O mito da ascensão social baseado no domínio culto da língua portuguesa (e estrangeirismos), apresentado de forma sócio-histórica [2.0]

  • Conceito e evolução da prática do CORONELISMO:
    • Trata-se de um fenômeno que, embora não particularmente brasileiro, é muito específico de nossa formação: desde nossas origens como Colônia, na pirâmide social a elite privilegiada é uma OLIGARQUIA AGRÁRIA muito difícil de contestar principalmente nos grotões mais inacessíveis do país, onde a dominação impessoal do Estado se faz ver com menos força;
    • Num segundo estágio, o coronel se alia à República para oficializar seu mando, que já era prático.
    • Mesmo com a possibilidade das eleições e a ampliação do voto censitário, a política da ameaça implícita ou explícita e o esquema da troca de favores (a popular “compra de votos”) pôde manter muitas dinastias coronelistas na extensão do território brasileiro.
    • Com a urbanização acelerada do Brasil no séc. XX, o coronelismo é considerado em degeneração, mas não morto.
    • O latifundiário é, enquanto “dono dos meios de produção”, o “instituidor da linguagem” e o representante-mor da desigualdade na distribuição de renda nacional.

  • CARREIRAS – Planejamento familiar dos clãs dominantes (recorte “Brasil-Colônia” até “República Velha”, com resquícios na modernidade):
  • Filhos homens como preferência
  • Carreiras ideais:
  • Direito (o ideal: o juiz da comarca)
  • Medicina (o ideal: o único médico da população)
  • Teologia (o padre era o culto ou intelectual da aldeia, do município, e era muito mais influente politicamente do que na contemporaneidade; exercia as funções de diplomata; dominava várias línguas, produzia em Latim, fazia a ponte entre o poder secular “católico” e o “perdão divino” – sem a Igreja e seus representantes nomeados, seria inconcebível um processo de colonização em massa como fôra realizado.)
  • À mulher cabia a função de “guardiã do lar”, costureira, cozinheira;
  • Com o afrouxamento das “exigências sociais”, elas puderam desfrutar de uma educação liberal (ter professores particulares, aprender a gramática, a se portar com etiqueta, receber aulas de música, etc.). Muitas filhas, à puberdade, eram enviadas para conventos, para ser freiras, súditas dos padres, sem liberdade de convicções; deveriam apenas repercutir o status quo.
  • O patriarca ainda tinha de arcar com o dote. Em contrapartida, um filho bem-nascido faria jus a uma filha bem-nascida de outro patriarca.
  • Modos de transmissão da carreira:
  • Filhos (transmissão hereditária e sangüínea);
  • “Apadrinhados” sob a relação de cunhadismo ou compadrismo (os amigos da família ou protegidos também eram educados nos mesmos moldes – poderiam retribuir o favor mais tarde, beneficiando os membros da família que o patrocinou).

COMENTÁRIOS ANALÍTICOS:

  • Esse cenário não se modificou tanto com o decorrer do processo de colonização, com a “independência” do Brasil, nem muito menos com a proclamação da República, que foram movimentos circunscritos às elites, mesmo que contassem com revoltas populares regionais, o mais das vezes abafadas pelo Poder Público (ex: Inconfidência Mineira).
  • REPERCUSSÕES NA ATUALIDADE: Ainda ouvimos muito o papo da “grande carreira que irá garantir o futuro do meu filho e dos meus netos” na boca mais até dos “cultos” do que do “povão”. E onde há uma grande carreira há um grande conjunto hermético de jargões.
  • “O que importa é ser feliz” ainda é uma visão muito moderninha sobre vocação profissional.
  • A prova de que a norma culta é só uma etiqueta, sem valor por si só, é a situação dos Professores de Português (Gramática clássica) no Brasil, tirando as conhecidas exceções (personalidades e celebridades como Pasquale ou professores notórios de cursinhos, que ascendem socialmente).

MARCOS BAGNO CITA:

  • “A violência urbana está intimamente ligada a uma situação social de profunda injustiça, que dá ao Brasil, como eu já disse, o triste segundo lugar entre os países com a pior distribuição de renda de todo o mundo, perdendo apenas para Botswana, um país africano desértico, muito menor e muito menos desenvolvido.”
  • Mesmo se a posição do Brasil no ranking tenha se modificado e melhorado após a publicação desta 49ª edição do livro “PRECONCEITO LINGUÍSTICO”, a desigualdade de renda no Brasil continua alarmante, muito pior que outros indicadores sociais baseados estritamente na MÉDIA DA RIQUEZA CALCULÁVEL dividida pelo NÚMERO ABSOLUTO DE HABITANTES (IDH, renda per capita…).
  • COMPLEMENTAÇÃO:
  • Índice Gini 2013 (pré-GOLPE ANTI-DEMOCRÁTICO): Brasil 82.1 pontos, 15º entre 182 nações (termo de comparação: Botswana: 34º).

 

VIDA & MORTE DO “PIOR” DOS CORONÉIS – Horácio de Matos (1882-1931, Bahia)

 

Descendente do tio; condecorado pela Guarda Nacional; sufocador de resistências, inclusive comunistas. Elegeu-se Senador e fez o que quis durante a república do café-com-leite.

Morte irônica: “Apesar de uma vida pautada pelo belicismo, almejava o desarmamento do sertão e, quando este finalmente ocorre, morre assassinado em circunstâncias misteriosas, após ter sido imotivadamente preso pelo governo getulista instalado na capital baiana.”

 

BÔNUS LITERÁRIO

 

“Jargões” que “embasbacam”: assim como o primeiro grupo citou uma EMENTA de PROCESSO ininteligível para “o comum dos mortais”, não são raros trechos literários em que nossos escritores satirizam a condição social que imperava entre os mais favorecidos. Um exemplo a propósito vem do romance A MORENINHA, de JOAQUIM MANOEL DE MACEDO (vamos reproduzir alguns trechos que bem o demonstram):

Numa determinada cena, uma jovem desmaia. Um séquito de médicos (4 rapazes recém-formados) tentam descobrir quais foram as causas do desmaio, e começa um debate realmente excêntrico e engraçado (alguns trechos foram recortados por questões de tempo e espaço – NEGRITOS NOSSOS):

– Eu diagnostico uma baquites. Concebe-se perfeitamente que as etesias desenvolvidas pela decomposição dos éteres espasmódicos e engendrados no alambique intestinal, uma vez que a compressão do diafragma lhes cause vibrações simpáticas que os façam caminhar pelo canal colédoco até o periósteo dos pulmões…

– C’est trop fort!… [outro personagem contesta em francês, obviamente pouco falado nas camadas mais populares, e mesmo nas mais ricas]

– Daí, passando à garganta, perturbam a quimificação da hematose, que por isso se tornando em linfa hemostática, vá de um jacto causar um tricocéfalo no esfenóide, podendo mesmo produzir uma protorragia nas glândulas de Meyer, até que, penetrando pelas câmaras ópticas, no esfíncter do cerebelo, cause um retrocesso prostático, como pensam os modernos autores, e promovam uma rebelião entre os indivíduos cerebrais: por conseqüência isto é nervoso.

(…)

– Sangue! sempre sangue! eis a Medicina romântica do insignificante Broussais [autor desconhecido a não ser para estudantes]! mas eu detesto tanto a Medicina sanguinária, como a estercorária, herbária, sudorária e todas as que acabam em ária. Desde Hipócrates [fundador da arte da Medicina], que foi o maior charlatão do seu tempo, até os nossos dias, tem triunfado a ignorância, mas já, enfim, brilhou o sol da sabedoria… Hahnemann [outro autor obscuro]… ah!… quebrai vossas lancetas, senhores! para curar o mundo inteiro basta-vos uma botica homeopática, com o Amazonas ao pé!… queimai todos os vossos livros [aqui o autor usa um argumento que faz deboche do próprio palavrório indiscrimado da turma], porque a verdade está só, exclusivamente, no alcorão de nosso Mafoma [Mafoma era um médico – seu livro era tão importante que era considerado sagrado], no Organon do grande homem! Ah! se depois do divino sistema morre por acaso alguém, é por se não ter ainda descoberto o meio de dividir em um milhão de partes cada simples átomo da matéria! Senhores, eu concordo com o diagnóstico de meu colega, mas devo combater o tratamento por ele oferecido. (…) Ouçam-me. Uma mulher padecia este mesmo mal; já tinha sofrido trinta sangrias; haviam-lhe mandado aplicar mais de trezentas bichas [sanguessugas, método antigo], purgantes sem conta, vomitórios às dúzias e tisanas aos milheiros; quis o seu bom gênio que ela recorresse a um homeopata, que, com três doses, das quais cada uma continha apenas a trimilionésima parte de um quarto de grão de nihilitas nihilitatis [de “nada”, traduzindo! Usar o Latim também era sinônimo de chiqueza], a pôs completamente restabelecida; e quem quiser pode ir vê-la na rua… É certo que não me lembro agora onde, mas posso afirmar que ela mora em uma casa e que hoje está nédia, gorda, com boas cores e até remoçou e ficou bonita… Outro fato.

(…)

como, pois, se arrojaria Paula a morrer, contra a ordem expressa dos quatro hipocratíssimos senhores?…”

BIBLIOGRAFIA COMPLEMENTAR:

Sobre coronelismo, procurar REGO e LEAL.

Anúncios

FIORIN, A PRAGMÁTICA & O LOUCO BRASIL DOS ANOS 90

Certa ocasião, perguntaram a Sérgio Buarque de Holanda se o Chico Buarque era filho dele e ele respondeu:

– Não, o Chico não é meu filho, eu é que sou pai dele.”

A Pragmática é a ciência do uso e da prática lingüísticas.

Papa(i)s da Pragmática: John Austin & Paul Grice

Você tem fogo, Prometeu?

Você tem promessa, candidato?

ENUNCIAÇÕES

a) dêiticas: eu, tu, aqui, lá, este, agora, ontem

Um dêitico só pode ser entendido dentro da situação de comunicação e, quando aparece, num texto escrito, a situação enunciativa deve ser explicitada.”

b) performativas: juro que, peço desculpas

c) conectivas: mas, porque

d) negativas: não gosto, adoro! (pseudo-paradoxo); ruim não, péssimo! (enfático)…

e) adverbiais: sinceramente, infelizmente, francamente

INFERÊNCIAS

A frase é um fato lingüístico caracterizado por uma estrutura sintática e uma significação calculada com base na significação das palavras que a compõem, enquanto o enunciado é uma frase a que se acrescem as informações retiradas da situação em que é produzida. A mesma frase pode estar vinculada a diferentes enunciados.”

INSTRUÇÕES

Nos anos 1970, a Pragmática era considerada por muitos a <lata de lixo da Linguística>” BENZADEUS

PRAGMÁTICA VS. SEMÂNTICA OU PRAGMÁTICA & SEMÂNTICA

um enunciado será performativo quando puder transformar-se em outro enunciado que tenha um verbo performativo na primeira pessoa do singular do presente do indicativo da voz ativa. Os enunciados que não contêm um verbo performativo na pessoa, no tempo, no modo e na voz indicados serão chamados performativos implícitos”

Vai me perdoar, mas você está demitido – é para o seu bem!!!

Austin: “quando se diz algo, realizam-se 3 atos: o ato locucionário (ou locucional), o ato ilocucionário (ou ilocucional) e o ato perlocucionário (ou perlocucional).”

ato locucionário: dizer (1)

a. iloc.: realização (interna) (2)

a. perloc.: realização (efeito, impacto sobre o interlocutor/ouvinte) (3)

(1) Digo isto; (2) isto é uma advertência (dou sinais suficientes para que você perceba); (3) você entendeu (captou) a advertência, seja lá como foi que reagiu.

Lembrar da “marcação” funcionalista: o ato ilocucional está marcado (sensível na língua, ato de comunicação), o ato perlocucional não.

a t o d e s c r i a t i v o

Searle: reformulação: ato ilocucional + conteúdo proposicional

atos de fala indiretos

súcubente de seaman de naranja

suckumbent for leather

– E esse cigarro aí, cumpadi…

– É um Camel com 0.8mg de alcatrão, conhece?

teoria interacionista

Na sociedade brasileira da primeira metade do séc. XX, como se lê nos manuais de etiqueta, não se agradecia aos criados, aos garçons, etc. Hoje, agradece-se a eles por qualquer serviço que nos prestam. (…) Por outro lado, fórmulas religiosas de agradecimento, como Que Deus lhe dê em dobro ou Que Deus lhe abençoe só subsistem nas áreas menos modernas do país.”

Austin mostrou que dizer é fazer; os interacionistas, na fórmula de Orecchioni, mostram que dizer é fazer fazer. Isso significa que os atos de linguagem têm um efeito muito grande nas relações interpessoais, o que abriu um novo campo para a Linguística, o estudo da polidez lingüística.” Infelizmente já tiramos o chapéu para o próximo cabide humano que nos “força” a falar e gesticular: como sinaleiros de trânsito que alternam do vermelho para o verde.

O mero caráter da ode “c” e a e lhe a “dá”.

OLHO NO LINCEEEEE

ÉÉÉ

do camisa 10 foi foi foi

ERATÓSTENES

OLÊ OLÊ OLÁ

A LINGUAGEM AOS 60 VAI VIRÁ

Essas regras de polidez articulam-se sobre a teoria das faces, desenvolvida por Brown e Levinson, na seqüência dos trabalhos de Goffman. Face é o amor-próprio do sujeito.”

Eu pequei contra o Espírito Santo Comteano

O Campeão Absoluto Nietzsche-ano

EcceHomodoAno2.018

atualização antivirótica

Acorda.

No aeroporto de Viracopos

Todo re-virado

no Jirinoraiya

dará, faz-se

AO DEUS DAR-A-FACE

aqui se face aqui se apaga

À qui? Ao cu de praxe

É que se mete a vara

O conselheiro teclava em seu ordenador pedindo ameaças gentis.

Faça uma ordem de pizza agora!

Sua exigência foi atendida com sucesso.

Dando conselhos a esmo.

Deposite sua proibição na caixinha de recepções januárias.

não se critica um trabalho, sem fazer uma série de preliminares que mostram que ele está bom.” Aos mal-educados basta argumentar “eu não nasci inclinado para essas falas rituais”. Isso salva a falta de educação: eu sou assim, não escolhi ser assim, os padrões impostos pela sociedade ferem minha espontaneidade que me é cara, amem-me!

tenta-se evitar o excesso de atos valorizadores da face, pois o falante poderia parecer hipócrita ou bajulador, bem como a falta de minimização de atos ameaçadores da face, pois o falante poderia parecer grosseiro.”

UMA CONVERSA MUDERNA

– Ou, você tem que mudar esse seu jeito!…

– Eu tô logada, véi!

quem diz a verdade só chama a-tensão

divulga fatos

Paulo o espalhafatoso

testemunha de Jeovaia

testículo de Jeová

DATAÇÃO DE CARBONO-14 DO TEXTO ELEVADA, QUANDO NÃO SE INCORRIA EM RISCO DE SER APEDREJADO PELOS “HOMENS DE BEM” AO ILUSTRAR CONTEÚDOS IMPLÍCITOS DESTA FORMA: “Quando se sabe que o PT é um partido que denuncia sistematicamente a corrupção nos diversos escalões do governo e se diz Certos deputados do PT são corruptos, o que se está significando é que o PT é um partido como qualquer outro e, portanto, não se pode considerar ao abrigo da corrupção.” “P.ex., é uma informação banal no Brasil dizer que o PT não ocupa a Presidência da República nem ministérios.”

versão pura 10ntada e recatada

O replicante 10rd

NEOLOGISMAR É A ULTRATRANSMITIDA MISSÃO: “Grice não usa o termo implicação, porque a noção de implicatura é mais ampla do que a de implicação, já que esta só pode ser provocada por uma expressão lingüística, enquanto aquela pode ser suscitada por expressões lingüísticas e pelo contexto ou pelos conhecimentos prévios do falante.”

LOGO SE ESTARÁ SUSPEITANDO DA PRÓPRIA SOMBRA CAÇANDO SUBENTENDIDOS A CADA VÍRGULA HONESTA (O SEGUNDO GRAU DO PARENTESCO DA SENHORA DESCONFIANÇA): “Em Ele é aluno de Letras, mas sabe escrever, há uma implicatura desencadeada pela conexão entre as duas orações com a conjunção mas: os alunos de Letras não sabem escrever. É uma implicatura convencional. No enunciado A defesa da tese de Mário correu bem, não o reprovaram, há uma implicatura de que a tese não presta. É uma implicatura conversacional, pois não advém da significação de nenhuma palavra da frase, mas dos conhecimentos prévios do interlocutor. No caso, sabe-se que dificilmente uma tese é reprovada, portanto a menção ao fato de que ele não foi reprovado significa que o falante está dizendo, implicitamente, que a tese não é boa.”

MENTE POLUÍDA (VIRGENS DA ACADEMIA): “Quando se diz André vai encontrar uma mulher à noite, a implicatura é que a mulher com quem vai encontrar-se não é sua mãe, sua irmã, sua esposa, etc., mas que esse encontro é de natureza sexual.”

princípio da cooperação

penso nos esquizos que não sabem conversar (T. & M.)

máximas conversacionais multivetoriais

what about nonsense¿

Samuel boquete

uniconversascórniocórneasfecheosolhosclimatempo

O que comprova a existência da máxima da qualidade é a impossibilidade de produzir enunciados como Comprei um revólver, mas não acredito que o tenha comprado.”

Quando no conto <A negrinha>, de Monteiro Lobato, o narrador diz A excelente Dona Inácia era mestra na arte de judiar de crianças, não se pode inferir a implicatura de que ele acredite que Dona Inácia era excelente, pois a ironia obriga a entender o contrário do que foi dito.”

Quando um falante diz A mulher de João o está traindo e o interlocutor percebe que João está ouvindo a conversa e diz Onde você comprou esta camisa?, a resposta não é incoerente, mas apresenta a implicatura Mudemos de assunto.”

Gosto de dois tipos de homens: os que têm bigode e os que não têm.”

Mae West

Quando dois amigos estão discutindo se vão a um jogo de futebol ou a um restaurante e um deles diz O Morumbi é muito desconfortável, infere-se que ele está dizendo que não quer ir ao jogo.”

O discurso poético cultiva a ambivalência, o discurso eufêmico infringe a máxima da quantidade, o discurso irônico viola a máxima da qualidade.”

Não se pode ser irônico o tempo todo, ou se pode?

Pode-se ser poeta a noite toda.

Principalmente dormindo.

eu-feminado à flor da pele

Quando se toma o exemplo clássico Pedro parou de fumar, nota-se que há um conteúdo explícito, Pedro não fuma atualmente, e dois conteúdos implícitos, Pedro fumava antes e Que isso sirva de exemplo para você.”

Quando alguém diz Minha mulher gastou neste ano 100 mil reais, o verdadeiro objeto do dizer não é Sou casado (pressuposto), mas Gastou neste ano 100 mil reais (posto).”

Enquanto a Linguística que tem por objeto o sistema ou o conhecimento dirá que a célebre frase de Chomsky As verdes idéias incolores dormem furiosamente é agramatical, a Pragmática afirmará que, num contexto em que se discorre sobre as idéias dos ecologistas (verdes idéias) que perderam o apelo que tinham (incolores), mas que continuam a atuar ativamente no substrato da sociedade (dormem furiosamente), ela pode perfeitamente ser usada, pois a Pragmática explica o uso real.”

APROFUNDAMENTO

Austin – Quando dizer é fazer. Palavra e ação, 1990.

Ducrot – Princípios de semântica lingüística: dizer e não dizer, 1977. (considerada uma obra clássica da pré-Pragmática)

Grice – Lógica e conversação (capítulo, disponível em diferentes coletâneas)

Ottoni – Visão performativa da linguagem, 1998. (revisão de Austin e seu legado)

Searle – Os actos de fala: um ensaio de filosofia da linguagem, 1991.

A CASA DE JACÓ [traduzido do Alemão]

“(*) Esse conto é um dos mais populares nas creches, conhecido em Inglês como <The House that Jack Built> (A casa que José construiu), presente no folclore de inúmeros povos. Na Alemanha, circula esse lenga-lenga, variação condensada: as pêras se recusando a cair de determinado pé, o proprietário mandou chamar, sucessivamente, um menino, um cachorro, um graveto, o fogo, a água, um bezerro, um matador e um carrasco para fazerem o serviço. Todos se recusando, o proprietário decide chamar o demônio. O demônio se prepara para levar o carrasco, que se prepara para enforcar o matador. O matador se voluntaria para matar o bezerro, que agora está resolvido a sorver a água. A água pretende apagar o fogo, o fogo queimar o graveto, o graveto espancar o cachorro, o cachorro morder o menino, o menino sacudir a árvore; quando cada um resolve fazer o seu, as pêras consentem em cair.”

“Era uma vez um homem, o homem era bom, o homem se chamava Jacó. O homem Jacó falou: <Eu preciso de uma casa. Eu preciso de uma boa casa. É, eu preciso de uma nova e boa casa.> O homem Jacó construiu uma casa. A nova casa era grande. A nova casa era, também, bonita. Então disse Jacó: <Eu tenho uma nova e boa casa. Minha casa é também bonita. Mas minha linda casa está vazia. Eu preciso de milho.> Jacó compra milho. Ele (Jacó) compra muito milho. O milho estava na casa, que Jacó havia construído. Jacó disse: <Isso é ótimo! Tenho muito milho, um ótimo milho, na minha casa!>

              Era uma vez um rato, o rato era pequeno, mas o rato estava faminto, muito faminto. O pequeno rato disse: <Estou faminto, ah, estou tão faminto! Jacó tem milho em sua nova casa. Eu irei para lá. Eu comerei milho!>.

              O rato foi à casa de Jacó. O rato encontrou o milho. <Bom!>, disse o rato. <Aqui temos milho do bom. Aqui posso comer, então comerei muito. Ah, está uma delícia, muito, muito bom!>.

              O rato estava muito faminto, e comeu muito milho.

              Jacó tinha um gato. O gato era enorme. O gato também estava faminto. O gato disse: <Estou tão faminto, onde tem um ratinho? Comerei um ratinho!>.

              O gato viu o ratinho, aquele que comeu milho na casa de Jacó, e disse: <Ah! ali está um belo dum ratinho. Comerei o rato.> O gato capturou o rato, e o rato disse: <Oh, querido gato, eu sou tão pequenino, deixe-me viver, deixe-me viver!>.

              <Não!>, disse o gato. <Não! você comeu o milho da casa de Jacó, você deve morrer, ratinho, você deve morrer!>

              <Ai!>, disse o ratinho. <Eu estava tão faminto, querido gato! Eu nem comi muito milho. Eu não quero morrer!>

              <Você deve morrer!>, disse o gato. E o gato mau comeu o ratinho.

              Jacó tinha um jardim. O jardim era belo. O gato disse: <Vou ao jardim!> O gato foi ao jardim e se estirou ao sol quente. <Ah!>, disse o gato. <O sol está tão bom e quente!>

              Mas aí veio um cão, um grande cão. Era o cão de Jacó. <Ah!>, disse o cão, <ali está um gato. O gato descansa no sol quente. Isso é bom! Vou infernizar o gato!>.

              O cachorro veio silenciosamente e disse: <Gato, gato, cá estou eu! Vou te infernizar, querido gato!>.

              O gato trepou numa árvore, e o cão ficou ao pé d’árvore a latir. Ele latia tão alto que o pobre gato se amedrontou.

              <Ai!>, disse o pobre gato, <o cão é tão grande! o cão late tão alto! Eu tenho medo, eu tenho muito medo!>.

              Aí veio a vaca de Jacó. A vaca tinha longos cornos. A vaca viu o cão no jardim. A vaca viu o gato também. A vaca disse: <Ah! ali está o cão malvado. O cão aterroriza o gato. O gato comeu o rato. O rato comeu o milho, o milho que tinha na nova casa de Jacó.>

              Então continuou a vaca: <Irei ao jardim. Aterrorizarei o cão malvado, ele que aterrorizou o gato, eu irei aterrorizá-lo!>.

              A vaca veio ao jardim e correu atrás do pobre cachorro, e o gato pulou da árvore para dentro da casa, da nova e bela casa, que Jacó construiu.

              Aí veio uma donzela. Era uma moça bonita, muito bonita, mas a moça estava triste, muito triste, e chorava muito, muito mesmo.

              <Oh!>, disse a donzela. <Eu estou triste, muito triste. Eu preciso chorar, chorar muito! Não tenho pai. Não tenho mãe. Não tenho irmão. Não tenho irmã nem amigo. Ai! Eu estou triste!>

              A donzela disse: <Onde está minha vaca, minha bela vaca marrom? Preciso ordenhar a vaca. Jacó quer leite!>.

              A donzela veio ao jardim. A donzela viu a vaca.

              <Ah!>, disse, <cá está minha bela vaca marrom. Minha vaca infernizou o cachorro. O cachorro infernizou o gato. O gato comeu o rato. O rato comeu o milho de Jacó. Jacó comprou o milho. O milho estava na casa, na nova e bela casa, que Jacó construiu>.

               A donzela veio até a vaca. A vaca ficou parada. O cão saltou para dentro de casa, da nova casa de Jacó.

                A triste senhorita disse: <Boa vaca, tenho que ordenhá-la. Jacó quer leite, o bom e delicioso leite. Você deve ficar quietinha, boa vaca.>

                A vaca ficou parada. A donzela ordenhou a vaca. Lá vinha um homem jovem. O homem era jovem e belo, mas o homem era pobre, muito pobre. Ele veio ao jardim e viu a senhorita.

                <Ah!>, disse o pobre e jovem homem, <eis uma bela mulher. Mas a moça está triste, ela precisa chorar, chorar muito. Ela não tem pai nem mãe, irmão nem irmã, amigo nem casa. Ela tem de ordenhar a vaca com longos cornos, a vaca má, que infernizou o cão. O cão infernizou o gato, mas o gato comeu o rato. O gato comeu o milho, o bom milho, que Jacó comprou e estava em sua nova casa>.

                Então veio o pobre homem e disse à donzela: <Bela senhorita, você está triste, você chora, porque você tem de ordenhar a vaca. Você não tem pai nem mãe, irmão ou irmã, amigo ou casa. Venha comigo. Eu sou pobre, mas amo-a. Quer ser minha mulher, minha querida?>.

              <Oh, sim!>, disse a senhorita, e ela já não estava triste nem chorava, pois amava um bom homem.

                O homem disse: <Venha, minha querida, vamos ao padre. O padre é bom, muito bom. O padre tem um livro, um livrinho. Ele (o livro) é um livro de orações, e o padre irá nos casar o quanto antes. Venha, minha querida, venha.>

                A senhorita disse: <Sim,> e foi com o pobre homem ver o padre.

                O padre estava em sua casa. A casa era pequena, bem pequena. O padre estava na cama. O padre dormia. O padre tinha um galo. O galo estava no jardim, e o galo cantou alto, bem alto. O galo cantava todas as manhãs, e toda manhã despertava o padre com seu canto alto.

                O galo cantou alto esta manhã, e o padre despertou. E despertou cedo, bem cedinho.

                O padre pegou seu livrinho, seu livro de orações, e foi à igreja (a casa de deus). A igreja era bela e pequena. Na igreja estavam o homem jovem e belo e a bela moça.

                Disse o homem jovem ao padre: <Bom padre, abra seu livro de orações. Cá está esta bela jovem, e aqui estou eu. Nós queremos ser marido e mulher. Case-nos, ó bom padre, case-nos.>

                <Bom>, disse o padre, <eu os casarei!>, e o bom padre abriu seu pequeno livro de orações e casou o pobre e jovem homem e a bela senhorita. Eles eram marido e mulher.

