inverted> in appearance, work, and leisure, preferring to die rather than accept the name of women. Perhaps these cacoaimbeguire contributed to the rise of the New World Amazon myth.

In their turn the blacks – more than 5 million were imported during almost 4 centuries of slavery – made a major contribution to the spread of homosexuality in the <Land of the Parrots>. The first transvestite in Brazilian history was a black named Francisco, of the Mani-Congo tribe, who was denounced in 1591 by the Inquisition visitors, but refused to discard women’s clothing. Francisco was a member of the brotherhood of the quimbanba, homosexual fetishists who were well known and respected in the old kingdom of Congo-Angola. Less well established than among the Amerindians and Africans, the Portuguese component (despite the menace of the Tribunal of the Holy Office, 1536-62) continued unabated during the whole history of the kingdom, involving 3 rulers and innumerable notables, and earning sodomy the sobriquet of the <vice of the clergy>. If we compare Portugal with the other European countries of the Renaissance – not excluding England and the Netherlands – our documentation (abundant in the archives of the Inquisition) requires the conclusion that Lisbon and the principal cities of the realm, including the overseas metropolises of Bahia and Rio de Janeiro, boasted a gay subculture that was stronger, more vital, and more stratified than those of other lands, reflecting the fact that Luso-Brazilian gays were accorded more tolerance and social acceptance. Thirty sodomites were burned by the Inquisition during 3 centuries of repression, but none in Brazil, despite the more than 300 who were denounced for practicing the <evil sin>. They were referred to as sodomitas and fanchonos.

Independence. With Brazilian independence and the promulgation of the first constitution (1823) under the influence of the Napoleonic Code, homosexual behavior ceased to be criminal, and from this date forward there has been no Brazilian law restricting homosexuality [Bolsonaro e seu séquito se encontram quase 200 anos enterrados na História; me admira que não tenham morrido asfixiados em seu ideal de mundo até agora!] – apart from the prohibition with persons less than 18 years of age, the same as for heterosexuals. Lesbianism, outlawed by the Inquisition since 1646, had always been less visible than male homosexuality in Brazil, and there is no record of any mulher-macho (<male woman>) burned by the Portuguese Inquisition. In the course of Brazilian history various persons of note were publicly defamed for practicing homosexuality: in the 17th century 2 Bahia governors, Diogo Botelho and Câmara Coutinho, both contemporaries of the major satirical poet, Gregorio de Matos, author of the oldest known poem about a lesbian in the Americas, Nise. He himself was brought before the Inquisition for blasphemy in saying that <Jesus Christ was a sodomite>. [HAHAHA!] In the 19th century the revolutionary leader Sabino was accused of homosexual practices. A considerable surviving correspondence between Empress Leopoldina, consort of the Brazil’s first sovereign, Dom Pedro, with her English lady in waiting, Maria Graham, attests that they had both a homosexual relationship and an intense homoemotional reciprocity. Such famous poets and writers as Álvares de Azevedo (1831-1852), Olavo Bilac (1865-1918), and Mário de Andrade (1893-1945) rank among the votaries of Ganymede. The list also includes the pioneer of Brazilian aeronautics, Alberto Santos-Dumont (1873-1932), after whose airship the pommes Santos-Dumont were named. At the end of the 19th century homosexuality appears as a literary theme. In 1890 Aluizio Azevedo included a realistic lesbian scene in O Cortiço, and in 1895 Adolfo Caminha devoted the entire novel O Bom Crioulo (which has been translated into English) to a love affair between a cabin boy and his black protector. In the faculties of medicine of Rio de Janeiro and Bahia various theses addressed the homosexual question, beginning with O Androfilismo of Domingos Firmínio Ribeiro (1898) and O Homosexualismo: A Libertinagem no Rio de Janeiro (1906) by Pires de Almeida – both strongly influenced by the European psychiatrists Moll, Krafft-Ebing, and Tardieu. From 1930 comes the first and most outspoken Brazilian novel on lesbianism, O Terceiro Sexo, by Odilon Azevedo, where lesbian workers founded an association intended to displace men from power, thus setting forth a radical feminist discourse.

In 1976 appeared the main gay journal of Brazilian history, O Lampião (The Lantern)[!], which had a great positive effect on the rise of the Brazilian homosexual movement.” “One of the chief battles of gay activists is to denounce the repeated murders of homosexuals – about every 10 days the newspapers report a homophobic crime.”

Recently the transvestite Roberta Close appeared on the cover of the main national magazines, receiving the accolade of <the model of the beauty of the Brazilian woman>. In the mid-1980s more than 400 Brazilian transvestites could be counted in the Bois de Boulogne in Paris; many also offer themselves in Rome. When they hear the statistics of the Kinsey Report, Brazilian gays smile, suggesting through experience and <participant observation> that in Brazil the proportion of predominantly homosexual men is as high as 30%.

Brazil, once the paradise of gays, has entered a difficult path.” Premonitório. Mas falava apenas da AIDS.

BUDDHISM

Among world religions, Buddhism has been notable for the absence of condemnation of homosexuality as such.”

For an account of the earliest form of Buddhism, scholars look to the canonical texts of the Tipitaka preserved in the Pali language and transmitted orally until committed to writing in the 2nd century B.C. These scriptures remain authoritative for the Theravada or Hinayana school of Buddhism, now dominant in Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka. The Pali Canon draws a sharp distinction between the path of the lay-person and that of the bhikkhu (mendicant monk, an ordained member of the Buddhist Sangha or Order). The former is expected primarily to support the Sangha and to improve his karmic standing through the performance of meritorious deeds so that his future lives will be more fortunate than his present one. The bhikkhu, in contrast, is expected to devote all his energies to self-liberation, the struggle to cast off the attachments which prevent him from attaining the goal of nirvana in the present lifetime.”

all acts involving the intentional emission of his semen are prohibited for the monk; the insertion of the penis into a female or male is grounds for automatic expulsion from the Sangha, while even masturbation is a (lesser) offense.” “there is no law against a monk receiving a penis into his own body.”

The full rules of the vinaya are not applied to the samanera or novice monk, who may be taken into the Sangha as early as 7 years old and who is generally expected though not obligated to take the Higher Ordination by the age of 21. In this way the more intense sexual drive of the male teenager is tacitly allowed for. A samanera may masturbate without committing an offense. Interestingly, while a novice commits a grave offense if he engages in coitus with a female, requiring him to leave the Sangha, should he instead have sex with a male he is only guilty of a lesser offense requiring that he reaffirms his samanera vows and perform such penance as is directed by his teacher. This may be the only instance of a world religion treating homosexual acts more favorably than heterosexual ones.”

it has been speculated that homosexual orientation may arise from the residual karma of a previous life spent in the opposite gender from that of the body currently occupied by the life-continuum. This explanation contains no element of negativity but rather posits homosexuality as a <natural> result of the rebirth cycle.”

The form of Buddhism which spread northward into Tibet, China, Japan, Korea, and Mongolia from its Indian heartland came to be known as the Mahayana. It de-emphasized the dichotomy between monk and lay-person and relaxed the strict vinaya codes, even permitting monks to marry (in Japan). The Mahayana doctrinally sought to obliterate categorical thinking in general and resolutely fought against conceptual dualism. These tendencies favored the development of positive attitudes toward homosexual practices, most notably in Japan.”

When Father Francis Xavier arrived in Japan in the mid-16th century with the hope of converting the Japanese to Christianity, he was horrified upon encountering many Buddhist monks involved in same-sex relationships; indeed, he soon began referring to homoeroticism as the <Japanese vice>. Although some Buddhist monks condemned such relationships, notably the monk Genshin, many others either accepted or participated in same-sex relationships. Among Japanese Buddhist sects in which such relationships have been documented are the Jishu, Hokkeshu, Shingon, and Zen.”

Zen, that form of Buddhism perhaps most familiar to Westerners, emerged during the 9th century. In the Zen monasteries of medieval Japan, same-sex relations, both between monks and between monks and novices (known as kasshiki and shami), appear to have been so commonplace that the shogun Hojo Sadatoki (whom we might now refer to as <homophobic>) initiated an unsuccessful campaign in 1303 to rid the monasteries of same-sex love. Homoerotic relationships occurring within a Zen Buddhist context have been documented in such literary works as the Gozan Bungaku, Iwatsutsuji, and Comrade Loves of the Samurai [1972]. The blending of Buddhism and homoeroticism has continued to figure prominently in the works of contemporary Japanese writers, notably Yukio Mishima and Mutsuo Takahashi.”

the Gelugpas [seita tibetana dos Lamas que se sucedem] condemned heterosexual intercourse for monks, believing that the mere odor resulting from heterosexual copulation could provoke the rage of certain deities. Such misogynistic and anti-heterosexual notions may have encouraged same-sex bonding.”

Among those who may be credited with introducing the West to Buddhism are Walt Whitman and Henry David Thoreau, both of whom are thought to have loved members of the same sex and both of whom blended elements of Buddhism with elements of other spiritual traditions in their work. In the latter half of the 20th century, many American gays are practitioners of Buddhism, and the blending of homoeroticism and Buddhism may be found in the work of a number of gay American writers and musicians including Allen Ginsberg, Harold Norse, Richard Ronan, Franklin Abbott, and Lou Harrison.”

BYRON

The most influential poet of his day, with a world-wide reputation, Byron became famous with the publication of Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage (1812-

18), an account of his early travels in Portugal, Spain, Albania, and Greece. The proud, gloomy, guilt-ridden, alienated Harold defined the <Byronic hero> who was to reappear in various guises in Byron’s later poems, notably in Manfred, The Corsair, and Lara. The type became a defining image for European and American romanticism. Forced into exile in 1816 because of the scandal caused by his wife’s leaving him, Byron settled in Italy, principally in Venice. There he wrote his sparkling satire on cant and hypocrisy, Don Juan. He spent the last months of his life in Greece, trying to help the Greeks in their struggle to gain independence from the Turks.”

Because of the intense homophobia of English society these poems were ostensibly addressed to a woman, as the name Thyrza and Byron’s use of feminine pronouns implied.”

publicity about his love affair with his half-sister, Augusta Leigh, compounded the scandal [of his homosexuality].”

Byron’s last three poems, On This Day I Complete My 36th Year, Last Words on Greece, and Love and Death, poignantly describe his love for Loukas, which was not reciprocated.”

A surreptitiously published erotic poem, Don Leon, purporting to be Byron’s lost autobiography, probably written in 1833, had set forth many of the facts about Byron’s homosexuality but was dismissed as an unwarranted libel. An edition appeared in 1866 but it remained unknown to all but a few specialists. When the Fortune Press reprinted it in 1934, the publication was confiscated by the British police.”

CAESAR

In addition to his three wives and several mistresses, Julius Caesar had a number of homosexual affairs.”

Arthur D. Kahn, The Education of Julius Caesar: A Biography, a Reconstruction, New York: Schocken, 1986;

Caesar, Gallic Wars (uma prosa bélica comemorativa cortante)

CAPOTE

American novelist and journalist. Capote became famous at the age of 24 with his elegant, evocative book Other Voices, Other Rooms, which concerns the growing consciousness of a boy seeking to comprehend the ambivalent inhabitants of a remote Mississippi house. Dubbed <swamp baroque>, this short novel was easily assimilated into then-current notions of Southern decadence. (…) In 1966 he published In Cold Blood, a <non-fiction novel> about the seemingly senseless murder of a Kansas farm family by two drifters. In preparing for the book, Capote gained the confidence of the murderers, and was thus able to make vivid their sleazy mental universe.”

Capote became the confidant of rich and famous people, especially women, and he gathered their stories for incorporation in a major work which was intended to rival Marcel Proust. Yet when excerpts from this work-in-progress were published in magazines, not only were they found to be vulgar and lacking in insight, but Capote began to be dropped by the socialites he had so unsubtly satirized. Dismayed, the writer sank more and more into a miasma of alcohol, cocaine, and valium – his only consolation the devoted love, or so he claimed, of a succession of straight, proletarian young men whom he prized because of their very ordinariness.”

CARAVAGGIO

Caravaggio came under the protection of Cardinal Francesco Maria del Monte, a homosexual prelate. During this period he painted several works showing ambiguous or androgynous young men, including The Musicians (New York, Metropolitan Museum). Efforts have been made to deny the homoerotic implications of these works, but they seem feeble.”

caravaggio1

Only after World War II did his reputation begin to climb, attaining remarkable heights in the 1980s, when even the abstract artist Frank Stella praised him. In 1986 Derek Jarman’s stylish film Caravaggio was released, presenting the artist as bisexual, but emphasizing the homosexual side.”

caravaggio2
Baco/Dionísio pelas mãos do pintor bissexual italiano.

CASTRATI

The castrati were male singers emasculated in boyhood to preserve the soprano or contralto range of their voices, who from the 16th century to the 19th played roles in Italian opera.” “Boys are commonly mischievous, unruly, and troublesome, and by the time they have really been trained their voices are usually on the edge of breaking; falsettists do not share these drawbacks, but their voices have a peculiar, unpleasant quality, and as a rule cannot attain as high a range as the soprano.”

The elaborate a cappella style, which began to flourish about the middle of the 15th century, required a much wider range of voices and a higher degree of virtuosity than anything that had gone before, and for this task the existing singers were inadequate. The first response took the form of Spanish falsettists of a special kind, but by the end of the 16th century these had yielded to the castrati, who also dominated the new baroque art form – the opera, which was the principal musical activity of the Italian nation in the next two centuries. Opera was unlike legitimate theatre in that it traveled well; it was the first form of musical entertainment that was both popular and to a certain degree international, so that a star system transcending national borders arose. Leading singers were discussed, criticized, and compared in fashionable drawing rooms from Lisbon to St. Petersburg. (…) If other nations had some form of native opera, this ranked lower on the cultural scale and was indifferently sung, while the Italian version enjoyed the highest standard of singing that had ever been known, and will in all likelihood never again be attained. France alone refused admission to Italian singers, and virtually banned the castrati; but Frenchmen, like other Europeans, were full of praise for the opera of Italy.

