LORD[S] OF CHAOS: The bloody rise of the satanic metal underground (1998), revised & enlarged (2003) [Ou: uma biografia obviamente não-autorizada do delinqüente eternamente juvenil Varg. V. de VVinter e VVar / & outras estórias não-relacionadas] – Moynihan & Søderlind

Our world, increasingly homogenized and with the entire spectrum of its cultural creations adulterated for palatable mass-consumption, needs dangerous ideas more than ever. It may not need the often ill-formed and destructive ideas expressed by some of the protagonists in Lords of Chaos, but we felt all along that this is an issue for the individual reader to decide.”

The notion of a Protocols of the Elders of Zion-style Jewish cabal running the world is absurd to begin with, but all the more so in a country with practically no Jewish population, and we felt the need to point this out.”

The Satyricon single Fuel for Hatred received heavy air-play on one of Norway’s 3 biggest radio stations, and just before this revised edition went to press we heard that Dimmu Borgir’s new album will be hawked to the public through TV advertising spots.”

William Pierce – The Turner Diaries

Heavy Metal exists on the periphery of Pop music, isolated in its exaggerated imagery and venting of masculine lusts. Often ignored, scorned, or castigated by critics and parents, Heavy Metal has been forced to create its own underworld. It plays by its own rules, follows its own aesthetic prerogatives. Born from the nihilism of the 1970s, the music has followed a singular course. Now in the latter half of the 1990s it is often considered passé and irrelevant, a costume parade of the worst traits in Rock. Metal is no longer a staple of FM radio, nor are record labels pushing it like they used to. Watching MTV and reading popular music magazines, one might not even realize Heavy Metal still existed at all.”

Arthur Lyons – The Second Coming: Satanism in America

In the first half of the twentieth century, Jazz was considered particularly dangerous, with its imagined potential to unleash animal passions, especially among unsuspecting white folk. (…) In his book on the Rolling Stones, Dance With the Devil, Stanley Booth quotes the New Orleans Times-Picayune in 1918: <On certain natures sound loud and meaningless has an exciting, almost an intoxicating effect, like crude colors and strong perfumes, the sight of flesh or the sadic pleasure in blood.>”

More directly tied to deviltry than Jazz, and likewise imbued with the potency of its racial origins, was Blues. Black slaves often adopted Christianity after their enforced arrival in America, but melded it with native or Voudoun strains. Blues songs abound with references to devils, demons, and spirits. One of the most influential Blues singers of all time, Robert Johnson, is said to have sold his soul to the Devil at a crossroads in the Mississippi Delta, and the surviving recordings of his haunting songs give credence to the legend that Satan rewarded his pact with the ability to play. Johnson recorded only 29 tunes, some of the more famous being Crossroads Blues, Me and the Devil Blues, and Hellhound on My Trail. The leaden resignation of his music is a genuine reflection of his existence. Life for Johnson began on the plantations, wound through years of carousing and playing juke joints, ending abruptly in 1938 when at the age of 27 he was poisoned in a bar, probably as a result of an affair with the club owner’s wife.”

A DÉCADA QUE COMEÇOU 26 DIAS MAIS CEDO: “The Stones took their diabolical inspiration seriously, deliberately cultivating a Satanic image, from wearing Devil masks in promotional photos to conjuring up sinister album titles such as Their Satanic Majesties Request and Let it Bleed. The band’s lyrics ambivalently explored drug addiction, rape, murder, and predation. The infamous culmination of these flirtations revealed itself at the Altamont Speedway outdoor festival on December 6, 1969. Inadvertently captured on film in the live documentary Gimme Shelter, it was only moments into the song Sympathy for the Devil before all hell broke loose between the legion of Hell’s Angels <security guards> and members of the audience, ending with the fatal stabbing of Meredith Hunter, a gun-wielding black man in the crowd. The infernal, violent chaos of the event at Altamont made it abundantly clear the peace and love of the ‘60s wouldn’t survive the transition to a new decade.” 7, o mais belo número.

Page’s interest in Crowley developed to a far more serious level than the Satanic dabbling of the Stones; his collection of original Crowley books and manuscripts is among the best in the world. Page held a financial share in the Equinox occult bookshop (named after the hefty journal of <magick> Crowley edited and published between 1909–14) in London and at one point even purchased Crowley’s former Scottish Loch Ness estate, Boleskine. The property continued to perpetuate its sinister reputation under new ownership, as caretakers were confined to mental asylums, or worse, committed suicide during their tenures there.” “If there is any early Rock band bearing exemplifying the basic themes that would later preoccupy many of the Black Metal bands in the ‘90s, it is Led Zeppelin.”

I read a lot of Dennis Wheatley’s books, stuff about astral planes. I’d been having loads of these experiences since I was a child and finally I was reading stuff that was explaining them. It lead me into reading about the whole thing —black magic, white magic, every sort of magic. I found out Satanism was around before any Christian or Jewish religion. It’s an incredibly interesting subject. I sort of got more into the black side of it and was putting upside-down crosses on my wall and pictures of Satan all over. I painted my apartment black. I was getting really involved in it and all these horrible things started happening to me. You come to a point where you cross over and totally follow it and totally forget about Jesus and God.” GZR, Seconds Magazine, #39, 1996, pg. 64.