                Em seguida falou o padre: <Ah, que bom, muito bom mesmo, que meu galo cantou tão alto e me despertou tão cedo!>

                <Pois é>, respondeu o jovem homem, <que bom mesmo. O senhor despertou, e o senhor veio à igreja, e me casou com a triste rapariga. A moça chorava e ordenhava a vaca marrom. A vaca marrom infernizava o cachorro mau. O cachorro mau infernizava o gato. O gato comeu o ratinho. O rato comeu o bom milho, o milho que Jacó comprou. O milho estava na casa, na nova e bela casa, que Jacó havia construído.>

                O jovem marido e a bela senhora foram para casa. O padre também foi para sua casa e disse: <Final feliz, todos felizes!>.

L’ENCYCLOPÉDIE – ACADÉMIE

* ACADÉMICIEN, ACADEMISTE, sub. m. Ils sont l’un & l’autre membres d’une société qui porte le nom d’Académie, & qui a pour objet des matieres qui demandent de l’étude & de l’application. Mais les Sciences & le bel esprit font le partage de l’Académicien, & les exercices du corps occupent l’Académiste. L’un travaille & compose des ouvrages pour l’avancement & la perfection de la littérature: l’autre acquiert des talens purement personnels.

Académiciens, s. m. pl. secte de Philosophes qui suivoient la doctrine de Socrate & de Platon, quant à l’incertitude de nos connoissances & à l’incompréhensibilité du vrai. Académicien pris en ce sens revient à peu près à ce que l’on appelle Platonicien, n’y ayant d’autre différence entr’eux que le tems où ils ont commencé. Ceux des anciens qui embraient le système de Platon étoient appellés Academici, Académiciens; au lieu que ceux qui ont suivi les mêmes opinions depuis le rétablissement des Lettres, ont pris le nom de Platoniciens.

On peut dire que Socrate & Platon qui ont jetté les premiers fondemens de l’Académie, n’ont pas été à beaucoup près si loin que ceux qui leur ont succédé, je veux dire Arcésilas, Carnéade, Clitomaque, & Philon. Socrate, il est vrai, fit profession de ne rien savoir: mais son doute ne tomboit que sur la Physique, qu’il avoit d’abord cultivée diligemment, & qu’il reconnut enfin surpasser la portée de l’esprit humain. Si quelquefois il parloit le langage des Sceptiques, c’étoit par ironie ou par modestie, pour rabattre la vanité des Sophistes qui se vantoient sottement de ne rien ignorer, & d’être toûjours prêts à discourir sur toutes sortes de matières.

Platon, père & instituteur de l’Académie, instruit par Socrate dans l’art de douter, & s’avoüant son sectateur, s’en tint à sa maniere de traiter les matières, & entreprit de combattre tous les Philosophes qui l’avoient précédé. Mais en recommandant à ses disciples de se défier & de douter de tout, il avoit moins en vûe de les laisser flotans & suspendus entre la vérité & l’erreur, que de les mettre en garde contre ces décisions téméraires & précipitées, pour lesquelles on a tant de penchant dans la jeunesse, & de les faire parvenir à une disposition d’esprit qui leur fît prendre des mesures contre ces surprises de l’erreur, en examinant tout, libres de tout préjugé.

Arcésilas entreprit de réformer l’ancienne Académie, & de former la nouvelle. On dit qu’il imita Pyrrhon, & qu’il conversa avec Timon; desorte que ayant enrichi l’époque, c’est-à-dire, l’art de douter de Pyrrhon, de l’élégante érudition de Platon; & l’ayant armée de la dialectique de Diodore, Ariston le comparoit à la chimere, & lui appliquoit plaisamment les vers où Homere dit qu’elle étoit lion pardevant, dragon par-derrière, & chèvre [bode] par le milieu. Ainsi Arcésilas étoit, selon lui, Platon par-devant, Pyrrhon par-derriere, & Diodore par le milieu. C’est pourquoi quelques-uns le rangent au nombre des Sceptiques, & Sextus Empiricus soutient qu’il y a fort peu de différence entre sa secte, qui est la Sceptique, & celle d’Arcésilas, qui est celle de la nouvelle Académie.

En effet il enseignoit que nous ne savons pas même si nous ne savons rien; que la nature ne nous a donné aucune regle de vérité; que les sens & l’entendement humain ne peuvent rien comprendre de vrai; que dans toutes les choses il se trouve des raisons opposées d’une force égale: en un mot que tout est enveloppé de ténebres, & que par conséquent il faut toûjours suspendre son consentement. Sa doctrine ne fut pas fort goûtée, parce qu’il sembloit vouloir éteindre toute la lumière de la Science, jetter des ténebres dans l’esprit, & renverser les fondemens de la Philosophie. Lacyde fut le seul qui défendit la doctrine d’Arcésilas: il la transmit à Evandre, qui fut son disciple avec beaucoup d’autres. Evandre la fit passer à Hégesime, & Hégesime à Carnéade.

Carnéade ne suivoit pas pourtant en toutes choses la doctrine d’Arcésilas, quoiqu’il en retînt le gros & le sommaire. Cela le fit passer pour auteur d’une nouvelle Académie, qui fut nommée la troisieme. Sans jamais découvrir son sentiment, il combattoit avec beaucoup d’esprit & d’éloquence toutes les opinions qu’on lui proposoit; car il avoit apporté à l’étude de la Philosophie une force d’esprit admirable, une mémoire fidele, une grande facilité de parler, & un long usage de la Dialectique. Ce fut lui qui fit le premier connoître à Rome le pouvoir de l’éloquence & le mérite de la Philosophie; & cette florissante jeunesse qui méditoit dès lors l’Empire de l’Univers, attirée par la nouveauté & l’excellence de cette noble science, dont Carnéade faisoit profession, le suivoit avec tant d’empressement, que Caton, homme d’ailleurs d’un excellent jugement, mais rude, un peu sauvage, & manquant de cette politesse que donnent les Lettres, eut pour suspect ce nouveau genre d’érudition, avec lequel on persuadoit tout ce qu’on vouloit. Caton fut d’avis dans le Senat qu’on accordât à Carnéade, & aux Députés qui l’accompagnoient, ce qu’ils demandoient, & qu’on les renvoyât promptement & avec honneur.

Avec une éloquence aussi séduisante il renversoit tout ce qu’il avoit entrepris de combattre, confondoit la raison par la raison même, & demeuroit invincible dans les opinions qu’il soûtenoit. Les Stoïciens, gens contentieux & subtils dans la dispute, avec qui Carnéade & Arcésilas avoient de fréquentes contestations, avoient peine à se débarrasser des piéges qu’il leur tendoit. Aussi disoient-ils, pour diminuer sa réputation, qu’il n’apportoit rien contre eux dont il fût l’inventeur, & qu’il avoit pris ses objections dans les Livres du Stoïcien Chrysippe. Carnéade, cet homme à qui Ciceron accorde l’art de tout réfuter, n’en usoit point dans cette occasion qui sembloit si fort intéresser son amour propre: il convenoit modestement que, sans le secours de Chrysippe, il n’auroit rien fait, & qu’il combattoit Chrysippe par les propres armes de Chrysippe.

Les correctifs que Carnéade apporta à la doctrine d’Arcésilas sont très-légers. Il est aisé de concilier ce que disoit Arcésilas, qu’il ne se trouve aucune vérité dans les choses, avec ce que disoit Carnéade, qu’il ne nioit point qu’il n’y eût quelque vérité dans les choses, mais que nous n’avons aucune regle pour les discerner. Car il y a deux sortes de vérité; l’une que l’on appelle vérité d’existenc: l’autre que l’on appelle vérité de jugement. Or il est clair que ces deux propositions d’Arcésilas & de Carnéade regardent la vérité de jugement: mais la vérité de jugement est du nombre des choses relatives qui doivent être considérées comme ayant rapport à notre esprit; donc quand Arcésilas a dit qu’il n’y a rien de vrai dans les choses, il a voulu dire qu’il n’y a rien dans les choses que l’esprit humain puisse connoître avec certitude; & c’est cela même que Carnéade soûtenoit.

Arcésilas disoit que rien ne pouvoit être compris, & que toutes choses étoient obscures. Carnéade convenoit que rien ne pouvoit être compris: mais il ne convenoit pas pour cela que toutes choses fussent obscures, parce que les choses probables auxquelles il vouloit que l’homme s’attachât, n’étoient pas obscures, selon lui. Mais encore qu’il se trouve en cela quelque différence d’expression, il ne s’y trouve aucune différence en effet; car Arcésilas ne soûtenoit que les choses sont obscures, qu’autant qu’elles ne peuvent être comprises: mais il ne les dépouilloit pas de toute vraissemblance ou de toute probabilité: c’étoit-là le sentiment de Carnéade; car quand il disoit que les choses n’étoient pas assez obscures pour qu’on ne pût pas discerner celles qui doivent être préférées dans l’usage de la vie; il ne prétendoit pas qu’elles fussent assez claires pour pouvoir être comprises.”

Philon disciple de Clitomaque, qui l’avoit été de Carnéade, pour s’être éloigné sur de certains points des sentimens de ce même Carnéade, mérita d’être appellé avec Charmide, fondateur de la quatrieme Académie. Il disoit que les choses sont compréhensibles par elles-mêmes, mais que nous ne pouvons pas toutefois les comprendre.

Antiochus fut fondateur de la cinquieme Académie: il avoit été disciple de Philon pendant plusieurs années, & il avoit soûtenu la doctrine de Carnéade: mais enfin il quitta le parti de ses Maîtres sur ses vieux jours, & fit repasser dans l’Académie les dogmes des Stoïciens qu’il attribuoit à Platon, soûtenant que la doctrine des Stoïciens n’étoit point nouvelle, mais qu’elle étoit une réformation de l’ancienne Académie. Cette cinquieme Académie ne fut donc autre chose qu’une association de l’ancienne Académie & de la Philosophie des Stoïciens; ou plûtôt c’étoit la Philosophie même des Stoïciens, avec l’habit & les livrées de l’ancienne Académie, je veux dire, de celle qui fut florissante sous Platon & sous Arcésilas.

Quelques-uns ont prétendu qu’il n’y a eu qu’une seule Académie; car, disent-ils, comme plusieurs branches qui sortent d’un même tronc, & qui s’étendent vers différens côtés, ne sont pas des arbres différens; de même toutes ces sectes, qui sont sorties de ce tronc unique de la doctrine de Socrate, que l’homme ne sait rien, quoique partagées en diverses écoles, ne sont cependant qu’une seule Académie. Mais si nous y regardons de plus près, il se trouve une telle différence entre l’ancienne & la nouvelle Académie, qu’il faut nécessairement reconnoître deux Académies: l’ancienne, qui fut celle de Socrate & d’Antiochus; & la nouvelle, qui fut celle d’Arcésilas, de Carnéade, & de Philon. La première fut dogmatique dans quelques points; on y respecta du moins les premiers principes & quelques vérités morales, au lieu que la nouvelle se rapprocha presque entierement du Scepticisme.

ACADÉMIE, s. f. C’étoit dans l’antiquité un jardin ou une maison située dans le Céramique, un des fauxbourgs d’Athenes, à un mille ou environ de la ville, où Platon & ses sectateurs tenoient des assemblées pour converser sur des matieres philosophiques. (…)

Le nom d’Académie fut donné à cette maison, à cause d’un nommé Académus ou Écadémus, citoyen d’Athenes, qui en étoit possesseur & y tenoit une espece de gymnase. Il vivoit du tems de Thésée. Quelques-uns ont rapporté le nom d’Académie à Cadmus qui introduisit le premier en Grece les Lettres & les Sciences des Phéniciens; mais cette étymologie est d’autant moins fondée, que les Lettres dans cette premiere origine furent trop foiblement cultivées pour qu’il y eût de nombreuses assemblées de Savans.

Cimon embellit l’Académie & la décora de fontaines, d’arbres, & de promenades, en faveur des Philosophes & des Gens de Lettres qui s’y rassembloient pour conférer ensemble & pour y disputer sur différentes matieres, &c. C’étoit aussi l’endroit où l’on enterroit les Hommes illustres qui avoient rendu de grands services à la République. Mais dans le siége d’Athenes, Sylla ne respecta point cet asyle des beaux arts; & des arbres qui formoient les promenades, il fit faire des machines de guerre pour battre la Place.

Cicéron eut aussi une maison de campagne ou un lieu de retraite près de Pouzole, auquel il donna le nom d’Académie, où il avoit coûtume de converser avec ses amis qui avoient du goût pour les entretiens philosophiques. Ce fut-là qu’il composa ses Questions académiques, & ses Livres sur la nature des Dieux.

Le mot Académie signifie aussi une secte de Philosophes qui soûtenoient que la vérité est inaccessible à notre intelligence, que toutes les connoissances sont incertaines, & que le sage doit toûjours douter & suspendre son jugement, sans jamais rien affirmer ou nier positivement. En ce sens l’Académie est la même chose que la secte des Académiciens.

On compte ordinairement trois Académies ou trois sortes d’Académiciens, quoiqu’il y en ait cinq suivant quelques-uns. L’ancienne Académie est celle dont Platon étoit le chef. (…)

En effet, ils soûtenoient une acatalepsie absolue, c’est-à-dire, que quant à la nature ou à l’essence des choses, l’on devoit se retrancher sur un doute absolu. (…) (G)”

Académie, (Hist. Litt.) parmi les Modernes, se prend ordinairement pour une Société ou Compagnie de Gens de Lettres, établie pour la culture & l’avancement des Arts ou des Sciences.

Quelques Auteurs confondent Académie avec Université: mais quoique ce soit la même chose en Latin, c’en sont deux bien différentes en François. Une Université est proprement un Corps composé de Gens Gradués en plusieurs Facultés; de Professeurs qui enseignent dans les écoles publiques, de Précepteurs ou Maîtres particuliers, & d’Etudians qui prennent leurs leçons & aspirent à parvenir aux mêmes degrés. Au lieu qu’une Académie n’est point destinée à enseigner ou professer aucun Art, quel qu’il soit, mais à en procurer la perfection. Elle n’est point composée d’Écoliers que de plus habiles qu’eux instruisent, mais de personnes d’une capacité distinguée, qui se communiquent leurs lumieres & se font part de leurs découvertes pour leur avantage mutuel.

La premiere Académie dont nous lisions l’institution, est celle que Charlemagne établit par le conseil d’Alcuin: elle étoit composée des plus beaux génies de la Cour, & l’Empereur lui-même en étoit un des membres. Dans les Conférences académiques chacun devoit rendre compte des anciens Auteurs qu’il avoit lûs; & même chaque Académicien prenoit le nom de celui de ces anciens Auteurs pour lequel il avoit le plus de goût, ou de quelque personnage célebre de l’Antiquité. Alcuin entre autres, des Lettres duquel nous avons appris ces particularités, prit celui de Flaccus qui étoit le surnom d’Horace; un jeune Seigneur, qui se nommoit Angilbert, prit celui d’Homere; Adelard, Evêque de Corbie, se nomma Augustin; Riculphe, Archévêque de Mayence, Dametas, & le Roi lui-même, David. (…)

La plûpart des Nations ont à present des Académies, sans en excepter la Russie: mais l’Italie l’emporte sur toutes les autres au moins par le nombre des siennes. Il y en a peu en Angleterre; la principale, & celle qui mérite le plus d’attention, est celle que nous connoissons sous le nom de Société Royale. Voyez aussi Société d’Edimbourg.

En France nous avons des Académies florissantes en tout genre, plusieurs à Paris, & quelques-unes dans des villes de Province; en voici les principales.

Académie Françoise. Cette Académie a été instituée en 1635 par le Cardinal de Richelieu pour perfectionner la Langue; & en général elle a pour objet toutes les matieres de Grammaire, de Poësie & d’Éloquence. La forme en est fort simple, & n’a jamais reçu de changement: les membres sont au nombre de 40, tous égaux; les grands Seigneurs & les gens titrés n’y sont admis qu’à titre d’Hommes de Lettres; & le Cardinal de Richelieu qui connoissoit le prix des talens, a voulu que l’esprit y marchât sur la même ligne à côté du rang & de la noblesse. Cette Académie a un Directeur & un Chancelier, qui se tirent au sort tous les trois mois, & un Secrétaire qui est perpétuel. Elle a compté & compte encore aujourd’hui parmi ses membres plusieurs personnes illustres par leur esprit & par leurs ouvrages. Elle s’assemble 3 fois la semaine au vieux Louvre pendant toute l’année, le Lundi, le Jeudi & le Samedi. Il n’y a point d’autres assemblées publiques que celles où l’on reçoit quelqu’Académicien nouveau, & une assemblée qui se fait tous les ans le jour de la S. Loüis, & où l’Académie distribue les prix d’Éloquence & de Poësie, qui consistent chacun en une médaille d’or. Elle a publié un Dictionnaire de la Langue françoise qui a déja eu trois éditions, & qu’elle travaille sans cesse à perfectionner. La devise de cette Académie est à l’Immortalité.

Académie Royale des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. À quelque degré de gloire que la France fût parvenue, sous les regnes de Henri IV & de Louis XIII & particulièrement après la paix des Pyrenées & le mariage de Louis XIV elle n’avoit pas encore été assez occupée du soin de laisser à la postérité une juste idée de sa grandeur. Les actions les plus brillantes, les évenemens les plus mémorables étoient oubliés, ou couroient risque de l’être, parce qu’on négligeoit d’en consacrer le souvenir sur le marbre & sur le bronze. Enfin on voyoit peu de monumens publics, & ce petit nombre même avoit été jusques-là comme abandonné à l’ignorance ou à l’indiscrétion de quelques particuliers.

Le Roi regarda donc comme un avantage pour la Nation l’établissement d’une Académie qui travailleroit aux Inscriptions, aux Devises, aux Médailles, & qui répandroit sur tous ces monumens le bon goût & la noble simplicité qui en font le véritable prix. Il forma d’abord cette Compagnie d’un petit nombre d’Hommes choisis dans l’Académie Françoise, qui commencerent à s’assembler dans la Bibliotheque de M. Colbert, par qui ils recevoient les ordres de Sa Majesté.

Le jour des assemblées n’étoit pas déterminé: mais le plus ordinaire àu moins pendant l’hyver étoit le Mercredi, parce que c’étoit le plus commode pour M. Colbert, qui s’y trouvoit presque toûjours. En été ce Ministre menoit souvent les Académiciens à Sceaux, pour donner plus d’agrément à leurs conférences, & pour en joüir lui-même avec plus de tranquillité.

On compte entre les premiers travaux de l’Académie le sujet des desseins des tapisseries du Roi, tels qu’on les voit dans le Recueil d’estampes & de descriptions qui en a été publié.

M. Perrault fut ensuite chargé en particulier de la description du Carrousel; & après qu’elle eut passé par l’examen de la Compagnie, elle fut pareillement imprimée avec les figures.

On commença à faire des devises pour les jettons du Trésor royal, des Parties casuelles, des Bâtimens & de la Marine; & tous les ans on en donna de nouvelles.

Enfin on entreprit de faire par médailles une Histoire suivie des principaux évenemens du regne du Roi. La matiere étoit ample & magnifique, mais il étoit difficile de la bien mettre en oeuvre. Les Anciens, dont il nous reste tant de médailles, n’ont laissé sur cela d’autres regles que leurs médailles mêmes, qui jusques-là n’avoient gueres été recherchées que pour la beauté du travail, & étudiées que par rapport aux connoissances de l’Histoire. Les Modernes qui en avoient frappé un grand nombre depuis deux siecles, s’étoient peu embarrassés des regles; ils n’en avoient suivi, ils n’en avoient prescrit aucune; & dans les recueils de ce genre, à peine trouvoit-on trois ou quatre pieces où le génie eût heureusement suppléé à la méthode.

La difficulté de pousser tout d’un coup à sa perfection un art si négligé, ne fut pas la seule raison qui empécha l’Académie de beaucoup avancer sous M. Colbert l’Histoire du Roi par médailles; il appliquoit à mille autres usages les lumieres de la Compagnie. Il y faisoit continuellement inventer ou examiner les différens desseins de Peinture & de Sculpture dont on vouloit embellir Versailles. On y régloit le choix & l’ordre des statues: on y consultoit ce que l’on proposoit pour la décoration des appartemens & pour l’embellissement des jardins.

On avoit encore chargé l’Académie de faire graver le plan & les principales vûes des Maisons royales, & d’y joindre des descriptions. Les gravures en étoient fort avancées, & les descriptions étoient presque faites quand M. Colbert mourut.

On devoit de même faire graver le plan & les vûes des Places conquises, & y joindre une histoire de chaque ville & de chaque conquête: mais ce projet n’eut pas plus de suite que le précédent.

M. Colbert mourut en 1683, & M. de Louvois lui succéda dans la Charge de Surintendant des Bâtimens. Ce Ministre ayant sû que M. l’Abbé Tallemant étoit chargé des inscriptions qu’on devoit mettre au-dessous des tableaux de la gallerie de Versailles, & qu’on vouloit faire paroître au retour du Roi, le manda aussi-tôt à Fontainebleau où la Cour étoit alors, pour être exactement informé de l’état des choses. M. l’Abbé Tallemant lui en rendit compte, & lui montra les inscriptions qui étoient toutes prêtes. M. de Louvois le présenta ensuite au Roi, qui lui donna lui-même l’ordre d’aller incessamment faire placer ces inscriptions à Versailles. Elles ont depuis eprouvé divers changemens.

M. de Louvois tint d’abord quelques assemblées de la petite Académie chez lui à Paris & à Meudon. Nous l’appellons petite Académie, parce qu’elle n’étoit composée que de quatre personnes, M. Charpener, M. Quinault, M. l’Abbé Tallemant, & M. Felibien le pere. Il les fixa ensuite au Louvre, dans le même lieu où se tiennent celles de l’Académie Françoise; & il régla qu’on s’assembleroit deux fois la semaine, le Lundi & le Samedi, depuis cinq heures du soir jusqu’à sept.

M. de la Chapelle, devenu Contrôleur des bâtimens après M. Perrault, fut chargé de se trouver aux assemblées pour en écrire les délibérations, & devint par-là le 5e Académicien. Bientôt M. de Louvois y en ajoûta deux autres, dont il jugea le secours très-nécessaire à l’Académie pour l’Histoire du Roi: c’étoient M. Racine & M. Despreaux. Il en vint enfin un 8e, M. Rainssant, homme versé dans la connoissance des Médailles, & qui étoit Directeur du cabinet des Antiques de Sa Majesté.

Sous ce nouveau Ministere on reprit avec ardeur le travail des Médailles de l’Histoire du Roi, qui avoit été interrompu dans les dernieres années de M. Colbert. On en frappa plusieurs de différentes grandeurs, mais presque toutes plus grandes que celles qu’on a frappées depuis: ce qui fait qu’on les appelle encore aujourd’hui au balancier Médailles de la grande Histoire. La Compagnie commença aussi à faire des devises pour les jettons de l’Ordinaire & de l’Extraordinaire des Guerres, sur lesquelles elle n’avoit pas encore été consultée.

Le Roi donna en 1691 le département des Académies à M. de Pontchartrain, alors Contrôleur Général & Secrétaire d’Etat ayant le département de la Maison du Roi, & depuis Chancelier de France. M. de Ponchartrain né avec beaucoup d’esprit, & avec un goût pour les Lettres qu’aucun Emploi n’avoit pû rallentir, donna une attention particuliere à la petite Académie, qui devint plus connue sous le nom d’Académie Royale des Inscriptions & Médailles. Il voulut que M. le Comte de Pontchartrain, son fils, se rendît souvent aux assemblées, qu’il fixa exprès au Mardi & au Samedi. Enfin il donna l’inspection de cette Compagnie à M. l’Abbé Bignon, son neveu, dont le génie & les talens étoient déja fort célebrés.

Les places vacantes par la mort de M. Rainssant & de M. Quinault furent remplies par M. de Tourreil & par M. l’Abbé Renaudot.

Toutes les médailles dont on avoit arrêté les desseins du tems de M. de Louvois, celles mêmes qui étoient déja faites & gravées, furent revûes avec soin; on en réforma plusieurs; on en ajoûta un grand nombre; on les réduisit toutes à une même grandeur; & l’Histoire du Roi fut ainsi poussée jusqu’à l’avenement de Monseigneur le Duc d’Anjou, son petit-fils, à la couronne d’Espagne.

Au mois de Septembre 1699 M. de Pontchartrain sut nommé Chancelier. M. le Comte de Pontchartrain, son fils, entra en plein exercice de sa Charge de Secrétaire d’Etat, dont il avoit depuis longtems la survivance, & les Académiciens demeurerent dans son département. Mais M. le Chancelier qui avoit extrèmement à coeur l’Histoire du Roi par médailles, qui l’avoit conduite & avancée par ses propres lumieres, retint l’inspection de cet ouvrage; & eut l’honneur de presenter à Sa Majesté les premieres suites que l’on en frappa, & les premiers exemplaires du Livre qui en contenoit les desseins & les explications.

L’établissement de l’Académie des Inscriptions ne pouvoit manquer de trouver place dans ce Livre faineux, où aucune des autres Académies n’a éte oubliée. La médaille qu’on y trouve sur ce sujet représente Mercure assis, & écrivant avec un style à l’antique sur une table d’airain. Il s’appuie du bras gauche sur une urne pleine de médailles; il y en a d’autres qui sont rangées dans un carton à ses pieds. La légendé Rerum gestarum sides, & l’exergue [epígrafe] Academin Regia Inscriptionum & Numismatum, instituta MDCLXIII [1668] signifient que l’Académie Royale des Inscriptions & Médailles, établie en 1663, doit rendre aux siecles à venir un témoignage fidele des grandes actions.

Presque toute l’occupation de l’Académie sembloit devoir finir avec le Livre des Médailles; car les nouveaux évenemens & les devises des jettons de chaque année n’étoient pas un objet capable d’occuper huit ou neuf personnes qui s’assembloient deux fois la semaine. M. l’Abbé Bignon prévit les inconvéniens de cette inaction, & crut pouvoir en tirer avantage. Mais pour ne trouver aucun obstacle dans la Compagnie, il cacha une partie de ses vûes aux Académiciens, que la moindre idée de changement auroit peut-être allarmés: il se contenta de leur représenter que l’Histoire par médailles étant achevée, déja même sous la presse, & que le Roi ayant été fort content de ce qu’il en avoit vû, on ne pouvoit choisir un tems plus convenable pour demander à Sa Majesté qu’il lui plût assûrer l’état de l’Academie par quelqu’acte public émané de l’autorité royale. Il leur cita l’exemple de l’Académie des Sciences, qui fondée peu de tems après celle des Inscriptions par ordre du Roi, & n’ayant de même aucun titre authentique pour son établissement, venoit d’obtenir de Sa Majesté (comme nous allons le dire tout à l’heure) un Réglement signé de sa main, qui fixoit le téms & le lieu de ses assemblées, qui déterminoit ses occupations, qui assùroit la continuation des pensions, &c.

La proposition de M. l’Abbé Bignon fut extrèmement goûtée: on dressa aussitôt un Mémoire. M. le Chancelier & M. le Comte de Pontchartrain furent suppliés de l’appuyer auprès du Roi; & ils le firent d’autant plus volontiers, que parfaitement instruits du plan de M. l’Abbé Bignon, ils n’avoient pas moins de zèle pour l’avancement des Lettres. Le Roi accorda la demande de l’Académie, & peu de jours après elle reçut un Réglement nouveau daté du 16 Juillet 1701.