Since no recording devices existed in the heyday of the castrati, the modern critic has no way of judging the quality of their performance, yet 6 generations of music-lovers preferred the voices of these <half-men> to those of women themselves and of whole men.

In this economic stratum, however, it was accepted that any male child who betrayed the slightest aptitude for music should be sold into servitude, just as in modern Thailand children are sold by their parents to labor in factories or serve in brothels. The successful castrato naturally tried to conceal his humble origins and pose as the scion of an honorable family. The singing-masters of that era were responsible for the perfection of the art of the castrati; no one since has rivaled them in perseverance and thoroughness, and in their perfect command of the capabilities and shortcomings of the human vocal organs. They usually worked in a conservatorio, though sometimes they had their own singing schools or tutored pupils on the side.

Since canon law condemned castration and threatened anyone involved in it with excommunication, which could be reinforced by civil penalties, the business had to be carried on more or less clandestinely, and everywhere prying questions brought only misleading and deceitful answers. The town of Lecce in Apulia, and Norcia, a small town in the Papal States about 20 miles east of Spoleto, are mentioned as notorious for the practice, though the castrati themselves came from all parts of the peninsula. The doctors most esteemed for their skill in the operation were those of Bologna, and their services were in demand not just in Italy but abroad as well.

The curriculum entailed much hard work, and was thorough and comprehensive; as much attention was given to the theory of singing as to its actual practice. Between the ages of 15 and 20, a castrato who had retained and embellished his voice, and passed the various tests with greater or lesser distinction, was considered ready for his debut. On contract to some opera house, he would often first be seen in a female part, for which his youth and fresh complexion would particularly suit him. His looks and unfamiliarity would perhaps gain him greater success than his art would have merited, to the rage and envy of his senior colleagues. Once his name was made, he would have his clique of admirers who attended en masse his every performance and extolled him as their idol; aristocratic ladies and gentlemen would fancy themselves in love with him and manipulate a piquant interview. Backstage, the rivalry with other singers could rage with intense virulence; and a castrato who was too vain and insolent might be assassinated by the hirelings of a rival’s protector. If, however, the performer did not please his audience, he would be doomed to touring small provincial opera houses, or to performing in a church choir. Dissatisfied with his situation, he could set off for Bologna, the marketplace for the musical profession in Italy, to better his fortunes. The castrati came in for a great amount of scurrilous and unkind abuse, and as their fame increased, so did the hatred of them. They were often castigated as malign creatures who lured men into homosexuality, and there were admittedly homosexual castrati, as Casanova’s accounts of XVIII century Italy bear witness. He mentions meeting an abbé whom he

took for a girl in disguise, but was later told that it was a famous castrate. In Rome in 1762, he attended a performance at which the prima donna was a castrato, the minion of Cardinal Borghese, who supped every evening with his protector. From his behavior on stage, <it was obvious that he hoped to inspire the love of those who liked him as a man, and probably would not have done so as a woman.> He concludes by saying that the holy city of Rome forces every man to become a pederast, even if it does not believe in the effect of the illusion which the castrati provoke.”

Opponents of castration have claimed that the practice caused its victims an early loss of voice and an untimely death, while others have affirmed that castration prolonged the life of the vocal cords, and even that of their owner. There is no solid evidence for either contention: the castrati had approximately the same life span as their contemporaries, and retired at roughly the same age as other singers. The operation appears to have had surprisingly little effect on the general health and well-being of the subject, any more than on his sexual impulses. The trauma was largely a psychological one, in an age when virility was deemed a sovereign virtue.A castração tardia não elimina a libido, ao contrário da crença vulgar. Não há solução fácil para o dilema da energia! Eu-nuco El-niño or neverminds

Toward the end of the XVIII century castrati went out of fashion, and new styles in musical composition led to the disappearance of these singers. Meyerbeer was the last composer of importance to write for the male soprano voice; his Il Crociato in Egitto, produced at Venice in 1824, was designed especially for a castrato star. Succeeding generations regarded their memory with derision and disgust, and were happy to live in an age when such products of barbarism were no longer possible. A few castrati performed in the Vatican chapel and some other Roman churches until late in the XIX century, but their vogue on the operatic stage had long passed.”

Angus Heriot, The Castrati in Opera

CATAMITE

The Latin common noun, catamitus, designating a minion or kept boy, is usually derived from the Greek proper name Ganymede(s), the favorite of Zeus. Another possible source is Kadmilos, the companion of the Theban god Kabeiros. The word entered English in 16th century as part of the Renaissance revival of classical literature, and has always retained a learned, quasi-exotic aura. The term could also be used as a verbal adjective, as <a catamited boy>.” “In modern English the termination -ite tends to be perceived as pejorative, as in Trotskyite (vs. Trotskyist) and sodomite.”

CATULLUS

Born at Verona, he spent most of his life in Rome, but kept a villa near his birthplace at Smirno on Lake Garda. Often considered the best Republican poet, he imitated Sappho as well as other archaic, classical, and Hellenistic models, upon which he often improved, and which he combined with native Latin traditions to create stunning, original pieces. He wrote poems, 250 of which survive, of happiness and bitter disappointment. Some are addressed to his mistress Clodia, 10 years his senior, whom he addressed as Lesbia (though with no insinuation of what we now call lesbianism), and who was unfaithful to him with other men. Homophobic Christians and modern schoolmasters have, however, greatly exaggerated the importance of the poems to Lesbia, which amount to no more than 1/8 of the Catullan corpus.”

Sophisticated and fastidious, he set the standard for the Augustan poets of love Ovid, Horace, Vergil, and Propertius. In the Silver Age even Martial acknowledged his debt to Catullus’ epigrams. Like those poets, and most specifically Tibullus, he showed little inhibition and equal attraction to boys and women, but also shared the traditional attitude that the active, full-grown male partner degraded the passive one, and that the threat to penetrate another male symbolized one’s superior virility and power. On the other hand, the accusation of having been raped by another male has a largely negative force”

CENSORSHIP AND OBSCENITY

The practice of tolerating certain hand-produced materials clearly shows that censorship is concerned not simply with the prohibition of materials, but with the size of the audience. It is for this reason that medical and other books dealing with sexual matters formerly had the crucial details in Latin.”

The urge to censor is probably ultimately rooted in fear of blasphemy, the apprehension that if utterances offensive to the gods are tolerated their wrath will fall on the whole society. It was impiety toward the gods for which Socrates was tried and condemned in 399 B.C. The Roman erotic poet Ovid was banished by the puritanical emperor Augustus in A.D. 8.”

Since the monasteries had a monopoly on producing manuscripts, it was assumed that such oversight was not necessary. In fact the abbey scriptoria not only copied erotic materials from Greco-Roman times, but created their own new genres of this type. In any event, the medieval authorities were concerned more with doctrinal deviation than with obscenity.” “The centralization of printing in the hands of a relatively few firms made it possible to scrutinize their intended productions before publication; only those that had passed the test and bore the imprimatur [seal] could be printed. It was then only necessary to make sure that heretical materials were not smuggled in from abroad. In Catholic countries this system was put in place by the establishment, under the Inquisition, with the Index of Prohibited Books in 1557. In countries where the Reformation took hold the control of books was generally assumed by the government. In England the requirement that books should be licenced for printing by the privy council or other agents of the crown was introduced in 1538. These origins explain why the activity of censors was for long chiefly concerned with the printed word. Revealingly, this system is still in force in Communist countries today [1990].”

The French author Nicolas Chorier contrived an even more ambitious ruse for his pansexual dialogues of Aloisia Sigea (1658(?)), which purported to be a translation into Latin by a Dutch author (Jan de Meurs) working from a Spanish original by a learned woman.” Entendeu? Uma tradução para o latim (língua culta) de um escrito erudito (mas vulgar) de uma espanhola, feito por um holandês, para circular na França!

Many French books, unwelcome to throne and altar, were published in Geneva, in Amsterdam, and in Germany. With the coming of the French revolution, however, all restraints were off. Thus the large works which the Marquis de Sade had composed in prison were published, as well as two fascinating homosexual pamphlets, Les enfans de Sodome and Les petits bougres au manège. Although controls were eventually tightened again, Paris gained the reputation (which lasted until about 1960) among English and American travelers as the place where <dirty books> could be obtained.

Through his prudish editions of Shakespeare, Thomas Bowdler (1754-1825) gave rise to the term <bowdlerize>. At the ports, an efficient customs service kept all but a trickle of works deemed to be obscene from coming in. In the United States, the morals crusader Anthony Comstock (1844-1915) not only fought successfully for stringent new legislation, but as head of the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice [haha] he claimed responsibility for the destruction of 160 tons of literature and pictures. The restrictions on malleability proved to be particularly hard on publishers of homosexual material, and this problem was not overcome until the ONE, Inc. case in 1954. A landmark in freedom to read books in the United States was the 1931 Ulysses case. Shortly thereafter, however, Hollywood instituted a system of self-censorship known as the Hays Office. This device effectively prevented any direct representation of homosexual love on the silver screen for decades, the only exceptions being a very few foreign films shown at art houses. During this period book publishers practiced their own form of self-censorship by insisting that novels featuring homosexual characters must doom them to an unhappy end.

Only after World War II did the walls begin to come tumbling down in English-speaking countries. In Britain the publishers of Lady Chatterley’s Lover by D.H. Lawrence were acquitted after a spectacular trial in 1960. In America Grove Press had obtained a favorable court decision on the availability of Lady Chatterley in 1959; three years later the firm went on to publish Henry Miller’s Tropic of Cancer without difficulty. The travails of a book containing explicit homosexual passages, William Burroughs’ Naked Lunch, were more extended. In 1958 authorities at the University of Chicago refused to permit publication of excerpts in a campus literary review. This led to the founding of a new journal, largely to publish the Burroughs text; once this had been done, a lengthy court battle ensued. Only in 1964 was the way clear for the whole novel to be issued by Grove Press. (The book had been published in Paris in 1959.)

Subsequently, a series of United States Supreme Court decisions made censorship impractical, and for all intents and purposes it has ceased nationally, though local option is sometimes exercised. This cessation permitted the appearance and sale of a mass of sexually explicit

books, films, and magazines. The only restriction that is ubiquitously enforced is the ban on <kiddy porn>, photographs and films of children engaging in sexual acts. In an unlikely de facto alliance, two groups emerged at the end of the 1970s in America to reestablish some form of censorship: one consisting of fundamentalists and other religious conservatives; the other of feminist groups [haha].

Michael Barry Goodman, Contemporary Literary Censorship: The Case of Burroughs’ Naked Lunch, Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1981;

Rocco, Alcibiades The Schoolboy (1652) (diálogo êmulo de Platão apólogo da pederastia)

CERVANTES

For 5 years he was a captive in Algiers, where he was on surprisingly good terms with a homosexual convert to Islam; he refers several times in his writings to the pederasty that flourished in the Ottoman empire – on his return from Algiers he was accused of unspecified filthy acts. His marriage was unhappy, and women in his works are treated distantly. Like Manuel Azaña, he put a very high value on freedom.

While Cervantes presented the male-female relationship as the theoretical ideal and goal for most people, the use of pairs of male friends is characteristic of his fiction, and questions of gender are often close to the surface. In his masterpiece Don Quixote (1605-15), which includes cross-dressing by both sexes, the middle-aged protagonist has never had, and has no interest in, sexual intercourse with a woman. A boy servant who appears fleetingly at the outset is replaced by the unhappily-married companion Sancho Panza. The two men come to love each other, although the love is not sexual.”

Verbete por Daniel Eisenberg

Louis Combet, Cervantes ou les incertitudes du désir, Lyon: Presses Universitaires, 1982 (review in MLN, 97 [1982], 422-27);

Rosa Rossi, Ascoltare Cervantes, Milan: Riuniti, 1987 (Spanish translation: Escuchar a Cervantes, Valladolid: Ámbito, 1988);

Luis Rosales, Cervantes y la libertad, 2ed., Madrid: Cultura Hispánica, 1985;

Ruth El Saffar, Cervantes and the Androgyne, Cervantes, III (1983);

______. Beyond Fiction: The Recovery of the Feminine in the Novels of Cervantes, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.

CHINA

The civilization of China emerged from pre-history during the first half of the 2nd millennium B.C. in the valley of the Huang-He (Yellow River), spreading gradually southwards. Over the centuries China has exercised extensive influence on Korea, Japan, and southeast Asia. Inasmuch as Chinese society has traditionally viewed male homosexuality and lesbianism as altogether different, their histories are separate and are consequently treated in sequence in this article.

During the latter part of the Zhou, homosexuality appears as a part of the sex lives of the rulers of many states of that era. Ancient records include homosexual relationships as unexceptional in nature and not needing justification or explanation. This tone of prosaic acceptance indicates that these authors considered homosexuality among the social elite to be fairly common and unremarkable. However, the political, ritual and social importance of the family unit made procreation a necessity. Bisexuality therefore became more accepted than exclusive homosexuality, a predominance continuing throughout Chinese history.