Groups further from the spotlight than Black Sabbath—such as Black Widow and Coven—could afford to be even more obsessive in their imagery. The English sextet Black Widow released three diaphanous Hard Rock albums between 1970–72, and later appear as a footnote in books that cover the history of occultism in pop culture. The chanting refrain of their song Come to the Sabbat evokes images of their concerts which featured a mock ritual sacrifice as part of the show. Beyond sketchy tales of such events, and the few recordings and photos they’ve left behind, Black Widow remains shrouded in mystery.

Coven are just as obscure, but deserve greater attention for their overtly diabolic album Witchcraft: Destroys Minds and Reaps Souls. Presented in a stunning gatefold sleeve with the possessed visages of the three band members on the front, the cover hints at a true Black Mass, showing a photo with a nude girl as the living altar. The packaging undoubtedly caused consternation for the promotional department of Mercury Records, the major label who released it, and the album quickly faded into obscurity. Today it fetches large sums from collectors, clearly due more to its bizarre impression than for any other reason. The songs themselves are standard end-of-the-‘60s Rock, not far removed from Jefferson Airplane; the infusion of unabashed Satanism throughout the album’s lyrics and artwork makes up for its lack of strong musical impact. In addition to the normal tracks, the album closes with a thirteen minute Satanic Mass.”

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Black Mass to be recorded, either in written words or in audio. It is as authentic as hundreds of hours of research in every known source can make it. We do not recommend its use by anyone who has not thoroughly studied Black Magic and is aware of the risks and dangers involved.” Coven, Witchcraft, Mercury Records, SR 61239.

Coven included the attractive female lead singer Jinx as well as a man by the name of Oz Osbourne, who bore no relation to the British vocalist Ozzy. In an additional coincidental twist, the first track on the Coven album is titled Black Sabbath.”

Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the law”

Stories persisted for a time of a planned Satanic Woodstock in the early ‘70s where Coven was to play as a prelude to an address by Anton LaVey, High Priest of the Church of Satan.”

King Diamond, the singer and driving force behind Mercyful Fate, one of the most important openly Satanic Metal bands of the ‘80s, acknowledges he received dramatic influences from a Black Sabbath concert he attended as a kid in his native Denmark in 1971. He also tells of finding inspiration from Coven’s lead vocalist Jinx: An amazing singer, her voice, her range… not that I stand up for the viewpoints on their Witchcraft record, which was like good old Christian Satanism. But they had something about them that I liked…

Anton Szandor LaVey made headlines when he founded the first official Church of Satan on the dark evening of Walpurgisnacht, April 30, 1966. The fundamentals of the Church were based not on shallow blasphemy, but opposition to herd mentality and dedication to a Nietzschean ethic of the antiegalitarian development of man as a veritable god on earth, freed from the chains of Christian morality.”

We played to skinheads and punks and hairies—everybody. Where some guy with long hair couldn’t come into a Punk gig, all of the sudden it was really cool to go to a Venom gig for anybody. That’s why the audience grew really quick and became very strong; they were always religiously behind Venom and they’ve always stayed the same.” Abaddon

I never thought we’d be able to enter a studio again after that because we were really dirty sounding. But it turned out that 85-90% of all the fan mail that came to the record company from that record (the compilation was titled Scandinavian Metal Attack) was about our songs. So the guy from the record company called me up and said, <Hey, you really need to put your band together again and write some songs, because you have a full-length album to record this summer>. (…) Everybody seems to think that I’m a megalomaniac with a big head or something, but it wasn’t really my fault —I should have been born in some place like San Francisco or London where I would have had a real easy time putting this band together.” Quorthon

Much of the explanation for this sound was simply the circumstances of recording an entire album in two-and-a-half days on only a few hundred dollars. The end result was more extreme than anything else being done in 1984 (save maybe for some of the more violent English Industrial <power electronics> bands like Whitehouse, Ramleh, and Sutcliffe Jugend) and made a huge impact on the underground Metal scene.”

Aplicável ao “projeto ATS”: “I’m not one inch deeper into it than I was at that time, but your mind was younger and more innocent and you tend to put more reality toward horror stories than there is really. Of course there was a huge interest and fascination, just because you are at the same time trying to rebel against the adult world, you want to show everybody that I’d rather turn to Satan than to Christ, by wearing all these crosses upside down and so forth. Initially the lyrics were not trying to put some message across or anything, they were just like horror stories and very innocent.”

Like any style hyped incessantly by the music industry, Thrash Metal’s days were ultimately numbered. The genre became too big for its own good and major labels scrambled to sign Thrash bands, who promptly cleaned up their sound or lost their original focus in self-indulgent demonstrations of technical ability.”