En vertu de ce premier Réglement l’Académie reçoit des ordres du Roi par un des Secrétaires d’Etat, le même qui les donne à l’Académie des Sciences. L’Académie est composée de dix Honoraires, dix Pensionnaires, dix Associés, ayant tous voix délibérative, & outre cela de dix Eleves, attachés chacun à un des Académiciens pensionnaires. Elle s’assemble le Mardi & le Vendredi de chaque semaine dans une des sales du Louvre, & tient par an deux assemblées publiques, l’une après la S. Martin, l’autre après la quinzaine de Pâques. Ses vacances sont les mêmes que celles de l’Académie des Sciences. Elle a quelques Associés correspondans, soit regnicoles, soit étrangers. Elle a aussi, comme l’Académie des Sciences, un Président, un vice-Président, pris parmi les Honoraires, un Directeur & un sous-Directeur pris parmi les Pensionnaires.

La classe des Éleves a été supprimée depuis & réunie à celle des Associés. Le Secrétaire & le Thrésorier sont perpétuels, & l’Académie depuis son renouvellement en 1701 a donné au public plusieurs volumes qui sont le fruit de ses travaux. Ces volumes contiennent, outre les Mémoires qu’on a jugé à propos d’imprimer en entier, plusieurs autres dont l’extrait est donné par le Secrétaire, & les éloges des Académiciens morts. M. le Président Durey de Noinville a fondé depuis environ 15 ans un prix littéraire que l’Académie distribue chaque année. C’est une médaille d’or de la valeur de 400 livres.

La devise de cette Académie est vetat mori. Tout cet article est tiré de l’Hist. de l’Acad. des Belles-Lettres, T. I.

Académie Royale des Sciences. Cette Académie fut établie en 1666 par les soins de M. Colbert: Louis XIV après la paix des Pyrenées desirant faire fleurir les Sciences, les Lettres & les Arts dans son Royaume, chargea M. Colbert de former une Société d’homme choisis & savans en différens genres de littérature & de science, qui s’assemblant sous la protection du Roi, se communiquassent réciproquement leurs lumieres & leurs progrés. M. Colbert après avoir conféré à ce sujet avec les savans les plus illustres & les plus éclairés, résolut de former une société de personnes versées dans la Physique & dans les Mathématiques, auxquels seroient jointes d’autres personnes savantes dans l’Histoire & dans les matieres d’érudition, & d’autres enfin uniquement occupées de ce qu’on appelle plus particulierement Belles-Lettres, c’est-à-dire, de la Grammaire, de l’Eloquence & de la Poësie. Il fut réglé que les Géometres & les Physiciens de cette Société s’assembleroient séparément le Mercredi, & tous ensemble le Samedi, dans une salle de la Bibliotheque du Roi, où étoient les livres de Physique & de Mathématique; que les savans dans l’Histoire s’assembleroient le Lundi & le Jeudi dans la sale des livres d’Histoire: qu’enfin la classe des Belles-Lettres s’assembleroit les Mardi & Vendredi, & que le premier Jeudi de chaque mois toutes ces différentes classes se réuniroient ensemble, & se feroient mutuellement par leurs Secrétaires un rapport de tout ce qu’elles auroient fait durant le mois précédent.

Cette Académie ne put pas subsister longtems sur ce pié: 1°. les matieres d’Histoire profane étant liées souvent à celles d’Histoire ecclésiastique, & par-là à la Théologie & à la discipline de l’Eglise, on craignit que les Académiciens ne se hasardassent à entamer des questions délicates, & dont la décision auroit pû produire du trouble: 2°. ceux qui formoient la classe des Belles-Lettres étant presque tous de l’Académie Françoise, dont l’objet étoit le même que celui de cette classe, & conservant beaucoup d’attachement pour leur ancienne Académie, prierent M. Colbert de vouloir bien répandre sur cette Académie les mêmes bienfaits qu’il paroissoit vouloir répandre sur la nouvelle, & lui firent sentir l’inutilité de deux Académies différentes appliquées au même objet, & composées presque des mêmes personnes. M. Colbert goûta leurs raisons, & peu de tems après le Chancelier Seguier étant mort, le Roi prit sous sa protection l’Académie Françoise, à laquelle la classe de Belles-Lettres dont nous venons de parler fut censée réunie, ainsi que la petite Académie d’Histoire: de sorte qu’il ne resta plus que la seule classe des Physiciens & des Mathématiciens. Celle des Mathématiciens étoit composée de Messieurs Carcavy, Huyghens, de Roberval, Frenicle, Auzout, Picard & Buot. Les Physiciens étoient Messieurs de la Chambre, Médecin ordinaire du Roi; Perrault, très savant dans la Physique & dans l’Histoire naturelle; Duclos & Bourdelin, Chimistes, Pequet & Gayen, Anatomistes; Marchand, Botaniste, & Duhamel, Secrétaire.

Ces Savans, & ceux qui après leur mort les remplacerent, publierent plusieurs excellens ouvrages pour l’avancement des Sciences; & en 1692 & 1693, l’Académie publia, mois par mois, les pieces fugitives qui avoient été lûes dans les assemblées de ces années, & qui étant trop courtes pour être publiées à part, étoient indépendantes des ouvrages auxquels chacun des membres travailloit. Plusieurs de ces premiers Académiciens recevoient du Roi des pensions considérables, & l’égalité étoit parfaite entr’eux comme dans l’Académie Françoise.

En 1699 M. l’Abbé Bignon qui avoit longtems présidé à l’Académie des Sciences, s’imagina la rendre plus utile en lui donnant une forme nouvelle. Il en parla à M. le Chancelier de Pontchartrain, son oncle, & au commencement de cette année l’Académie reçut un nouveau reglement qui en changea totalement la forme. Voici les articles principaux de ce réglement.

1°. L’Académie des Sciences demeure immédiatement sous la protection du Roi, & reçoit ses ordres par celui des Secrétaires d’Etat à qui il plaît à Sa Majesté de les donner.

2°. L’Académie est composée de dix Honoraires, l’un desquels sera Président, de vingt Pensionnaires, trois Géometres, trois Astronomes, trois Méchaniciens, trois Anatomistes, trois Botanistes, trois Chimistes, un Trésorier & un Secrétaire, l’un & l’autre perpétuels; vingt Associés, savoir, douze regnicoles, dont deux Géometres, deux Astronomes, &c. & huit étrangers, & vingt Éleves, dont chacun est attaché à un des Académiciens pensionnaires.

3°. Les seuls Académiciens honoraires & pensionnaires doivent avoir voix délibérative quand il s’agira d’élections ou d’affaires concernant l’Académie: quand il s’agira de Sciences, les Associés y seront joints; mais les Éleves ne parleront que lorsque le Président les y invitera.

4°. Les Honoraires doivent être regnicoles & recommendables par leur intelligence dans les Mathématiques & dans la Physique; & les Réguliers ou Religieux peuvent être admis dans cette seule classe.

5°. Nul ne peut être Pensionnaire, s’il n’est connu par quelqu’ouvrage considérable, ou quelque découverte importante ou quelque cours éclatant.

6°. Chaque Académicien pensionnaire est obligé de déclarer au commencement de l’année l’ouvrage auquel il compte travailler. Indépendamment de ce travail, les Académiciens pensionnaires & associés sont obligés d’apporter à tour de rôle quelques observations ou mémoires. Les assemblées se tiennent le Mercredi & le Samedi de chaque semaine, & en cas de fête, l’assemblée se tient le jour précédent.

7°. Il y a deux de ces assemblées qui sont publiques par an; savoir, la premiere après la S. Martin, & la seconde, après la quinzaine de Pâques.

8°. L’Académie vaque pendant la quinzaine de Pâques, la semaine de la Pentecôte, & depuis Noël jusqu’aux Rois, & outre cela depuis la Nativité jusqu’à la S. Martin.

En 1716, M. le Duc d’Orléans, Régent du Royaume, jugea à propos de faire quelques changemens à ce Reglement sous l’autorité du Roi. La classe des Éleves fut supprimée. Elle parut avoir des inconvéniens, en ce qu’elle mettoit entre les Académiciens trop d’inégalité, & qu’elle pouvoit par-là occasionner entr’eux, comme l’expérience l’avoit prouvé, quelques termes d’aigreur ou de mépris. Ce nom seul rebutoit les personnes d’un certain mérite, & leur fermoit l’entrée de l’Académie. Cependant, <le nom d’Eleve, dit M. de Fontenelle, Eloge de M. Amontons, n’emporte parmi nous aucune différence de mérite; il signifie seulement moins d’ancienneté & une espece de survivance>. D’ailleurs quelques Académiciens étoient morts à 70 ans avec le titre d’Éleves, ce qui paroissoit mal sonnant. On supprima donc la classe des Éleves, à la place de laquelle on créa douze Adjoints, & on leur accorda ainsi qu’aux Associés, voix délibérative en matière de Science. On fixa à douze le nombre des Honoraires. On créa aussi une classe d’Associés libres au nombre de six. Ces Associés ne sont attachés à aucun genre de science, ni obligés à aucun travail; & il fut décidé que les Réguliers ne pourroient à l’avenir entrer que dans cette classe.

L’Académie a chaque année un Président & un Vice-Président, un Directeur & un Sous-Directeur nommés par le Roi. Les deux premiers sont toujours pris parmi les Honoraires, & les deux autres parmi les Pensionnaires. Les seuls Pensionnaires ont des jettons pour leur droit de présence aux assemblées. Aucun Académicien ne peut prendre ce titre au frontispice d’un livre, si l’Ouvrage qu’il publie n’est approuvé par l’Académie.

Depuis ce renouvellement en 1699, l’Académie a été fort exacte à publier chaque année un volume contenant les travaux de ses Membres ou les Mémoires qu’ils ont composés & lûs à l’Académie durant cette année. A la tête de ce volume est l’Histoire de l’Académie ou l’extrait des Mémoires, & en général de tout ce qui a été lû & dit dans l’Académie; & à la fin de l’Histoire sont les éloges des Académiciens morts durant l’année.

La place de Secrétaire a été remplie par M. de Fontenelle depuis 1699 jusqu’en 1740. M. de Mairan lui a succédé pendant les années 1741, 1742, 1743; & elle est à présent occupée par M. de Fouchy.

Feu[?] M. Rouillé de Meslay, Conseiller au Parlement de Paris, a fondé deux prix, l’un de 2500 livres, l’autre de 2000 livres, que l’Académie distribue alternativement tous les ans. Les sujets du premier prix doivent regarder l’Astronomie physique. Les sujets du second prix doivent regarder la Navigation & le Commerce. L’Académie a pour devise Invenit & perficit. Les assemblées qui se tenoient autrefois dans la Bibliotheque du Roi, se tiennent depuis 1699 dans une très-belle Salle du vieux Louvre.

En 1713 le Roi confirma par des Lettres Patentes l’établissement des deux Académies des Sciences & des Belles-Lettres. Outre ces Académies de la Capitale, il y en a dans les Provinces une grande quantité d’autres; à Toulouse, l’Académie des Jeux Floraux, composée de quarante personnes, la plus ancienne du Royaume, & outre cela une Académie des Sciences & des Belles-Lettres; à Montpellier, la Société Royale des Sciences, qui depuis 1706 ne fait qu’un même corps avec l’Académie des Sciences de Paris; à Bordeaux, à Soissons, à Marseille, à Lyon, à Pau, à Montauban, à Angers, à Amiens, à Villefranche, &c. Le nombre de ces Académies augmente de jour en jour; & sans examiner ici s’il est utile de multiplier si fort de pareils établissemens, on ne peut au moins disconvenir qu’ils ne contribuent en partie à répandre & à conserver le goût des Lettres & de l’Étude. Dans les villes mêmes où il n’y a point d’Académies, il se forme des Sociétés littéraires qui ont à peu près les mêmes exercices.

Passons maintenant aux principales Académies étrangeres.

Outre la Société Royale de Londres dont nous avons déjà dit que nous parlerions ailleurs, une des Académies les plus célebres aujourd’hui est celle de Berlin appellée l’Académie Royale des Sciences & des Belles-Lettres de Prusse. Frederic I Roi de Prusse l’établit en 1700, & en fit M. Leibnitz Président. Les plus grands noms illustrerent sa liste dès le commencement. Elle donna en 1710 un premier volume sous le titre de Miscellanea Berolinensia; & quoique le successeur de Frederic I protégeât peu les Lettres, elle ne laissa pas de publier de nouveaux volumes en 1723, 1727, 1734, 1737, & 1740. Enfin Frederic II aujourd’hui Roi de Prusse, monta sur le Thrône. Ce Prince, l’admiration de toute l’Europe par ses qualités guerrieres & pacifiques, par son goût pour les Sciences, par son esprit & par ses talens, jugea à propos de redonner à cette Académie une nouvelle vigueur. Il y appella des Etrangers très-distingués, encouragea les meilleurs Sujets par des récompenses, & en 1743 parut un nouveau volume des Miscellanea Berolinensia, où l’on s’apperçoit bien des nouvelles forces que l’Académie avoit déjà prises. Ce Prince ne jugea pas à propos de s’en tenir là. Il crut que l’Académie Royale des Sciences de Prusse qui avoit été jusqu’alors presque toûjours présidée par un Ministre ou Grand Seigneur, le seroit encore mieux par un homme de Lettres; il fit à l’Académie des Sciences de Paris l’honneur de choisir parmi ses Membres le Président qu’il vouloit donner à la sienne. Ce fut M. de Maupertuis si avantageusement connu dans toute l’Europe, que les graces du Roi de Prusse engagerent à aller s’établir à Berlin. Le Roi donna en même temps un nouveau Reglement à l’Académie, & voulut bien prendre le titre de Protecteur. Cette Académie a publié depuis 1743 trois volumes françois dans le même goût à peu près que l’Histoire de l’Académie des Sciences de Paris, avec cette différence, que dans le second de ces volumes, les extraits des Mémoires sont supprimés, & le seront apparemment dans tous ceux qui suivront. Ces volumes seront suivis chaque année d’un autre. Elle a deux assemblées publiques; l’une en Janvier le jour de la naissance du Roi aujourd’hui régnant; l’autre à la fin de Mai, le jour de l’avenement du Roi au Throne. Dans cette derniere assemblée on distribue un prix consistant en une Médaille d’or de la valeur de 50 ducats, c’est-à-dire, un peu plus de 500 livres. Le sujet de ce prix est successivement de Physique, de Mathématique, de Métaphysique, & d’Erudition. Car cette Académie a cela de particulier, qu’elle embrasse jusqu’à la Métaphysique, la Logique & la Morale, qui ne font l’objet d’aucune autre Académie. Elle a une classe particuliere occupée de ces matieres, & on appelle la classe de Philosophie spéculative.

Académie Impériale de Petersbourg. Le Czar Pierre I dit le Grand, par qui la Russie a enfin secoüé se joug de la barbarie qui y régnoit depuis tant de siecles, ayant fait un voyage en France en 1717, & ayant reconnu par lui-même l’utilité des Académies, résolut d’en établir une dans sa Capitale. Il avoit déjà pris toutes les mesures nécessaires pour cela lorsque la mort l’enleva au commencement de 1725. La Czarine Catherine qui lui succéda, pleinement instruite de ses vûes, travailla sur le même plan, & forma en peu de tems une des plus célebres Académies de l’Europe composée de tout ce qu’il y avoit alors de plus illustre parmi les étrangers, dont quelques-uns même vinrent s’établir à Petersbourg. Cette Académie qui embrasse les Sciences & les Belles-Lettres, a publié déjà dix volumes de Mémoires depuis 1726. Ces Mémoires sont écrits en latin, & sont surtout très recommandables par la partie mathématique qui contient un grand nombre d’excellentes pieces. La plûpart des Etrangers qui composoient cette Académie étant morts ou s’étant retirés, elle se trouvoit au commencement du regne de la Czarine Elizabeth dans une espece de langueur, lorsque M. le Comte Rasomowski en fut nommé Président, heureusement pour elle. Il lui a fait donner un nouveau reglement, & paroît n’avoir rien négligé pour la rétablir dans son ancienne splendeur. L’Académie de Petersbourg a cette devise modeste, Paulatim [paulatino – sugestivo em terra de futuros bolcheviques!]. Il y a à Bologne une Académie qu’on appelle l’Institut.

L’Académie Royale d’Espagne est établie à Madrid pour cultiver la langue Castillane: elle est formée sur le modele de l’Academie Françoise. Le plan en fut donné par le Duc d’Escalone, & approuvé en 1714 par le Roi, qui s’en déclara le protecteur. Elle consiste en 24 Académiciens, y compris un Directeur & un Secrétaire. Elle a pour dévise un creuset sur le feu, & le mot de la dévise est: Limpia, fija, y da esplendor.

L’Académie des Curieux de la Nature, en Allemagne, avoit été fondée d’abord en 1652 par M. Bausch, Médecin; & l’Empereur Léopold la prit sous sa protection en 1670, je ne sai s’il fit autre chose pour elle. [haha!]

L’Italie seule a plus d’Académies que tout le reste du monde ensemble. Il n’y a pas une ville considérable où il n’y ait assez de Savans pour former une Académie, & qui n’en forment une en effet. Jarckius nous en a donné une Histoire abregée, imprimée à Leipsic en 1725.

Jarckius n’a écrit l’Histoire que des Académies du Piémont, de Ferrare, & de Milan; il en compte 25 dans cette derniere ville toute seule: il nous a seulement donné la liste des autres, qui montent à 550. La plûpart ont des noms tout-à-fait singuliers & bisarres.

Les Académiciens de Bologne, par exemple, se nomment Abbandonati, Ansiosi, Ociosi, Arcadi, Confusi, Difettuosi, Dubbiosi, Impatienti, Inabili, Indifferenti, Indomiti, Inquieti, Instabili, Della notte piacere, Sitienti, Sonnolenti, Torbidi, Vespertini; ceux de Genes, Accordati, Sopiti, Resuegliati: ceux de Gubio, Addormentati; ceux de Venise, Acuti, Allettati, Discordanti, Disjiunti, Disingannati, Dodonei, Filadelfici, Incruscabili, Instaucabili; ceux de Rimini, Adagiati, Eutrapeli; ceux de Pavie, Affidati, Della chiave; ceux de Fermo, Raffrontati; ceux de Molise, Agitati; ceux de Florence, Alterati, Humidi, Fursurati, Della Crusca, Del Cimento, Insocati; ceux de Cremone, Animosi; ceux de Naples, Arditi, Infernati, Intronati, Lunatici, Secreti, Sirenes, Sicuri, Volanti; ceux d’Ancone, Argonauti, Caliginosi; ceux d’Urbin, Assorditi; ceux de Perouse, Atomi, Eccentrici, Insensati, Ins Unisoni; ceux de Tarente, Audaci; ceux de Macerata, Catenati, Imperfetti, d’autres Chimarici; ceux de Sienne, Cortesi, Gioviati, Trapassati; ceux de Rome, Delfici, Humoristi, Lincei, Fantastici, Illuminati, Incitati, Indispositi, Infecondi, Melancholici, Negletti, Notti Vaticane, Notturni, Ombrosi, Pellegrini, Sterili, Vigilanti; ceux de Padou[v]e, Delii, Immaturi, Oriti; ceux de Drepano, Difficili; ceux de Bresse, Dispersi, Erranti; ceux de Modene, Dissonanti; ceux de Reccanati, Disuguali; ceux de Syracuse, Ebrii; ceux de Milan, Eliconii, Faticosi, Fenici, Incerti, Nascosti; ceux de Candie, Extravaganti; ceux de Pezzaro, Eterocliti; ceux de Comacchio, Fluttuanti; ceux d’Arezzo, Forzati; ceux de Turin, Fulminales; ceux de Reggio, Fumosi, Muti; ceux de Cortone, Humorosi; ceux de Bari, Incogniti; ceux de Rossano, Incuriosi; ceux de Brada, Innominati, Pigri; ceux d’Acis, Intricati; ceux de Mantove, Invaghiti; ceux d’Agrigente, Mutabili, Offuscati; de Verone, Olympici, Unanii; de Viterbe, Ostinati; d’autres, Vagabondi.

On appelle aussi quelquefois Académie, en Angleterre, des especes d’Écoles ou de Collèges où la jeunesse est formée aux Sciences & aux Arts libéraux par des Maîtres particuliers. La plûpart des Ministres non-conformistes ont été élevés dans ces sortes d’Académies privées, ne s’accommodant pas de l’éducation qu’on donne aux jeunes gens dans les Universités. (O)”

Académie de Peinture, est une École publique où les Peintres vont dessiner ou peindre, & les Sculpteurs modelent d’après un homme nud, qu’on appelle modele.

L’Académie Royale de Peinture & de Sculpture de Paris doit sa naissance aux démêlés qui survinrent entre les Maîtres Peintres & Sculpteurs de Paris, & les Peintres privilégiés du Roi, que la Communauté des Peintres voulut inquiéter. Le Brun, Sarazin, Corneille, & les autres Peintres du Roi, formerent le projet d’une Académie particuliere; & ayant présenté à ce sujet une requête au Conseil, ils obtinrent un Arrêt tel qu’ils le demandoient, daté du 20 Janvier 1648. Ils s’assemblerent dabord chez Charmois, Secrétaire du Maréchal Schomberg, qui dressa les premiers Statuts de l’Académie.

L’Académie tint ensuite ses Conférences dans la maison d’un des amis de Charmois, située proche S. Eustache. De-là elle passa dans l’Hôtel de Clisson, rue des Deux-boules, où elle continua ses exercices jusqu’en 1653, que les Académiciens se transporterent dans la rue des Déchargeurs. En 1654 & au commencement de 1655, elle obtint du Cardinal Mazarin un Brevet & des Lettres-Patentes, qui furent enregistrées au Parlement, & en reconnoissance elle choisit ce Cardinal pour son protecteur, & le Chancelier pour Vice-protecteur. (…) le Professeur en exercice met l’homme nud, qu’on nomme modele, dans la position qu’il juge convenable, & le pose en deux attitudes différentes par chaque semaine, c’est ce qu’on appelle poser le modele; dans l’une des semaines il pose deux modeles ensemble, c’est ce qu’on appelle poser le groupe; les desseins, peintures & modeles faits d’après cet homme s’appellent académies, ainsi que les copies faites d’après ces académies. On ne se sert point dans les Écoles publiques de femme pour modele, comme plusieurs le croient. On distribue tous les trois mois aux Éleves trois prix de Dessein, & tous les ans deux prix de Peinture & deux de Sculpture; ceux qui gagnent les prix de Peinture & de Sculpture sont envoyés à Rome aux dépens du Roi pour y étudier & s’y perfectionner. (…)

* Paracelse disoit qu’il n’avoit étudié ni à Paris, ni à Rome, ni à Toulouse, ni dans aucune Académie: qu’il n’avoit d’autre Université que la Nature, dans laquelle Dieu fait éclater sa sagesse, sa puissance & sa gloire, d’une maniere sensible pour ceux qui l’étudient. C’est à la nature, ajoûtoit-il, que je dois ce que je sai, & ce qu’il y a de vrai dans mes écrits.

Académie, se dit aussi des écoles & séminaires des Juifs, où leurs Rabins & Docteurs instruisent la jeunesse de leur nation dans la langue Hébraïque, lui expliquant le Talmud & les secrets de la cabale. Les Juifs ont toûjours eu de ces Académies depuis leur retour de Babylone. Celle de cette derniere ville, & celle de Tibériade entre autres, ont été fort célebres. (G)

Le Duc de Newcastle, Seigneur Anglois, rapporte que l’Art de monter à cheval a passé d’Italie en Angleterre; que la premiere Académie de cette espee fut établie à Naples par Fréderic Grison, lequel, ajoûte-t-il, a écrit le premier sur ce sujet en vrai cavalier & en grand maître. Henri VIII continue le même Auteur, fit venir en Angleterre deux Italiens, disciples de ce Grison, qui y en formerent en peu de tems beaucoup d’autres. Le plus grand maître, selon lui, que l’Italie ait produit en ce genre, a été Pignatelli de Naples. La Broue apprit sous lui pendant 5 ans, Pluvinel 9, & Saint-Antoine un plus longtems; & ces 3 François rendirent les Ecuyers [Cavaleiros] communs en France, où l’on n’en avoit jamais vû que d’Italiens.

L’emplacement dans lequel les jeunes gens montent à cheval s’appelle manége. Il y a pour l’ordinaire un pilier au milieu, autour duquel il s’en trouve plusieurs autres, rangés deux à deux sur les côtés. (V)

Les exercices de l’Académie dont nous parlons, ont été toûjours recommandés pour conserver la santé & donner de la force. C’est dans ce dessein que l’on envoie les jeunes gens à l’Académie, ils en deviennent plus agiles & plus forts. Les exercices que l’on fait à l’Académie sont d’un grand secours dans les maladies chroniques; ils sont d’une grande utilité à ceux qui sont menacés d’obstructions, aux vaporeux, aux mélancholiques, &c. [também são ótimos exercícios para quem deseja ficar tetraplégico] (N)”

CHOMSKYNTESSENCIAL

O CONHECIMENTO DA LÍNGUA: Sua Natureza, Origem e Uso, 1986 (ed. brasileira)

PREFÁCIO (P. 15)

SÃO OS BRAINSTORMS DE MARÇO BAGUNÇANDO O VERÃO

Problema de Platão X Problema de Orwell X Problema de Freud

sistemas cognitivos

equipamento inato           <faculdade da linguagem> como caso particular de sistema cognitivo

princípios da faculdade da linguagem

foco > > > solução do Problema de Platão (P.P.)

O P.P. consiste em explicar como sabemos tanto quando a evidência que nos é acessível é tão escassa.” P.O.: seu oposto exato

P.F.: almoço bom se come em família (brincadeirinha)

engenharia do consentimento”

RASCUNHO DO DIABO (shitstorm)

Já discuti estas questões noutras obras, e espero fazê-lo de novo, mas o contexto de uma investigação sobre a natureza da linguagem não é, provavelmente, o local apropriado [SIM, PROVAVELMENTE], não obstante a crença comum, que pessoalmente apenas partilho em parte [como pessoa você compartilha pessoalmente?], de que o abuso ou o controle da linguagem é um aspecto fundamental do problema [o problema de você ser tão prolixo assim?]. Incluí, contudo, um breve apêndice que aborda esta questão, uma versão revista de um artigo que apareceu na … [nome da revista, foda-se], que espero vir a publicar numa versão mais extensa e documentada. [Não li, não leio, não lerei.]”

Se eu fosse um tradutor do estilo abreviador:

Já discuti estas questões antes. Neste contexto, investigaremos apenas a natureza da linguagem. Partilho da crença de que o abuso político da linguagem é uma discussão necessária. Para os interessados, incluí material relacionado no apêndice.”

Eu bato sempre na mesma tecla, eu faço o sistema operacional rodar, eu previno as catástrofes, meu nome é Desmond, o operário. Lubrificado, eu não durmo. Meus colegas morreram de subdosagem (de seiva vital). Quando alguém virá me substituir? Você é Ele?

* * *

CAPÍTULO I – O QUE OS OUTROS DIZEM ANTES DO QUE EU VOU DIZER QUE É A FACULDADE DA LINGUAGEM (P. 18)

A <gramática particular> não é uma verdadeira <ciência>, no sentido desta tradição racionalista, porque não se baseia unicamente em leis necessárias universais; é uma <arte> ou técnica que mostra o modo como certas línguas realizam os princípios gerais da razão humana.”

instruções genéticas”

“efeitos deflagrador e modelador de fatores ambientais”

<gramática genera[l]tiva> (nenhuma relação com a gênese),

na contra-mão de Saussure – atual GRAMÁTICA UNIVERSAL (G.U.)