The Eastern Zhou produced several figures who became so associated with homosexuality that later generations invoked their names as symbols of homosexual love, much in the same way that Europeans looked to Ganymede, Socrates, and Hadrian. These famous men included Mizi Xia, who offered his royal lover a half-eaten peach, and Long Yang, who compared the fickle [volúvel] lover to a fisherman who tosses back a small fish when he catches a larger one. Rather than adopt scientific terminology, with associations of sexual pathology, Chinese litterateurs preferred the aesthetic appeal of these literary tropes [figures of speech].”

One incident in the life of Dong Xian became a timeless metaphor for homosexuality. A tersely worded account [relato oral sucinto] relates how Emperor Ai [last Han] was sleeping with Dong Xian one afternoon when he was called to court. Rather than wake up his beloved, who was reclining across the emperor’s sleeve [manga, sobra de tecido], Ai took out a dagger and cut off the end of his garment. When courtiers inquired after the missing fabric, Emperor Ai told them what had happened. This example of love moved his courtiers to cut off the ends of their own sleeves in imitation, beginning a new fashion trend.

The Jin dynasty (265-420) poet Zhang Hanbian wrote a glowing tribute to the 15-year-old boy prostitute Zhou Xiaoshi. In it he presents the boy’s life as happy and care-free, <inclined toward extravagance and festiveness, gazing around at the leisurely and beautiful>. A later poet, the Liang dynasty (502-557) figure Liu Zun, tried to present a more balanced view in a poem entitled Many Blossoms. In this piece he shows the dangers and uncertainty associated with a boy prostitute’s life. His Zhou Xiaoshi

<knows both wounds and frivolity

Withholding words, ashamed of communicating.>

Although these poems take opposite perspectives on homosexual prostitution, the appearance of this theme as an inspiration for poetry points to the presence of a significant homosexual world complete with male prostitutes catering [sendo ofertados] to the wealthy.”

The high profile of male prostitution led the Song rulers to take limited action against it. Many Confucian moralists objected to male prostitution because they saw the sexual passivity of a prostitute as extremely feminizing. In the early 12th century, a law was codified which declared that male prostitutes would receive 100 strokes of a bamboo rod and pay a fine of 50,000 cash. Considering the harsh legal penalties of the period, which included mutilation and death by slicing, this punishment was actually quite lenient. And it appears that the law was rarely if ever enforced, so it soon became a dead letter.”

Legal intervention peaked in the Qing dynasty (1644-1911) when the Kang Xi Emperor (r. 1662-1723) took steps against the sexual procurement of young boys, homosexual rape, and even consensual homosexual acts.” “it seems that the traditional government laissez-faire attitude toward male sexuality prevented enforcement of the law against consensual homosexual acts.”

A thirst for knowledge of homosexual history led to the compilation of the anonymous Ming collection Records of the Cut Sleeve (Duan xiu pian) which contains vignettes of homosexual encounters culled from nearly two millennia of sources. This anthology is the first history of Chinese homosexuality, perhaps the first comprehensive homosexual history in any culture, and still serves as our primary guide to China’s male homosexual past.”

In Fujian province on the South China coast, a form of male marriage developed during the Ming. Two men were united, the older referred to as an <adoptive older brother> (qixiong) and the younger as <adoptive younger brother> (qidi). The younger qidi would move into the qixiong’s household, where he would be treated as a son-in-law by his husband’s parents. Throughout the marriage, which often lasted for 20 years, the qixiong was completely responsible for his younger husband’s upkeep. Wealthy qixiong even adopted young boys who were raised as sons by the couple. At the end of each marriage, which was usually terminated because of the familial responsibilities of procreation, the older husband paid the necessary price to acquire a suitable bride for his beloved qidi.” [!!!]

The famous 17th century author Li Yu wrote several works featuring male homosexuality and lesbianism. The greatest Chinese work of prose fiction, Dream of the Red Chamber (Honglou meng), features a bisexual protagonist and many homosexual interludes. And the mid-19th century saw the creation of A Mirror Ranking Precious Flowers (Pinhua baojian), a literary masterpiece detailing the romances of male actors and their scholar patrons.”

Within a few generations, China shifted from a relative tolerance of homosexuality to open hostility. The reasons for this change are complex and not yet completely understood. First, the creation of colloquial baihua literary language removed many potential readers from the difficult classical Chinese works which contained the native homosexual tradition. Also, the Chinese reformers early in the century began to see any divergence between their own society and that of the West as a sign of backwardness. This led to a restructuring of Chinese marriage and sexuality along more Western lines. The uncritical acceptance of Western science, which regarded homosexuality as pathological, added to the Chinese rejection of same-sex love. The end result is a contemporary China in which the native homosexual tradition has been virtually forgotten and homosexuality is ironically seen as a recent importation from the decadent West.

Communist China. In the People’s Republic of China, homosexuality is taken as a sign of bourgeois immorality and punished by <reeducation> in labor camps. Officially the incidence of homosexuality is quite low. Western psychologists, however, have noted that the official reporting of impotence is much higher in mainland China than in the West. It seems that many Chinese men, unfamiliar with homosexual role models, interpret their sexuality solely according to their attraction to women. Nevertheless, a small gay subculture has begun to develop in the major cities since the end of the Maoist era [?]. Fear of discovery and lack of privacy tend to limit the quality and duration of homosexual relationships. And for the vast majority of Chinese living in the conservative country-side, homosexual contacts are much more difficult to come by.” “With the 1997 return of Hong Kong to China approaching, British liberals have supported a last minute repeal of the sodomy law.”

Traditionally, Chinese people have viewed male homosexuality and lesbianism as unrelated. Consequently, much of the information we have on male homosexuality in China does not apply to the female experience. Piecing together the Chinese lesbian past is frustrated by the relative lack of source material. Since literature and scholarship were usually written by men and for men, aspects of female sexuality unrelated to male concerns were almost always ignored.” “Sex manuals of the period Ming include instructions integrating lesbian acts with heterosexual intercourse as a way of varying the sex lives of men with multiple concubines.”

Li Yu’s first play, Pitying the Fragrant Companion (Lianxiangban), describes a young married woman’s love for a younger unmarried woman. The married woman convinces her husband to take her talented beloved as a concubine. The 3 then live as a happy ménage-à-trois free from jealousy. A more conventional lesbian love affair is detailed in Dream of the Red Chamber, in which a former actress regularly offers incense to the memory of her deceased beloved.”

The most highly developed form of female relationship was the lesbian marriages formed by the exclusively female membership of Golden Orchid Associations. A lesbian couple within this group could choose to undergo a marriage ceremony in which one partner was designated <husband> and the other <wife>. After an exchange of ritual gifts, a wedding feast attended by female friends served to witness the marriage. These married lesbian couples could even adopt young girls, who in turn could inherit family property from the couple’s parents. This ritual was not uncommon in 19th-century Guangzhou province. Prior to this, the only other honorable way for a woman to remain unmarried was to enter a Buddhist nunnery.” “The existence of Golden Orchid Associations became possible only by the rise of a textile industry in south China which enabled women to become economically independent. The traditional social and economic attachment of women to the home has so far prevented the emergence in modem China of a lesbian community on even so limited a scale as that of male homosexuals.”

Lanling Xiaoxiao Sheng, Golden Lotus ou The Plum [Ameixa] in The Golden Vase (2013) (título original: Jin ping mei) (novela de costumes, considerada o “Lolita” oriental), s/ data precisa (~séc. XVI; ed. por Zhang Zhupo no século seguinte). trad. francesa: La merveilleuse histoire de Hsi Men avec ses six femmes (1), Fleur en fiole d’or (2);

Pai Hsien-yung, The Outsiders (Niezi) (inspirou um filme homônimo, de 1986)

CHRISTIANITY

ORÍGENES” DO MAL II: “By about A.D. 200, the church had come to recognize the texts making up the New Testament as a single canon. After some hesitation, the Hebrew Bible, known to Christians as the Old Testament, was taken from Judaism and also accepted as divinely inspired. From this point onwards, Christian doctrines were elaborated by a group of intellectuals, known as the Fathers of the Church or the Patristic writers, beginning with such figures as Origen, Clement of Alexandria and Tertullian.” “Though they based their exegesis upon the Bible, they were inevitably influenced by philosophical and religious currents of their own time, especially Greek Stoicism and Neo-Platonism and by rival mystery cults such as Manichaeanism and Gnosticism.” “Still today there are differences on such sexually related topics as divorce, celibacy, and so forth between Roman Catholics and members of various eastern branches of Christianity which date from the foundations of Christianity, including Coptic, Nestorian, and various Orthodox Churches. In practice, most of these churches have been more tolerant of homosexuality than the Roman Catholic Church and its Protestant off-shoots.”

RESUMO DAS CONFISSÕES DE UM HOMEM POUCO SANTO

St. Augustine (d. 430), one of the great scholars of the ancient world, had converted to the austere faith of Manichaeanism after receiving a classical education. It seemed to his mind more suited to his Neo-Platonic and Stoic ideals than the Christianity of his mother. In Manichaean belief, which drew heavily from Zoroastrianism, intercourse leading to procreation was particularly evil because it caused other souls to be imprisoned in bodies, thus continuing the cycle of good versus evil.

Augustine was a member of the Manichaean religion for some 11 years but never reached the stage of the Elect in part because of his inability to control his sexual appetites. He kept a mistress, fathered a child, and according to his own statement, struggled to overcome his lustful appetites everyday by praying: <Give me chastity, and continence, but do not give it yet>. Recognizing his own inability to give up sexual intercourse, Augustine finally arrived at the conclusion that the only way to control his venereal desire was through marriage. He expelled his mistress and his son from his house, became engaged to a young girl not yet of age for wedlock (probably under 12 years of age), and planned a marriage. Unable to abstain from sex, he turned to prostitutes, went through a religious crisis, and in the process became converted to Christianity.

HA-HA: “All other sex was sinful including coitus within marriage not performed in the proper position (the female on her back and facing the male) and using the proper appendages and orifices (penis in vagina). St. Augustine’s views became the views of the western church centered in Rome.” “In general there was no extensive discussion of homosexuality by any of the early Church Fathers, and most of the references are incidental.”

The Augustinian views were modified in the 13th century [o que houve nestes 7 séculos além de monges devassos e burros?] by St. Thomas Aquinas, who held that homosexual activities, though similar to other sins of lust, were more sinful because they were also sins against nature. The sins against nature in descending order were (I) masturbation, (2) intercourse in an unnatural position, (3) copulation with the same sex (homosexuality and lesbianism), and (4) sex with non-humans (bestiality).

One of the key sources in the early medieval Church is the penitential literature. Originally penance had been a way of reconciling the sinner with God and had taken place through open confession. The earliest penitentials put sexual purity at a high premium, and failure to observe the sexual regulations was classified as equal to idolatry (reversion to paganism) and homicide. Ultimately public penance was replaced by private penance and confession which was regulated by the manuals or penitentials designed to guide those who were hearing them. Most of the early penitentials classified homosexual and lesbian activities as equivalent to fornication. Later ones classified such activities as equivalent to adultery although some writers distinguished between interfemoral intercourse and anal intercourse and between fellatio or oral-genital contacts. Anal intercourse was regarded as being the most serious sin.“Sodomy came to be regarded as the most heinous of sexual offenses, even worse than incest, and as civil law began to take over from canon law, it could be punished as a capital crime.”

Antes só dormia, hoje sodomia.

Só dormia, ou será que prazer também? No lato sensucht

Calvin & Child Harolde: “Catholics denounced Calvin for his supposed pederasty, a charge that was completely unfounded.”

NADA COMO COMER O BRIOCO DUMA INDIAZINHA: “In 1730-31 the great Dutch persecution of sodomites occurred, and in the accompanying propaganda the old charges against Roman Catholicism were revived. In Catholic countries themselves, the dissolution of the Jesuit order in 1773 was preceded by accusations of sodomy.”

Graciano, A Harmony of Discordant Canons (1140)

St. Peter Damián (1007-1072), Liber Gomorrhianus

CHURCHES, GAY

The emergence of Christian churches with predominantly gay and lesbian congregations, as well as interest groups within or allied to existing denominations, is a recent phenomenon, centered in the English-speaking world. There are records of homosexual monks, nuns, and priests, especially in the later Middle Ages and in early modern times, but no indication that they even thought of organizing on the basis of their sexual preference. Christian homosexuals drawn to particular parishes, where cliques [panelinhas] occasionally even became a visible segment of the congregation, would not openly avow this shift in the church’s character: they remained closeted gay Christians, so to speak.”

Some maintain that Jesus – an unmarried man in a Jewish milieu where marriage and procreation were de rigueur even for the religious elite – had a passionate relationship with John, the beloved disciple. Liturgically and sociologically the UFMCC tends to be of a <low church> character, with notable exceptions in some congregations. The evangelical fundamentalist domination of the UFMCC may be regarded as a response to the homophobic vehemence of the mainstream fundamentalist churches, which drives gay Christians out of their fold with a vengeance and forces them into an external redoubt, in contrast to the relatively more tolerant atmosphere, hospitable to internal gay caucuses [panelinhas, partidos], of the more liberal churches.”

CICERO

Roman politician, orator, and writer, who left behind a corpus of Latin prose (speeches, treatises, letters) that make him one of the great authors of classical antiquity. Unsuccessful in politics, he was overestimated as a philosopher by the Middle Ages and the Renaissance and underestimated in modern times, but was and is ranked as one of the greatest masters of Latin style. His career as an orator began in 81 B.C., and from the very beginning his speeches revealed his rhetorical gifts. His denunciation of Verres, the proconsul who had plundered the province of Sicily, opened the way to his election as aedile, praetor, and then consul, but subsequently the intrigues of his enemies led to his banishment from Rome (58/57), followed by his triumphal return. In the civil war he took the side of Pompey and so failed again, but was pardoned by the victorious Caesar, after whose death he launched a rhetorical attack on Mark Antony. The formation of the triumvirate meant that Cicero was to be proscribed by his opponent and murdered by his henchmen.”