The whole Norwegian scene is based on Euronymous and his testimony from this shop. He convinced them what was right and what was wrong.”

Norway’s official religion is Protestantism, organized through a Norwegian Church under the State. This has deep historical roots and a membership encompassing approximately 88% of Norway’s population. However, only about 2-3% of the population are involved enough to attend regular church services. A saying goes that most Norwegians will visit church on three occasions in their lives—and on two of them, they will be carried in.”

An example of the conservative Christian influence in Norway was the banning of Monty Python’s classic comedy The Life of Brian as blasphemous. The amicable rivalry and fun-making between Norwegians and Swedes led to the movie being advertised in Sweden as <a film so funny it’s banned in Norway>.” “While America has figures like Edgar Allan Poe as a part of the literary heritage, and slasher movies are screened on National TV, Norway’s otherwise highly prolific movie industry has produced but one horror film in its 70-year history. Horror films from abroad are routinely heavily censored, if not banned outright. This taboo against violence and horror permeates every part of Norwegian media. In one case, Norwegian National Broadcasting stopped a transmission of the popular children’s TV series Colargol the Singing Bear on the grounds that the particular episode featured a gun.”

When denied something, one tends to gorge on it when access is finally gained. Black Metal adherents tend to be those in their late teens to early twenties who have recently gained a relative degree of freedom and independence from their parents and other moral authorities.” Aqui, ao contrário, o pré-adolescente se rebela e o adultinho adere ao sertanejo e forró, arrependido e tosado, quando não rebola no axé.

One strange aspect of the Black Metal mentality of the earlier days was the insistence on suffering. Unlike other belief systems, where damnation is usually reserved for one’s enemies, the Black Metalers thought that they, too, deserved eternal torment. They were also eager to begin this suffering long before meeting their master in hell.”

I think Norway, being a very wealthy country with a high standard of living, makes young kids very blasé. It’s not enough to just play pinball anymore. They need something strong, and Black Metal provides really strong impulses if you get into it.” Desse ponto de vista, era pro Aloísio virar o metaleirinho do mal e eu ser o normal dos 2, concentrado em objetivos “realistas”. Conquanto… o jovem frustrado acaba caindo de barriga no fascismo quando vislumbra o “poder-na-máquina” e sente que pode tocá-lo e participar dele… Bolsonaro é seu goregrind e nada lhe faltará!

A MAN’S DEAD BODY MUST ALWAYS HAVE BEEN A SOURCE OF INTEREST TO THOSE WHOSE COMPANION HE WAS WHILE HE LIVED…”

GEORGES BATAILLE, DEATH AND SENSUALITY

Do the names eerily reflect the karma of the personalities they denote? Or are the people destined to fulfill the fate foretold in titles they (ir)reverently adopt?”

Mayhem began in 1984, inspired by the likes of Black Metal pioneers Venom, and later Bathory and Hellhammer. Judging from an early issue of Metalion’s Slayer magazine, Aarseth initially adopted Destructor for his stage name as guitarist. The other members of the earliest incarnation of the band were bassist Necro Butcher, Manheim on drums, and lead vocalist Messiah. Not long after this Aarseth took on Euronymous as his own personal mantle—presumably it sounded less comical and more exotic than his previous pseudonym. His new name was a Greek title mentioned in occult reference books as corresponding to a <prince of death>.”

Mayhem played their first show in 1985. Their debut demo tape, Pure Fucking Armageddon, appeared a year later in a limited edition of 100 numbered copies. By 1987 someone called Maniac replaced the previous singer, whom Aarseth henceforth referred to as a <former session vocalist>, despite his appearance on the demo as well as the first proper release, that year’s Deathcrush mini-LP.” “Dead, the distinctive singer for the Stockholm cult act Morbid, joined Mayhem and moved to Oslo. A new drummer was found in Jan Axel <Hellhammer> Blomberg, one of the most talented musicians in the underground. Even with the mini-LP selling briskly, and Mayhem’s bestial reputation increasing, the band and its members remained dirt poor.”

Euronymous found him. We only had one key to the door and it was locked, and he had to go in the window. The only window that was open was in Dead’s room, so he climbed in there and found him with half of his head blown away. So he went out and drove to the nearest store to buy a camera to take some pictures of him, and then he called the police.” Hellhammer, the drummer

He just sat in his room and became more and more depressed, and there was a lot of fighting. One time Euronymous was playing some synth music that Dead hated, so he just took his pillow outside, to go sleep in the woods, and after awhile Euronymous went out with a shotgun to shoot some birds or something and Dead was upset because he couldn’t sleep out in the woods either because Euronymous was there too, making noises.”

It might sound a bit weird, but Mayhem was the band that everyone had heard of, but not many people had actually heard because they had released the demos which were quite limited and the mini-LP itself was very limited. But I was lucky because I knew Maniac, the vocalist, so he had some extra copies of the mini-album and he gave me one. I was very impressed because it was the most violent stuff I had ever heard, very brutal. I remember I thought that these people like Euronymous, Maniac, and Necro Butcher were very mysterious, because they didn’t do many interviews but they were always in magazines and I saw pictures of them. They had long black hair and you couldn’t see their faces, it was mysterious and atmospheric.” Bård Eithun

WHEN DID YOU FIRST MEET EURONYMOUS?