O seu ponto de referência é o da psicologia individual.”

mecanismo de aquisição

nomenclaturas incognoscíveis ou vazias como “sistema de conhecimento” e “experiência vivida” – já não basta sistemas cognitivos (supra)? Experiência ideada? Como seria?

o objeto de investigação deixou de ser o comportamento lingüístico ou os produtos deste comportamento para passar a ser os estados da mente/cérebro que fazem parte de tal comportamento.”

gramática universal particular

parabéns aos envolvidos!

quando mente e experiência se entrecruzam

o concreto do abstrato

A G.U. é uma teoria do <estado inicial> da faculdade da linguagem, anterior a qualquer experiência lingüística” CHATOVSKY

questões clássicas

Não se trata de tópicos para especulação ou para uma reflexão a priori, mas sim para uma pesquisa empírica” irônico…

EUREKA: “Não está em questão que o Homem possa atingir o conhecimento do Inglês, do Japonês e de outras línguas, enquanto as rochas, os pássaros ou os símios não o atingem, sob as mesmas condições”

sistemas computacionais

COMO EU ODEIO OS ANOS 50! Se bem que esse homem transportou a tara pelas maravilhas da computação até os estertores dos 80!

teoria da regência e da ligação (TRL)

A gramática tradicional e a estruturalista não trataram do objeto do conhecimento da ciência lingüística, a primeira pela sua confiança implícita, a segunda pelo seu escopo limitado.” “uma boa gramática tradicional ou pedagógica apresenta uma lista completa de exceções (verbos irregulares, etc.), paradigmas [aparentemente, no sentido saussureano: possibilidades de associações por jogos de palavras, etc.] e exemplos de construções regulares e observações com vários níveis de pormenor e de generalidade acerca da forma e do significado das expressões. Sem exagerar demasiado, poder-se-ia descrever uma tal gramática como uma versão estruturada e organizada dos dados apresentados a uma criança que aprende uma língua, com alguns comentários gerais e, por vezes, algumas observações criteriosas.”

Mas nós, os generativistas, nós não subestimos a inteligência do leitor, e tratamo-lo como autêntico homem adulto que é! – Chomsky político

As teorias estruturalistas, tanto na tradição americana como na européia, ocupam-se dos processos analíticos para derivar dos dados alguns aspectos da gramática”

pobreza do estímulo”

sabemos demais ou sabemos de menos ou não sabemos que tudo sabemos que nada sabemos só não sabemos que sábado somos banidos da existência – sabemos na medida o que é o peso da balança conveniente e oportuno o interesse do filósofo é público eu digo em todas as línguas

o problema está na burrice dos teus olhos – meu caro watch-son

O ESTUDO DA PELUGEM OVÓIDE

(belo título para um livro)

O que tem a ver com a Teoria das Idéias o fato de crianças serem muito espertas para aprender a língua?

DE LUA: “Duas pessoas podem partilhar exatamente o mesmo conhecimento da língua, mas podem diferir marcadamente na capacidade para pôr em uso tal conhecimento. A capacidade para usar a língua pode progredir ou regredir, sem que se registre qualquer alteração no conhecimento. A mesma capacidade pode também diminuir, em parte ou de um modo geral, sem perda de conhecimento, fato que se torna claro se os danos que provocam essa diminuição desaparecerem e a capacidade perdida for recuperada. Muitas destas considerações suportam a assunção do senso comum de que o conhecimento não pode ser descrito adequadamente como uma capacidade prática.

capacidade é uma coisa, conhecimento é outra”

<mecanismos de aprendizagem generalizada>

Deveríamos pensar no conhecimento da língua como um <módulo> da mente.”

* * *

CAPÍTULO II – LÍNGUAS E LETRAS SEM SENTIDO! (P. 25)

Falamos do Neerlandês e do Alemão como sendo duas línguas separadas, apesar de alguns dialectos do Alemão estarem muito próximos de dialectos a que chamamos <Neerlandês> e não serem mutuamente inteligíveis com outros a que chamamos <Alemão>. Um aviso habitual em cursos de introdução à linguística é que uma língua é um dialecto com um exército e com uma marinha (Max Weinreich).”

Da perspectiva social ou cognitivista, sempre se trata, no final, de idealizações: “É plausível supor que, com exceção de casos patológicos (provavelmente uma importante área de investigação), uma tal variação seja marginal e possa ser ignorada com segurança numa vasta área de investigação lingüística.”

No uso convencional, uma gramática é uma descrição ou uma teoria de uma língua, um objeto construído por um linguista.”

No estruturalismo saussuriano, a noção de frase foi deixada numa espécie de limbo, talvez a ser integrada no estudo do uso da língua.”

LINGUA EXTERNA (LÍNGUA-E)

uma gramática é uma coleção de afirmações descritivas que dizem respeito à língua-E, a atos linguísticos reais ou potenciais.” “caráter ilimitado”

a teoria da GU consiste em asserções que são verdadeiras em relação a muitas ou mesmo todas as línguas humanas, constituindo um conjunto de condições satisfeito por todas as línguas-E.”

P. 40: Franz Boas e novamente a afirmação da infinitude de cada língua particular, e impossibilidade de efetuarem-se comparações científicas, calcadas em Whitney e Sapir – “tendência relativista que denegriu o estudo da GU”

foi desenvolvido por Joseph Greenberg um trabalho no domínio dos universais linguísticos, que conduziu à formulação de uma generalização: uma língua que tenha a ordem sujeito-objeto-verbo manifesta tendência para ter posposições em vez de preposições, etc.”

LÍNGUA INTERNA (LÍNGUA-I)

noção de estrutura na mente (Jespersen)

a gramática seria então uma teoria da língua-I” – gramáticas podem ser contestadas

Neuronal prescriptions: “Conhecer a língua L é uma propriedade de uma pessoa H; uma das tarefas das ciências do cérebro é a de determinar aquilo que existe no cérebro de H que é responsável pela existência desta propriedade. Sugerimos que dizer que H conhece a língua L significa que a mente/cérebro de H está num certo estado EL.” “é como uma teoria do séc. XIX acerca de valências ou de propriedades expressas na tabela periódica.”

as línguas-I que são humanamente acessíveis em condições normais. Estas são as línguas-I L, tal que R(H, L) pode ser verdadeira (para um H normal, em circunstâncias normais).”

É claro que não há garantias de que esta maneira de abordar os problemas apresentados seja correta. Esta abordagem pode tornar-se completamente disparatada, mesmo que obtenha um sucesso substancial – tal como uma teoria de valências, ou outra, pode ter acabado por ficar completamente fora do caminho, apesar do seu grande sucesso na química do séc. XIX.” VTNC, PALHAÇO!

PREFERÊNCIA PELA INCERTA LÍNGUA-I

Uma gramática generativa pretende representar exatamente aquilo que uma pessoa sabe quando sabe uma língua, ou seja, aquilo que foi aprendido, porque complementado por princípios inatos.”

a GU é um estudo desses princípios inatos que é um componente da faculdade da linguagem.”

A língua-E que foi objeto de estudo na maior parte das gramáticas tradicionais ou estruturalistas ou na psicologia comportamental é agora encarada como um epifenômeno, na melhor das hipóteses.”

P. 44: “Resumindo, a faculdade da linguagem é um sistema distinto da mente/cérebro, com um estado inicial E0 comum à espécie (numa primeira aproximação). Dada experiência apropriada, esta faculdade passa de um estado inicial E0 para um estado final relativamente estável EE, que sofre apenas modificações periféricas (ex: aquisição de vocabulário). O estado atingido incorpora uma língua-I. A GU é a teoria do E0; as gramáticas particulares são teorias das várias línguas-I. As línguas-I que podem ser atingidas com o E0 fixo e a experiência linguística variável são as línguas humanas atingíveis, em que <língua> significa agora língua-I. O estado estável [ou limite] de uma língua particular é a combinação do que é <aprendido> com o que já se sabe de modo inato (E0). As línguas-E são meros artefatos.”

A linguística torna-se parte da psicologia e, em última análise, da biologia. A linguística será incorporada nas ciências naturais à medida que forem descobertos mecanismos que tenham as propriedades reveladas nestes estudos mais abstratos.”

EXPONDO OS PRÓPRIOS PARADOXOS (MEA CULPA)

No meu livro de 1965, Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, p.ex., não há qualquer entrada no índice para <língua>, mas há muitas entradas para <gramática>, que se referem geralmente à língua-I. Desconfio que o debate do passado acerca dos alegados problemas respeitantes aos conceitos da gramática e de conhecimento de gramática pode em parte ter sido originado por estas escolhas terminológicas infelizes, que reforçaram analogias inadequadas com as ciências formais e deram origem à idéia errônea de que o estudo da língua coloca questões filosóficas novas, complexas e talvez impossíveis de ser tratadas quando comparadas com o estudo da língua-E.

O estudo da gramática generativa desenvolveu-se a partir da confluência de duas tradições intelectuais: a da gramática tradicional e estruturalista [iguais?] e a do estudo de sistemas formais. Embora tenha havido precursores importantes, foi apenas em meados dos anos 50 que estas correntes se fundiram verdadeiramente (…) Tornou-se assim possível dar algum conteúdo ao aforismo de Humboldt, segundo o qual a língua envolve <o uso infinito de meios finitos>”

ANTI-SAUSSURE: “É de notar que as caracterizações familiares de <língua> como um código ou como um jogo apontam corretamente para a <língua-I> e não para a construção artificial que é a língua-E.”

Um código não é um conjunto de representações, mas antes um sistema específico de regras que atribui representações codificadas ao par mensagem-representações.” Um código é um sistema de códigos? Acho que não!

O estruturalismo saussuriano colocou as observações de Jespersen acerca das <expressões livres> fora do escopo do estudo da língua”

Bloomfield afirmou que, quando um falante produz formas linguísticas que nunca ouviu, <dizemos que ele as produz por analogia com formas semelhantes que ouviu>, uma posição adotada mais tarde por Quine, C.F. Hockett, etc.”

MAYON-EGGS-TRIP: “Por vezes tem sido sugerido que o conhecimento da língua deve ser compreendido por analogia com o conhecimento da aritmética, sendo esta considerada como uma entidade <platônica> abstrata que existe separadamente de quaisquer estruturas mentais. O que está presente aqui não é a idéia de que existe aquilo a que chamamos uma língua interna (descrito por aquilo a que Thomas Bever chama <uma psicogramática>) e de que descobri-la é a tarefa das ciências naturais. O que se afirma aqui é que, para além das línguas-I, existe algo mais, algo a que poderemos chamar línguas-P (Inglês-P, Japonês-P, etc.), que vivem num céu platônico ao lado da aritmética e (talvez) da teoria dos conjuntos.”

É perfeitamente legítimo desenvolver o tema da mecânica racional, um ramo da matemática abstraído da física que trata os planetas como pontos de massa que obedecem a certas leis, ou desenvolver teorias que consideram aspectos da língua-I fazendo abstração da sua realização física ou de outras propriedades; de fato, esta é a prática generalizada. Mas não se é por isso levado erradamente a acreditar que o objeto da mecânica racional é uma entidade de um céu platônico”

EMPIRISMO (OU I-MPIRISMO?)

Em geral, os juízos dos informantes não refletem diretamente a estrutura da língua; os juízos de aceitabilidade, p.ex., podem falhar no que se refere a fornecer evidência direta quanto ao estatuto de gramaticalidade, devido à intromissão de muitos outros fatores. O mesmo se pode dizer acerca de outros juízos que dizem respeito à forma e ao significado. Estes são, ou deviam ser, truísmos.”

O estudo da estrutura da língua, tal como é atualmente praticado [o do próprio Chomsky?], devia eventualmente desaparecer como disciplina, à medida que novos tipos de evidência vão ficando disponíveis. Só deveria permanecer distinto porque o seu objeto é uma faculdade particular da mente, em última instância o cérebro: o seu estado inicial e os vários estados de maturação que pode atingir.”

esta ideologia relativista de certas variedades da linguística descritiva tem de ser abandonada”

a interdependência das ciências do cérebro [neurologia] e do estudo da mente [psicolinguística] é recíproca. [??] A teoria da mente visa a determinar as propriedades do estado inicial E0 e de cada um dos estados EL da faculdade da linguagem; e as ciências do cérebro procuram descobrir os mecanismos [coisa-em-si, hehehe!] do cérebro que são realizações físicas desses estados. (…) Na medida em que tais conexões possam ser estabelecidas, o estudo da mente – em particular, da língua-I – será assimilado à corrente principal das ciências naturais.” O engraçado é por que não se poderia assimilar a neurologia ao estudo da língua…

Embora resultados deste tipo sejam remotos no atual estado de conhecimento, eles são possíveis.” São?

Resumindo, a faculdade da linguagem parece ser, no seu âmago, um sistema computacional rico, restritivo na estrutura e rígido nas suas operações essenciais, não se parecendo em nada com um complexo de disposições ou com um sistema de hábitos e de analogias.” “a mudança em direção a uma teoria computacional da mente contém também uma parte substancial daquilo a que se tem chamado <semântica>, conclusão que só é fortalecida se considerarmos abordagens manifestamente mais <conceitualistas> destes tópicos.” É fortalecida apenas na hipótese conceitualista ou é MUITO FORTALECIDA neste caso?

Achar uma língua-I correta para cada língua até formarem uma GU (com umas 6.000 líguas-I)? Como é tolo!

Notas

Considerem-se objeções involuntariamente cômicas, como a acusação feita pelo professor Roy Harris, em 1983, segundo quem a idealização-padrão (que ele atribui a Saussure-Bloomfield-Chomsky) reflete <um conceito fascista de língua, se é que alguma vez existiu algum>”

Whitney, que teve uma grande influência sobre Saussure e sobre a linguística americana, criticava a abordagem humboldtiana de Steinthal

Se se quiser considerar a questão do realismo, a psicologia e a linguística parecem ser escolhas pobres; a questão devia colocar-se relativamente às ciências mais avançadas, onde há muito mais esperança de se conseguir descobrir algo sobre essa matéria.”

Por meio de um procedimento similar, poderíamos estabelecer a <biologia platonista>, que se ocuparia, p.ex., daquilo a que Katz chama a <propriedade essencial> de um coração (que é uma bomba), fazendo, portanto, abstração das leis físicas que o fazem bater (uma propriedade não-essencial). Então, talvez pudéssemos descobrir que a melhor teoria biológica é diferente da melhor teoria da biologia platonista” “Katz insiste na idéia de que disciplinas como a química, a biologia e outras têm fronteiras inerentes, conceitualmente determinadas. De fato, para ele, esta afirmação não é controversa, sendo a alternativa uma forma de <niilismo> que transformaria num caos o espectro das disciplinas acadêmicas com um objeto bem-definido.” “Katz apresenta também uma descrição da história da gramática generativa e de documentos que cita, gravemente inexata, como é muitas vezes evidente, mesmo em nível fundamental”

THE ZEND-AVESTA by DARMESTETER, 1880.

BREVIÁRIO DOS CONTEÚDOS DESTE ARTIGO:

Introdução 1

Fargards (1 a 21)

Introdução 2

Sîrôzahs (1 e 2)

Yasts (1 a 24)

Nyâyis (1 a 5)

Introdução 3

Yasnas (28 a 34)

Yasnas (43 a 51)

Yasna 53

Yasnas (1 a 26)

Yasna 57

Recomendações de Leitura

Introdução

* * *

DIC:

cuneiforme: “Diz-se da antiga escrita persa, meda e assíria formada de .caracteres em forma de cunha.”

<cuneiforme>, in Dicionário Priberam da Língua Portuguesa, https://www.priberam.pt/dlpo/cuneiforme [consultado em 29-09-2017].”

sleet: granizo

stork: cegonha

to dally: vadiar

1. OS CEM ANOS DE DISPUTA SOBRE A AUTENTICIDADE DO AVESTA E DA LÍNGUA SUI GENERIS ZEND

The Zend-Avesta is the sacred book of the Parsis, that is to say, of the few remaining followers of that religion which feigned over Persia at the time when the second successor of Mohammed overthrew the Sassanian dynasty (7th century A.D.), and which has been called Dualism, or Mazdeism, or Magism, or Zoroastrianism, or Fire-worship, according as its main tenet, or its supreme God (Ahura Mazda) [Baal?], or its priests, or its supposed founder, or its apparent object of worship has been most kept in view. In less than a century after their defeat, nearly all the conquered people were brought over to the faith of their new rulers, either by force, or policy, or the attractive power of a simpler form of creed. But many of those who clung to the faith of their fathers, went and sought abroad for a new home, where they might freely worship their old gods, say their old prayers, and perform their old rites. That home they found at last among the tolerant Hindus, on the western coast of India and in the peninsula of Guzerat. There they throve and there they live still, while the ranks of their co-religionists in Persia are daily thinning and dwindling away. A century ago [séc. XVIII], it is said, they still numbered nearly 100,000 souls; but there now [yesterday!] remain no more than 8,000 or 9,000 souls, scattered in Yezd and the surrounding villages (Dosabhoy Framjee, The Parsees).”

There has been no other great belief in the world that ever left such poor and meagre monuments of its past splendour.” “Persia, it is known, had much influence on each of the movements which produced, or proceeded from, those three books [Gospels; Talmud; Quran]; she lent much to the first heresiarchs, much to the Rabbis, much to Mohammed.” “the Avesta, which saw the blending of the Aryan mind with the Semitic, and thus opened the 2nd stage of Aryan thought.”

Aristotle, Hermippus and many others wrote of it in books of which, unfortunately, nothing more than a few fragments or merely the titles have come down to us.” “It was never more eagerly studied than in the 1st centuries of the Christian era; but that study had no longer anything of the disinterested and almost scientific character it had in earlier times. Religious and philosophic sects, in search of new dogmas, eagerly received whatever came to them bearing the name of Zoroaster.” “Zoroaster and Plato were treated as if they had been philosophers of the same school, and Hierocles expounded their doctrines in the same book. Proclus collected 70 Tetrads of Zoroaster and wrote commentaries on them; but we need hardly say that Zoroaster commented on by Proclus was nothing more or less than Proclus commented on by Proclus. [haha]” “Throughout the Middle Ages nothing was known of Mazdeism but the name of its founder, who from a Magus was converted into a magician and master of the hidden sciences. It was not until the Renaissance that real inquiry was resumed.” the book of Thomas Hyde was the first complete and true picture of modern Parsîism “Eighteen years later, a countryman of Hyde, George Boucher, received from the Parsis in Surat a copy of the Vendîdâd Sâdah, which was brought to England in 1723 by Richard Cobbe. But the old manuscript was a sealed book, and the most that could then be made of it was to hang it by an iron chain to the wall of the Bodleian Library, as a curiosity to be shown to foreigners. A few years later, a Scotch-man, named Fraser, went to Surat, with the view of obtaining from the Parsis, not only their books, but also a knowledge of their contents. He was not very successful in the first undertaking, and utterly failed in the second.” “Anquetil Duperron came out of Surat victorious, and succeeded at last in winning from the Parsis both their books and their knowledge.” “He spent 10 years in studying the material he had collected, and published in 1771 the first European translation of the Zend-Avesta.

half the learned world denied the authenticity of the Avesta, which it pronounced a forgery. It was the future founder of the Royal Asiatic Society, William Jones, a young Oxonian then [estudante de Oxford], who opened the war. He had been wounded to the quick by the scornful tone adopted by Anquetil towards Hyde and a few other English scholars: the Zend-Avesta suffered for the fault of its introducer, Zoroaster for Anquetil. In a pamphlet written in French[*], with a verve and in a style which showed him to be a good disciple of Voltaire, W. Jones pointed out, and dwelt upon, the oddities and absurdities with which the so-called sacred books of Zoroaster teemed.” “[*] Lettre à M. A*** du P*** dans laquelle est compris l’examen de sa traduction des livres attribués à Zoroastre.” “It is true that Anquetil had given full scope to satire by the style he had adopted: he cared very little for literary elegance, and did not mind writing Zend and Persian in French; so the new and strange ideas he had to express looked stranger still in the outlandish garb he gave them.” “In fact the only thing in which Jones succeeded was to prove in a decisive manner that the ancient Persians were not equal to the lumières of the 18th century, and that the authors of the Avesta had not read the Encyclopédie.HAHAHA! Ver ZOROASTRO na Enc.

[P-S.: Não há um verbete para Zaratustra ou “Zoroastre”. O que pude encontrar que mais se aproximava da temática foi o seguinte:

PARSIS, (Hist. moderne) nom que l’on donne dans l’Indostan aux adorateurs du feu, ou sectateurs de la religion fondée en Perse par Zerdust ou Zoroastre. Les Parsis qui se trouvent aujourd’hui dans l’Inde, sont venus de Perse, comme leur nom l’indique; leurs ancêtres se sont refugiés dans ce pays pour se soustraire aux persécutions des Mahométans arabes & tartares qui avoient fait la conquéte de leur patrie. Ils sont vétus comme les autres indiens, à l’exception de leur barbe qu’ils laissent croître; ils se livrent ordinairement à l’agriculture & à la culture de la vigne & des arbres. Ils ne communiquent point avec ceux d’une autre religion, de peur de se souiller [contaminar]; il leur est permis de manger des animaux, mais ils s’abstiennent de faire usage de la viande de porc & de celle de vache, de peur d’offenser les Mahométans & les Banians. Ils ont une grande vénération pour le coq; leurs prétres, qu’ils nomment darous, sont chargés du soin d’entretenir le feu sacré que leurs ancètres ont autrefois apporté de Perse; ce seroit un crime irrémissible que de le laisser éteindre. Ce ne seroit pas un péché moins grand que de répandre de l’eau ou de cracher sur le feu ordinaire qui sert dans le ménage. Il est pareillement un objet de vénération pour les Parsis; & il y auroit de l’impiété à l’entretenir avec quelque chose d’impur. Leur respect pour le feu va jusqu’au point de ne point vouloir l’éteindre avec de l’eau, quand même leur maison seroit en danger d’en être consumee: par la même raison ils ne consentiroient jamais à étndre une chandelle. En un mot, il ne leur est jamais permis de rien faire pour éteindre le feu; il faut qu’il s’éteigne de lui-même. Les Parsis regardent le mariage comme un état qui conduit au bonheur éternel; ils ont en horreur le célibat, au point que si le fils ou la fille d’un homme riche viennent à mourir avant que d’avoir été mariés, le pere cherche des gens, qui pour de l’argent consentent à épouser la personne qui est morte. La céremonie du mariage des Parsis consiste à faire venir deux darous ou prétres, dont l’un place un doigt sur le front de la fille, tandis que l’autre place le sien sur le front de l’epoux. Chacun de ces prêtres demande à l’une des parties, si elle consent à épouser l’autre: après quoi ils répandent du ris sur la téte des nouveaux maries; ce qui est un emblème de la fécondité qu’ils leur souhaitent. Les Parsis n’enterrent point leurs morts; ils les exposent à l’air dans une enceinte environnée d’un mur où ils restent pour servir de proie aux vautours [abutres]. Le terrein de cette enceinte va en pente de la circonference au centre: c’est-là que l’on expose les morts, qui dans un climat si chaud, répandent une odeur très-incommode pour les vivans. Quelques jours après qu’un corps a été exposé dans cet endroit, les amis & les parens du defunt vont se rendre au lieu de la sépulture; ils examinent ses yeux; si les vautours ont commencé par lui arracher l’oeil droit, on ne doute pas que le mort ne jouisse de la béatitude; si au contraire l’oeil gauche a été emporté le premier, on conclut que le mort est malheureux dans l’autre vie [se ficar o bicho pega, se correr…?]. C’est aux environs de Surate que demeurent la plûpart des Parsis de l’Indostan.”]

Aprender Sânscrito?!?

À procura da missa perfeita

Pray, who would dare ascribe to Zoroaster books in which are found numberless names of trees, animals, men, and demons unknown to the Ancient Persians; in which are invoked an incredible number of pure animals and other things, which, as appears in the silence of ancient writers, were never known, or at least never worshipped, in Persia? What Greek ever spoke of Hom, of Jemshîd, and, of such other personages as the fabricators of that rhapsody exalt with every kind of praise, as divine heroes?” Meiners “in the midst of his Ciceronian nonsense, there was something like the germ of comparative mythology; seldom has a man approached the truth so closely and then departed from it so widely.” “Meiners had pointed out the mythical identity of the Mount Alborg of the Parsis with the Mount Meru of the Hindus, as a proof that the Parsis had borrowed their mythology from the Hindus: the conclusion was incorrect, but the remark itself was not so.” “Meiners had said that the name of the Parsi demons was of Indian origin, as both languages knew them by the Latin name <Deus>. This was an incorrect statement, and yet an important observation. The word which means <a demon> in Persia, means quite the contrary in India [um deus?], and that radical difference is just a proof of the two systems being independent of one another [pelo contrário: Freud/Saussure: os contrários significam derivação de uma mesma raiz – PRECEITO BÁSICO DA LINGÜÍSTICA!].Zend has no Arabic elements in it, and that Pahlavi [idioma] itself, which is more modern than Zend, does not contain any Arabic, but only Semitic words of the Aramean dialect”

Plutarch agrees so well with the Zend books that I think no one will deny the close resemblance of doctrines and identity of origin.” Tychsen

<…it follows that the language of the Zend was at least a dialect of the Sanscrit, approaching perhaps as nearly to it as the Prácrit [grafia diferente ao longo do volume], or other popular idioms, which we know to have been spoken in India 2,000 years ago> [William Jones]. This conclusion, that Zend is a Sanskrit dialect, was incorrect, the connection assumed being too close; but it was a great thing that the near relationship of the two languages should have been brought to light.” “the Zend is not derived from the Sanskrit, but both are derived from another and older language.”

The first 25 of this century [1800-1825] were void of results, but the old and sterile discussions as to the authenticity of the texts continued in England.”

Rhode sketched the religious history of Persia after the translations of Anquetil”

Emmanuel Rask, one of the most gifted minds in the new school of philology (…) [wrote] the first essay on Zend grammar, and it was a masterly one.”

Eugène Burnouf founded the only correct method [?] of interpreting the Avesta.” “He also gave the first notions of a comparative mythology of the Avesta and the Veda, by showing the identity of the Vedic Yama with the Avesta Yima, and of Traitâna with Thraêtaona and Ferîdûn. Thus he made his Commentaire sur le Yasna, a marvellous and unparalleled model of critical insight and steady good sense, equally opposed to the narrowness of mind which clings to matters of fact without rising to their cause and connecting them with the series of associated phenomena, and to the wild and uncontrolled spirit of comparison, which, by comparing everything, confounds everything.

2. O AVESTA “REAL”/”ORIGINAL”/PAHLAVI VS. O AVESTA “SAGRADO”/”VÉDICO”: O ELO PERDIDO DOS LIVROS HISTÓRICO-RELIGIOSOS – Anjos, Demônios & A Síntese Metódica

DIZEM OS CONVENCIONALISTAS/COMPARATISTAS…

tradition [language] is always either new sense or nonsense. The key to the Avesta is not the Pahlavi, but the Veda. The Avesta and the Veda are two echoes of one and the same voice, the reflex of one and the same thought: the Vedas, therefore, are both the best lexicon and the best commentary to the Avesta.”

DIZEM OS HIPER-EMPÍRICOS/LINGÜISTAS/TRADICIONALISTAS…

<the demons,> the Daêvas, would ascend from their dwelling in hell up to heaven, to meet their philological brothers, the Indian Devas. The traditional method, as it starts from matters of facts [coisas-em-si], moves always in the field of reality; the comparative method starts from an hypothesis, moves in a vacuum, and builds up a fanciful religion and a fanciful language.”