In the last turbulent century of the Roman republic in which he lived, a contrast between the austere virtue of earlier times and the luxury and vice of the present had become commonplace. Also, as we know from the slightly later genre of satirical poetry, a taste for salacious gossip had taken root in the metropolis. In his orations Cicero remorselessly flays the homosexual acts of his enemies, contrasting homosexual love with the passion inspired by women which is <far more of natural inspiration>.”

Something of the Roman antipathy to Greek paiderasteia transpires from Cicero’s condemnation of the nudity which the Greeks flaunted in their public baths and gymnasia, and from his assertion that the Greeks were inconsistent in their notion of friendship. He pointedly noted: <Why is it that no one falls in love with an ugly youth or a handsome old man?> Effeminacy and passive homosexuality are unnatural and blameworthy in a free man, though Cicero remained enough under the influence of Greek mores to express no negative judgment on the practice of keeping handsome young slaves as minions of their master.” “The Judaic condemnation of homosexuality per se had not yet reached Rome, but the

distinction that had existed in Hellenic law and custom between acts worthy and unworthy of a citizen was adopted and even heightened by the com[cu]bination of appeal to Roman civic virtue and his own rhetorical flair.”

The term patientia used with reference to Verres implies the passivity in sexual relations that is degrading and unworthy of a free man, just as in the case of Mark Antony, charged with having <prostituted himself to all>, much like the Timarchus whom Aeschines had denounced centuries earlier in Athens for a like failing [op. cit. – para mais detalhes, vide seção OBRAS RECOMENDADAS em https://seclusao.art.blog/2019/09/28/do-espirito-das-leis-de-montesquieu-abreviado-na-traducao-de-jean-melville-com-comentarios-e-aprofundamentos-de-rafael-aguiar-indicacoes-de-leituras-durante-o-tratado-e-ao-final/].”

SMEAR CAMPAIGN: “Cicero’s rhetoric thus had two sides: the attempt to discredit opponents by inflammatory imputations of homosexual conduct and of sexual immorality in general – a type of smear to be followed in political life down to modern times”

CIRCUMCISION

GENEALOGIA DA PROFILAXIA: “Male circumcision, or the cutting away of the foreskin [prepúcio] of the penis, has been practiced by numerous peoples from remotest antiquity as a religious custom, while to some modern homosexuals it has an aesthetic and erotic significance. It has been speculated that the custom originated somewhere in Africa where water was scarce and the ability to wash was limited. Thus the Western Semites (Israelites, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Arabs, Edomites, Syrians), who lived in an area where water was never really plentiful, also observed the custom, while the Eastem Semites (Assyrians and Babylonians), in an area where water was more abundant, did not circumcise. This is true also of the Greeks and other Aegean peoples who always lived near the water.”

Jesus never mentioned circumcision, though the Jewish rite was (Luke 2:21) performed upon him on his 8th day as it was with all other males of his community of faith – hence the designation of the calendar in which the first day of the year is January 1 as <circumcision style>. In the early church the party of Paul of Tarsus which opposed circumcision was victorious, and uncircumcised Greeks and Romans poured into the new faith, so that to this day the majority of European men have retained their foreskins. With the coming of the faith of Islam, however, in the VII century the Middle East and North Africa became a stronghold of the practice of circumcision. Hindus and Buddhists avoid it, hence East Asians – and Amerindians – retain their foreskins.”

In the late 20th century the trend is being reversed in America as more and more medical articles – and some books – have argued that the operation in most cases is needless.”

There are even groups of men who have retained their foreskins (and others who admire them); these individuals with generous or pronounced <curtains> are in demand.”

Bud Berkeley & Joe Tiffenbach, Circumcision: Its Past, Its Present, and Its Future, San Francisco: Bud Berkeley, 1983-84;

Rosemary Romberg, Circumcision: The Painful Dilemma, South Hadley, MA: Bergin & Garvey, 1985;

Edward Wallerstein, Circumcision: An American Health Fallacy, New York: Springer Publishing Co., 1980.

CLASS

When there are no children to raise there is more discretionary income, so that adopting a homosexual lifestyle provides a margin for class enhancement.” “An established gay man or lesbian may put resources which parents would use for raising the status of their children into helping a lover-protegé. The mentor may also provide private lessons in manners and business acumen.” “Curiously, some parents seem to tolerate same-sex alliances by their offspring more easily than those that cross class or racial lines. § Internalizing the folk belief that homosexuals are more <artistic>, some gay men cultivate musical, theatrical, and culinary tastes that are above their <station> – and above their income. Acquisition of these refined preferences, together with <corrected> speech patterns, hinders easy communication with former peers, though there are many factors that work for geographical and psychological distance between homosexuals, on the one hand, and their families and original peer groups, on the other. Given their relative freedom, some individuals may be inclined to experiment with <class bending>, [sinuosidade de classe] sometimes with paradoxical results.”

There is class, and there is class fantasy.”

CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA

Greek church father. Born in Athens, probably of pagan and peasant ancestry, he is not to be confused with Clement, bishop of Rome, author of the New Testament epistle. After his conversion, Clement of Alexandria traveled widely to study under Christians, finally under the learned Pantaenus in Alexandria. Of the early Fathers, he had the most thorough knowledge of Greek literature. He quoted Homer, Hesiod, the dramatists, and (most of all) Platonic and Stoic philosophers. Sometime before 200 he succeeded Pantaenus, whom he praised for his orthodoxy, as head of the catechetical school at Alexandria, but in 202 he had to flee the persecution unleashed by the emperor Septimius Severus and perhaps died in Asia Minor.”

Although Clement’s christianity has been criticized as being too Hellenized, his serene hope and classical learning helped convert the upper classes. His pseudo-Platonic doctrine that homosexuality was particularly noxious because it was <against nature> served to combine that strand of classical philosophy with Hellenistic Jewish homophobia, most trenchantly exemplified by the Alexandrian philosopher Philo Judaeus (20 B.C.-A.D. 45), to justify persecution of sodomites. He thus preceded and stimulated the homophobia of the Christian emperors, from Constantine’s sons to Justinian, and of the two most influential Fathers, John Chrysostom and Augustine of Hippo.

CLERGY, GAY

that there is a psychological affinity between religious ministry and hemophilia” Edward Carpenter

The patrician John XII (938-964) went so far as to model himself on the scandalous Roman emperor Heliogabalus, holding homosexual orgies in the papal palace – a practice imitated by Benedict IX (1021-ca. 1052).” “paradoxically the enforcement of celibacy on priests and even attempts to impose it on those in lesser orders increased the danger of homosexuality.”

Friars, who unlike the monks were free to wander among the laity without much supervision, became notorious as seducers of boys as well as women, whose confessions they often heard to the disgruntlement [desabono] of parish priests. Many homosexual clergy, then as now, confessed to one another and were formally absolved. Indeed, the confessional at times became the locus of seduction.

Philip IV of France charged Boniface VIII not only with heresy, usury, and simony, but with sodomy and masturbation as well.”

The Renaissance in Italy, with its revival of classical antiquity and love of art, saw a number of popes who were interested in their own sex. Among them were the anti-pope John XXIII (d. 1419), who began his career as a pirate. Entering the clergy he quickly acquired the reputation of an unblushing libertine. The humanist pope Pius II (1405-1464) watched boys run naked in a race at Pienza, noting a boy <with fair hair and a beautiful body, though disfigured with mud>. The vain Venetian Paul II (1417-1471) toyed with adopting the name Formosus. Affecting the most lavish costumes, he was attacked by his enemies as <Our Lady of Pity>. His successor, Sixtus IV (1414-1482), made his mark as an art patron, erecting the Sistine chapel. He also elevated to the cardinalate a number of handsome young men. Julius II (1443-1513), another art-loving pope, provoked such scandal that he was arraigned under various charges, including that of sodomy, but he managed to survive the attempt to depose him. His successor, the extravagant Medici Leo X (1475-1521), became embroiled in intrigues to advance favorite nephews, a hobby that strained the treasury to the utmost. Julius III (1487-1555), who had presided over the Council of Trent before his pontificate, was nonetheless sometimes seen at official functions with catamites [<coroinhas>], one of whom he made a cardinal.”

The anticlerical literature of the last decades of that century delighted in exposing cases in which a clergyman had committed a sexual offense, to the point where in 1911 the Pope had to issue the motu proprio decree Quamvis diligenter forbidding the Catholic laity to bring charges against the clergy before secular courts. This step unilaterally abolished the principle of the equality of all citizens before the law established by the French Revolution, reinstating the <benefit of clergy> of the Middle Ages. The anticlerical literature of that period still needs study for the light that it can shed on the homosexual subculture of the clerical milieux.”

The Bible for Believers and Unbelievers (1922) (clássico anticlerical russo)

The Rule of St. Benedict, chapter 22.

Transcrição completa do capítulo 22 das regras de São Benedito (regulamento dos monges na alta idade média):

CHAPTER XXII: HOW THE MONKS ARE TO SLEEP

Let them sleep singly in separate beds. Let them receive bedding suitable to their manner of life, at the discretion of the abbot. If it can be done, let all sleep in one room: but if their number does not allow of this, let them repose by tens or by twenties with their seniors who have charge of them. Let a candle burn continually in the dormitory until morning. Let them sleep clothed and girded with girdles or cords, but let them not have knives at their sides while they sleep, lest by chance while dreaming they wound a sleeper; and let them be monks always ready; and upon the signal being given let them rise without delay and hasten one after the other, yet with all gravity and decorum, to be ready in good time for the Work of God. Let not the younger brethren have their beds by themselves, but among those of the seniors: and let them be allowed gently to encourage one another as they rise for the Work of God, because some may feel drowsy and listless.”

COCTEAU, JEAN

The Infernal Machine (peça)

COLETTE

A happy childhood is a bad preparation for contact with human beings.”

COLOR SYMBOLISM

A current Russian term for a gay man is golubchik, from goluboy, <blue>, evidently through association with the <blue blood> of the aristocracy of the Old Régime.”

According to Havelock Ellis, one could not safely walk down the streets of late 19th century New York wearing a red tie without being accosted, since this garment was then the universal mark of the male prostitute.” “Because of the <scarlet woman>, the great Whore of Babylon of the book of Revelation, that color has acquired a strong association with prostitution and adultery”

In American culture the word lavender – a blend of red and blue (as in <lavender lover>, The Lavender Lexicon, etc.) – almost speaks for itself.”

The mid-1980s saw public display at rallies and marches of a rainbow Gay Pride Flag, consisting of six parallel stripes ranging from bright red to deep purple. The juxtaposition of colors stands for the diversity of the gay/lesbian community with regard to ethnicity, gender, and class – perhaps also connoting, in the minds of some, the coalition politics of the Rainbow Alliance headed by Jesse Jackson.”

COMICS

The first true comic strips were introduced in 1897 as a circulation-building device in the Sunday supplements of the Hearst newspapers. The now-familiar pulp comic book was a creation of the Depression: the first commercial example is Famous Funnies of 1934. Although these strips generally affirmed middle-class values, and certainly contained not the slightest overt indication of sex, they were regularly denounced by pundits as a pernicious influence on the young.”

Batman, appearing in 1939, featured the adventures of a playboy detective and his teenage ward, Robin. Although the relationship is portrayed as a simple mentor-protegé one, some teenage male readers were able to project something stronger into it. This aspect was certainly flirted with in the campy television off-shoot beginning in 1966, though this series reflects a much changed cultural climate. In 1941 there appeared Wonder-woman, featuring an Amazon with special powers living on an all-woman island. This strip – contrary to the expressed wishes of its creators – served as a focus for lesbian aspirations. In the 1970s it was rediscovered by the women’s movement as a proto-feminist statement.

In the late 1940s Blade drew several illustrated stories, including The Barn and Truck Hiker, that can be considered predecessors of the gay comics. Circulated underground, they have been officially published only in recent years. Somewhat later the wordless strips of supermacho types created by Tom of Finland began to circulate in Europe.

It was the American counterculture of the 1960s, however, which first made possible the exploration of taboo subjects in a context of crumbling censorship restrictions. In 1964 a Philadelphia gay monthly, Drum, began serializing Harry Chess by Al Shapiro (A. Jay). Modeled on a popular television series, Harry Chess was both macho and campy, though explicit sex scenes were veiled. In the 1970s no-holds-barred examples appeared drawn by such artists as Bill Ward, Sean, and Stephen (Meatman).”

COMING OUT

A few gays and lesbians report no memory of a coming out process; they always considered themselves homosexual and were never <in the closet>. Others have reported a sudden revelation of their own homosexuality which does not fit into any theory of stages but has brought them from apparently heterosexual to comfortably homosexual virtually overnight.”

The self-help literature for gay and lesbian youth is quite explicit in designating parents as the crucial factor in the youth’s coming out process. Those who do not come out to their family, according to G.B. MacDonald, become <half-members of the family unit: afraid and alienated, unable ever to be totally open and spontaneous, to trust or be trusted… This sad stunting of human potential breeds stress for gay people and their families alike – stress characterized by secrecy, ignorance, helplessness, and distance.> The scientific literature, however, has largely ignored the role of parents, having centered on gay and lesbian adults.”

CONTEST LITERATURE

Diálogos.

Achilles Tatius, Leucippe and Clitophon

Pseudo-Lucian, Affairs of the Heart

CONTRARY SEXUAL FEELING

the linguistic remnant of the first, uncertain psychiatric attempt to grapple with the problem of homosexuality.”