I met Euronymous and Dead at a gig in Oslo in 1989; it was an Anthrax concert and I met them outside”

Dead hated cats. I remember one night he was trying to sleep. A cat was outside his apartment, so he ran outside with a big knife to get the cat. The cat ran into a shed [galpão] and he went after it. Then you heard lots of noise, and screaming, and there was a hole in the shed where the cat came out again, and Dead ran after it with his big knife, screaming, hunting the cat, only dressed in his underwear. That was his idea of how to deal with a cat.”

I remember Aarseth told me, <Dead did it himself, but it is okay to let people believe that I might have done it because that will create more rumors about Mayhem>. (…) But he did use some stuff from the brain to make necklaces.”

There is a bootleg of the Sarpsborg show [1990] called Dawn of the Black Hearts: Live in Sarpsborg [vídeo?], released by someone in South America.” Metalion

That’s one thing about worshiping death—why worry when people die?”

I see Dead, people.

Where?

Oh, everywhere on the stage!

She told me that the first <plane> in the astral world has the color of blue. The earthly plane has the color of black. Then comes a gray that is very near the earthly one and is easy to come to. The next one further is blue, then it gets brighter and brighter till it “stops” at a white shining one that can’t be entered by mortals. If any mortal succeeds in entering it, that one is no longer mortal and can not come back to the earthly planes nor back to this earth.” Morto, o Místico

No one speaks ill of him, which is rare in such an insular and competitive realm as the extreme music underground. As many will testify, however, Aarseth appeared to feel little sorrow over the loss of Dead, instead glorifying his violent departure in order to cultivate a further mystique of catastrophe surrounding the band.”

This has nothing to do with black, these stupid people must fear black metal! But instead they love shitty bands like Deicide, Benediction, Napalm Death, Sepultura and all that shit!! We must take this scene to what it was in the past! Dead died for this cause and now I have declared war! I’m angry, but at the same time I have to admit that it was interesting to examine a human brain in rigor mortis. Death to false black metal or death metal!! Also to the trendy hardcore people… Aarrgghh!” Euronymous “manifesto”

Dead died wearing a white T-shirt with I ❤ Transylvania stenciled across it.”

if we ever come to, for example, India, the most evil thing that we can do there that I have in mind will be to sacrifice a holy cow on stage.” Euro.

HELL IS FULL OF MUSICAL AMATEURS;

MUSIC IS THE BRANDY OF THE DAMNED.”

GEORGE BERNARD SHAW, MAN AND SUPERMAN

I’d rather be selling Judas Priest than Napalm Death, but at least now we can be specialized within <death> metal and make a shop where all the trend people will know that they will find all the trend music.”

O que vocês fazer hoje, Cérebro Mole e Solto?

O que fazemos todas as noites, Blacky… Tentar conquistar o mundo para Satanás!

Aarseth also kept in touch with a growing number of extreme bands from outside Norway whom he likewise encouraged and made plans to release records by: Japan’s Sigh, Monumentum from Italy, and the bizarre Swedish entity Abruptum. Only a few of these schemes would ever be realized before Aarseth’s death, mostly because he was never cut out to be a businessman. He ran his label ineptly, and the capital to invest in new releases was simply not there.”

WHAT SORT OF IDEAS DID VARG HAVE WHEN YOU FIRST MET HIM?

He was a Devil worshiper and he was against Nazis, for reasons I don’t know, but that’s what he said. After the arrest in early ’93 then he got into this Nazi stuff.” Eithun

the shelves contained bands like Metallica and Godflesh.”

he had a specific taste for German electronic music like Kraftwerk.”

Politically, Aarseth was a long way from the nationalist and often pseudo-right-wing sentiments that are so prominent in Black Metal today. He proclaimed himself a communist, and for a while had been a member of the Rød Ungdom (Red Youth), the youth wing of the Arbeidernes Kommunist Parti (Marxist-Leninistene) —The Marxist/Leninist Communist Workers Party. Though rather few in number, the party had an appeal for intellectuals, including many prominent writers and politicians, and thus maintained a strong grip on Norwegian cultural life for many years. Rød Ungdom was aggressively anti-Soviet, and looked to China and Albania for inspiration. Despots like Pol Pot were also viewed as models of resistance against Western imperialism.”

Some of the treasured objects in his collection were heroic photographs of Nicolae Ceaucescu, the former dictator of Rumania and one of Aarseth’s idols. <Albania is the future>, he would muse to anyone willing to listen.”

Varg came to Oslo for a time and moved into the basement of the record shop, living in the barren space there along with Samoth, the guitarist of Emperor.”

On the second Burzum release, Aske (Ashes), bass playing would be done by Samoth, but with this sole exception Vikernes maintained his project entirely alone.”