DIZ A SÍNTESE…

the divergence between the two methods is more apparent than real” “No language, no religion, that has lived long and changed much, can be understood at any moment of its development, unless we know what it became afterwards, and what it was before. The language and religion of the Avesta record but a moment in the long life of the Iranian language and thought, so that we are unable to understand them, unless we know what they became and whence they came.” “it cannot happen that the tradition [o oral, o real, como se o passado fosse realmente acessível a nós do presente] and the Veda [a convenção, a ficção cristalizada, a memória comparada, como se a verdade já tivesse sido dita de uma vez por todas] will really contradict one another, if we take care to ask from each only what it knows” “The Veda, generally speaking, cannot help in discovering matters of fact in the Avesta, but only in explaining them when discovered by tradition.O Veda também é real, a tra[d]ição também é ficção.

Quando a gramática (a língua de hoje) não era entendida como convenção (de outrora)!

Quando a mitologia (a mentira infantil de hoje) não era entendida como a realidade (de ontem)!

Quando aprender línguas não era compará-las…

Quando ler um livro não era vivenciá-lo…

Prega o prego que não se deve pregar

encaixotando o último prego do caixão

que levou um caixote no mar ventoso

queonda!

Roth showed after Burnouf how the epical history of Iran was derived from the same source as the myths of Vedic India, and pointed out the primitive identity of Ahura Mazda, the supreme god of Iran, with Varuna, the supreme god of the Vedic age.” “the dangers of the method came to light in the works of Haug, who, giving a definite form to a system still fluctuating, converted Mazdeism into a religious revolution against Vedic polytheism, found historical allusions to that schism both in the Avesta and in the Veda, pointed out curses against Zoroaster in the Vedas, and, in short, transformed, as it were, the two books into historical pamphlets.”

3. “ZEND NÃO É ZEND”; VÁRIOS LIVROS DENTRO DE UM LIVRO & SUAS GENEALOGIAS E APOCALIPSES

Zend-Avesta” quer dizer: A Explicação da Lei. A prístina e utópica forma do Livro teria de ser o Avesta (a Lei). Vendîdâd Sâdah é o mesmo conteúdo, apenas com a ordem trocada.

What it is customary to call, <the Zend languag > ought to be named, <the Avesta language>; the Zend being no language at all; and, if the word be used as the designation of one, it can be rightly applied only to the Pahlavi.”

O Zend-bundismo

It is a tradition with the Parsis, that the Yasts were originally 30 in number, there having been 1 for each of the 30 Izads who preside over the 30 days of the month; yet there are only 18 still extant.”

The cause that preserved the Avesta is obvious; taken as a whole, it does not profess to be a religious encyclopedia, but only a liturgical collection, and it bears more likeness to a Prayer Book than to the Bible.”

ALEXANDRIA NÃO FOI NADA: “The primitive Avesta, as revealed by Ormazd to Zoroaster and by Zoroaster to Vistâsp, king of Bactria, was supposed to have been composed of 21 Nosks or Books, the greater part of which was burnt by Iskander the Rûmi (Alexander the Great). After his death the priests of the Zoroastrian religion met together, and by collecting the various fragments that had escaped the ravages of the war and others that they knew by heart, they formed the present collection, which is a very small part of the original book, as out of the 21 Nosks there was only one that was preserved in its entirety, the Vendîdâd

There were, in fact, 4 kings at least who bore the name of Valkhash: the most celebrated and best known of the four was Vologeses I, the contemporary of Nero. Now that Zoroastrianism prevailed with him, or at least with members of his family, we see from the conduct of his brother Tiridates, who was a Magian (Magus); and by this term we must not understand a magician, but a priest, and one of the Zoroastrian religion.” “Pliny very often confounds Magism and Magia, Magians and Magicians. We know from Pliny, too, that Tiridates refused to initiate Nero into his art: but the cause was not, as he assumes, that it was <a detestable, frivolous, and vain art>, but because Mazdean law forbids the holy knowledge to be revealed to laymen, much more to foreigners”

Now the language used in Persia after the death of Alexander, under the Arsacides and Sassanides, that is, during the period in which the Avesta must have been edited, was Pahlavi, which is not derived from Zend, but from ancient Persian, being the middle dialect between ancient and modern Persian. Therefore, if the Sassanian kings had conceived the project of having religious books of their own written and composed, it is not likely that they would have had them written in an old foreign dialect, but in the old national language, the more so, because, owing both to their origin and their policy, they were bound to be the representatives of the genuine old Persian tradition.”

The bulk of the book is a rebuke.

Mazdeism had just been threatened with destruction by a new religion sprung from itself, the religion of Mânî, which for a while numbered a king amongst its followers (Shapûr I, 240-270). Mazdeism was shaken for a long time, and when Mânî was put to death, his work did not perish with him. In the Kissah-i Sangâh, Zoroaster is introduced prophesying that the holy religion will be overthrown three times and restored three times; overthrown the first time by Iskander, it will be restored by Ardeshîr; overthrown again, it will be restored by Shapûr II and Âdarbâd Mahraspand; and, lastly, it will be overthrown by the Arabs and restored at the end of time by Soshyos.”

And he who would set that man at liberty, when bound in prison, does no better deed than if he should flay a man alive and cut off his head.”

that Mânî should have rejected many Zoroastrian practices is not unlikely, as his aim was to found a universal religion.”

And of two men, he who fills himself with meat is filled with the good spirit much more than he who does not so; the latter is all but dead; the former is above him by the worth of an Asperena, by the worth of a sheep, by the worth of an ox, by the worth of a man.”

MANI, O PRIMEIRO VEGAN: “Like Mânî, Christian teachers held the single life holier than the state of matrimony, yet they had not forbidden marriage, which Mânî did; they never prohibited the eating of flesh, which was one of the chief precepts of Mânî” “The patriarch of Alexandria, Timotheus, allowed the other patriarchs, bishops, and monks to eat meat on Sundays, in order to recognise those who belonged to the Manichean sect”

All the main features of Mazdean belief, namely, the existence of two principles, a good and an evil one, Ormazd and Ahriman, the antithetical creations of the two supreme powers, the division of all the beings in nature into two corresponding classes, the limited duration of the world, the end of the struggle between Ormazd and Ahriman by the defeat and destruction of the evil principle, the resurrection of the dead, and the everlasting life, all these tenets of the Avesta had already been established at the time of Philip and Aristotle.”

According to the Avesta burying corpses in the earth is one of the most heinous sins that can be committed; we know that under the Sassanians a prime minister, Seoses, paid with his life for an infraction of that law. Corpses were to be laid down on the summits of mountains, there to be devoured by birds and dogs; the exposure of corpses, was the most striking practice of Mazdean profession, and its adoption was the sign of conversion. (…) Persians, says Herodotus, bury their dead in the earth, after having coated them with wax. But Herodotus, immediately after stating that the Persians inter their dead, adds that the Magi do not follow the general practice, but lay the corpses down on the ground, to be devoured by birds.” “There were therefore, practically, two religions in Iran, the one for laymen and the other for priests. The Avesta was originally the sacred book only of the Magi, and the progress of the religious evolution was to extend to laymen what was the custom of the priests.” “Between the priests and the people there was not only a difference of calling, but also a difference of race, as the sacerdotal caste came from a non-Persian province.” “when we learn from Herodotus (I, 101) that the Medes were divided into several tribes, Busae, Paraetakeni, Strouchates, Arizanti, Budii, and Magi, without his making any remark on the last name, we can hardly have any doubt that the priests known as Magi belonged to the tribe of the Magi, that they were named after their origin, and that the account of Marcellinus may be correct even for so early a period as that of Herodotus.”

UMA RELIGIÃO QUE NÃO É DE EXTREMOS: “That they came from Media, we see from the traditions about the native place of Zoroaster, their chief and the founder of their religion. Although epic legends place the cradle of Mazdean power in Bactria, at the court of King Vistâsp, Bactria was only the first conquest of Zoroaster, it was neither his native place, nor the cradle of his religion.”

The Pahlavi names of the cardinal points show that Media was the centre of orientation in Magian geography (Garrez, Journal Asiatique, 1869, II).”

< How many masters are there?>

<There are the master of the house, the lord of the borough, the lord of the town, the lord of the province, and the Zarathustra (the high-priest) as the fifth. So is it in all lands, except in the Zarathustrian realm; for there are there only four masters, in Ragha, the Zarathustrian city>”

NIE. O INCOMPREENDIDO FILÓSOFO-LEGISLADOR: “The temple of Azerekhsh is ascribed to Zeratusht, the founder of the Magian religion, who went, it is said, from Shîz to the mountain of Sebîlân, and, after remaining there some time in retirement, returned with the Zend-Avesta, which, although written in the old Persian language, could not be understood without a commentary. After this he declared himself to be a prophet

In the Avesta itself we read that Zoroaster was born and received the law from Ormazd on a mountain, by the river Darega

Cyrus is said to have introduced the Magian priesthood into Persia (Xenophon, Cyrop. VIII, I, 23)”

The proper word for a priest in the Avesta is Âthravan, literally, fire-man, and that this was his name with the Persians too appears from the statement in Strabo (XV, 733)”

NÓS GOSTAMOS DE MISSAS PORQUE AO SAIR DELAS NOS ACHAMOS MAIS IGNORANTES DO QUE QUANDO ENTRAMOS: “The very fact that no sacrifice could be performed without the assistance of the Magi makes it highly probable that they were in possession of rites, prayers, and hymns very well composed and arranged, and not unlike those of the Brahmans (…) it is quite possible that Herodotus may have heard the Magi sing, in the fifth century B.C., the very same Gâthas which are sung nowadays by the Mobeds in Bombay. A part of the Avesta, the liturgical part, would therefore have been, in fact, a sacred book for the Persians. It had not been written by them, but it was sung for their benefit. That Zend hymns should have been sung before a Persian-speaking people is not stranger than Latin words being sung by Frenchmen, Germans, and Italians; the only difference being that, owing to the close affinity of Zend to Persian, the Persians may have been able to understand the prayers of their priests.

KANT 0: “The theory of time and space as first principles of the world, of which only the germs are found in the Avesta, was fully developed in the time of Eudemos, a disciple of Aristotle.”

CARNE PODRE MISTURADA COM O AR – NÃO, ORA ESSA, CARNE É AR!: “The new principle they introduced, or, rather, developed into new consequences, was that of the purity of the elements. Fire, earth, and water had always been considered sacred things, and had received worship: the Magi drew from that principle the conclusion that burying the dead or burning the dead was defiling a god: as early as Herodotus they had already succeeded in preserving fire from that pollution, and cremation was a capital crime. The earth still continued to be defiled, notwithstanding the example they set; and it was only under the Sassanians, when Mazdeism became the religion of the state, that they won this point also.”

A CASTA DOS MAGOS GANHOU LENTAMENTE O PODER NO IRÃ, MAS HÁ UM MARCO: “Artaxerxes Longimanus. The epic history of Iran, as preserved in the Shah Nâmah, passes suddenly from the field of mythology to that of history with the reign of that king, which makes it likely that it was in his time that the legends of Media became national in Persia”

O FIM TRÁGICO: “their principles required an effort too continuous and too severe to be ever made by any but priests, who might concentrate all their faculties in watching whether they had not dropped a hair upon the ground. A working people could not be imprisoned in such a religion, though it might be pure and high in its ethics. The triumph of Islam was a deliverance for the consciences of many, and Magism, by enforcing its observances upon the nation, brought about the ruin of its dogmas, which were swept away at the same time: its triumph was the cause and signal of its fall”

He seems to have been a man of contemplative mind rather than a man of action, which often excited the anger or scorn of his people against him”

Men, when raised from the dead, shall have no shadow any longer (μήτεσκιν ποιοντας). In India, gods have no shadows (Nalus); in Persia, Râshidaddîn was recognised to be a god from his producing no shadow (Guyard, Un grand maitre, des Assassins, Journal Asiatique, 1877, I, 392); the plant of eternal life, Haoma, has no shadow (Henry Lord).

the holiness of marriage between next of kin, even to incest, was unknown to Persia under Cambyses (Herod. III, 31), but it is highly praised in the Avesta, and was practised under the Sassanians (Agathias II, 31); in the times before the Sassanians it is mentioned only as a law of the Magi (Diog. Laert. Prooem. 6; Catullus, Carm. XC).”

The struggle of Haoma against Keresâni is an old Indo-European myth, Keresâni being the same as the Vedic Krisânu, who wants to keep away Soma from the hands of men.”

Nothing is known of any Scythian religion, and what is ascribed to a so-called Scythian influence, the worship of the elements, is one of the oldest and most essential features of the Aryan religions.”

4. EVOLUÇÃO DO MAZDEÍSMO DO HINDUÍSMO

There were, therefore, in the Indo-Iranian religion a latent monotheism and an unconscious dualism; both of which, in the further development of Indian thought, slowly disappeared; but Mazdeism lost neither of these two notions”

Asureavisvavedas” = o Senhor onisciente

in the middle of the Vedic period. Indra, the dazzling god of storm, rose to supremacy in the Indian Pantheon, and outshines Varuna with the roar and splendour of his feats; but soon to give way to a new and mystic king, Prayer or Brahman.”

§7. The Indo-Iranian Asura was often conceived as sevenfold: by the play of certain mythical formulae and the strength of certain mythical numbers, the ancestors of the Indo-Iranians had been led to speak of seven worlds, and the supreme god was often made sevenfold, as well as the worlds over which he ruled. The names and the several attributes of the seven gods had not been as yet defined, nor could they be then; after the separation of the two religions, these gods, named Âditya, <the infinite ones,> in India, were by and by identified there with the sun, and their number was afterwards raised to twelve, to correspond to the twelve successive aspects of the sun. In Persia, the seven gods are known as Amesha Spentas, <the undying and well-doing ones;> they by and by, according to the new spirit that breathed in the religion, received the names of the deified abstractions, Vohu-manô (good thought), Asha Vahista (excellent holiness), Khshathravairya (perfect sovereignty), Spenta Ârmaiti (divine piety), Haurvatât and Ameretât (health and immortality). The first of them all was and remained Ahura Mazda; but whereas formerly he had been only the first of them, he was now their father.”

In the Veda, they are invoked as a pair (Mitrâ-Varunâ), which enjoys the same power and rights as Varuna alone, as there is nothing more in Mitrâ-Varunâ than in Varuna alone, Mitra being the light of Heaven, that is, the light of Varuna. But Ahura Mazda could no longer bear an equal, and Mithra became one of his creatures” “the Creator was formerly a brother to his creature.”

Yet, with all his might, he still needs the help of some god, of such as free the oppressed heavens from the grasp of the fiend. When storm rages in the atmosphere he offers up a sacrifice to Vayu, the bright storm god, who moves in the wind, he entreats him: <Grant me the favour, thou Vayu whose action is most high, that I may smite the world of Angra Mainyu, and that he may not smite mine! Vayu, whose action is most high, granted the asked-for favour to the creator Ahura Mazda.>”

Whereas in India the fiends were daily driven farther and farther into the background, and by the prevalence of the metaphysical spirit gods and fiends came to be nothing more than changing and fleeting creatures of the everlasting, indifferent Being, Persia took her demons in real earnest; she feared them, she hated them, and the vague and unconscious dualism that lay at the bottom of the Indo-Iranian religion has its unsteady outlines sharply defined, and became the very form and frame of Mazdeism.”

§11. The war in nature was waged in the storm. The Vedas describe it as a battle fought by a god, Indra, armed with the lightning and thunder, against a serpent, Ahi, who has carried off the dawns or the rivers, described as goddesses or as milch cows [vacas leiteiras!], and who keeps them captive in the folds of the cloud.” Rios de leite, montanhas de baunilha: talvez tenha sido a concepção inicial de uma sociedade obesa mórbida como a nossa…

<The son of waters> is both in the Vedas and in the Avesta a name of the fire-god, as born from the cloud, in the lightning.”

Râma é o mortal mais forte que habitou a terra, o sal da raça humana.

Num mundo perfeitamente maniqueísta, necessariamente pai ou mãe são diabólico(a)s, mãe ou pai são angelicais. O Ocidente já escolheu sua versão, sua restrição além-aquém do ou. Esteril-o-tipo. Satanização do Destino.

Yâtu, o Deus do Tédio

There was a class of myths, in which, instead of being carried off, she was supposed to have given herself up, of her own free will, to the demon, and to have betrayed the god, her lover. In another form of myth, still more distant from the naturalistic origin, the Pairikas were <nymphs of a fair, but erring line,> who seduced the heroes to lead them to their ruin. Afterwards the Pari became at length the seduction of idolatry”

Páris com P de Pecado

Saoshyant, the son of Zarathustra”

Ano-novo é que faz comida boa (quando passa)

The sacrifice is more than an act of worship, it is an act of assistance to the gods.” Haoma, the Indian Soma, is an intoxicating plant, the juice of which is drunk by the faithful for their own benefit and for the benefit of their gods. It comprises in it the powers of life of all the vegetable kingdom.” “There are two Haomas: one is the yellow or golden Haoma, which is the earthly Haoma, and which, when prepared for the sacrifice, is the king of healing plants; the other is the white Haoma or Gaokerena, which grows up in the middle of the sea Vouru-kasha, surrounded by the ten thousand healing plants. It is by the drinking of Gaokerena that men, on the day of the resurrection, will become immortal.” “Spell or prayer is not less powerful than the offerings.”

Agni, as a messenger between gods and men, was known to the Vedas as Narâ-sansa; hence came the Avesta messenger of Ahura, Nairyô-sangha.”

HARD HARD LIFE

FACILITY OF FELICITIES

EASINESS OF DIZZINESS

FABRIC OF CORRUPTION

NECESSITY OF CRISIS

The Amesha Spentas projected, as it were, out of themselves, as many Daêvas or demons, who, either in their being or functions, were, most of them, hardly more than dim [vis, decaídas] inverted images of the very gods they were to oppose, and whom they followed through all their successive evolutions. Haurvatât and Ameretât, health and life, were opposed by Tauru and Zairi, sickness and decay, who changed into rulers of thirst and hunger when Haurvatât and Ameretât had become the Amshaspands of waters and trees.”

In the eyes of the Parsis, animals belong either to Ormazd or Ahriman according as they are useful or hurtful to man; but, in fact, they belonged originally to either the one or the other, according as they had been incarnations of the god or of the fiend, that is, as they chanced to have lent their forms to either in the storm tales”

Persia was on the brink of zoolatry, and escaped it only by misunderstanding the principle she followed.”

as Tistrya had been compared to a shining star on account of the gleaming of lightning, the stars joined in the fray, where they stood with Tistrya on Ahura’s side; and partly for the sake of symmetry, partly owing to Chaldaean influences, the planets passed into the army of Ahriman.”

In the Veda Yama, the son of Vivasvat, is the first man and, therefore, the first of the dead, the king of the dead. As such he is the centre of gathering for the departed, and he presides over them in heaven, in the Yamasâdanam, as king of men, near Varuna the king of gods.

His Avesta twin-brother, Yima, the son of Vîvanghat, is no longer the first man, as this character had been transferred to another hero, of later growth, Gayô Maratan; yet he has kept nearly all the attributes which were derived from his former character: on the one hand he is the first king, and the founder of civilisation; on the other hand, <the best mortals> gather around him in a marvellous palace, in Airyanem Vaêgô

WINTER WON’T COME: “The world was imagined as lasting a long year of 12 millenniums. There had been an old myth, connected with that notion, which made the world end in a frightful winter, to be succeeded by an eternal spring, when the blessed would come down from the Vara of Yima to repeople the earth. But as storm was the ordinary and more dramatic form of the strife, there was another version, according to which the world ended in a storm, and this version became the definitive one.” (Director’s Cut)

This brings us to the question whether any historical reality underlies the legend of Zarathustra or Zoroaster.”

N[A]DA

A Lei e a Verdade são Figuras, Imagens, Símbolos, Sensaborões, Não! Não as Quero Não os Quero de Forma ou Conteúdo algum!

Imortalidade e Clareza são meros contos do vigário

O que há é Nada, depois de Nada,

Nada há!

A vida veio da água e termina no breu oceânico

Anunciador que admoesta

Admoestador que anuncia

Como um raio

e cuspo gases

Que nada!, isso é tudo…

Mazdeism has often been called Zoroaster’s religion, in the same sense as Islam is called Muhammed’s religion, that is, as being the work of a man named Zoroaster, a view which was favoured, not only by the Parsi and Greek accounts, but by the strong unity and symmetry of the whole system.” “it was thought that Zoroaster’s work had been a work of reaction against Indian polytheism, in fact, a religious schism. When he lived no one knows, and every one agrees that all that the Parsis and the Greeks tell of him is mere legend, through which no solid historical facts can be arrived at. The question is whether Zoroaster was a man converted into a god, or a god converted into a man.”

* * *

profeta de deus, organizador da liturgia, com o objetivo de ser <intermediário> entre Ormuz, o princípio do bem, experimentado na luz do sol e cujo animal simbólico é a águia real, e Ahriman, o princípio do mal, experimentado nas trevas e cujo animal simbólico é a serpente (Janz, 1985, p. 183-184).”Apud Flávio Senra, 2010

Segundo Janz, foi em Basiléia que o jovem Nietzsche conheceu um teórico que haveria de influenciá-lo em seus primeiros escritos. Teria sido o Sr. Johann Jakob Bachofen responsável por influenciar a leitura que Nietzsche fez da tragédia grega e, também, responsável por oferecer o referencial bibliográfico para o conhecimento que o filósofo teria da religião de Zoroastro. Trata-se de Friedrich Creuzer (1771-1858), o autor compartilhado por Bachofen e o jovem Nietzsche. Creuzer foi autor de Symbolik und Mithologie der alten Völker besonders der Griechen (Simbólica e mitologia dos povos primitivos, especialmente dos gregos), obra publicada entre 1810-12, em quatro volumosos tomos. Através de Thomas Gelzer, estudioso do pensamento de Bachofen, organizador de Die Bachofen-Briefe (As cartas de Bachofen), publicadas em 1969, chegamos a conhecer um pouco mais sobre esse elo de ligação (sic) entre os autores aqui citados. Creuzer foi estudioso de Plotino e Proclo. A partir desse último, chegou a influenciar o romantismo e Goethe. Foi em Creuzer, entre outros, que Nietzsche se apoiou para preparar o curso de inverno de 1875-76, curso repetido no semestre de inverno de 1877-78, sobre os arcaísmos da cultura religiosa dos gregos. Segundo o importante biógrafo de Nietzsche que foi Janz, a obra de Creuzer foi retirada da biblioteca da Universidade da Basiléia em 1871, momento da redação de O Nascimento da Tragédia e, posteriormente, foi adquirida por Nietzsche.”

A tradução [do nome Zaratustra em persa] sugerida pelo literato é Estrela de ouro, Estrela de fulgor, o que destelha ouro.”

Por Salomé, Nietzsche perdeu a cabeça!

Bibliografia:

BOYCE, M. Zoroastrismo. In. BLEEKER, C. J.; WIDENGREN, G. Historia religionun. Manual de historia de las religiones. Religiones del presente. p. 211-236.

GADAMER, H-G. Nietzsche l’antipode. Le drame de Zarathoustra. Paris: Editions Allia, 2000.

GÂTHAS. Traduzido do avestano para o inglês por Ali A. Jafarey e do inglês para o português por Onaldo A. Pereira. Goiânia: Comunidade Ascha, [s.d.].

HEIDEGGER, M. ¿Quien és el Zaratustra de Nietzsche? In. Conferencias y artículos. Barcelona: Editiones del Serbal. p. 75-93.

TATSCH, F. G. Persas. In. FUNARI, P. P. (Org.) As religiões que o mundo esqueceu. São Paulo: Contexto, 2009. p. 102-143.

WINDEGREN, G. Fenomenología de la religion. Madrid: Ediciones Cristiandad, 1976.

* * *

But the great weapon of Zarathustra is neither the thunder-stones he hurls, nor the glory with which he is surrounded, it is the Word.”

the Romans worshipped the thunder as a goddess, Fama

MEU ANCESTRAL ERA UM YOUKAI E EU NASCI POR INSEMINAÇÃO ARTIFICIAL INCUBADA INDIRETA”: “As he overwhelmed Angra Mainyu during his lifetime by his spell, he is to overwhelm him at the end of time by the hands of a son yet unborn. <Three times he came near unto his wife Hrôgvi, and three times the seed fell upon the ground. The Ized Neriosengh took what was bright and strong in it and intrusted it to the Ized Anâhita. At the appointed time, it will be united again with a maternal womb: 99,999 Fravashis of the faithful watch over it, lest the fiends destroy it.> A maid bathing in the lake Kãsava will conceive by it and bring forth the victorious Saoshyant (Sôshyôs), who will come from the region of the dawn to free the world from death and decay, from corruption and rottenness” O homem que é num só ruptura e continuidade.

Etymology was unable to preserve the Daêvas from this degradation, as the root div, <to shine,> was lost in Zend, and thus the primitive meaning being forgotten, the word was ready to take any new meaning which chance or necessity should give to it.”

VIRA VILÃO: “Though the word Indra is the name of a fiend in the Avesta, the Vedic god it denotes was as bright and as mighty in Iran as in India under the name of Verethraghnaa

NÃO HÁ DIALÉTICA, THOMAS EDSON: “There was no religious revolution: there was only a long and slow movement which led, by insensible degrees, the vague and unconscious dualism of the Indo-Iranian religion onwards to the sharply defined dualism of the Magi.” O mesmo é a gota que precede a tempestade, o raio anunciador, o Zaratustra do XIX.

there is hardly any religion in which slow growth and continual change is more apparent. When the Magi had accounted for the existence of evil by the existence of two principles, there arose the question how there could be 2 principles, and a longing for unity was felt, which found its satisfaction in the assumption that both are derived from one and the same principle. This principle was, according to divers sects, either Space, or Infinite Light, or Boundless Time, or Fate.” “at any rate, no one can think of ascribing to one man, or to one time, that slow change from dualism to monotheism”

The seven worlds became in Persia the seven Karshvare of the earth: the earth is divided into seven Karshvare, only one of which is known and accessible to man, the one on which we live, namely, Hvaniratha; which amounts to saying that there are seven earths.”

Mitra means literally, <a friend>”

Ahriman created a lovely bird, the peacock, to show that he did not do evil from any incapacity of doing well, but through wilful wickedness (Eznik); Satan is still nowadays invoked by the Yezidis as Melek Taus (<angel peacock>).”

5. O VENDÎDÂD: PRÓLOGO-SINOPSE / PREPARAÇÃO PARA A LEITURA: O PURO E O IMPURO

There is nothing in worship but what existed before in mythology.” “The Parsis, being at a loss to find 4-eyed dogs, interpret the name as meaning a dog with 2 spots above the eyes” “This reminds one at once of the three-headed Kerberos, watching at the doors of hell, and, still more, of the two brown, four-eyed dogs of Yama, who guard the ways to the realm of death” “the notion of uncleanness is quite the reverse of what thought elsewhere: the corpse, when rotten, is less unclean than the body still all but warm with life; death defiles least when it looks most hideous, and defiles most when it might look majestic. The cause is that in the latter case the death-demon has just arrived in the fullness of his strength, whereas in the former case time has exhausted his power.” “The Indo-Europeans either burnt the corpse or buried it: both customs are held to be sacrilegious in the Avesta.” “the dead man was a traveller to the other world, whom the fire kindly carried to his heavenly abode [nos Vedas]” “burning the dead is the most heinous of sins: in the times of Strabo it was a capital crime”

The Magi are said to have overthrown a king for having built bath-houses, as they cared more for the cleanness of water than for their own.”