COUNTERCULTURE

Apparently the term counterculture is an adaptation of the slightly earlier <adversary culture>, an expression coined by the literary critic Lionel Trilling (1905-1975). In many respects the counterculture constituted a mass diffusion – fostered by diligent media exploitation – of the prefigurative beat/hippie phenomenon. As American involvement in the Vietnam War increased, in the wake of opposition to it the counterculture shifted from the gentle <flower-child> phase to a more aggressive posture, making common cause with the New Left, which was not, like the radicalism of the 30s, forced by economic crisis to focus on issues of unemployment and poverty. Of course radical political leaders were accustomed to decry the self-indulgence of the hippies, but their followers, as often as not, readily succumbed to the lure of psychedelic drugs and the happy times of group togetherness accompanied by ever present rock music.”

MESSIANISMO EPIDÊMICO: “The counterculture shamelessly embraced ageism: <Don’t trust anyone over thirty.> Observing this precept cut young people off from the accumulated experience and wisdom of sympathetic elders. Moreover, it meant that the adherents of the movement themselves quickly became back numbers as they crossed over the 30-year line. In regard to gay adherents, the distrust of older people tended to reinforce the ageism already present in their own subculture. To be sure, the full force of such problematic effects has become evident only in retrospect. Although outsiders, and some insiders as well, exaggerated the fusion of the counterculture and the New Left, still the convergence of massive cultural innovation with hopes for fundamental political change gave the young generation a heady sense of imminent revolution.”

The psychiatrist Thomas Szasz and others correctly perceived the link between the campaign to decriminalize marijuana and the efforts to reform sex laws.” “many assumed that homosexuals were essentially counterculturist, leftist, and opposed root and branch to the established order. Subsequent observation has shown, not surprisingly perhaps, that a majority of gay men and lesbians were (and are) liberal-reformist and even conservative, rather than revolutionary in then-overall political and social outlook.”

CROWLEY, ALEISTER

After the turn of the century Crowley’s public career began, and he was regularly attacked in the press as <The Great Beast> and <The Wickedest Man in the World>.”

Raulseixismo: <There is no law beyond Do what thou wilt.>

In a 1910 memoir Aleister Crowley proclaimed, <I shall fight openly for that which no Englishman dare defend, even in secret – sodomy! At school I was taught to admire Plato and Aristotle, who recommend sodomy to youths – I am not so rebellious as to oppose their dictum; and in truth there seems to be no better way to avoid the contamination of woman and the morose pleasures of solitary vice.>

he advanced beyond the grade of Magus to the supreme status of Ipsissimus.” E o Quico?

Scarcely known today outside occult circles, Crowley is an extravagant instance of the concern with heterodox religion that has flourished among some male homosexuals who could find no peace within established Christianity, and more recently among female adherents of <the craft>. Through his voluminous writings Crowley foreshadowed the emergence of the <Age of Aquarius>.”

Israel Regardie, The Eye in the Triangle: An Interpretation of Aleister Crowley, St. Paul: Llewellen Publications, 1970.

CRUISING

Nicole Ariana, How to Pick up Men, New York: Bantam, 1972;

Mark Freedman & Harvey Mayes, Loving Man, New York: Hark, 1976, chapter 2;

John A. Lee, Getting Sex, Toronto: General, 1978 [Tinder on paper for human beings as archaic as those from a century ago];

Publius Ovid, Art of Love [~1A.D., obra seminal do “flerte” e “sondagens de sexo casual”, homo e heteronormativas!]

CUBA

The largest island of the Antilles chain, home to 10 million Spanish-speaking people” Para 2017, o censo ainda não aponta população superior a 11.5 milhões.

The British, French, and Dutch seized islands from the Spanish or colonized vacant ones as naval bases or sugar plantations; like the pirates they seldom brought women along. All 3 European powers were involved in the notorious triangular trade, shipping molasses or rum to Europe, guns and trinkets from there to Africa, and slaves back to the West Indies.”

Cuba began to excel in sugar production after 1762. Havana became a glittering metropolis, rivaling New York and Rio de Janeiro, by 1800. The slave population, including huge numbers of males imported for work in the cane fields or molasses manufacturing, grew from fewer than 40,000 in 1770 to over 430,000 seventy years later. The census of 1841 reported that more than half the population was non-white (black and mixed blood) and that 43% were slaves. Males outnumbered females by 2 to 1 in the center and west and were just equal in the east. Other islands in the Caribbean had even greater sexual imbalances. Documentation for the homosexuality that must have abounded is scarce but the earlier prevalence can be assumed from attitudes and customs that still survive.”

With Spain’s adoption of the Napoleonic Code in 1889, homosexuality was decriminalized 3 years after the abolition of slavery.”

During World War I, Europe was closed to North Americans and Cuba, especially Havana, became a resort for the more adventurous. Prosperity increased with a rise in commodity prices. Also, the Prohibition in the United States after 1920 left Cuba as an oasis where liquor still flowed freely. Casino gambling and prostitution were also legal. A favorite port of call of cruise ships [pun intended!], Havana flourished as a mecca for pleasure-seekers.”

The post-war collapse of commodity prices was to some extent offset by tourism. Everything was for sale in Havana under the dictator Fulgencio Batista, whose 1952 coup ousted an outwardly democratic but venal and nepotistic predecessor.

Old Havana had gay bars. Moral laxity, characteristic of the slave-rooted Caribbean economy, the Napoleonic Code, and the weakness of the Catholic Church (which was mainly Spanish, urban and upper class) produced an environment where gays were only mildly persecuted and could buy protection from corrupt officials. Drugs, especially marijuana, which flourished throughout the Caribbean, were available in Cuba long before they won popularity in the United States.”

Exploiting popular revulsion against continuing political corruption as well as resentment of the diminishing but still important American domination, Fidel Castro led an ill-assorted group of liberals, patriots, and Marxists, including some gays, to victory over Batista in 1959. Only after he came to power did the United States realize that Castro was an avowed Communist. The American Central Intelligence Agency then tried and failed to assassinate him. His triumph was sealed by the missile crisis of 1962 when Khrushchev agreed to withdraw the missiles in return for Kennedy’s promise never to try to invade Cuba.”

Soviet hostility toward homosexuality since 1934, when Stalin restored the penal laws against male homosexuals, combined with traditional Latin American machismo and Catholic homophobia, made the existence of Cuban homosexuals wretched and oppressive. To prevent their <contamination> of youth, thousands of gays in the 1960s were placed in work camps known as Military Units to Increase Production (UMAP). Although the camps were abolished by the end of the decade, other forms of discrimination continued. Article 359 of the Cuban penal code prohibits public homosexuality. Violations are punished with a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 20 years. Parents must discourage their children from homosexuality or report their failure to officials as Articles 355-58 mandate. Articles 76-94 punish with 4 years imprisonment sexual deviation regarded by the government as contrary to the spirit of Socialism.”

The gifted playwright and fiction writer Virgilio Piñera (1912-1967) returned from Argentina in 1957 and after Castro’s triumph worked for several of the newspapers of the regime. On October 11, 1961, he was arrested and jailed for homosexuality. Che Guevara personally denounced him.”

Allen Young, Gays under the Cuban Revolution

DANDYISM

The dandy has been since antiquity the man who prides himself on being the incarnation of elegance and of male fashion. The word itself stems from the Romantic period in the 19th century, when the character type reached its apogee; England and France were the principal countries in which it flourished. Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867) was one of the first to perceive that the type was not limited to the age just preceding his own, but had emerged across the centuries in some celebrated historical figures. Jules Barbey d’Aurevilly (1808-1889) wrote an Essay on Dandyism and George Brummel (1845), dealing with Beau Brummell (1778-1840), the most famous English representative of the dandy in the London of George IV.

History of the Type. Ancient Greece saw two classical specimens of the dandy: Agathon and Alcibiades. In Plato’s Symposium Agathon is a poet and tragedian, not merely handsome, but obsessed with the most trivial details of his wardrobe. Aristophanes shows him using a razor to keep his cheeks as smooth and glistening as marble, wearing sumptuous clothing in the latest Ionian fashion. Later in the same dialogue Alcibiades also enters the stage, the most dazzling figure of the jeunesse dorée of Athens, richer and more influential than Agathon, and never sparing any expenditure that would enhance his renown.”

Another aesthete of this era, Oscar Wilde, affected a particularly striking costume when he made a lecture tour of the United States, capitalizing on a character featured in the Gilbert and Sullivan opera Patience (1881).”

Rationale. The relation of the dandy to male homosexuality is complicated. As a rule the homosexual – more than the male who is attracted to women – feels the need to distinguish his person in some way, is more conscious of the world of male fashion and more likely to be narcissistically preoccupied with his image. Naturally not all the dandies of the past were homosexual or bisexual, and an element of leisure class self-demarcation and snobbery enters into the picture. Since it is usually the male of the species whom nature makes physically more noteworthy, the male-female antithesis in style of dress that has prevailed in Western culture since the French Revolution reverses the immemorial state of affairs. The notion that only a woman may be preoccupied with her wardrobe and that a man should dress simply and even unobtrusively is of recent date.”

DANTE ALIGHIERI

As a youth he had a profound spiritual experience in an encounter with the young Beatrice Portinari; after her death he submerged himself in the study of philosophy and poetry. In 1302 Dante was banished from Florence, pursuing his literary career in various other cities of Italy.”

The presence in both the Inferno and the Purgatorio of groups of <sodomites> has given rise to a series of debates over the centuries. These passages must be interpreted in the larger context of the great poem’s situations and personnel.” “The sodomites of the Inferno (cantos 15 and 16) are seen running under a rain of fire, condemned never to stop if they wish to avoid the fate of being nailed to the ground for a hundred years with no chance of shielding themselves against the flames. Having recognized Dante, Brunetto Latini (ca. 1212-1294) called him to speak with him, voicing an important prophecy of Dante’s future. In describing his fellow sufferers, Latini mentioned a number of famous intellectuals, politicians, and soldiers.

In the Purgatorio (canto 26) the sodomites appear in a different context – together with lustful heterosexuals. The two categories travel in opposite directions, yelling out the reason for their punishment.

How can one account for the striking deference and sympathy that Dante shows for the sodomites? This matter began to puzzle commentators only a few years after the poet’s death.

Dante’s education took place in the 13th century when Italy was beginning to change its attitudes toward homosexual behavior. Conduct which had been a transgression condemned by religion but viewed with indulgence by everyday morality assumed increasing seriousness in the eyes of the laity. For Dante it was still possible – as it had commonly been through the first half of the 13th century – to separate human and divine judgment with respect to sodomy.”

IDADE DAS LUZES E O BURACO ESCURO: “For Dante’s commentators sodomy was a sin of such gravity that it was inconceivable for them to treat with respect men seared with such <infamy>.”

That Dante had spoken of Brunetto Latini and the sodomites with too much sympathy because he too shared their feelings was the conclusion of one anonymous commentator of the 14th century. Another wild suggestion is that the shameless Latini had made an attempt on Dante’s own virtue, and that hence Dante’s gentle words are in reality sarcasm that must be understood <in the opposite sense> (Guiniforto dei Bargigi; 1406-ca. 1460). Then, foreshadowing a thesis that would be favored by medical opinion in the 12th century, it was suggested that there were two types of sodomites, those by <choice> and those who are such by <necessity>.”

The debate on Dante’s motives has continued until our own day. In 1950 Andre Pezard devoted a whole book, Dante sous la pluie de feu, to an effort to show that the sin for which Brunetto and his companions were being punished was sodomy not in the usual sense, but in an allegorical one: sodomie spirituelle, which in Brunetto’s case meant having used the French language as a medium for one of his works.

The authoritative Encyclopedia Dantesca has sought to bring the conflict to an end, taking adequate account of Dante’s indulgent judgment as the correct key for solving the supposed <enigma> of the band of sodomites. As regards the reason for Brunetto Latini’s presence among the sodomites, Avalle D’Arco’s recent confirmation of the attribution to him of a long love poem directed to a man, S’eo son distretto inamoramente, shows that it was probably on the basis of facts that were publicly known in Dante’s time that he was consigned to Hell.” Aposto o cu que você já deu o cu.

DICKINSON, EMILY (1830-1886)

American poet. After brief periods at Amherst Academy and Holyoke Female Seminary, she settled into an outwardly uneventful life keeping house for her family. Dickinson never married. The real events in her life are her writings, which have assumed classic status in American literature.

These homoerotic poems are never joyous, but that is to be expected in a society where heterosexual marriage was virtually believed inevitable and there was little possibility of two unrelated women establishing a life together if they were not wealthy through independent inheritance.”

DIONYSUS

Greek god associated with wine and emotional exuberance. Although the name occurs in linear B tablets [?] from the end of the second millennium B.C., his figure absorbed additional elements from Thrace and the East in the following centuries. Dionysus, called Bacchus in Latin, was the son of Zeus and a mortal, Semele. When his mother unwisely besought Zeus to reveal himself in his true form, she was incinerated, but the embryo of her son escaped destruction. Zeus then inserted it into his own thigh and carried the child to term. This quality of being <twice born>, once from a woman and once from a man, points to the ambiguity of the god, who though male had effeminate traits. In literary and artistic representations, he sometimes served as a vehicle for questioning sex roles, otherwise strongly polarized in ancient Greece.

According to the late-antique writer Nonnus, Dionysus fell in love with a Phrygian boy, Ampelos, who became his inseparable companion. When the boy was killed in a bull-riding accident, the grief-stricken Dionysus turned him into a vine. As a result, the practices of vine cultivating and grape harvesting, of wine making and drinking, commemorate this deeply felt pederastic relationship: in honoring the vine (ampelos in Greek), one honors the god through his beloved.