Very few such corpse-painted portraits of Vikernes exist—the fashion seems to be something more particular to Aarseth. If it is true that Vikernes introduced the ideology of medieval-style Devil worship to Norwegian Black Metal, it must be also acknowledged that not a moment was lost before Aarseth began trumpeting it as his own.”

As many as 1,200 stave churches may have existed in the early Middle Ages; only 32 original examples survived in the second half of this century. That total has since been revised to 31.”

News of the destruction of one of Norway’s cultural landmarks made national headlines. It would not be long before other churches began to ignite in nighttime blazes. On August 1st of the same year the Revheim Church in southern Norway was torched; twenty days later the Holmenkollen Chapel in Oslo also erupted in flames. On September 1st the Ormøya Church caught fire, and on the 13th of that month Skjold Church likewise. In October the Hauketo Church burned with the others. After a short pause of a few months’ time, Åsane

Church in Bergen was consumed in flames, and the Sarpsborg Church was destroyed only two days later. In battling the blaze at Sarpsborg a member of the fire department was killed in the line of duty. Some would later consider this death the responsibility of the Black Circle.” “The authorities are reluctant to discuss the details of many of these incidents, fearing that undue attention may literally spark other firebugs or copycats to join the assault which Vikernes and his associates began in 1992.”

In eleventh-century England, arson was a crime punishable by death. Later, during the reign of King Henry II, a person convicted of arson would be exiled from the community after they had suffered the amputation of one hand and one foot.”

Lewis & Yarnell – Pathological Firesetting

True pyromaniacs tend to have a sexual impulse behind their action, according to psychologist Wilhelm Stekel, whose Peculiarities of Behavior covers the affliction in detail.”

It’s not a Satanic thing, it’s a national heathen thing. It’s not a rebellion against my parents or something, it’s serious. My mother totally agrees with it. She doesn’t mind if someone burns a church down. She hates the Church quite a lot. Also about the murder (of Østein Aarseth), she thinks that he deserved it, he asked for it. So she thinks it’s wrong to punish me for it. There’s no conflict between us at all about these things. The only thing she disliked was that I liked weapons and wanted to buy weapons, and suddenly she got a box of helmets at her place because I ordered them! Bulletproof vests, all this stuff…” Varg

TEENAGERS GONNA TEEN:

I said, I know who burned the churches, to the journalist, and I was making a lot of fun with him because we told him on the phone, we have a gun and if you try to bring anybody we’ll shoot you. Come meet me at midnight and all this, it was very theatrical. He was a Christian, and I fed him a lot of amusing info. Very amusing! Of course he twisted the words like usual. After he left we lay on the floor laughing.

We thought it would be some tiny interview in the paper and it was a big front page. The same day, an hour or so after I talked to him on the phone, the police came and arrested me. That was why I was arrested. I didn’t tell them anything. I talked to the police that time and I told them, I know who burned the churches —so what? They tried to say, We’ve seen you at the site, and all this, and I said, No you haven’t!

I’d already killed a man so it’s okay to be involved in this too, to burn down a church.” Eithun

VON [americana] were merely an obscure group who managed to release one raw-sounding demo tape, Satanic Blood, which became legendary within the Norwegian scene.” O primeiro full length (Satanic Blood, idem) dos caras é de 2012!

kerrang03
IMAGEM 1. Kerrang!, 27/03/1993

The Kerrang! exposé is also notable as it appears to be the first media story which labels the Black Metal scene as <neo-fascist>. Arnopp quotes members of Venom and mainstream UK Metal band Paradise Lost (who the article claims were haphazardly attacked by teenage Black Metalers while on tour in Norway), referring to the Satanic Terrorists as Hitlerian Nazis.”

I support all dictatorships—Stalin, Hitler, Ceaucescu… and I will become the dictator of Scandinavia myself.” V.V. Mau-Mau

I didn’t care much about the value of human life. Nothing was too extreme. That there were burned churches, and people were killed, I didn’t react at all. I just thought, Excellent! I never thought, Oh, this is getting out of hand, and I still don’t. Burning churches is okay; I don’t care that much anymore because I think that point was proven. Burning churches isn’t the way to get Christianity out of Norway. More sophisticated ways should be used if you really want to get rid of it.” Ihsahn (Emperor)

I told them, why not burn up a mosque, the foreign churches from the Hindu and Islamic jerks—why not take those out instead of setting fires to some very old Norwegian artworks? They could have taken mosques instead, with plenty of people in them” Hellhammer o Batera

The epidemic mostly afflicted poor black churches in the South (States), and public outrage against a presumed conspiracy of racist terrorism resulted in the President’s formation of a National Church Arson Task Force in June, 1996. The Task Force has since concluded that no nationwide conspiracy exists, and suspects arrested in relation to the the fires have been blacks and Hispanics as well as whites. The motives in specific incidents have ranged widely, from revenge to vandalism to racial hatred.”