Everything that goes out of the body of man is dead, and becomes the property of the demon. The going breath is unclean, it is forbidden to blow the fire with it, and even to approach the fire without screening it from the contagion with a Penôm. Parings of nails and cuttings or shavings of hair are unclean, and become weapons in the hands of the demons unless they have been protected by certain rites and spells. Any phenomenon by which the bodily nature is altered, whether accompanied with danger to health or not, was viewed as a work of the demon, and made the person unclean in whom it took place. One of these phenomena, which is a special object of attention in the Vendîdâd, is the uncleanness of women during their menses. The menses are sent by Ahriman, especially when they last beyond the usual time: therefore a woman, as long as they last, is unclean and possessed of the demon: she must be kept confined, apart from the faithful whom her touch would defile, and from the fire which her very look would injure; she is not allowed to eat as much as she wishes, as the strength she might acquire would accrue to the fiends. Her food is not given to her from hand to hand, but is passed to her from a distance, in a long leaden spoon. The origin of all these notions is in certain physical instincts, in physiological psychology, which is the reason why they are found among peoples very far removed from one another by race or religion.”

Only the case when the woman has been delivered of a still-born child is examined in the Vendîdâd. She is unclean as having been in contact with a dead creature; and she must first drink gômêz [urina de vaca] to wash over the grave in her womb. So utterly unclean is she, that she is not even allowed to drink water, unless she is in danger of death; and even then, as the sacred element has been defiled, she is liable to the penalty of a Peshôtanu [proscrito que é melhor matar do que deixar que viva na comunidade].”

metal vessels, can be cleansed, earthen vessels cannot; leather is more easily cleansed than woven cloth; dry wood than soft wood.”

Assaults are of 7 degrees: âgerepta, avaoirista, stroke, sore wound, bloody wound, broken bone, and manslaughter. The gravity of the guilt does not depend on the gravity of the deed only, but also on its frequency. Each of these 7 crimes amounts, by its being repeated without having been atoned for, to the crime that immediately follows in the scale, so that an âgerepta 7x repeated amounts to manslaughter.”

The lowest penalty in the Vendîdâd is five stripes, and the degrees from five stripes to Peshôtanu [pena capital] are ten, fifteen, thirty, fifty, seventy, ninety, two hundred. For instance, âgerepta is punished with five stripes, avaoirista with ten, stroke with fifteen, sore wound with thirty, bloody wound with fifty, broken bone with seventy, manslaughter with ninety; a second manslaughter, committed without the former being atoned for, is punished with the Peshôtanu penalty. In the same way the 6 other crimes, repeated eight, or seven, or six, or five, or four, or three times make the committer go through the whole series of penalties up to the Peshôtanu penalty.” “400 stripes if one, being in a state of uncleanness, touches water or trees, 400 if one covers with cloth a dead man’s feet, 600 if one covers his legs, 800 if the whole body. 500 stripes for killing a whelp, 600 for killing a stray dog, 700 for a house dog, 800 for a shepherd’s dog, 1000 stripes for killing a Vanhâpara dog, 10,000 for killing a water dog.” “Yet any one who bethinks himself of the spirit of the old Aryan legislation will easily conceive that there may be in its eyes many crimes more heinous, and to be punished more severely, than manslaughter: offences against man injure only one man; offences against gods endanger all mankind. No one should wonder at the unqualified cleanser being put to death who reads Demosthenes’ Neaera” “It may be doubted whether the murder of a shepherd’s dog could have been actually punished with 800 stripes, much more whether the murder of a water dog could have been really punished with 10,000 stripes, unless we suppose that human endurance was different in ancient Persia from what it is elsewhere, or even in modern Persia herself” “In the Ravâets, 200 stripes, or a Tanâfûhr, are estimated as equal to 300 istîrs or 1200 dirhems, or 1350 rupees; a stripe is therefore about equal to 6 rupees. How far that system prevailed in practice, whether the guilty might take advantage of this commutation of his own accord, or only with the assent of the judge, we cannot decide. It is very likely that the riches of the fire-temples came for the most part from that source, and that the sound of the dirhems often made the Sraoshô-karana fall from the hands of the Mobeds. That the system of financial penalties did not, however, suppress the system of bodily penalties, appears from the customs of the Parsis who apply both, and from the Pahlavi Commentary which expressly distinguishes three sorts of atonement: the atonement by money (khvâstak), the atonement by the Sraoshô-karana, and the atonement by cleansing.”

The outward form of the Vendîdâd has been often compared with that of the Books of Moses. But in reality, in the Bible, there is no conversation between God and the lawgiver: the law comes down unasked, and God gives commands, but gives no answers. In the Vendîdâd, on the contrary, it is the wish of man, not the will of God, that is the first cause of the revelation.”

No momento, tenho 4 anos de cão.

Ravâet (l.c.): “Ormazd, wishing to keep the body of the first man, Gayômart, from the assaults of Ahriman, who tried to kill him, cried out: <O thou-yellow-eared dog, arise!>”

<The Dakhma is a round building, and is designated by some writers, ‘The Tower of Silence.’ A round pit, about six feet deep, is surrounded by an annular stone pavement, about seven feet wide, on which the dead bodies are placed. This place is enclosed all round by a stone wall some twenty feet high, with a small door on one side for taking the body in. The whole is built up of and paved with stone. The pit has communication with three or more closed pits, at some distance into which the rain washes out the liquids and the remains of the dead bodies> (Dadabhai Naoroji, The Manners and Customs of the Parsees, Bombay, 1864, p. 16). Cf. Farg. 6:50. A Dakhma is the first building the Parsis erect when settling on a new place (Dosabhoy Framjee).”

The Avesta and the Commentator attach great importance to that point [deixar o cadaver ao relento no topo de montanhas, ao invés de enterrá-los ou, muito menos, cremá-los]: it is as if the dead man’s life were thus prolonged, since he can still behold the sun. <Grant us that we may long behold the sun,> said the Indian Rishi.”

DEUSA DA LAREIRA: “<When the child is being born, one brandishes a sword on the four sides, lest fairy Aal kill it> (Polack, Persien, 1:223). In Rome, three gods, Intercidona, Pilumnus, and Deverra, keep her threshold, lest Sylvanus come in and harm her (Augustinus, A Cidade de Deus, 6:9).”

Conversão monetária: “An istîr (στατήρ) is as much as 4 dirhems (δραχμή). The dirhem is estimated by modern tradition a little more than a rupee.”

Sraoshô-karana is translated by kâbuk, <a whip,> which agrees with the Sanskrit translation of the sî-srôshkaranâm sin”

Enfraquecimento paulatino do (coração?) do homem: “In the time of Chardin, the number of stripes inflicted on the guilty never exceeded 300; in the old German law, 200; in the Hebrew law, 40.”

In later Parsîism every sin (and every good deed) has its value in money fixed, and may thus be weighed in the scales of Rashnu. If the number of sin dirhems outweigh the number of the good deed dirhems, the soul is saved. Herodotus noticed the same principle of compensation in the Persian law of his time (1:137; 7:194).”

Complete translations of the Vendîdâd have been published by Anquetil Duperron in France (Paris, 1771), by Professor Spiegel in Germany (Leipzig, 1852), by Canon de Harlez in Belgium (Louvain, 1877). The translation of Professor Spiegel was translated into English by Professor Bleeck, who added useful information from inedited Gujarathi translations (Hertford, 1864).”

* * *

O ZEND-AVESTA COMENTADO

Vendîdâd

Fargard I

Okeanos, the river that divides the gods from the fiends.”

As Irân Vêg is a place of refuge for mankind and all life from the winter that is to destroy the world, winter was thought, by a mythical misunderstanding, to be the counter-creation of Irân Vêg: hence the glacial description of that strange paradise.”

os contos sobre pessoas sem-cabeça, com olhos sobre os ombros, que Plínio recebeu de Ctésias, o meio-persa (História Natural, 5:8; 7:2; apud St. Agostinho (…)). Geógrafos persas mencionam tal povo, localizado nas ilhas orientais próximas à China. A origem mitológica dos relatos deve ser atribuível à Grécia ou à Índia (cf. Pausânias (…)).” O Cavaleiro Sem-Cabeça é a Primeira Vinda da Anarquia, a Morte de Deus Número Um!

Fargard II

Antediluvianos somos. Haverá mais livros. Noé era o Anjo Vingador, a Fome, a Guerra, a Peste e a Morte num(a) só. E esta é a Cidade de Deus dos Escolhidos. Mas tudo se torna chato com o Tempo. Anti-luvas de pelica para disputas e atritos! Anti-ONU, anti-onipotência.

The world, lasting a long year of 12 millenniums, was to end by a dire winter, like the Eddic Fimbul winter, to be followed by an everlasting spring, when men, sent back to earth from the heavens, should enjoy, in an eternal earthly life, the same happiness that they had enjoyed after their death in the realm of Yima [the first man, Iran’s Adam]. But as in the definitive form which was taken by Mazdean cosmology the world was made to end by fire, its destruction by winter was no longer the last incident of its life, and therefore, the Var of Yima, instead of remaining, as it was originally, the paradise that gives back to earth its inhabitants, came to be nothing more than a sort of Noah’s ark.” “Yima had once the same right as his Indian brother [Yama] to the title of a founder of religion: he lost it as, in the course of the development of Mazdeism, Zarathustra became the titular law-giver.”

Eu tenho um anel e um punhal, mas o que eu queria mesmo era um pônei…

A Terra não suporta 300 anos de prosperidade…

In Aryan mythology, the sun is, as is well known, the symbol and source of royalty: Persian kings in particular are <the brothers of the sun>.”

And Yima made the earth grow larger by one-third than it was before, and there came flocks and herds and men”

Três impérios de 300 anos, totalizando 900 anos. Aproximadamente o mesmo ciclo de vida de Adão…

And Yima made the earth grow larger by two-thirds than it was before”

And Yima made the earth grow larger by three-thirds than it was before”

REBOOT DA MATRIX 2.0: “There shall be no humpbacked, none bulged forward there; no impotent, no lunatic; no poverty, no lying, no meanness, no jealousy; no decayed tooth, no leprous to be confined”

O Mito da kilométrica Macross: “In the largest part of the place thou shalt make 9 streets, 6 in the middle part, 3 in the smallest.”

Vamos fazer uma Arca de Noé ecológica movida a engenhos de cana-de-açúcar! Com um Lollapalooza todo dia ali dentro, para nos matar intoxicados de tanto ócio sonoro opiado. Era negra esta nau? Sim, tanto faz, sou indiferente, mas duvido que oriental!

Teto solar não funciona na chuva.

As the bird, because of the swiftness of his flight, was often considered an incarnation of lightning, and as thunder was supposed to be the voice of a god speaking from above, the song of the bird was often thought to be the utterance of a god and a revelation.”

Fargard III

Although the erection of Dakhmas is enjoined by the law, yet the Dakhma in itself is as unclean as any spot on the earth can be, since it is always in contact with the dead. The impurity which would otherwise be scattered over the whole world, is thus brought together to one and the same spot. Yet even that spot, in spite of the Ravaet, is not to lie defiled for ever, as every 50 years the Dakhmas ought to be pulled down, so that their sites may be restored to their natural purity.”

Um homem quando não dá mais esperma, já não pode dar passos firmes com as pernas. São muitas e permanentes as perdas.

Fargard IV

A responsabilidade conjunta da família [até o nono grau de parentesco] era um princípio da lei persa, bem como da lei germânica antiga (cf. Marcellinus)”

Atenuantes acrescidas com a passagem do tempo (para a herança da culpa):“ só o filho nascido depois da quebra de contrato é responsável por ela; os corretos não o são; quando o pai morre, o filho, se honesto, não tem nada a temer para si. Os Ravaets [os que enterram corpos sozinhos] não podem transferir sua punição (…); a alma daquele que rompe um contrato verbal demora 300 anos no inferno” Em regime fechado ou semi-aberto? Domiciliar, para o capeta (Arihman)?

Fargard V

There is no sin upon a man for any dead matter that has been brought by dogs, by birds, by wolves, by winds, or by flies.”

The Ratu is the chief priest, the spiritual head of the community.”

The frog is a creature of Ahriman’s, and one of the most hateful; for, in the sea Vouru-kasha, it goes swimming around the white Hom, the tree of everlasting life, and would gnaw it down, but for the godlike fish Kar-mâhî, that keeps watch and guards the tree wherever the frog would slip in”

A grávida que abortou deve tomar gômêz com cinzas, três, seis ou nove taças, até lavar o túmulo que tem no útero” “e a ela não está permitido, até o quarto dia, tomar água ou sal, ou qualquer comida cozida com água ou sal: no quarto dia deve ser-lhe dado nîtrang, para se lavar e lavar suas vestes, e não lhe está permitido lavar-se e lavar suas vestes com água até o quadragésimo primeiro dia” “a roupa poluída pelo morto só pode vestir mulheres, mesmo depois de lavada e exposta por 6 meses à luz do sol e da lua”

Fargard VI

the dead shall become immortal by tasting of the white Haoma”

Fargard VII

O solene momento da morte: “the Drug Nasu [corrupção, poluição] comes and rushes upon the dead, from the regions of the north, in the shape of a raging fly, with knees and tail sticking out, all stained with stains, and like unto the foulest Khrafstras

Fargard VIII

Quatro sujeitos podem ser mortos sem uma ordem do Dastur [sacerdote]: o Nasâ-burner [quem queima cadáveres], o andarilho, o sodomita, e o criminoso pego em flagrante”

Fargard IX-XI

(…)

Fargard XII

So, besides the general uncleanness arising from actual contact with a corpse, there was another form of uncleanness arising from relationship with the dead. (…) Whether this is the primitive form of mourning, or only a later form of it, we will not discuss here.”

The son deserts the house where his father has died; he could not live and walk in it”

Fargard XIII

Sobre os cães no lato senso.

I a. i. Which is the good creature among the creatures of the good spirit that from midnight till the sun is up goes and kills thousands of the creatures of the evil spirit? § Ahura Mazda answered: <The dog with the prickly back, with the long and thin muzzle, the dog Vanghâpara or Duzaka [hedgehog]>.” Quem matar um porco-espinho que caça os animais malignos entre meia-noite e o nascer-do-sol vai para o inferno e sua descendência é castigada por 9 gerações. O cágado é o “porco-espinho do mal”. A doninha, o castor e a raposa também são espíritos benignos.

The young dog enters the community of the faithful at the age of 4 months, when he can smite the Nasu.”

Whenever one eats bread one must put aside 3 mouthfuls and give them to the dog… for among all the poor there is none poorer than the dog.” “Bring ye unto him milk and fat with meat; this is the right food for the dog.”

De acordo com a lei de Sólon, o cão que morder alguém deve ser entregue à vítima amarrado a um bloco de 4 cúbitos de comprimento (Plutarchus, Solon, 24); o cavalo que matou um homem é condenado à morte (Eusebius, Prep. Evang., 5).”

If there be in the house of a worshipper of Mazda a mad dog, or one that bites without barking, what shall the worshippers of Mazda do?

They shall put a wooden collar around his neck, and they shall tie him to a post, an asti thick if the wood be hard, two astis thick if it be soft. To that post they shall tie him; by the 2 sides of the collar they shall tie him.”

If they shall not do so [tratar o cão enfermo], and the scentless dog [cão sem faro] fall into a hole, or a well, or a precipice, or a river, or a canal, and he be wounded and die thereof, they shall be Peshôtanus [pecadores irretratáveis].”

Which of the 2 wolves deserves more to be killed, the one that is born of a he-dog and of a she-wolf, or the one that is born of a she-dog and of a he-wolf?

Of these 2 wolves, the one that is born of a he-dog and of a she-wolf deserves more to be killed than the one that is born of a she-dog and a he-wolf.

For there are born of a he-dog and of a she-wolf such dogs as fall on the shepherd’s dog, on the house dog, on the Vohunazga dog, on the trained dog, and destroy the folds; such dogs are born as are more murderous, more mischievous, more destructive to the folds than any other dogs.”

Um cachorro come comida podre, como um padre; ele possui gratidão, como um padre; ele é facilmente satisfeito, como um padre; ele só quer um pequeno pedaço de pão, como um padre; nessas coisas ele é exatamente como um padre.

Ele marcha à frente, como um guerreiro; ele luta pelas pacíficas vacas, como um guerreiro; ele é o primeiro é sair de casa, como um guerreiro. (…)

Ele está sempre atento e tem o sono leve, como um pastor; ele é o primeiro a sair de casa, como um pastor; e o último a retornar para casa, como um pastor.

Ele canta como um trovador; ele é intrusivo, como um trovador; ele é esquálido, como um trovador; ele é pobre, como um trovador.

Ele gosta da escuridão, como um bandido; ele espreita à escuridão, como um bandido; ele é um comilão imoderado, como um bandido; ele é um guardião não-confiável, como um bandido.

(…)

Ele adora dormir, como uma criança; ele pode sair correndo sem destino e se perder, como uma criança; ele é linguarudo e babão, como uma criança, ele caminha de 4 pela casa, como uma criança.”

Os indianos e Platão concordam com a medula sendo a origem do sêmen; Aristóteles discorda.

FADO-LESÃO

epilep(oe)sia

Fargard XIV

Mil almas de cachorros mortos se juntam para formar um cachorro d’água (??). E aquele que o matar será o responsável por uma peste inteira a devastar os campos (10 mil chicotadas de cada um dos 2 tipos existentes, o que soa inverossímil como legislação real jamais aplicada; ou multa exorbitante; ou o sacrifício de 10 mil cobras venenosas, ou tartarugas, ou sapos, ou formigas [??], ou vermes da terra ou moscas).

A “cobra venenosa” do parágrafo acima pode ser uma forma de se referir ao gato, já que é reputado como “tendo o mesmo formato do cão”, mas sendo maligno.

Os animais a que os Gaures [indianos] mais têm repulsa são as serpentes, os vermes, os lagartos e outros dessa espécie, os sapos, os caranguejos, os ratos e os morcegos, e sobretudo os gatos” G. du ChinonEles dizem, ainda, que os sapos são a causa da morte dos homens, pois envenenam as águas que habitam continuamente, e quanto mais destes espécimes houver mais doenças vão causar”

Fargard XV

He who gives too hot food to a dog so as to burn his throat is margarzân (guilty of death)”

Fargard XVI-XVII

(…)

Fargard XVIII

If a Gahi (courtezan) look at running waters, they fall; if at trees, they are stunted; if she converse with a pious man, his intelligence and his holiness are withered by it (Saddar 67 Hyde 74). Cf. Manu, 4:40-ss.

O Zartust Isfitamân! with regard to woman, I say to thee that any woman that has given up her body to two men in one day is sooner to be killed than a wolf, a lion, or a snake: any one who kills such a woman will gain as much merit by it as if he had provided with wood 1000 fire-temples or destroyed the dens of adders [ninhos de víboras], scorpions, lions, wolves, or snakes”

Fargard XIX

an old myth in which Zarathustra and Angra Mainyu played respectively the parts of Oedipus and the Sphinx.”

A ponte que passa pelo Inferno mas leva para o Céu: “This bridge is known in many mythologies; it is the Sirath bridge of the Musulmans; not long ago they sang in Yorkshire of <the Brig o’ Dread, na brader than a thread> (Thoms, Anecdotes, 89), and even nowadays the peasant in Nièvre tells of a little board–

<Pas pu longue, pas pu large

Qu’un ch’veu de la Sainte Viarge,>

which was put by Saint Jean d’Archange between the earth and paradise”

A teoria de anjos do mal: “Indra the Daêva, Sâuru the Daêva, Naunghaithya the Daêva, Taurvi and Zairi, Aêshma of the wounding spear, Akatasha the Daêva, Zaurva, baneful to the fathers, Bûiti the Daêva, Driwi the Daêva, Daiwi the Daêva, Kasvi the Daêva, Paitisha the most Daêva-like amongst the Dâevas [Opposition, or counter-action, a personification of the doings of Ahriman/Angra Mainyu and of his marring power].”

Fargard XX

Thrita, o primeiro médico.

As funções de médico e matador (logo, encantador) de serpentes eram unificadas. Princípio de HxH: quem tem o veneno, tem o remédio.

Eram 8 as doenças.

Fargard XXI

There were old myths in which a cloud was compared to a bull in the atmosphere, from whom rain was supposed to come.”

As light rises up from Hara Berezaiti [Alborz, the mountain by which the earth is surrounded], so waters spring up from it and come back to it”

In the Avesta the word Airyaman has the same meaning as in the Veda; but the character of the god is more fully developed, and whereas he has no distinct personality in the Vedic hymns, he appears here in the character of a healing god, which is derived in a very natural manner from his primitive and general character.”

the ruffian Angra Mainyu wrought by his witchcraft 9 diseases, and 90, and 900, and 9000, and 9 times 10.000 diseases [ou seja, 9.999].”

* * *

Introdução ao Segundo Volume do Zend-Avesta de Darmesteter (compilação em 3vol.)

These writings are generally of a higher poetical and epical character than the rest of the Avesta, and are most valuable records of the old mythology and historical legends of Iran.”

In India the Sîrôzah is recited in honour of the dead, on the 30th day after the death, on the 30th day of the 6th month, on the 30th day of the 12th month, and then every year on the 30th day from the anniversary day (Anquetil, Zend-Avesta, II, 315).”

the attribution of each of the 30 days of the month to certain gods, seems to have been borrowed from the Semites: the tablets found in the library of Assurbanipal contain an Assyrian Sîrôzah, that is, a complete list of the Assyrian gods that preside over the 30 days of the month”

The Ormazd Yast is recited every day at the Hâvan Gâh, after the morning prayer (Anquetil, Zend-Avesta, II, 143): it is well also to recite it when going to sleep and when changing one’s residence (§17).”

Como se trata de uma religião humilde, o Masdeísmo possui cerca de duas dúzias de nomes para Ormazd. “With the Musulmans, Allah had 1001 names. On the names of God among the Jews, see Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, XXXV, pp. 162, 532.”

Sîrôzahs, Yasts and Nyâyis

Sîrôzah I

A paz que quebra pernas.

The month was divided into four weeks, the first two numbering seven days, the last two numbering eight.”

A lua engravidou do touro. E assim nasceram as 208 espécies animais, devidamente salvas no Dilúvio.

Sîrôzah II

(…)

Ormazd Yast

MAZDA significa: onisciente.

AHURA MAZDA: Senhor Onisciente.

Bahman Yast

Assim Falou: “Foi no topo da montanha que Ahura revelou a lei”

Haptân Yast

(…)

Ardibehist Yast

The Airyaman prayer is the greatest of spells, the best of spells, the very best of all spells; the fairest of spells, the very fairest of all spells; the fearful one amongst spells, the most fearful of all spells; the firm one amongst spells, the firmest of all spells; the victorious one amongst spells, the most victorious of all spells; the healing one amongst spells, the best-healing of all spells.”

Khordâd Yast

(…)

Âbân Yast

One must be cautious in the use of the Greek sources, as the Greeks, with the eclectic turn of their mind, were inclined to confound under the name of Anâhita all the great female deities of Asia Minor, and her name became a common appellation for the Aphrodites as well as for the Artemides of the East.”

she, Ardvi Sûra Anâhita, who has a thousand cells and a thousand channels: the extent of each of those cells, of each of those channels is as much as a man can ride in 40 days, riding on a good horse.”

Beautiful were her white arms, thick as a horse’s shoulder or still thicker; beautiful was her…”

A Parsi poem, of a very late date, gives further details about Gandarewa. It was a monster who lived <in the sea, on the mountain, and in the valley>; he was called Pâshnah zarah, because the sea did not go above his heel (a misinterpretation of his Avestean epithet zairi pashna, golden-heeled, the Zend zairi being mistaken for the Persian zarah, sea); his head would rise to the sun and rub the sky; he could swallow up 12 men at once. Keresâspa fought him for 9 days and 9 nights together; he drew him at last from the bottom of the sea and smashed his head with his club: when he fell on the ground, many countries were spoiled by his fall (Spiegel, Die traditionnelle Literatur der Parsen, p. 339, and West, Pahlavi Texts, II, pp. 369ss.).

In the Vedic mythology the Gandharva is the keeper of Soma, and is described now as a god, now as a fiend, according as he is a heavenly Soma-priest or a jealous possessor who grudges it to man. What was the original form of the myth in Mazdeism is not clear. In the Shâh Nâmah he appears as the minister of Azi Dahâka [rei tirânico, vinculado ao símbolo da cobra]. Cf Yt. XV, 27 seq., and Ormazd et Ahriman, pp. 99, note 5; 215, note 1.

Frangrasyan (Afrâsyâb) was king of Tûrân for 200 years. The perpetual struggle between Irân and Tûrân, which lasts to this day, was represented in the legend by the deadly and endless wars between Afrâsyâb and the Iranian kings from Minokihr down to Kai Khosrav (Kavi Husravah). The chief cause of the feud was the murder of Syâvakhsh (Syâvarshâna) by Afrâsyâb; Syâvakhsh, son of Kai Kaus (Kava Usa), having been exiled by his father, at the instigation of his mother-in-law, took refuge with Afrâsyâb, who received him with honour, and gave him his daughter in marriage: but the fortune of Syâvakhsh raised the jealousy of Afrâsyâb’s brother, Karsîvaz (Keresavazda), who by means of calumnious accusations extorted from Afrâsyâb an order for putting him to death (see Yt. XIX, 77). Afrâsyâb was revenged by his son, Kai Khosrav, the grandson of Afrâsyâb (Yt. IX, 22).”

Os avós de Moisés: “A part of the waters she made stand still, a part of the waters she made flow forward, and she left him a dry passage to pass over the good Vitanghuhaiti.”

Outro mito bastante difundido é o da esfinge (às vezes antropomórfica!) fazedora de enigmas e do herói que é capaz de responder às perguntas corretamente: “This legend is fully told in the Pahlavi tale of Gôsti Fryân (edited and translated by West): a sorcerer, named Akht, comes with an immense army to the city of the enigma-expounders, threatening to make it a beaten track for elephants, if his enigmas are not solved. A Mazdayasnian, named Gôsti Fryân, guesses the 33 riddles proposed by Akht; then, in his turn, he proposes him 3 riddles which the sorcerer is unable to guess, and, in the end, he destroys him by the strength of a Nirang. Cf. Yt. XIII, 120. This tale, which belongs to the same widespread cycle as the myth of Oedipus and the Germanic legend of the Wartburg battle, is found in the Zarathustra legend too (Vendîdâd XIX, 4).” “Grant me this, O good, most beneficent Ardvi Sûra Anâhita! that I may overcome the evil-doing Akhtya[?], the offspring of darkness, and that I may answer the 99[?] hard riddles that he asks me maliciously, the evil-doing Akhtya, the offspring of darkness.”

Between the earth and the region of infinite light there are 3 intermediate regions, the star region, the moon region, and the sun region. The star region is the nearest to the earth, and the sun region is the remotest from it. Ardvi Sûra has her seat in the star region.”

The Hvôva or Hvôgva family plays as great a part in the religious legend, as the Naotara family in the heroic one. Two of the Hvôvas, Frashaostra and Gâmâspa, were among the 1st disciples of Zarathustra and the prophet married Frashaostra’s daughter, Hvôgvi (cf. Yt.XIII, 139).”

The conversion of Vistâspa by Zarathustra is the turning-point in the earthly history of Mazdeism, as the conversion of Zarathustra by Ahura himself is in its heavenly history.”

Aregat-aspa is the celebrated Argâsp, who waged a deadly war against Gustâsp to suppress the new religion: he stormed Balkh, slaughtered Lôhrâsp and Zartûst (Zarathustra), and was at last defeated and killed by Gustâsp’s son, Isfendyâr.”

the skin of the beaver [na verdade, lontra, otter] that lives in water is the finest-coloured of all skins”

Khôrshêd [Sun] Yast

Darmesteter – Études Iraniennes

Mâh [Moon] Yast

(…)

Tîr Yast

Estrelas contra planetas

Pena que a Terra é um planeta

Oh, o Mal venceu!