In historic times Dionysus attracted a cult following consisting largely of women, the Bacchae or maenads. During the ritual followers abandoned their houses and work to roam about in the mountains, hair and clothing in disarray, and liberally imbibing wine, normally forbidden to women. At the height of their ecstasy they would seize upon an animal or even a child, tear it to pieces, and devour the uncooked flesh, by ingesting which they sought to incorporate the god and his powers within themselves. From a sociological point of view, the Bacchic cult is a <religion of the oppressed>, affording an ecstatic relief to women, whose status was low. Occurring only once during the year, or once every two years, these Dionysiac rites were bracketed off from the normal life of the Greek polis, suggesting comparison with such later European customs as the feast of fools, the carnival, the charivari, and mardi gras.

The maenads assume a major role in Euripides’ tragedy, The Bacchae (406 BC). Accompanied by his female followers, Dionysus appears in Thebes as a missionary. Unwisely, King Pentheus insults and arrests the divine visitor; after he has been rendered mad and humiliated, the transgressor is dismembered by the maenads. Interpretations of the play differ: a warning of the consequences of emotional excess versus a reaffirmation of the enduring presence of humanity’s irrational side. The subject probably attracted Euripides as a phenomenon of individual and group psychology in its own right, but it is unlikely that he intended it as a forecast of modern gay liberation in the <faery spirituality> mode, as Arthur Evans has argued. Inasmuch as the sexuality of The Bacchae was not pederastic, the Greek audience would not have seen the play as homosexual (a concept foreign to their mentality), but rather as challenging gender-role assumptions about men and women, whatever their sexual orientation. That the parts of the maenads were taken by men was not exceptional: women never appeared on the Greek stage.

Bacchanalian rites were introduced into Rome during the Republic. Men joined women in the frenzied gatherings, and (according to the historian Livy) there was more debauchery among the men with each other than with the women. Apart from their orgiastic aspects, the rites caused concern because they crossed class lines, welcoming citizens, freed men and slaves alike. Condemned as a subversive foreign import, the Senate suppressed the Bacchanalia in 186 BC, but they evidently were soon revived. Roman sarcophagi of the 2nd and 3rd century of our era show Bacchic scenes, projecting hopes for an afterlife spent in Dionysic bliss. In its last phases the cult of Dionysus emerged as an other-worldly mystery religion, showing affinities with Mithraism, the religion of Isis, and Christianity. Meeting now behind closed doors, members of the sect recognized one another by passwords and signs.

Although the early Christians regarded all pagan worship as demonic, they were not averse to purloining the Bacchic wine harvest imagery for their own sarcophagi and mosaics. Some Bacchic reminiscences recur in drinking songs of medieval goliardic poets, notably the Carmina Burana.”

At the end of the 16th century the flamboyant bisexual painter Caravaggio created a notably provocative image of Bacchus-Dionysus (Florence, Uffizi Gallery).” Veja pintura no verbete do pintor mais acima.

The most influential latter-day evocation of the god occurs in The Birth of Tragedy (1872) of Friedrich Nietzsche, who exalted the category of the Dionysiac as an antidote for excessive rationality in the interpretation of ancient Greece and, by implication, in modern life as well.

Nietzsche’s ideas were modernized and correlated with anthropology and psychoanalysis by the classical scholar E.R. Dodds, who in turn influenced the poet W.H. Auden. Together with his lover, Chester Kallman, Auden turned Euripides’ play into an opera libretto entitled The Bassarids.”

Karl Kerenyi, Dionysus: Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life, London: Routledge, 1976.

DREAMS

When a dream has homosexual content, the hermeneutic process is complicated by the ethical assumptions of the dreamer and the interpreter, which reflect the attitudes of society toward same-sex experience.

To understand their dream experiences human beings have formulated a lore to which the ancients gave the name oneirocritical. Because the ancient world accepted homosexual interest and activity as part of human sexuality, the dream interpreters of the eastern Mediterranean cultures could calmly explain the homoerotic episodes in dreams in terms of their overall system of signs and meanings and without anxiety. Such was the work of Artemidorus of Daldis (middle of the 2nd century), which alludes to pédérastie and homosexual dream sequences and assigns them a specific, often prophetic meaning. Not so the Christian Middle Ages; the literature of dreams became exclusively heterosexual because the taboo with which theology had tainted sexual attraction to one’s own sex imposed a censorship that is only now being lifted.”

DRUGS

It should be noted that there has never been a country or society in which unrestricted use of all psychoactive drugs has been permitted over any period of time.”

In some users hallucinogens cause terrifying experiences; psychological problems can be exacerbated, and brain damage caused. The action of stimulants is often followed by a compensatory negative experience through which the body restores its equilibrium.”

Society can tolerate drug use if it is encapsulated within an artistic, recreational, religious, or therapeutic context; while some are able to so control their usagé, for many that is a daunting or impossible condition, at least in our present culture”

education is more effective than prohibition. Exaggeration of drugs’ harmful effects reduces respect for law, overwhelms the courts and prisons, inhibits research on any therapeutic use of drugs, makes drugs of controlled strength and purity unavailable, gives drugs the glamour of the forbidden, and encourages progression to ever more dangerous yet legally equal substances. As with alcohol during America’s Prohibition (1920-33), the supply of illegal drugs has become a very profitable industry, and not a passive or benign one. Foreigners who supply drugs sometimes justify their actions to themselves and their countrymen as a means of striking back at the political and economic power of the United States.”

during the 1960s, there were a considerable number of reports of people becoming aware of homoeroticism for the first time while under the influence of LSD especially. Drugs have also been used by musicians, artists, and writers who claim that the substances help them create, although this claim is controversial, perhaps because if substantiated it would be a powerful argument for drug use.”

The use of hashish (cannabis), eaten in sweets rather than smoked, is found in the Bible (Song of Songs 5:1; I Samuel 14:25-45), and there is evidence of psychic use of hemp (marijuana), from which hashish is made, from pre-historic times. Herodotus, for example, reports its popularity among the Scythians. However, widespread use of hashish begins in Islam in the 12th and 13th centuries. While the Koran prohibited wine, which because of distribution costs was somewhat more expensive than today, it was silent on hashish, which was also much less expensive. There was debate about whether the Koran’s silence was to be taken as approval, or whether prohibition was to be inferred from the treatment of wine; still, as long as it remained a minority indulgence it was tolerated, as wine usually was. Hashish users became a subculture; in particular it is linked to the mystical Sufis, who made a cult and ritual of its use. However, almost every Islamic poet from the 13th to the 16th centuries produced at least some playful poems on hashish, although wine poetry is much more abundant.”

Hashish was thought to cause effeminacy, a preference for the passive sexual role, and a loss of interest in sex. However, it was also prized as the drug of scholars and lovers of young men, and an aid in seduction of the latter. Turkish soldiers frequently ate hashish together before going into battle.

Coffee was introduced to Europe in the 17th century from the Turkish empire. Both within Islam and in Europe coffee was at first a similarly controversial drug, subject to occasional legal restriction or suppression. Its use in coffee-houses, later cafés, was typical of intellectuals and dissidents.”

The first half of the 20th century was characterized by a wave of reaction against drugs and the establishment of legal controls throughout Westem Europe and North America. However, the tensions of the 1960s, against a backdrop of the Holocaust and the invention and use of the atomic bomb, brought on a new wave of drug use. The hedonistic use of cannabis increased greatly; its enthusiasts promoted it as an aid to sensual and sexual enjoyment. The Beat generation, especially William Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg, had already turned to potent psychedelics as a means of self-improvement; they became part of the short-lived counterculture of the late 1960s. The discovery of psychedelics was in part due to progress in anthropology and archeology. The use by native peoples of mescaline (peyote), psilocybin (mushrooms), and other psychedelics became known, and the possible role of such substances in visions and oracles of the ancient Mediterranean world was proposed by scholars. The hallucinogenic properties of the most potent psychedelic yet known, lysergic acid diethylamine-25 (LSD), were discovered in 1943” “until it became too controversial, it was manufactured by a pharmaceutical company for research in psychotherapeutic treatment.”

The gay bar remains the only gay institution in many American communities, as it was almost everywhere until the 1970s.”

Poppers are a vasodilator of transitory effect, and cause a <high> from a drop in blood pressure; users say that the intensity and/or duration of orgasm is increased, that muscles (such as throat and anal sphincters) and gag reflexes are relaxed, and that feelings of increased union or <melting> with the sex partner result. Many users report that continued use (a single inhalation produces effects only for a few minutes) inhibits erections, while other users seem unaffected. Likewise, some users say the poppers encourage passivity and complete relaxation, while others report no such effect. Headaches and dizziness are sometimes reported as side effects.” “In the early 1980s poppers were accused of being a co-factor in the development of AIDS, and they were made illegal in some areas, although the accusation remains unproven.”

EFFEMINACY, HISTORICAL SEMANTICS OF

In reading older texts it is important to bear these differences in mind, for the term effeminate can be used slightingly of a womanizer [mulherengo] as well as of a <womanish> man.

The ancient Greeks and Romans sharply differentiated the active male homosexual, the paiderastes (in the New Testament arsenokoites, literally <man-layer>), from the passive partner, the cinaedus or pathicus (New Testament Greek malakos; Hebrew, rakha). The Greeks also sometimes used the term androgynos, <man-woman>, to stigmatize the passive homosexual. Beginning with the Old Attic comedies of Aristophanes, the passive is a stock figure of derision and contempt, the active partner far less so. Because of the military ideals on which ancient societies were founded, passivity and softness in the male were equated with cowardice and want of virility. A seeming exception is the god Dionysus – whose effeminate characteristics are, however, probably an import from the non-Greek East.

In ancient Rome the terms mollis (soft) and effeminatus acquired special connotations of decadence and enervating luxury. By contrast the word virtus meant manliness. The Roman satirists took sardonic delight in flagellating the vices of luxury that were rampant among the upper classes of a nation that, once rude and war-like, had succumbed to the temptations that followed its successful conquest and plunder of the entire ancient world. The classical notion of effeminacy as the result of luxury, idleness, and pampered self-indulgence is thus far removed from the claim of some gay liberationists today to kinship with the exploited and down-trodden.

The old Icelandic literature stemming from medieval Scandinavia documents the condemnation of the argr, the cowardly, unwar-like effeminate (compare Modern German arg, <bad>). The Latin term mollities (softness) entered early Christian and medieval writings, but often with reference to masturbation. It may be that the 18th-century English term molly for an effeminate homosexual is a reminiscence of Latin mollis.”

In the 16th century the French monarch Henri III assembled an entourage of favorites whose name mignon connotes effeminacy and delicacy. In French also the original meaning of bardache was the passive partner of the active bougre. English writings of the 17th and 18th century frequently denounced foppery [dandismo], sometimes homosexual but more often heterosexual.”

Restoration times also witnessed the popularity of the self-referencing habit of male homosexuals adopting women’s names: Mary, Mary-Anne, Molly, Nance or Nancy, and Nelly. The habit occurs in other languages as well – Janet in Flemish; Checca (from Francesca) in Italian; Maricón (from Maria) in Spanish; and Adelaida in Portuguese.”

19th-century English witnessed a semantic shift of a number of terms originally applied to women to provide opprobrious designations of male homosexuals. Thus gay had the meaning of a loose woman, prostitute; faggot, a slatternly woman –, and queen (or quean), a trollop. Even today the popular mind tends to the view that gay men seek to imitate women, or even become women –, the considerable number of unstereotypical, masculine homosexuals are not taken into account.”

Termagant and virago, though pejorative, do not suggest variance of sexual orientation. The girl who is a tomboy has always been treated more indulgently than the boy who is a sissy.”

Men who cross-dress as women are of two kinds. Some go to great lengths to make the simulation credible, an effort that may be a prelude to transsexualism. In other instances the simulation is imperfect, a kind of send-up. Although some feminists have interpreted such cross-dressing exercises as mockery of women, it is more likely that they signify a questioning of gender categories. In any event, transvestism is not normally held to lie within the province of effeminacy, which is thought to be the adjunction of feminine traits in a person otherwise fully recognizable as masculine.”

Hans Herter, Reallexikon fur Antike und Christentum, 4 (1959).

EGYPT

Traditionally the pharaohs married their half-sisters, a custom that other peoples considered curious. Self-confident in their cherished habits and customs, the Egyptians nonetheless cherished a distinct sense of privacy, which restricted discussion of erotic themes in the documents that have come down to modern times. Most of our evidence stems from temples and tombs, where a full record of everyday life could scarcely be expected. Unfortunately, Egypt had no law codes comparable to those known from ancient Mesopotamia.”

The realm of mythology provides several instances of homosexual behavior. In order to subordinate him, the god Seth attempted to sodomize his brother Horus, but the latter foiled him, and tricked Seth into ingesting some of his (Horus’s) own semen. Seth then became pregnant. In another myth the ithyphallic god Min anally assaulted an enemy, who later gave birth to the god Thoth. Both these stories present involuntary receptive homosexuality as a humiliation, but the act itself is not condemned; in the latter incident the god of wisdom is born as a result. (In another myth the high god engenders offspring parthenogenetically by masturbation.) While it is sometimes claimed that the ancient Egyptians were accustomed to sodomize enemies after their defeat on the battlefield, the evidence is equivocal.”