I understood that he was a homosexual very quickly. He was asking if I had a light, but he was already smoking. It was obvious that he wanted to have some contact. Then he asked me if we could leave this place and go up to the woods. So I agreed, because already then I had decided that I wanted to kill him, which was very weird because I’m not like this—I don’t go around and kill people. (…) He was walking behind me and I turned and stabbed him in the stomach. After that I don’t remember much, only that it was like looking at this whole incident through eyes outside of my body. It was as if I was looking at two people who were having a fight—and one had a knife, so it was easy to kill the other person. If something happens that is obscure, it’s easier for the mind to react if it acts like it is watching it from outside of yourself.” Eithun

The bizarre duo Abruptum (SUE), who allegedly recorded their music during bouts of self-inflicted torture, was praised by Aarseth as <the audial essence of Pure Black Evil>. He released their debut album Obscuritatem Advoco Amplectère Me on Deathlike Silence in 1992. Østein had also managed, with financial assistance from Varg Vikernes, to release the first Burzum CD on DSP. The second Burzum effort, Aske, was released in early 1993, some months after the burning of the Fantoft Stave Church. It was around this time, in the first months of the year, that bad blood arose between Vikernes and Aarseth. Their disagreement appears to come at the same period when Øystein was also arguing with members of the Swedish scene, causing a general animosity to surface between Black Metalers in the two neighboring countries.” “There was a certain degree of cooperation between the two groups, but the recent frictions had been strong enough that when Øystein Aarseth was found slaughtered in the stairwell of his apartment building on August 10, 1993, the initial suspicion of many was directed at the Swedes.”

People who never knew what Black Metal was, or Death Metal, or Metal at all, were attracted to this because they thought it was cool. People who never knew Grishnackh and never knew Euronymous. Oh yeah, Black Metal—that’s the new thing. There were so many new bands starting at this time in ’93 who were influenced by the writing in the newspapers.” Metalion

Aarseth had been forced to close the Helvete store a few months earlier, due to overwhelming attention from the media and police after the initial Black Metal church fire revelations. His parents were upset about all the negative publicity and, since they had helped him finance the shop, they successfully leaned on him to shut it down. Vikernes sarcastically points out how Aarseth’s inconsistent nature often resulted in deference to his parents’ wishes instead of adhering to the black and <evil> image he supposedly embodied: <Øystein once came to one of the newspapers wearing a white sweater, and later apologized to the scene, in case he had insulted anybody! It was all because of his parents. He was 26 years old!>

Øystein owed Varg a significant sum of royalty payments from the Burzum releases on Deathlike Silence, although given the poorly-run nature of the record label, this was hardly unusual or unexpected. Vikernes denies there was any monetary motive behind his actions. Others claim the attack came about as a result of a power struggle for dominance of the Black Metal scene, although astute insiders like Metalion are skeptical: That’s stupid reasoning, because you can’t expect to kill someone and have everyone think of you as the king and forget about him. That’s very, very primitive. It’s something more than that, I think.“Also Grishnackh’s mother paid for the studio recording of the first album, and Euronymous owed her money which she was supposed to get back.”

When he was sitting in his shop drinking Coca-Cola and eating Kebab from the Paki shop next door, it was all our money he bought everything with. It was dishonest pay. He was a parasite. Also he was half Lappish, a Sami, so that was a bonus. Bastard!” V.

They told the police they heard a woman screaming! I was laughing when I read about it. He ran away, pressing the doorbells and calling Help!

Bam! he was dead. Through his skull. I actually had to knock the knife out. It was stuck in his skull and I had to pry it out, he was hanging on it—and then he fell down the stairs. I hit him directly into his skull and his eyes went boing! And he was dead.”

NONE OF THE NEIGHBORS OPENED THEIR DOORS?

They didn’t dare. They thought it was some drunken fight. It’s the worst neighborhood in Oslo—60% colored people.”

When three people are going to tell the same story to the police, in interrogations lasting seven hours, it will go to hell.” Snorre Ruch, o Cúmplice

Varg was saying that what Bård had done was uncool, but inside the scene Bård’s actions commanded respect.”

The truth of the matter is that Snorre had shortly before joined Mayhem as a second guitar player. It is difficult to believe that he could have cared less about killing the founder of the band he was in—doubly difficult given Mayhem’s position as such a legendary group in the underground. In hearing his and Vikernes’s versions of the story, both are flawed. With his history of mental problems, one far-fetched explanation may be that Snorre was too daft to comprehend what he was actually participating in.”

The only foolish thing I did and the only thing I regret, is not killing (Snorre) as well. If I’d killed him as well I would not have gotten any more punishment if I was caught, and secondly, I wouldn’t have been caught. That’s what I regret.”

What is striking about members of the Scandinavian Black Metal circles in general is how little they cared about the lives or deaths of one another. When Dead killed himself, it became merely an opportunity for Aarseth to hype Mayhem to a new level. When he himself died violently two years later, his own bandmates speak of the killing with a tone of indifference more suited to a court stenographer.”