Tistryia (o protagonista “não-antropomórfico” deste capítulo) é Sirius, a estrela que está no céu no Ano-Novo. Canino-maior. Adviria daí a famosa expressão “calor do cão”.

Morte e Vida Tempestiva

Haptoiriwga (Ursa Major) is the leader of the stars in the north (Bund. II, 7). It is entrusted with the gate and passage of hell” Cérbero, O Urso

The age of 15 is the paradisiacal age in the Avesta (Yasna LX, 5 [18]).”

Gôs [Vaca] Yast

(…)

Mihir [Luz, Verdade…] Yast

mithra” (com letra minúscula) é contrato.

2. (…) Break not the contract, O Spitama! neither the one that thou hadst entered into with one of the unfaithful, nor the one that thou hadst entered into with one of the faithful who is one of thy own faith. For Mithra stands for both the faithful and the unfaithful.

3. Mithra, the lord of wide pastures, gives swiftness to the horses of those who lie not unto Mithra.

(…)”

Mithra is closely connected with the sun, but not yet identical with it, as he became in later times”

OS 6 MUNDOS INÚTEIS (DV!): “The earth is divided into 7 Karshvares, separated from one another by seas and mountains impassable to men. Arezahi and Savahi are the western and the eastern Karshvare; Fradadhafshu and Vîdadhafshu are in the south; Vourubaresti and Vourugaresti are in the north; Hvaniratha is the central Karshvare.– Hvaniratha is the only Karshvare inhabited by man (Bundahis XI, 3).” SOBERBO E HUMILDE AO MESMO TEMPO.

Those who lie unto Mithra, however swift they may be running, cannot overtake (…) The wind drives away the spear that the foe of Mithra flings, for the number of the evil spells that the foe of Mithra works out.”

71. Who, eagerly clinging to the fleeing foe, along with Manly Courage, smites the foe in battle, and does not think he has smitten him, nor does he consider it a blow till he has smitten away the marrow and the column of life, the marrow and the spring of existence.

72. He cuts all the limbs to pieces, and mingles, together with the earth, the bones, hair, brains, and blood of the men who have lied unto Mithra.”

The Hindus supposed that the sun had a bright face and a dark one, and that during the night it returned from the west to the east with its dark face turned towards the earth.”

he who stands up upon this earth as the strongest of all gods, the most valiant of all gods, the most energetic of all gods, the swiftest of all gods, the most fiend-smiting of all gods, he, Mithra, the lord of wide pastures”

Mithra está vinte vezes entre dois amigos”

Mithra está cinqüenta vezes entre dois amantes”

Mithra está sessenta vezes entre dois pupilos do mesmo mestre”

Mithra está oitenta vezes entre o genro e o seu sogro”

Mithra está noventa vezes entre dois irmãos”

Mithra está cem vezes entre pai e filho”

Mithra está mil vezes entre duas nações”

Mithra está dez mil vezes quando unido à Lei de Mazda”

He is the stoutest of the stoutest, he is the strongest of the strongest, he is the most intelligent of the gods, he is victorious and endowed with Glory”

Srôsh Yast Hâdhôkht

(…)

Rashn [Verdade/Justiça] Yast

Derivação, avatar ou afluente do outro deus da verdade, Mithra.

Farvardîn Yast

This latter part is like a Homer’s catalogue of Mazdeism. The greatest part of the historical legends of Iran lies here condensed into a register of proper names.”

There are five classes of animals: those living in waters (upâpa), those living under the ground (upasma = upa-zema), the flying ones (fraptargat), the running ones (ravaskarant), the grazing ones [animais de pasto] (kangranghâk); Vispêrad 1:1 e seg..; Yt. 13:74. The representatives of those several classes are the kar mâhi fish, the ermine, the karsipt, the hare, and the ass-goat (Pahl. Comm. ad Visp. 1. 1.).”

Gaotema, the heretic.”Siddhartha, o Buda.

The 6th and last Gâhambâr (see Âfrigân Gâhambâr), or the last 10 days of the year (10th-20th March), including the last 5 days of the last month, Sapendârmad, and the 5 complementary days. These last 10 days should be spent in deeds of charity, religious banquets (gasan), and ceremonies in memory of the dead. It was also at the approach of the spring that the Romans and the Athenians used to offer annual sacrifices to the dead; the Romans in February <qui tunc extremus anni mensis erat> (Cicero, De Legibus, II, 21), the Athenians on the 3rd day of the Anthesterion feast (in the same month). The souls of the dead were supposed to partake of the new life then beginning to circulate through nature, that had also been dead during the long months of winter.”

<Zartûst went near unto Hvôv (Hvôgvi, his wife) 3 times, and each time the seed went to the ground; the angel Nêryôsang received the brilliance and strength of that seed, delivered it with care to the angel Anâhîd, and in time will blend it with a mother> (Bundahis, 32:8). A maid, Eredat-fedhri, bathing in Lake Kãsava, will conceive by that seed and bring forth the Saviour Saoshyant; his two fore-runners, Ukhshyat-ereta and Ukhshyat-nemah, will be born in the same way of Srûtat-fedhri and Vanghu-fedhri (Yt. 13:141-142).”

By Zartûst were begotten three sons and three daughters; one son was Isadvâstar, one Aûrvatad-nar, and one Khûrshêd-kîhar; as Isadvâstar was chief of the priests he became the Môbad of Môbads, and passed away in the 100th year of the religion; Aûrvatad-nar was an agriculturist, and the chief of the enclosure formed by Yim, which is below the earth (see Vend. 2:43[141]); Khûrshêd-kîhar was a warrior, commander of the army of Pêshyôtanû, son of Vistâsp (see Yt. 24:4), and dwells in Kangdez; and of the three daughters the name of one was Frên, of one Srît, and of one Pôrukîst (see Yt. 13:139). Aûrvatad-nar and Khûrshêd-kîhar were from a serving (kakar) wife, the rest were from a privileged (pâdakhshah) wife”

bathing in Lake Kãsava, she will become pregnant from the seed of Zarathustra, that is preserved there, and she will bring forth a son, Oshedar bâmî.”

Bahrâm [Genius of Victory] Yast

The raven was sacred to Apollo. The priests of the sun in Persia are said to have been named ravens (Porphyrius). Cf. Georgica, I, 45.”

Râm Yast

Takhma Urupa (in later legend Tahmûrâf) was a brother to Yima. He reigned for 30 years and rode Ahriman, turned into a horse. But at last his wife, deceived by Ahriman, revealed to him the secret of her husband’s power, and Tahmûrâf was swallowed up by his horse. But Yima managed to take back his brother’s body from the body of Ahriman and recovered thereby the arts and civilisation which had disappeared along with Tahmûrâf (see Minokhired XXVII, 32; Ravâet apud Spiegel, Einleitung in die traditionelle Literatur, pp. 317 seq.; Ormazd et Ahriman, §137 seq.).”

My name is the Overtaker (apaêta), O holy Zarathustra! My name is the Overtaker, because I can overtake the creatures of both worlds, the one that the Good Spirit has made and the one that the Evil Spirit has made.”

Dîn [O Caminho do Nirvana] Yast

Deidade relacionada ao cumprimento da Lei e à busca da Felicidade que foi deixada de lado no Zoroastrismo tardio. Na realidade, tratavam-se de duas gênias, as entidades femininas Daêna e Kista.

Ashi Yast

11. The men whom thou dost attend, O Ashi Vanguhi! have daughters that sit….; thin is their waist, beautiful is their body, long are their fingers; they are as fair of shape as those who look on can wish. Happy the man whom thou dost attend! Do thou attend me, thou rich in all sorts of desirable things and strong!”

Âstâd Yast

(…)

Zamyâd Yast

This Yast would serve as a short history of the Iranian monarchy, an abridged Shâh Nâmah.” Onde se lê “monarquia”, entendo até aqui “montanhas”: “7. To the number of 2000 mountains, and 200 and 40 and 4, O Spitama Zarathustra!”

33. In whose reign there was neither cold wind nor hot wind, neither old age nor death, nor envy made by the Daêvas, in the times before his lie, before he began to have delight in words of falsehood and untruth.”

The Glory is described as departing 3 times, because it is threefold, according as it belongs to the king considered as a priest, a warrior, or a husbandman.”

This tale belongs to the widespread cyclus of the island-whale (a whale whose back is mistaken by sailors for an island; they land upon it, cook their food there, and the monster, awaked by the heat, flies off and carries them away: see Arabian Nights, 71st Night; Babâ Bathrâ, 5).”

I am an infant still, I am not yet of age: if I ever grow of age, I shall make the earth a wheel, I shall make the heavens a chariot” “Snâvidhaka reminds one vividly of the Titanic Otus and Ephialtes (Odyssea XI, 308)

<Such were they youths! Had they to manhood grown,

Almighty Jove had trembled on his throne:

But ere the harvest of the beard began

To bristle on the chin, and promise man,

His shafts Apollo aim’d.> (Pope.)”

Afrâsyâb was charged with having laid Iran waste by filling up or conducting away rivers”

Vanant Yast

(…)

Yast XXII

8. And it seems to the soul of the faithful one as if he were inhaling that wind with the nostrils, and he thinks: <Whence does that wind blow, the sweetest scented wind I ever inhaled with my nostrils?>

9. And it seems to him as if his own conscience were advancing to him in that wind, in the shape of a maiden fair, bright, white-armed, strong, tall-formed, high-standing, thick-breasted [seios fartos], beautiful of body, noble, of a glorious seed, of the size of a

maid in her 15th year, as fair as the fairest things in the world.”

11. And she, being his own conscience, answers him: <O thou youth of good thoughts, good words, and good deeds, of good religion, I am thy own conscience!>”

And in that wind he saw his own religion and deeds, as a profligate [immoral] woman, naked, decayed, gaping [arregaçada; boquiaberta], bandy-legged [aleijada], lean-hipped [descadeirada (?)], and unlimitedly spotted, so that spot was joined to spot, like the most hideous noxious creatures (khrafstar), most filthy and most stinking”

Âfrîn Paighambar Zartûst

May ten sons be born of you! In three of them mayest thou be an Âthravan! In three of them mayest thou be a warrior! In three of them mayest thou be a tiller of the ground! And may one be like thyself, O Vîstâspa!”

Vîstâsp Yast

The fiend is powerful to distress, and to dry up the milk of the woman who indulges in lust and of all females.”

Khôrshêd Nyâyis

(…)

Mihir Nyâyis

(…)

Mâh Nyâyis

(…)

Âbân Nyâyis

(…)

Âtas Nyâyis

Mayest thou burn in this house! Mayest thou ever burn in this house! Mayest thou blaze in this house! Mayest thou increase in this house! Even for a long time, till the powerful restoration of the world, till the time of the good, powerful restoration of the world!”

Firm-footed, unsleeping, sleeping only for a third part of the day and of the night, quick to rise up from bed, ever awake”

* * *

Introdução ao Terceiro Volume do Zend-Avesta de Darmesteter (parte final)

Professor Darmesteter, having extended his labours in his University, found his entire time so occupied that he was obliged to decline further labour on this Series for the present [É que a terceira parte do livro é realmente um saco! Não valia a pena traduzi-la…]. My work on the Gâthas had been for some time in his hands, and he requested me, as a friend, to write the still needed volume of the translation of the Avesta.”

It will, I trust, be regarded as a sufficient result if a translation, which has been built up upon the strictest critical principles, can be made at all readable. For while any student may transcribe from the works of others what might be called a translation of the Yasna, to render that part of it, termed the Gâthas, has been declared by a respected authority <the severest task in Aryan philology> [C. Bartholomae]”. “On mathematical estimates the amount of labour which will have to be gone through to become an independent investigator seems to be much greater than that which presents itself before specialists in more favoured departments. No one should think of writing with originality on the Gâthas, or the rest of the Avesta, who had not long studied the Vedic Sanskrit, and no one should think of pronouncing ultimate opinions on the Gâthas, who has not to a respectable degree mastered the Pahlavi commentaries. But while the Vedic, thanks to the labours of editor and lexicographers, has long been open to hopeful study, the Pahlavi commentaries have never been thoroughly made out, and writer after writer advances with an open avowal to that effect; while the explanation, if attempted, involves questions of actual decipherment, and Persian studies in addition to those of the Sanskrit and Zend; and the language of the Gâthas requires also the study of a severe comparative philology, and that to an unusual, if not unequalled, extent.

It is to be hoped that our occupations are sufficiently serious to allow us to pass over the imperfections of Neryosangh’s Sanskrit style. He was especially cramped in his mode of expressing himself by a supposed necessity to attempt to follow his original (which was not the Gâthic but the Pahlavi) word for word. His services were most eminently scholarly, and, considering his disadvantages, some of the greatest which have been rendered. Prof. R. v. Roth and Dr. Aurel Stein have kindly transcribed for me valuable variations.”

Many readers, for whom the Zend-Avesta possesses only collateral interest, may not understand why any introductory remarks are called for to those portions of it which are treated in this volume. The extent of the matter does not appear at first sight a sufficient reason for adding a word to the masterly work which introduces the first two volumes, and, in fact, save as regards questions which bear upon the Gâthas, I avoid for the most part, for the present, all discussion of details which chiefly concern either the sections treated in the first two volumes, or the extended parts of the later Avesta treated here. But the Gâthas are of such a nature, and differ so widely from other parts of the Avesta, that some words of separate discussion seem quite indispensable, and such a discussion was recommended by the author of the other volumes.”

O ELO PERDIDO DAS RELIGIÕES, INDEED:

Ahura Mazda is one of the purest conceptions which had yet been produced. He has 6 personified attributes (so one might state it), later, but not in the Gâthas, described as Archangels, while in the Gâthas they are at once the abstract attributes of God, or of God’s faithful adherents upon earth, and at the same time conceived of as persons, all efforts to separate the instances in which they are spoken of as the mere dispositions of the divine or saintly mind, and those in which they are spoken of as personal beings, having been in vain.” “It is not a polytheism properly so-called, as Ahura forms with his Immortals a Heptade, reminding one of the Sabellian Trinity.” “It might be called, if we stretch the indications, a Hagio-theism, a delineation of God in the holy creation. Outside of the Heptade is Sraosha, the personified Obedience (and possibly Vayu, as once mentioned); and, as the emblem of the pious, is the Kine’s soul, while the Fire is a poetically personified symbol of the divine purity and power. As opposed to the good God, we have the Evil Mind, or the Angry (?) Spirit, not yet provided with full personified attributes to correspond to the Bountiful Immortals. He has, however, a servant, Aêshma, the impersonation of invasion and rapine, the chief scourge of the Zarathustrians; and an evil angel, the Drug, personified deceit, while the Daêvas (Devas) of their more southern neighbours (some of whose tribes had remained, as servile castes, among the Zarathustrians) constitute perhaps the general representatives of Aka Manah [Angra Mainiyu], Aêshma, the Drug, &c.”

Accordingly the evil principle is recognised as so necessary that it is represented by an evil God. His very name, however, is a thought, or a passion; while the good Deity is not responsible for the wickedness and grief which prevail. His power itself could not have prevented their occurrence. And He alone has an especially objective name, and one which could only be applied to a person.” “the Hegelian sublated dualism [dualismo negado] is a descendant from the Zarathustrian through the Gnostics and Jacob Boehme [De Signatura Rerum].”

The truth is, that the mental heaven and hell with which we are now familiar as the only future states recognised by intelligent people [??], and thoughts which, in spite of their familiarity, can never lose their importance, are not only used and expressed in the Gâthas, but expressed there, so far as we are aware, for the first time.”

Zarathustra’s human characteristics are wholly lost in the mythical attributes with which time and superstition had abundantly provided him.” “Who was then the person, if any person, corresponding to the name Zarathustra in the Gâthas? Did he exist, and was he really the author of these ancient hymns? That he existed as an historical person I have already affirmed; and as to the hymns ascribed to him and his immediate associates, I have also no hesitation. Parts of these productions may have been interpolated, but the Gâthas, as a whole, show great unity, and the interpolations are made in the spirit of the original. And that Zarathustra was the name of the individual in which this unity centres, we have no sufficient reason to dispute.”

They are now, some of them, the great commonplaces of philosophical religion; but till then they were unheard (agustâ).” “I would not call him a reformer; he does not repudiate his predecessors. The old Aryan Gods retire before the spiritual Ahura; but I do not think that he especially intended to discredit them. One of the inferior ones is mentioned for a moment, but the great Benevolence, Order, and Power, together with their results in the human subject, Ahura’s Piety incarnate in men, and their Weal and Immortality as a consequence, crowd out all other thoughts.”

Nor do I lay too much stress upon the difference between the Gâthic dialect and the so-called Zend; but I do lay very great stress upon the totally dissimilar atmospheres of the 2 portions. In the Gâthas all is sober and real. (…) No dragon threatens the settlements, and no fabulous beings defend them. Zarathustra, Gâmâspa, Frashaostra and Maidhyômâh; the Spitâmas, Hvôgvas, the Haêkataspas, are as real, and are alluded to with a simplicity as unconscious, as any characters in history. Except inspiration, there are also no miracles.

If there exist any interpolations, and we may say a priori that all existing compositions of their antiquity are, and must have been, interpolated, the additions were the work of the author’s earliest disciples who composed fully in his spirit”

the West Iranian as well as the East Iranian was in no sense derived from the Vedic. The old Aryan from which all descended was once spread without distinction over both West and East, while, on the other hand, the mythological features of the Avesta, kindred as they are to those of the Eastern Veda, are yet reproduced for us, some of them, in the poetry of the mediaeval West as drawn from the Avesta”

both burial and cremation may have been permitted at the Gâthic period, being forbidden long after.”

As the Asura (Ahura) worship extended into India with the Indians as they migrated from Iran, a form of Asura worship arose in Iran which added the name of Mazda to the original term for God. In the East it began to acquire additional peculiarities out of which, when Zarathustra arose, he developed his original system, while in other parts of Iran, and with great probability in Persia, it retained its original simplicity.”

The Aryan –âm was first written as the nasal vowel –ã, and still further carelessly reduced to –a, but never so spoken.”

The Greeks of the time of Herodotus probably, and those later certainly, found a form of Zarathustrianism in full development in Media; but if the contemporaries of Herodotus heard familiarly of a Zarathustrianism there, a long period of time must be allowed for its development if it originated in Media, and a still longer period if it found its way there from the East. If, then, the bulk of the later Avesta existed at the time of Herodotus and at that of Darius, how long previously must it have been composed; for such systems do not bloom in a day?”

The oldest Riks have now an established antiquity of about 4000; were the hymns sung on the other side of the mountains as old? The metres of these latter are as old as those of the Rig-veda, if not older, and their grammatical forms and word structure are often positively nearer the original Aryan from which both proceeded.”

Em nenhum outro ramo da ciência a academia avança a passadas tão ligeiras quanto nos estudos do Pahlavi, vários trabalhos importantes tendo surgido após os comentários de Spiegel.” “Uma tradução do Pahlavi deve por óbvio ser empreendida, antes de tudo, à luz dos glossários disponíveis, uma vez que a língua é sobremaneira indefinida devido a suas múltiplas formas gramaticais. Qualquer referência tal qual um glossário, se puder inclusive ser provada como tendo sido escrita pela mesma pessoa que compôs os textos, seria decisiva no êxito da empreitada”

It is hardly necessary to mention that the restoration of texts goes hand in hand with translation. (…) Our oldest MS. (that of Copenhagen, numbered 5) dates from the year 1323AD; and what were the dates of the ancient documents before the eyes of the Pahlavi translator who writes in it?”

I regard it as unwise to suppose that the metrical lines of the Avesta, or indeed of any very ancient poetical matter, have been composed with every line filed into exact proportions.” “Priests or reciters of intelligence would here and there round off an awkward strophe, as year after year they felt the unevenness of numbers. Metre must inevitably bring a perfecting corruption at times, as a deficiency in the metre must also prove a marring corruption.” “where the text, as it stands, gives no satisfactory sense to us, after we have exhausted the resources of previous Asiatic scholarship, or direct analogy, in our efforts to explain it, it is in that case not the text as the composer delivered it.”

Isso dito, não-especialistas não devem supor que nossos textos sejam menos seguros ou confiáveis na aparência que (digamos) muitos trechos do Velho Testamento. Largas porções são tão claras, pelo menos, quanto o Rig-veda; e as emendas mencionadas [que os tradutores e copistas empreendem] muito freqüentemente acabam afetando a doutrina. Que o público cultivado, entretanto, confie no caminho acadêmico dos esforços, embora claudicantes, honestos e insistentes, confiando em que emendas, quando necessárias, ou possíveis, quando felizes, beneficiam em muito a harmonia do texto.”

Infinitives and accusatives generally, both in the Gâthas and the Rig-veda, avoid the end of the sentence.”

The meanings of the Vedic words not holding their own even in India, developing into the Sanskrit and Prâkrit which differ widely, how truly misguided is it therefore to attribute necessarily the same shades of meaning to the terms of the two sister tongues?”

Further reference: Dr. Julius Jolly – Geschichte des Infmitivs im Indogermanischen, 1873.

L.H. Mills, Hanover, Fevereiro de 1886

The Yasna, Visparad, Âfrînagân, Gâhs, and Miscellaneous Fragments

The Gâthas

Zarathustra, everywhere else nearly or quite a demi-god, is here a struggling and suffering man.”

As the extent of documents necessarily produces a certain impression upon the mind of an investigator, it must not be forgotten that the Gâthas were in all probability many times more voluminous than the fragments which now remain to us.”

Gâtha Ahunavaiti

Yasna 29

So far from being the demi-god of the other parts of the Avesta, Zarathustra’s declarations are characterized by her [The Kine’s Soul, o espírito do rebanho sagrado] as <the voice of a pusillanimous man>, while she, on the contrary, expected one truly kingly in his rank and characteristics, and able to bring his desires to effect, while the Bountiful Immortals (or the attending chieftains), as if they had meant their question in verse 7 to be a question uttered in mere perplexity or contempt, join in with chorus, asking when indeed an effective helper will be provided.”

LIMBO DE UM PROFETA EM CRISE CRIATIVA

Zaratustra é um Platão 2.0; monoteísta covarde, ainda não pode confessá-lo por completo, e prefere ser demagogo, um politeísta traíra. No fim, não agradará nem o Um nem a Meia-Dúzia do Olimpo (Iraniano, neste caso). Meio-homem. New torrent of values.

For whom did ye create me, and by whom did ye fashion me?”

Observe that Zarathustra, like other prophets, met at times little honour from his fellow-countrymen who are here well represented by the voice of the Kine’s Soul.” Literally: the little and weak (although numerous) flock.

Yasna 28 (?)

I see thee in that time when every man is intelligent because he is pious; but when shall it be?”

Yasna 30

The point and meaning of the entire doctrine is that a good God cannot be responsible for permanent evil; that imperfection and suffering are original, and inherent in the nature of things, and permanently so. The swallowing up of sin and sorrow in ultimate happiness belongs to a later period. It is not Gâthic Zarathustrianism. Evil was the work of an independent being. (…) But the blood-feuds of War, not to speak of the theological animosity, were too much for his philosophy. The sage could not regard all men and their circumstances with broad and equable impartiality.

The hated Daêva-worshippers, who were doubtless equally conscientious with the Zarathustrians, are said to have failed of correct discernment.”

Have we here possibly an indication of the pre-existence of souls? If Âramaiti gave a body, it may be inferred that a period elapsed between the acts of the two spirits and this.”

Yasna 31

Here we observe that the Zarathustrian Mazda-worship was aggressive and missionary in its spirit, and in a proselyting sense by no means indifferent to the final destiny of the Gentile world. (The later and traditional system announced indeed the restoration and so the conversion of all men, and that not as an object proposed to the efforts of charity, but as a necessary result – so by inference; see Bundahis (West), pp. 126, 129). I can find no trace of this in the Gâthas.”

Observe that we are forced by every dictate of logic and common sense to avoid the commonplace rendering here. Cattle do not have <paths> made for them, nor do they cry aloud for an overseer, or complain at the appointment of one who does not appear to them promising; nor is it one main effort of religion <to content the soul of cattle.> Cattle, as the chief article of wealth, are taken to signify all civic life. The <path> is the path for the people to walk in, securing safety for soul and life and herds. The adhvan is <the way> which <is the religious characteristics and teachings of the prophets> (XXXIV, 13).” “Observe that this cow (some would say <ox>) chooses her master, unlike other cattle. But observe also, what is more interesting, that she seems reconciled to the guardian appointed by Ahura. In Y. XXIX, 9, she actually <wept> at the naming of the pusillanimous Zarathustra, desiring a kingly potentate. Now, however, we see that she must have dried her tears, as she is satisfied with the simple workman whom he represents notwithstanding high rank.”

he who through, or on account of, a little sin which has been committed, commits the great one to secure a purification…”

Ich frage — was die Strafe ist?”

And which of the (religions) is the greater (and the more prevailing as to these questions which thus concern the soul?)”

Keiner von euch höre auf die Lieder und Gebote des Liigners.”

Yasna 32

blindness of bliss

One might suppose that the Daêva-party were very near the Zarathustrians in many of their religious peculiarities, but that they could not accede to, or understand, the dualism. After the manner of Pagans they implicated the Gods in their sins. (Compare the drunken Indra.) At all events a bitter and violent war of doctrines was waging with both speech and weapons. (I think it looks like the struggle of two parties who each claimed to be the proper representative of some similar form of faith, similar, of course I mean, outwardly.)”

GRAMMAR ISSUES AT ITS MAXIMUM

Curiosa inversão em relação ao <sentido ocidental da gramática>: “I do not think that the word is an accusative there. A simple accusative does not so naturally fall to the end of the sentence in Gâthic; it is generally in apposition when so situated. The nominatives tend toward the end of the sentence.” “We must, however, never forget that the supposed error of the Pahlavi is sometimes the reflex of our own (often necessary) ignorance.” “<v> was miswritten for <y> as often <y> for <v>. The Pahlavi language, not to speak of the Pahlavi translation, suggests it. How are we to account for the word vîyâvânînêd? We should not arrest our philology at the Zend and Sanskrit.” “Can gâus be a genitive here? But if a nominative, must not ye refer to it? How then could the Kine <kindle> the aid of grace? A genitive looks difficult.” “Certainly if âis can be used as a particle, anâis is not altogether impossible in some such sense. Moreover, the Pahlavi translation here and elsewhere has afforded us such a multitude of valuable concretes, that we shall do well to think twice before we reject its most startling suggestions.” “It is very difficult to decide in which sense yeng daînti noît jyâteus khshayamaneng vasô is to be taken.”

I will cause (verbal) missiles to be cast forth from the mouth for the harm of the wicked.”

Yasna 33

Taking up the peculiar <I who> of XXVIII, the composer returns to the first person, continuing in that form with little exception until the last verse, which, naming Zarathustra in the third person, implies (if it is not an addition, which, however, it may be) that Zarathustra had been the speaker throughout. As it is highly probable that the author who uses this <I who> is the same who uses it in XXVIII, and if we may take verse 14 as fair evidence that Zarathustra is the speaker here, we acquire some additional grounds for believing that the person who wrote (if we can apply such an expression to the author) the words <to Zarathustra and to us.> as well as <to Vistâspa and to me,> and <to Frashaostra and to me,> was universally recognised to be Zarathustra himself composing a piece to be recited by another.”

And perhaps it is this practical severity of dualism as opposed to the more facile <lying> of the opposed religion, which was the cause of that high reputation of the Persians for veracity, which was grouped with avoiding debt by Herodotus among the virtues of the race.”

the Riks of the Veda: (…) these latter may be regarded as representing the opposite extreme of this early religion [a desse compilado de Yasnas] [O extremo oposto no sentido de que a religião primordial possuía preocupações sobretudo práticas, com respeito ao cultivo da terra; já os Vedas são excessivamente formalistas nos rituais.]”