In what is surely history’s first homosexual short story, King Pepy II Neferkare (2355-2261) makes nocturnal visits to have sex with his general Sisinne. This episode is significant as an instance of androphilia – sex between two adult men – rather than the pederasty that was dominant in the ancient world. From a slightly earlier period comes the Tomb of the Two Brothers at Thebes, which the excavators have explained as the joint sepulcher of two men, Niankhnum and Khnumhotep, who were lovers. Bas reliefs on the tomb walls show the owners embracing affectionately.”

Queen Hatshepsut (reigned 1503-1482 BC) adopted male dress and even wore a false beard; these male attributes probably stem from her decision to reign alone, rather than from lesbianism.

A figure of particular interest is the pharaoh Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV; reigned ca. 1372-1354 BC), who was a religious and artistic reformer. Although this king begat several daughters with his wife, the famous Nefertiti, in art he is often shown as eunuch-like, with swollen hips and feminine breasts. According to some interpreters these somatic features reflect a glandular disorder. Other scholars believe that they are a deliberate artistic stylization, so that the appearance of androgyny may convey a universal concept of the office of kingship, uniting the male and the female so as to constitute an appropriate counterpart of the universal god Aten he introduced. Scenes of Akhenaten caressing his son-in-law Smenkhkare have been interpreted, doubtfully, as indicating a homosexual relation between the two.”

ELLIS, HAVELOCK

Pioneering British writer on sexual psychology. Descended from a family with many generations of seafarers, Henry Havelock Ellis was named after a distinguished soldier who was the hero of the Indian Mutiny. Early in life he sailed twice around the world and spent some years in Australia. In boarding school he had some unpleasant experiences suggesting a passive element in his character, and his attachments to women were often more friendships than erotic liaisons. At the age of 32 he married Edith Lees, a lesbian; after the first year of their marriage all sexual relations ceased, and both went on to a series of affairs with women. By nature an autodidact, Ellis obtained in 1889 only a licentiate in Medicine, Surgery, and Midwifery from the Society of Apothecaries – a somewhat inferior degree that always embarrassed him. More interested in his literary studies than in the practice of medicine, he nevertheless collected case histories mainly by correspondence, as his autobiography makes no mention of clinical practice.

ERA DE AQUARIUS: “In the atmosphere that prevailed after the disgrace of Oscar Wilde (May 1895), publication in England was problematic, but under doubtful auspices the English edition was released in November 1897.”

Sexual Inversion was the first book in English to treat homosexuality as neither disease nor crime, and if he dismissed the current notion that it was a species of <degeneracy> (in the biological sense), he also maintained that it was inborn and unmodifiable – a view that he never renounced. His book, couched in simple language, urged public toleration for what was then regarded as unnatural and criminal to the highest degree. To a readership conditioned from childhood to regard homosexual behavior with disgust and abhorrence, the book was beyond the limits of comprehension, and a radical publisher and bookseller named George Bedborough was duly prosecuted for issuing <a certain lewd wicked bawdy scandalous and obscene libel>” “The book was to appear in two later editions as the second volume of Ellis’ Studies in the Psychology of Sex, which in its final format extended to 7 volumes covering the whole of sexual science as it existed in the first three decades of the 20th century.” “Ellis never endorsed the explanations offered by Freud and the psychoanalytic school, so that the third edition of Sexual Inversion (1915), which was supplemented by material drawn from Magnus Hirschfeld’s Die Homosexualität des Mannes und des Weibes, published a year earlier, presented essentially the standpoint of 1904. The next in radical character was the measured discussion of masturbation, which Victorian society had been taught to regard with virtual paranoia as the cause of numberless ills.

EPHEBOPHILIA

The term ephebophilia seems to have been coined by Magnus Hirschfeld in his Wesen der Liebe (1906)

ANTI-AQUILINO (BANQUETE): “those with bearded faces who had outgrown the stage at which they were appropriate as the younger partners in pederasty, but not yet old enough to marry: the prime age for military service. The ancient Greek age of puberty was likely in the mid-teens rather than the younger ages typical of contemporary Western society.”

In other societies, ephebes are legally on a par with younger children, but in practice sexual activities with them are not as harshly repressed as with the younger group.”

The combination of heightened sexual energy with a lack of heterosexual outlets (owing to marriage ages in the twenties and restrictions on pre-marital opportunities) and low incomes (characteristic of males still in school, military service, or just beginning to acquire work experience) has in many societies made heterosexual ephebes more available for trade (one-sided) relationships with homosexuals than any other group of heterosexual males.

For many ephebophiles, the naïveté of ephebes is a source of attraction, their enthusiasm for new experiences (including sexual and romantic involvements) contrasted with what is perceived to be the more jaded and skeptical attitudes of other adults.”

The ancient Greeks acknowledged this trait with the term philephebos (fond of young men) and philoboupais (one who is fond of over-matured boys, <bull-boys> or <husky young men>), but generally slighted it in favor of the pederastic preference. Nevertheless, the athletic games of which the Greeks were so fond featured nude ephebes, the size of whose members received public acclaim, and the victors basked in adulation; Pindar wrote odes to them.”

In the 20th century, the dominance of the androphile model of male homosexuality has tended to subsume, appropriate, and obscure the ephebophile current, and to consider it as a mode of adult-adult relationships rather than as a distinctive type of preference.”

EPICUREANISM

Knowledge of Epicureanism, the classical rival of Stoicism, is fragmentary because Christians, disliking its atheistic materialism, belief in the accidental existence of the cosmos, and ethical libertarianism, either failed to copy or actually destroyed the detested works. Of all the numerous works composed in antiquity, only Lucretius’ philosophical poem De rerum natura survives intact. Diogenes Laertius reported that Epicurus wrote more than anyone else, including 37 books On Nature. A typical maxim: <We see that pleasure is the beginning and end of living happily>.

Epicurus (341-270 BC), the founder of the school, served as an ephebe in Athens at 18 and then studied at the Academy, a fellow classmate of Menander, when Aristotle was absent in Chalcis. Having taught abroad, where he combatted the atomist philosophy of Democritus, he returned to Athens and bought his house with a garden in 307-6. There he taught until his death, allowing women and slaves to participate in his lessons – to the shock of traditionalists. Only a few lines of his works survive. Apparently he likened sexual object choice, whether of women or boys, to food preferences – a parallel that often recurred in later times. His beloved Metrodorus predeceased him.

[O LEITMOTIF INCONSCIENTE DO BLOG] The Epicurean school, consisting of scholars who secluded themselves from society in Epicurus’ garden, lived modestly or even austerely. Stoics, however, libeled the secretive Epicureans because of their professed hedonism, accusing them of profligacy of every kind despite the fact that Epicurus felt that pleasure could be attained only in restraint of some pursuits that in the long run bring more pain than the temporary pleasure they seem to offer. Natural pleasures are easily satisfied, others being unnecessary. The ideal was freedom from destiny by satisfying desire and avoiding the pain of desires too difficult or impossible to satisfy. By freeing man from fear of gods and an afterlife and by teaching him to avoid competition in politics and business it liberates him from emotional turmoil. Friendship was extremely important to Epicureans.”

Lucretius (ca. 94-55 BC) seems not to have added any ideas to those taught by Epicurus himself. But others, like the fabulously rich general Lucullus, whose banquets became proverbial, excused their gross sensuality by references to Epicurus’ maxims. Julius Caesar proclaimed himself an Epicurean. Under the Empire Stoicism vanquished its rival and vied with Christianity, which when triumphant anathematized Epicureanism.”

the Soviet Communists, who naturally ranked Epicurus above Plato as the greatest philosopher of antiquity.” ???

Gassendi (1592-1655) [neo-epicurean] exerted enormous influence on both Newton and Leibniz.”

FAGGOT

One of the most persistent myths that have gained a foot-hold in the gay movement is the belief that faggot derives from the basic meaning of <bundle of sticks used to light a fire>, with the historical commentary that when witches were burned at the stake, <only presumed male homosexuals were considered low enough to help kindle the fires>.

The English word has in fact three forms: faggot, attested by the Oxford English Dictionary from circa 1300; fadge, attested from 1588; and faggald, which the Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue first records from 1375. The first and second forms have the additional meaning <fat, slovenly woman> which according to the English Dialect Dictionary survived into the 19th century in the folk speech of England.

The homosexual sense of the term, unknown in England itself, appears for the first time in America in a vocabulary of criminal slang printed in Portland, Oregon in 1914, with the example <All the fagots (sissies) will be dressed in drag at the ball tonight>. The apocopated (clipped) form fag then arose by virtue of the tendency of American colloquial speech to create words of one syllable; the first quotation is from the book by Neis Anderson, The Hobo (1923): <Fairies or Fags are men or boys who exploit sex for profit.> The short form thus also has no connection with British fag as attested from the 19th century (for example, in the novel Tom Brown’s Schooldays) in the sense of <public school boy who performs menial tasks for an upper-classman>.

In American slang faggot/fag usurped the semantic role of bugger in British usage, with its connotations of extreme hostility and contempt bordering on death wishes. In more recent decades it has become the term of abuse par excellence in the mouths of heterosexuals, often just as an insult aimed at another male’s alleged want of masculinity or courage, rather than implying a sexual role or orientation.

The ultimate origin of the word is a Germanic term represented by the Norwegian dialect words fagg, <bundle, heap>, alongside bagge, <obese, clumsy creature> (chiefly of animals). From the latter are derived such Romance words as French bagasse and ltalian bagascia, <prostitute>, whence the parallel derivative bagascione whose meaning matches that of American English faggot/fag, while Catalan bagassejar signifies to faggot, <to frequent the company of loose women>.

The final proof that faggot cannot have originated in the burning of witches at the stake is that in English law both witchcraft and buggery were punishable by hanging, and that in the reign of the homosexual monarch James I the execution of heretics came to an end, so that by the time American English gave the word its new meaning there cannot have been in the popular mind even the faintest remnant of the complex of ideas credited to the term in the contemporary myth. It is purely and simply an Americanism of the 20th century.

Given the fact that the term faggot cannot refer to burning at the stake, why does the myth continue to enjoy popularity in the gay movement? On the conscious level it serves as a device with which to attack the medieval church, by extension Christianity in toto, and finally all authority. On another level, it may linger as a <myth of origins>, a kind of collective masochistic ritual that willingly identifies the homosexual as victim.

FASCISM

The term fascism derives from fasces, the bundles of rods carried by the lictors of ancient Rome to symbolize the unity of classes in the Republic. Fascism is the authoritarian movement that arose in Italy in the wake of World War I. Although Hitler admired its founder Mussolini and imitated him at first – the term Führer is modeled on Duce – one cannot simply equate his more radical National Socialist movement with the Italian phenomenon, as writers of the left are prone to do.”

Not essentially racist like Nazism or anti-bourgeois like Marxism, Italian fascism, with its corporative binding of workers and employers, has been less consistently hostile to homosexuals.”

Mussolini also argued in a discussion of a draft penal code in 1930 that because Italians, being virile, were not homosexuals, Italy needed no law banning homosexual acts, which he believed only degenerate foreigners to practice. A ban would only frighten such tourists away, and Italy needed the money they spent to improve its balance of payments and shore up its sagging economy. Napoléon had promulgated his code, which did not penalize homosexual acts between consenting adults, in northern Italy in 1810, and thus decriminalized sodomy. It had already been decriminalized in Tuscany by Grand Duke Leopold, the enlightened brother of Joseph II. The Albertine Code of 1837 for Piedmont-Sardinia was extended to all its dominions after the House of Savoy created a united Kingdom of Italy, a task completed in 1870. Pervasive was the influence of the jurist Marquis Cesare Beccaria, who argued against cruel and unusual punishments and against all offenses motivated by religious superstition and fanaticism.

Thus Italy with its age-old <Mediterranean homosexuality> in which women were protected, almost secluded – upper-class girls at least in the South being accompanied in public by dueñas –, had like other Latin countries allowed female prostitution and closed its eyes to homosexuality. As such it had became the playground par excellence during the grand tour of the English milords, and also the refuge of exiles and émigrés from the criminal sanctions of the Anglo-American common law and the Prussian code. The Prussian Code was extended in 1871-72 to the North and then South German territories incorporated in the Reich, including ones where the Code Napoleon had prevailed in the early part of the century. Byron and John Addington Symonds took refuge in Italy, as William Beckford did in Portugal and Oscar Wilde in Paris. Friedrich Alfred Krupp’s playground was in Capri, Thomas Mann’s in Venice, and Count Adelswárd Fersen’s also in Capri.”

Personally, Mussolini was somewhat of a sexual acrobat, in that he had a succession of mistresses and often took time out in the office to have sex with one or another of his secretaries.”

Believing in military strength through numbers, Mussolini did more than Hitler to subsidize parents of numerous progeny, thus hoping to increase Italy’s population from 40 to 60 million.”

However, after he formed the Rome-Berlin Axis with Hitler in 1936, Mussolini began, under Nazi influence, to persecute homosexuals and to promulgate anti-Semitic decrees in 1938 and 1939, though these were laxly enforced, and permitted exceptions, such as veterans of World War I.”

Oppressing homosexuals more than Jews, Mussolini’s regime rounded up and imprisoned a substantial number, a procedure poignantly depicted in Ettore Scola’s excellent film A Special Day (1977).” “Even exclusive homosexuals, if they were not unlucky, survived fascism unscathed.”

Admiral Horthy seized control of Hungary from the communist Bela Kun in 1920 and as Regent unleashed a <White Terror> largely directed against Jews, two years before Mussolini marched on Rome with his black-shirts.”

Fascists were less consistent and more divided among themselves than even communists or Nazis. After all, they had no sacred text like Das Kapital or Mein Kampf, and further were not ruling only a single powerful country.” “Czechoslovakia, the only democracy in Central Europe to survive this period, simply continued the Austrian penal code of 1852 that penalized both male and female homosexuality.”