With the exception of Darkthrone, the major Norwegian Black Metal bands were now in hiatus, their key members facing prison sentences for arson, grave desecration, and murder. The legal proceedings that would follow disrupted the entire scene and pitted different factions against one another. People felt forced to choose sides: pro-Vikernes or pro-Euronymous. At this point a cult developed around the memory of Euronymous, hailed as <the King> or <Godfather of Black Metal>. As many have commented in the preceding interviews, much of this was hyperbole, emanating from a second generation of musicians trying to gain credibility by riding on the back of the legend of Aarseth’s Black Metal legacy.”

He simply refused to cooperate with the authorities, and maintained he was innocent until proven guilty. He followed the advice of his lawyer and never testified in court. The same cannot be said of the other offenders, most of whom confessed in detail once they were pressured by the police. On the one hand, this is understandable given their young age, relative naivety, and fear of worse punishments if they refused to admit their wrongdoing.”

ERROS E PUERILIDADES DA POLÍCIA NORUEGUESA: “Especially difficult to take seriously is the alleged calendar of <Satanic holy days> reprinted in the report, with many of the dates involving the sexual molestation of minors—something that is strongly condemned by all established Satanic organizations. And while it might be argued that fringe religious phenomena like Satanism are often so bewildering that it’s hard to accurately assess their practices, even complete novices in the study of New Religious Movements should begin to suspect something is wrong when they see references to dates that don’t exist, such as April 31. Unless, of course, Satanists are so evil that they follow their own calendar.” ZAGALLO (OLLAGAZ) AMOU.

Kirkebranner og satanistisk motiverte skadeverk also refers to stories that never really reached the media when the Satanic furor was at its height.”

But despite his smart-ass remarks and mental capabilities, Vikernes was no match for the seasoned investigators of the Kripos [FBI norueguês]. He sensed that the police net was tightening around him and that he was no longer in control of the situation, especially as the Oslo police dispatched its Church Fire Group to Bergen in 1993 to follow the goose steps of the Count and his subjects around Bergen.”

Lendas a respeito de Vikinho: “Vikernes knocked on the door of the police investigation’s impromptu headquarters in Room 318 of the Hotel Norge in Bergen, and seems to have virtually forced his way into the suite.”

A M O R A M O R A M O R A M O R

A M O R A M O R A M O R A M O R

A M O R A M O R A M O R A M O R

A M O R A M O R A M O R A M O R

The word Varg has a great meaning for me. I could speak about this matter for an hour.”

Grishnackh is an evil character on the side of Sauron.”

That’s typical trial bullshit. Like my psychiatrists who examined me, one of them was a Jew and a Freemason! The other was a communist. My lawyer was a homosexual. The other lawyer was a Freemason. The one single Christian faith healer in Norway was in the jury! Can you imagine? In other words, a person who says, I can look through you and with the power of Jesus pull out the evil spirits who make you sick!

There is one person who has always stood by Varg’s side and spoken out rigorously in his defense: his mother Lene Bore. Not only has she attempted to improve the public perception of her son, she also visits him frequently, helps him deal with correspondence, and assists in business matters relating to Burzum.

A number of Burzum albums have been released since his imprisonment and all have sold admirably well on the worldwide market. Royalties for the record sales are received by Lene Bore, a fact that allegedly allowed for the development of serious trouble in the future. Lene Bore also helped provide the money for recording and releasing the early Burzum releases on Aarseth’s Deathlike Silence label, and as a result she had occasion to meet a number of Varg’s friends in the Black Metal scene. Her comments are interesting, for she has dealt with an amazing amount of unrest as a result of her son’s actions over the years, and some of her impressions of Varg’s life are quite different from his own.”

YOUR FAMILY SPENT A YEAR IN IRAQ. WHAT WAS THIS LIKE FOR VARG?

I think it might be here that Varg’s dislike toward other peoples started. He experienced a very differential treatment. The other children in his class would get slapped by their teachers; he would not be. For example when they were going to the doctor, even when there were other children waiting in line, Varg would be placed first. He reacted very strongly to this. He could not understand why we should go first when there were so many before us. He had a very strongly developed sense of justice. This created a lot of problems, because when he saw students being treated unfairly, he would intervene, and try to sort things out.”

DID VARG’S RACISM INTENSIFY AT A CERTAIN POINT?

If he had racist tendencies to begin with, I am sure that they came to the surface when he lived in Oslo.”

LONG-HAIRED SKINHEADS: “It’s difficult to say. When I was three years old we moved to a road named Odinsvei, Odin’s Walk, and we were playing with the neighbor. He had German toy soldiers, but he always wanted to have the American soldiers, because they were the big heroes in his view. So I ended up with the German soldiers, as he was five years older than I. And I actually came to like them. It developed from soldiers to running around with SS helmets and German hand grenades and a Schmeizer with a swastika on it. In time we tried to figure it out —what the hell does this mean? That’s how it really began, and it developed. I was a skinhead when I was 15 or 16. Nobody knows that. People say that suddenly I became a Nazi, but I was actually a skinhead back then. It was in waves—in ‘91 I was into occultism, in ‘92 Satanism, in ‘93 mythology and so on, in waves.