How the fields had better be worked, and how the people could best be kept from bloody free-booting as aggressors or as victims, this involved Ahura’s Righteous Order, Benevolence, Power and Piety, the four energizing Immortals all at once. And this only could secure the other two rewarding personifications, Welfare and Immortality.”

Its <Zarathustra> may mean <I> just as <David> is used by the Psalmist for <me.> And the language can mean nothing but a dedication of all that he is and has to God, his flesh, his body, his religious eminence, the obedience which he offers in word and deed, inspired by Righteousness, and the Kingdom which he has succeeded in saving and blessing. (I do not think that I have at all exaggerated the grasp and fervour of this section. Less could not be said, if the words are to be allowed their natural weight.)”

hamêstagã, the souls in the intermediate place between Heaven and Hell, whose sins and good works have been equal (West, Gloss. to M. î K.).”

There are certain cases where allowance for an ancient scholar working under great disadvantages becomes a critical necessity. Here the Pahlavi translator was clearly the victim of a manuscript. The word <âidûm> (sic) stood, as similar words so often stand, in his MS. as <âi. dûm.> Deeply imbued with a superstitious regard for every letter, and with a public equally scrupulous, he saw no course before him but to translate each as best he could. He chose to render <âi> by an infinitive, preserving the root, and could only think of a form of <dâ> for dûm (so also moderns in another case). Many writers, seeing such a step, cast away his paper, regarding themselves as absolved by such a <blunder> [gafe] from mastering his translations. But a little honest labour will always bring one back to sounder exegesis.”

We seem obliged to suppose that Ahura was poetically conceived of as sitting (like Vohûman in Vendîdâd 19:31 (Wg.)) upon an ornamented throne, or we may take the expression as pure metaphor equalling <exert Thy power.>”

Yasna 34

The kind of gifts which are proposed for offerings are not sacrificial beasts or fruits, but the actions of the truly pious citizen whose soul is intimately united with Righteousness, the homage of prayer, and the songs of praise. As no piety could exist without strict ecclesiastical regularity, so no ceremonial punctuality was conceived of apart from honour and charity”

Such is Your Kingdom, caring for the righteous poor, and therefore we declare You irreconcilably distinct from the Daêvas and their polluted followers. Ye are beyond them and before in the spirit of Your Reign!”

The Gâthâ Ustavaitî

Those passages which express grief, fear, and passionate resentment, we should naturally refer to Zarathustra personally, and to the earlier portion of his career”

Yasna 43

A CEGUEIRA AUTO-INDUZIDA DOS PROFETAS: “The unbelieving opposers, as he declares, shall meet no favour at his hands, but detestation, while to the devout disciple he will be as powerful an aid. And this because his mind and thought are (as if blinded to the present) fixed upon the ideal Kingdom, while for the present he never ceases to toil on, making preparations for the Frashakard, and constructing hymn after hymn to set up the needed machinery of lore [crença].”

Wait only before Thou givest the word that I should go forth with Thy new truths (which bring such suffering to him who first pronounces them), wait till my obedient will, listening fully to all which Thou shalt say, shall come to me, and then shall that obedient reverence in me and my beloved, help on our effort, that we may spread abroad the tidings of Thy promised recompense to win the living to Thee”

happy is he whose benefit is for every one”

Mas deu nisso.

Ich will mich erheben.” Mais ou menos o contrário de dar a outra face.

SER & LAP

No jogo de dar a outra face, ganha quem tem mais caras.

Eu não posso me desperdiçar, como os vingativos de-todos-os-dias.

Minha trilha é unívoca, porém a terra é batida e os tornozelos vão firmes.

Será verdade que mentirosos não atraem fanáticos?

Realmente sabes que

O homem veraz

Nocauteará? Na mesa

Contra ele

O! Se não verão o ás!

* * *

No call tea

ganhei a luta

espera eu não pedi chá

nem chorei lágrimas

de sangue

* * *

It is bad policy to force a text to express what we happen to believe to be a more natural idea.”

No final, dá na mesma moita de hoje e sempre.

Yasna 44

Horses were material for sacrifice among the Persians according to Herodotus.”

Yasna 45

The Antizarathustra, the evil teacher par eminence, has been defeated”

Lúcifer discípulo.

Pode Satã ser um ignorante, um Sol, um bruxo idiota que nunca ouvira falar de Cristo? Não.

Poderia o detrator de Zaratustra, do Zaratustra antigo, ser um estrangeiro? Dificilmente.

Poderia o anti-eu, o Zaratustra do século XXI, ser um Aloísio ou Davi? No máximo um comunista chinfrim, ou um niilista sórdido negativo como Cioran. Um Hegel (!?). A anti-partícula que surge previamente à partícula que nega. Antecristo.

(Never do we see any aspersions upon Ahura’s name, or a suspicion of His purity as shown by complicity with cruelty, or the toleration of evil passions.)”

PRINCÍPIO DO NÃO-CONTRADITÓRIO APLICADO À RELIGIÃO

Não podemos provar deus, mas podemos refutar o diabo. No fim, trata-se de uma tautologia necessária se se quer ter alguém a quem blasfemar ou louvar, o que são a mesma coisa até que Aristóteles prove o contrário.

A text should never be changed, if it is possible to render it as it is.”

Yasna 46

there is not only hope for the tribesmen of Ahura, but for the pagan, and not for the <alien> only, but for the Turanian enemy, whose very name had been a synonym for suffering. If these even shall repent, they may be blest; and some had already turned. The converted tribe Fryâna offered many pious proselytes.” Não há religião que queira diminuir quantitativamente, nem que ampliar em números e fiéis represente, tragicamente, uma queda essencial (de qualidade), uma corrupção do cerne da crença. Realmente é muita fé na misericórdia do seu deus. “Here we have the clear evidence of the conversion of a border tribe. The Zarathustrians had saved some Turanian clan from plunder or annihilation, and so secured their friendship.”

Zaratustra, esse Pelé da Antiguidade: adora se auto-referir em terceira pessoa em assuntos magnânimos.

The Gâthâ Spentâ Mainyû (Spentâmainyû)

Yasna 47

His indwelling Spirit (which idea, or expression, has probably no direct connection with the <Holy Spirit> of the Old and New Testaments, but which, as giving the designation <spirit> to the Ameshôspends, may well have been the original of the <seven spirits which are before the throne of God>)

Yasna 48

Did he [the Pahlavi translator] suppose <woman> to be literally (!) expressed in the text?”

Yasna 49

The weapons of Ahura were not spiritual only, any more than those of Israel were, or those of Mohammed.” “And this Bendva had his functionaries and a system, and they were in full and active operation. And this was, beyond a doubt, a rival and settled system, and not merely an upstart and insurrectionary one. It had caused the true prophet many an hour of thought as well as anger. Its functionaries gave him pause (mânayêitî). Falsity in religion was as ever his opportunity; and invective follows. <The priestly judge himself who served the Drûg-worshippers was a cheat.> <The holy Order was his foe, and not his helper.>”

Quem não deve não teme

Mas quem não teme é um parvo

E todos os parvos devem alguma coisa

Estão em dívida com a vida

(ver continuação no Recanto das Letras: https://www.recantodasletras.com.br/frases/6280427)

Alguns têm primos que lhe pagam as dívidas

Esses não podemos mais nos olhos encarar.

Mas outros têm primos que levantam o dedo em riste

Nestes podemos à vontade pisar.

Yasna 49 (cont.)-Yasna 50

Were these verses then written by the prime mover? And was he other than Zarathustra? (…) Zarathustra was a princely disciple [principesco, extravagante, muito importante, o primeiro e acima-de-todos…?], on the hypothesis mentioned, and nothing more. The real author of Zarathustrianism was, in that case, in no sense Zarathustra (…) In fact he was the power behind both throne and home, and yet without a name! (…) But if Zarathustra had, as described, the leading name, and composed a portion of the hymns with their lost companions, is it probable that he possessed no decided prominence in this matter above Vîstâspa, Frashaôstra, and Gâmâspa?” “or was there a quaternion of seers, four Zarathustras, as one might say?” “these verses (6-1 1) were simply rhetorically put into the mouth of the monarch from the exigency of the style of composition.”

the Kinvat Bridge was the last crisis before salvation or perdition.”

The Gâthâ Vohû Kshathrem (Vohukhshathrâ)

Yasna 51

(…)

The Gâthâ Vahistâ Îstis (Vahistôistî)

Yasna 53

the nuptials of Zarathustra’s daughter, with the mention of his name, and the reference to her <father> as the one from whom her bridegroom obtained her, indicate that Zarathustra may well have been still living.”

That Zarathustra does not speak in the first person, has no importance whatever in the question. The piece is not of course a whole; but it may well be a whole out of which parts have fallen. That the subject passes on to the old polemical vehemence in the last verses, is far from unnatural. The marriage festival of Zarathustra’s child must have been, if without intention, a semi-political occasion, and the bard would express himself, as naturally, with regard to the struggle which was still going on.”

She is the youngest, and her name is as pious as that of a maid of ancient Israel, for she is called <full of the religious knowledge>.”

he warns all men and women against the evil Vayu, the spirit of the air.”

The Yasna [worships which include sacrifice]

Yasna 1

Haug first called attention to the striking coincidence with the Indian. In the Aitareya and Satapatha Brâhmanas, in the Atharvaveda, and in the Râmâyana, the gods are brought up to the number thirty-three. The names differ somewhat however.”

The star Jupiter has been called Ormuzd by the Persians and Armenians, and it may be intended here, as stars are next mentioned, but who can fail to be struck with the resemblance to the Mitra-Varuna of the Rig-veda. Possibly both ideas were present to the composer.”

The first day of the month is called Ahura Mazda. The first month is called Fravashi.”

the holy and effective, the revelation given against the Daêvas [Nota] This was the Vendîdâd, the name being a contraction of vîdaêvâ-dâta. It will not be forgotten that the Vendîdâd, although later put together, contains old Aryan myths which antedate Zarathustra, although in its present greatly later form, Zarathustra is a demi-god in it, and his name is involved in myth.”

That the thought, word, and deed here were more than the mere semi-mechanical use of faculties in reciting the liturgy, is clear. At the same time all morality was supposed to be represented in the liturgy. The evil man would offend in thought, word, and deed, if he recited it carelessly, or with bad conscience, and as guilty of any known and unrepented sins. The moral and ceremonial laws went hand in hand.”

Yasna 2-4

(…)

(Yasna 5 é o 37.)

Yasna 6-8

(…)

Yasna 9

H(a)oma = Soma, as a deity, flourished not only before the Gâthas, but before the Riks of the Veda, in Aryan ages before Iranian and Indian became two peoples. (…) Probably on account of bitter animosities prevailing between their more southern neighbours and themselves, and the use of Soma by the Indians as a stimulant before battle, the Iranians of the Gâthic period had become lukewarm in their own H(a)oma worship. But that it should have revived, as we see it in this Yast, after having nearly or quite disappeared, is most interesting and remarkable. Was it definitively and purposely repudiated by Zarathustra, afterwards reviving as by a relapse? I do not think that it is well to hold to such deliberate and conscious antagonisms, and to a definite policy and action based upon them. The Soma-worship, like the sacramental acts of other religions which have become less practised after exaggerated attention, had simply fallen into neglect, increased by an aversion to practices outwardly similar to those of <Daêva-worshippers>. The Yast is, of course, made up of fragments, which I have endeavoured to separate by lines. In the translation I have given a rhythmical rendering, necessarily somewhat free. It was difficult to import sufficient vivacity to the piece, while using a uselessly awkward literalness. The freedom, as elsewhere, often consists in adding words to point the sense, or round the rhythm.

Vivanghvant was the first of men who prepared me for the incarnate world. This blessedness was offered him; this gain did he acquire, that to him was born a son who was Yima, called the brilliant, (he of the many flocks, the most glorious of those yet born, the sunlike-one of men) [Nota] The fifth from Gaya Maretan the Iranian Adam, but his counterpart, the Indian Vivasvat, appears not only as the father of Yama, but of Manu, and even of the gods (as promoted mortals?).”

Âthwya was the second who prepared me for the corporeal world. This blessedness was given him, this gain did he acquire, that to him a son was born, Thraêtaona of the heroic tribe,/

Who smote the dragon Dahâka, three-jawed and triple-headed, six-eyed, with thousand powers, and of mighty strength, a lie-demon of the Daêvas, evil for our settlements, and wicked, whom the evil spirit Angra Mainyu made as the most mighty Drug(k)” Façanha anterior à de Indra que também matou dragões. Esses Adões orientais são um tanto peculiares (e apressados!).

Pourushaspa was the fourth man who prepared me for the corporeal world. This blessedness was given him, this gain did he acquire, that thou, O Zarathustra! wast born to him, the just, in Pourushaspa’s house, the D(a)êva’s foe, the friend of Mazda’s lore”

Yasna 10-18

(…)

Yasna 19

May not khrafstra be a degeneration from kehrp-astar? While the term may be applied to wild beasts, one is strongly inclined to hold that foul insects are chiefly referred to.”

Yasna 20

(…)

Yasna 21

Here, men and women are worshipped, as it is improbable that the <Immortals> whose names are in the feminine are meant. The prayer is in the Gâthic dialect, and ancient metre would hardly contain so artificial a formation.”

Yasna 22-25

(…)

Yasna 26

Whether a real distinction existed in the minds of these early writers, between a Fravashi and a departed soul, is hard to say. That a Fravashi was worshipped as existing before the person to whom it appertained was born, may be owing to a poetical, and not a dogmatic, anticipation.”

We worship the Fravashis of (those) holy men and holy women; we worship all the good, heroic, bountiful Fravashis of the saints from Gaya Maretan to the Saoshyant, the victorious (From the Iranian Adam to the Christ of the resurrection; see Yast 19:89-91).”

Yasna 27-56

(…)

Yasna 57

Observe how far West the word Daêva is applied; also, if Hindvô is not in a gloss in verse 29, the fact proves that a vast geographical extent was familiar to the writers of the Avesta.”

Yasna 58-72

(…)

Visparad [todos os chefes de rituais]

Visparad I-XXIII

(…)

Âfrînagân

Âfrînagân I-III

(…)

The Gâhs

(…)

MISCELLANEOUS FRAGMENTS

(…)

* * *

RECOMENDAÇÕES DE LEITURA

James Summers – A Handbook of the Chinese languages

Fâ-Hien – A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms (tr. James Legge)

Liddell & Scott – A Greek-English Lexicon

Chandler – A Practical Introduction to Greek Accentuation

Rabbî Yônâh – The Book of Hebrew Roots

Richard Cleasby – An Icelandic-English Dictionary

T. Lewis & Short – A Latin Dictionary, founded on Andrew’s Edition of Freund’s Latin Dictionary

Codrington – The Melanesian Languages

Monier-Williams – A Practical Grammer of Sanskrit Language

Sakuntala. A Sanskrit Drama, in 7 Acts.

Payne Smith – Thesaurus Syriacus

John Wycliffe – The Holy Bible in the earliest English Versions, made from the Latin Vulgate

St. Athanasius – Orations against the Arians

Burnet – History of the Reformation of the Church of England

Freeman – History of The Norman Conquest of England

Magna Carta (England)

Müller – On certain Variations in the Vocal Organs of the Passeres that have hitherto escaped notice. (tr. Bell)

Müller – The Upanishads

The Dhammapada

The Sacred Books of China

Julius Joly – The Institutes of Vishnu

Kâshinâth Trimbak Telang – The Baghavadgîtâ, with the Sanatsugâtîya and the Anugîtâ

Rhys Davids – Buddhist Suttas

Julius Eggeling – The Satapatha-Brâhmana

Georg Bühler – The Sacred Laws of The Âryas

Manu

Henry Sweet – Old English Reading Primers

First Middle English Primer, with Grammar and Glossary

Skeat – Principles of English Etymology

Earle – The Philology of the English Tongue

Milton – Areopagitica

Bunyan – The Pilgrim’s Progress

Keats – Hyperion

John Barrow – An Elementary Latin Grammar

César (Júlio) – Comentários

Cícero – Selected Letters

Tácito – Os Anais

Juvenal – Sátiras

Charles Wordsworth – A Greek Primer

Ésquilo – Agamênon

Lucian – Vera Historia

Kitchin – Historical Grammar of the French Language

Corneille – Horace

Racine – Esther

Beaumarchais – Le Barbier de Séville

Voltaire – Mérope

Musset – On ne badine pas avec l’Amour

Gautier – Scenes of Travel

Tasso – La Gerusalemme Liberata

Hermann Lange – gramáticas de Alemão (conferir)

Schiller – Wilhelm Tell

Lessing – Nathan o Sábio

Nixon – Euclid Revised

Ouseley – A Treatise on Harmony

Troutbeck & Dale – A Music Primer

Upcott – An Introduction to Greek Sculpture

L’ENCYCLOPÉDIE – A

A

a&.

la prononciation des lettres est sujette à variation dans les Langues mortes, comme elle l’est dans les Langues vivantes. Car il est constant, selon M. Masclef & le Prêtre Houbigan, que l’aleph se prononçait autrefois comme notre a; ce qu’ils prouvent surtout par le passage d’Eusebe, Prep. Ev. 50, 10, 100, 6, où ce Prêtre soûtient que les Grecs ont pris leurs lettres de Hébreux [fodalhões, diferentões!]. Id ex Graecà singulorum elementorum appellatione quivis intelligit. Quid enim aleph ab alpha magnopere differt? Quid autem vel betha a beth? &c.

Le son de l’a, aussi bien que celui de l’e, est long em certains mots, & bref en d’autres: a est long dans grâce, & bref dans place. Il est long dans tâche quand ce mot signifie um ouvrage qu’on donne à faire; & il est bref dans tache, macula, souillure. Il est long dans mâtin, gros chien; & bref dans matin, première partie du jour. Voyez l’excellente Traité de la Prosodie de M. l’Abbé d’Olivet.”

Senhorabade Fulano-de-Tal au seue dias pour!

Excelentíssimo Sr. Vice-Presidente & Autor & Escritor João da Silva Santos, O Único.

Les Romains, pour marquer l’a long, l’écrivirent d’abord double, Aala pour Ala; c’est ainsi qu’on trouve dans nos anciens Auteurs Français aage,&c. Ensuite ils insérerent um h entre les deux a, Ahala. Enfim ils mettaient quelquefois le signe de la syllabe longue, ala [provalmente erro de transcrição, âla]. § On met aujourd’hui un accent circonflexe sur l’a long, au lieu du s qu’on écrivait autrefois après cet a: ainsi au lieu d’écrire mastin, blasme, asne, &c. on écrit mâtin, blâme, âne. Mais il ne faut pas croire avec la plûpart des Grammairiens, que nos Pères n’écrivaient cette s après la, ou après toute autre voyelle, que pour marquer que cette voyelle était longue; ils écrivaient cette s, parce qu’ils la prononçaient, & cette prononciation est encore en usage dans nos Provinces méridionale, où l’on prononce mastin, testo, besti, &c.

Quanta coisa não faço um simples e minúsculo a vomitar!

L’a chez les Romains était appellé lettre salutaire: littera salutaris. Cicero (…) parce que lorsqu’il s’agissait d’absoudre ou de condamner un accusé, les juges avaient 2 tablettes, sur l’une desquelles ils écrivaient l’a qui est la 1e lettre d’absolvo, & sur l’autre ils écrivaient le c, 1e lettre de condemno.”

L’a chez les Grecs était une lettre numérale que marquait un.”

A est la marque de la monnaie de Paris. Voyez A numismatique.”

On dit de quelqu’un qui n’a rien fait, rien écrit, qu’il n’a pas fait une panse d’a. Panse, qui veut dire ventre, signifie ici la partie de la lettre qui avance; il n’a pas fait la moitié d’une lettre.”

A.

à n’est jamais adverbe, comme quelques Grammairiens l’ont cru, quoiqu’il entre dans plusieurs façons de parler adverbiales. Car l’adverbe n’a pas besoin d’être suivi d’un autre mot qui le détermine, ou, comme disent communément les Grammairiens, l’adverbe n’a jamais de régime; parce que l’adverbe renferme en soi la préposition & le nom: prudemment, avec prudence.”

A n’est pas non plus une simple particule qui marque le datif; parce qu’en françois nous n’avons ni déclinaison, ni cas, ni par conséquent de datif. Le rapport que les Latins marquoient par la terminaison du datif, nous l’indiquons par la préposition à. C’est ainsi que les Latins mêmes se sont servis de la préposition ad, quod attinet ad me.”

approchez-vous du feu: du, lie feu avec approchez-vous, & l’esprit observe ensuite un rapport d’approximation, que du ne marque pas. Eloignez-vous du feu; du, lie feu avec éloignez-vous, & l’esprit observe-là un rapport d’éloignement. Vous voyez que la même préposition sert à marquer des rapports opposés. On dit de même donner à & ôter à. Ainsi ces sortes de rapports different autant que les mots different entre-eux.”

Cependant quelques Grammairiens ont mieux aimé épuiser la Métaphysique la plus recherchée, & si je l’ose dire, la plus inutile & la plus vaine, que d’abandonner le Lecteur au discernement que lui donne la connoissance & l’usage de sa propre Langue. Rapport de cause, rapport d’effet, d’instrument, de situation, d’époque, table à pieds de biche, c’est-là un rapport de forme, dit M. l’Abbé Girard, tom. II. p. 199. Bassin à barbe, rapport de service, (id. ib.) Pierre à feu, rapport de propriété productive, (id. ib.) &c. La préposition à n’est point destinée à marquer par elle-même un rapport de propriété productive, ou de service, ou de forme, &c. quoique ces rapports se trouvent entre les mots liés par la préposition à.”

Exs. de utlização: “Lettre de change à vûe, à dix jours de vûe. Matiere à procès. (…) Facile à faire.

Observez qu’on dit: Il est facile de faire cela.

Quand on le veut il est facile

De s’assûrer un repos plein d’appas.

Quinault

La raison de cette différence est que dans le dernier exemple de n’a pas rapport à facile, mais à il; il, hoc, cela, à savoir de faire, &c. est facile, est une chose facile. Ainsi, il, de s’assûrer un repos plein d’appas, est le sujet de la proposition, & est facile en est l’attribut.

(…) Blesser à, il a été blessé à la jambe. (…) Il est à écrire, à jouer. (…) Il est long-tems à venir. Cela est à faire, à taire, à publier, à payer. (…)

À en des façons de parler adverbiales, & en celles qui sont équivalentes à des prépositions Latines, ou de quelqu’autre Langue.

À jamais, à toûjours. À l’encontre. Tour à tour. Pas à pas. Vis-à-vis. À pleines mains. À fur & à mesure. À la fin, tandem, aliquando, C’est-à- dire, nempe, scilicet. Suivre à la piste. Faire le diable à quatre. (…)

Rendez à César ce qui appartient à César”

1. (…) Nous avons conservé plusieurs mots où se trouve l’alpha privatif, comme amazone, asyle, abysme, &c. L’alpha privatif vient de la préposition A’TOP, sinc, sans.

2. A en composition marque augmentation, & alors il vient de A’GAN, beaucoup.”

* * *

A, étoit une lettre numérale parmi les Anciens. Baronius rapporte des vers techniques qui expriment la valeur de chaque lettre de l’alphabet. Celui-ci,

Possidet A numeros quingentos ordine recto.

marque que la lettre A signifioit cinq cens; surmontée d’un titre ou ligne droite, de cette façon (A), elle signifioit cinq mille.”

Les Hébreux, les Arabes emploient leur aleph, & les Grecs leur alpha qui répond à notre A, pour désigner le nombre 1. & dans le langage de l’écriture alpha signifie le commencement & le principe de toutes choses. Ego sum alpha, &c.

* * *

A, lettre symbolique, étoit un hiéroglyphe chez les anciens Egyptiens, qui pour premiers caracteres employoient ou des figures d’animaux ou des signes qui en marquoient quelque propriété. On croit que celle-ci représentoit l’Ibis par l’analogie de la forme triangulaire de l’A avec la marche triangulaire de cet oiseau. Ainsi quand les caracteres Phéniciens qu’on attribue à Cadmus furent adoptés en Egypte, la lettre A y fut tout à la fois un caractere de l’écriture symbolique consacrée à la Religion, & de l’écriture commune usitée dans le commerce de la vie. (G)”

* * *

A, numismatique ou monétaire, sur le revers des anciennes médailles Greques, signifie qu’elles furent frappées dans la ville d’Argos, & quelquefois dans celle d’Athenes. Dans les médailles consulaires cette lettre désigne pareillement le lieu de la fabrique; dans celles des Empereurs, il signifie communément Augustus. Dans le revers des médailles du bas Empire, qui étoient véritablement des especes de monnoies ayant cours, & dont le peuple se servoit, A est la marque ou de la Ville, comme Antioche, Arles, Aquilée, où y avoit des Hôtels des Monnoies, ou signifie le nom du monétaire. Dans nos especes d’or & d’argent cette lettre est la marque de la monnoie de Paris; & le double AA celle de Metz. (G)”

* * *

A, lettre de suffrage; les Romains se servoient de cette lettre pour donner leurs suffrages dans les assemblées du peuple. Lorsqu’on proposoit une nouvelle loi à recevoir, on divisoit en centuries ceux qui devoient donner leurs voix, & l’on distribuoit à chacun d’eux deux ballotes de bois, dont l’une étoit marquée d’un A majuscule qui signifioit antiquo ou antiquam volo; l’autre étoit marquée de ces deux lettres U R, uti rogas. Ceux qui s’opposoient à l’établissement de la loi jettoient dans l’urne la premiere de ces ballottes, pour signifier, je rejette la loi, ou je m’en tiens à l’ancienne. (G)”

* * *

A, signe des passions; selon certains Auteurs, est relatif aux passions dans les anciens Dialectes Grecs. Le Dorien, où cette lettre se répete sans cesse, a quelque chose de mâle & de nerveux, & qui convient assez à des Guerriers. Les Latins au contraire emploient dans leur Poësie des mots où cette lettre domine, pour exprimer la douceur. Parmi les peuples de l’Europe, les Espagnols & les Italiens sont ceux qui en font le plus d’usage, avec cette différence que les premiers remplis de faste & d’ostentation, ont continuellement dans la bouche des a emphatiques; au lieu que les a des terminaisons Italiennes étant peu ouverts dans la prononciation, ils ne respirent que douceur & que mollesse. Notre Langue emploie cette voyelle sans aucune affectation [oui, oui, c’est sur, hahaha…].

* * *

A. Les Marchands Négocians, Banquiers, & Teneurs de Livres, se servent de cette lettre, ou seule, ou suivie de quelques autres lettres aussi initiales, pour abréger des façons de parler fréquentes dans le Négoce, & ne pas tant employer de tems ni de paroles à charger leurs Journaux, Livres de comptes, ou autres Registres. Ainsi l’A mis tout seul, après avoir parlé d’une Lettre de change, signifie accepté. A. S. P. accepté sous protêt. A. S. P. C. accepté sous protêt pour mettre à compte. A. P. à protester. (G)”

A. D. A. D. épistolaire; ces deux caracteres dans les Lettres que s’écrivoient les Anciens, signifioient ante diem. Des Copistes ignorans en ont fait tout simplement la préposition ad, & ont écrit ad IV. Kalend. ad VI. Idus, ad III. Non. &c. au lieu d’ante diem IV. Kalend. ante diem VI. Idus, &c. ainsi que le remarque Paulmance. On trouve dans Valerius Probus A.D.P. pour ante diem pridie. (G)”