The great homosexual poet Federico García Lorca was shot by a death squad near Granada in 1936; it is said that they fired the bullets through his backside to <make the punishment fit the crime>.” “More than Mussolini, Franco resisted the theories and pressures of Hitler, whom he regarded as a despicable (and perhaps deranged) upstart. It has been argued that Franco was not a fascist at all and that he actually maintained a pro-Jewish policy, granting asylum to refugees from Nazi-occupied Europe and attempting to protect Sephardic Jews in the Balkan countries. In his last years he in fact liberalized Spain to a certain extent, allowing among other things a resurgence of gay bars, baths, and culture even before the accession of King Juan Carlos upon his death in 1975. Today Spain is one of the freest countries in Europe.”

Naturally Latins, like Slavs, being considered inferior peoples by Hitler, did not in general espouse racism (Hitler had to make the Japanese honorary Aryans to ally with them in the Tripartite Pact of 1937), so they had no reason to think of homosexuals in his terms.”

FASCIST PERVERSION, BELIEF IN

Fascism and National Socialism (Nazism) were originally distinct political systems, but their eventual international ties (the <Rome-Berlin axis>) led to the use of <fascist> as an umbrella term¹ by Communist writers anxious to avoid the implication that <National Socialism> was a type of socialism. Neither in Italy nor in Spain did the right-authoritarian political movements have a homosexual component. Rather it was in Weimar Germany that the right-wing paramilitary groups which constituted the nucleus of the later National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) attracted a considerable number of homosexuals whose erotic leanings overlapped with the male bonding of the party. This strong male bonding, in the later judgment of their own leaders, gave the Nazis a crucial advantage in their victory over the rival Social Democratic and communist formations in the early 1930s.

The most celebrated of the homosexuals in the Nazi Party of the 1920s was Ernst Rohm, whose sexual proclivities were openly denounced by left-wing propagandists, but this did not deprive him of Hitler’s confidence until the putsch of June 30, 1934, in which he and many of his homosexual comrades in arms were massacred.”

¹ Discordo, mas segue o jogo.

theorists such as Wilhelm Reich who were opposed to homosexuality [?] could claim that the right-wing youth were <becoming more homosexual>. The victory of National Socialism at the beginning of 1933 then reinforced Communist and émigré propagandists in their resort to <fascist perversion> as a rhetorical device with which they could abuse and vilify the regime that had defeated and exiled them – and which they hoped would be transient and unstable.

In particular, the statute by which Stalin restored the criminal sanctions against homosexuality that had been omitted from the penal codes of 1922 and 1926 was officially titled the <Law of March 7, 1934> – a pointed allusion to the anniversary of the National Socialist consolidation of power one year earlier.”

In the United States Maoists charged that the gay liberation movement of 1969 and the years following was an example of <bourgeois décadance> that would vanish once the triumph of socialism was achieved. “

Samuel Igra, Germany’s National Vice, London: Quality Press, 1945.

FILM

Adolescent alienation was the theme of Rebel without a Cause (1955), in which, however, the delicate Sal Mineo character dies so that James Dean can be united with Natalie Wood.”

In the book Midnight Express the hero admitted to a gay love affair in prison, but in the movie version (1978) he rejects a handsome fellow inmate’s advances.”

Screen biographies of gay people have had similar fates. Michelangelo and Cole Porter appear as joyful heterosexuals; Oscar Wilde could not be sanitized, to be sure, but he was presented in a <tasteful> manner (3 British versions, 2 in 1960, one in 1984). Recent screen biographies have been better; the documentary on the painter Paul Cadmus (1980) is open without being sensational; Prick Up Your Ears, on the life of Joe Orton, is as frank as one can wish, though it somehow misses the core of his personality.”

In The Third Sex (West Germany, 1959) a sophisticated older man has an entourage of teenage boys. Although this film purveys dated ideas of homosexuality, it went farther in explicitness than anything that Hollywood was able to do for over a decade. Federico Fellini’s celebrated La Dolce Vita (1960) is a multifaceted portrait of eternal decadence in chic circles in Rome.”

One breakthrough came in 1967 when the legendary Marlon Brando portrayed a closeted homosexual army officer in John Huston’s Reflections in a Golden Eye, a film which drew a <Condemned> rating from the Catholic Church.” Who gives a fuck (literally)!

Sunday Bloody Sunday: this film was notable for the shock experienced by straight audiences at a kissing scene between Peter Finch and Murray Head. Perhaps the most notorious of the gay directors was Rainer Werner Fassbinder, whose Fox and His Friends (1975) deals with homosexuality and class struggle. Fassbinder’s last film was his controversial version of a Genet novel, Querelle (1982). The death of Franco created the possibility of a new openness in Spanish culture, including a number of gay films. Influenced by Luis Buñuel, Law of Desire (1986) by Pedro Almodóvar is surely a masterpiece of comic surrealism.”

Already in the 1920s some major directors were known to be gay, including the German Friedrich W. Murnau and the Russian Sergei Eisenstein.”

During their lifetimes Charles Laughton and Montgomery Clift had to suffer fag-baiting taunts from colleagues, while Rock Hudson remained largely untouched by public scandal until his death from AIDS in 1985. Tyrone Power and Cary Grant were decloseted after their deaths. The sexuality of others, such as Errol Flynn and James Dean, remains the subject of argument. In Germany the stage actor and film director Gustav Grundgens managed to work through the Nazi period, even though his homosexuality was known to the regime.”

In 1969, however, hardcore porno arrived, apparently to stay. Some 50 theatres across the United States specialized in the genre, and where the authorities were willing to turn a blind eye, sexual acts took place there, stimulated by the films.”

Much of the early production was forgettable, but in 1971, in Boys in the Sand starring Casey Donovan (Cal Culver), the director-producer Wakefield Poole achieved a rare blend of sexual explicitness and cinematographic values.”

In the later 80s AIDS began to devastate porno-industry workers, gay and straight, and safe sex procedures became more rigorous on the set (it should be noted, however, that long before AIDS, by strict convention, pornographic film ejaculations were always conducted outside the body, so as to be graphically visible; hence film sex was always basically <safe sex>).”

PROVAVELMENTE ULTRAPASSADO: “Lesbian porno exists only as scenes within films addressed to heterosexual males, their being, thus far, no market for full-length lesbian films of this nature. A number of independent lesbian film-makers have made candid motion pictures about lesbian life, but they are not pornographic.”

Carel Rowe, The Baudelairean Cinema: A Trend Within the American Avant-Garde, Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1982.

FLAUBERT

From his early years at the lycée onward, he preferred the pen to his father’s scalpel, and single-handedly edited a minor journal, the Colibri, that clumsily but clearly foretold his future talent. In Paris he read Law but never took the degree for reasons of health, and there met Maxime Du Camp, with whom he formed a close friendship. Together they traveled through Brittany and Normandy in 1847, bringing back a volume of reminiscences that was to be published only after Flaubert’s death (Par les champs et par les grèves, 1885). Between October of 1849 and May of 1851 the two traveled in Egypt and Turkey, and there Flaubert had a number of pédérastie experiences which he related in his letters to Louis Bouilhet.”

BORING FASHION: “On his return to France Flaubert shut himself up in his country house at Croisset, near Rouen. Instead of aspiring to self-discovery in the manner of the Romanticists, Flaubert sought to bury his own personality by striving for the goal of art in itself, and he devoted his entire life to the quest for its secrets. His ferocious will to be in his works <like God>, everywhere and nowhere, explains the nerve-wracking effort that went into each of his novels, in which nothing is left to the free flow of inspiration, nothing is asserted without being verified, nothing is described that has not been seen.” “This explains the multiple versions that are periodically uncovered of almost every one of his works, with the sole exception of Madame Bovary (1857), which led to his being tried for offending public decency.”

In 1857 he traveled to Tunisia to collect material for a historical novel set in Carthage after the First Punic War. Salammbô (1862), abundantly documented, is so rich in sadistic scenes, including one of a mass child-sacrifice, that it horrified some contemporary readers.”

In 1874 he published La tentation de saint Antoine, a prose poem of great power and imagination. His last work, Bouvard et Pécuchet (issued posthumously in 1881), is an unfinished study in male bonding.”

Sodomy is a subject of conversation at table. You can deny it at times, but everyone starts ribbing you and you end up spilling the beans. Traveling for our own information and entrusted with a mission by the government, we regarded it as our duty to abandon ourselves to this manner of ejaculation. The occasion has not yet presented itself, but we are looking for one. The Turkish baths are where it is practiced. One rents the bath for 5 fr., including the masseurs, pipe, coffee, and linen, and takes one’s urchin into one of the rooms. – You should know that all the bath attendants are bardaches [homossexuais passivos].”

FOUCAULT

at the end of his life he surprised the world with 2 successor volumes with a different subject matter: the management of sexuality in ancient Greece and Rome. While completing these books he was already gravely ill, a fact that may account for their turgid, sometimes repetitive presentation. In June 1984 Michel Foucault died in Paris of complications resulting from AIDS.”

O CONTINENTE SE ESMIGALHA: “Discontent with the systems of Marx and Freud and their contentious followers had nonetheless left an appetite for new <mega-theories>, which the Anglo-Saxon pragmatic tradition was unable to satisfy.”

This concept of discontinuity was all the more welcome as the ground had been prepared by an influential American philosopher of science, Thomas Kuhn, whose concept of radical shifts in paradigm had been widely adopted. In vain did Foucault protest toward the end of his life that he was not the philosopher of discontinuity; he is now generally taken to be such.”

Not since Jean-Paul Sartre had France given the world a thinker of such resonance. Yet Foucault’s work shows a number of key weaknesses. Not gifted with the patience for accumulating detail that since Aristotle has been taken to be a hallmark of the historian’s craft, he often spun elaborate theories from scanty empirical evidence. He also showed a predilection for scatter-gun concepts such as episteme, discourse, difference, and power; in seeking to explain much, these talismans make for fuzziness. Foucauldian language has had a seductive appeal for his followers, but repetition dulls the magic and banalization looms.”

FOURIER

French Utopian philosopher and sexual radical. Fourier spent much of his life in Lyon, trapped in a business world which he hated with a passion. Disillusioned in childhood by the dishonesty and hypocrisy of the people around him, he gradually formulated an elaborate theory of how totally to transform society in a Utopian world of the future known as Harmony, in which mankind would live in large communes called Phalansteries.

Fourier hid his sexual beliefs from his contemporaries, and it was more than a century after his death before his main erotic work, Le nouveau monde amoureux, was first published. (…) Fourier did not believe that anyone under 16 had any sexual feelings, nor did he understand the psychology of sadism, pedophilia, or rape, so that his sexual theories are not entirely suitable for modem experimentation. (…) He recognized male homosexuals and lesbians as biological categories long before Krafft-Ebing created the modern concept of immutable sexual <perversions>.” “He wrote some fictional episodes in the vein of William Beckford, one of which describes the seduction of a beautiful youth by an older man.”

FRANCE

French politics and literature have exercised an incalculable influence on other countries, from England to Quebec, from Senegal to Vietnam. Whether justified or not, a reputation for libertine hedonism clings to the country, and especially to its capital, Paris – by far the largest city of northern Europe from the 12th to the 18th centuries (when London surpassed it), making France a barometer of changing sexual mores.”

The heavy-drinking later Merovingians, descendants of the Frankish king Merovech and his grandson Clovis, who conquered all Gaul, were barbarians who indulged their sensual appetites freely. Lack of control allowed considerable sexual license to continue into the more Christianized Carolingian period (late 8th-9th centuries), and probably to increase during the feudal anarchy that followed the Viking invasions of the 9th and 10th, but in the 11th century the church moved to regulate private conduct according to its own strict canons.”

The term sodomia, which appears in the last decades of the 12th century [?], covered bestiality, homosexual practices, and <unnatural> heterosexual relations of all kinds.” “Popes organized the Inquisition against them and invoked the bloody Albigensian Crusade which devastated much of Languedoc, homeland of a sensual culture tinged by Moslem influences from the south. The word bougre itself survives to this day as English bugger, which in Great Britain, apart from legal usage, remains a coarse and virtually obscene expression.”

The guilt of the Templars remains moot to this day; while some may have been involved in homosexual liaisons, the political atmosphere surrounding the investigation and the later controversy made impartial judgment impossible. A persistent fear of sexuality and a pathetic inability to stamp out its proscribed manifestations, even with periodic burning of offenders at the stake and strict regulations within the cloister, plagued medieval society to the end.”

Henri III was celebrated for his mignons, the favorites drawn from the ranks of the petty nobility – handsome, gorgeously attired and adorned adolescents and magnificent swordsmen ready to sacrifice their lives for their sovereign. Although the king had exhibited homosexual tendencies earlier in life, these became more marked after a stay in Venice in 1574. Yet neither he nor the mignons scorned the opposite sex in their pursuit of pleasure, and there is no absolute proof that any of this circle expressed their desires genitally. Yet a whole literature of pamphlets and lampoons by Protestants and by Catholic extremists, both of whom disapproved of the king’s moderate policy, was inspired by the life of the court of Henri III until his assassination in 1589.”

Even the entourage of Cardinal Richelieu included the Abbé Boisrobert, patron of the theatre and the arts, and founder of the French Academy, the summit of French intellectual life. His proclivities were so well known that he was nicknamed <the mayor of Sodom>, while the king who occupied the throne, Louis XIII, was surnamed <the chaste> because of his absolute indifference to the fair sex and to his wife Marie de Medi