WHAT ABOUT YOUR FATHER?

I have very little contact with him. They’re divorced. He left about ten years ago. There wasn’t any big impact. I was glad to be rid of him; he was just making a lot of trouble for me, always bugging me. He was in the Navy. We were raised very orderly; it was a good experience. I had a swastika flag at home and he was hysterical about it. He’s a hypocrite.¹ He was pissed about all the colored people he saw in town, but then he’s worried about me being a Nazi. He’s very materialistic, as is my mother really, but that’s the only negative thing I can say about her.² The positive thing is that she’s very efficient, and in business I have to have someone take care of my money and I can trust her fully. I know she will do things in the best way.”

¹ Yeah, that prettily sums it up for all of us – satanists, pagans, nihilistics, depressed, guilty or innocent boys… with bad dads! Apenas troca “Nazi” por “PT” e “pessoas de cor” por “corrupção” (que ele pratica) e aí tens.

² This is war! UHHH

WHAT WAS SCHOOL LIKE?

It was an Iraqi elementary school. The English school couldn’t take us because they were full. I went to a regular Iraqi school. I could use some basic English. I think it was my mother’s idea, because she didn’t want us to stay home, bored. We couldn’t go out too much because of the rabid dogs and all this, so she put us in school, just to keep us active.”

In Bergen it’s a more aristocratic society I was part of, because of my mother mainly. I had very little contact with colored people, really. In Bergen we are still blessed with having a majority of whites—unlike Oslo, which is the biggest sewer in Norway.”

When I was a skinhead there still weren’t any colored people, but there were these punks—that was more the reason I went over to the other side.” He-he

We liked the Germans, because they always had better weapons and they looked better, they had discipline. They were like Vikings. The volunteers from America were tall, blond guys, who looked much more like the ones they were attacking than some Dagos who were waving them good luck when they left home. It’s pretty absurd.”

Our big hope was to be invaded by Americans so we could shoot them. The hope of war was all we lived for. That was until I was 17, and then I met these guys in Old Funeral.”

WHAT INFLUENCED YOU TOWARD THAT?

I got interested in occultism through other friends. We played role-playing games, and some of these guys (all older than me) started to buy books on occultism, because they were interested in magic and spell casting. They showed me the books and then I bought similar things. But the music guys weren’t interested in that stuff at all, they only cared about food. [QUE PORRA É ESSA? HAHA]

WHAT WAS THE MUSIC LIKE?

Originally it was Thrash Metal, and then it became Death-Thrash or Techno-Thrash, and I lost interest. I liked the first Old Funeral demo. It had ridiculous lyrics, but I liked the demo and that was why I joined with them. They developed into this Swedish Death Metal trend; I didn’t like that so I dropped out. But I played with them for two years.” The fart(Varg) that should’ve been.

We were drawn to Sauron and his lot, and not the hobbits, those stupid little dwarves. I hate dwarves and elves. The elves are fair, but typically Jewish—arrogant, saying, We are the chosen ones. So I don’t like them. But you have Barad-dûr, the tower of Sauron, and you have Hlidhskjálf, the tower of Odin; you have Sauron’s all-seeing-eye, and then Odin’s one eye; the ring of power, and Odin’s ring Draupnir; the trolls are like typical berserkers, big huge guys who went berserk, and the Uruk-Hai are like the Ulfhedhnar, the wolfcoats. This wolf element is typically heathen. So I sympathize with Sauron. That’s partly why I became interested in occultism, because it was a so-called <dark> thing. I was drawn to Sauron, who was supposedly <dark and evil>, so I realized there had to be a connection.”

Just like democracy claims to be <light> and <good>, I reasoned that then we obviously have to be <dark> and <evil>.” J.R.R. se revira no túmulo.

SALADA DE MAIONESE ESTRAGADA NA CAIXA ENCEFÁLICA: “I never said I will become the dictator of Scandinavia myself. I did say that I support Stalin, Hitler, and Ceaucescu, and I even said that Rumania is my favorite country—an area full of Gypsies! But the point is that Rumania is the best example of communism, and when people can realize how ridiculously the whole thing works, they can see what it really is. (…) It may be a provocative way to say it, but if there wasn’t Stalin, Hitler would look even worse. Now at least we can say, look at Stalin—he’s worse. He killed 26 million.”

Well, there was a T-shirt that Øystein printed which said <Kill the Christians.> I think that’s ridiculous. What’s the logic in that? Why should we kill our own brothers? They’re just temporarily asleep, entranced. We have to say, <Hey, wake up!> That’s what we have to do, wake them up from the Jewish trance. We don’t have to kill them—that would be killing ourselves, because they are part of us.”

He was at first allowed a computer, which he used for correspondence and for the preliminary texts which would form his nationalist heathen codex. Some of the essays he composed were forwarded to correspondents and began to appear in underground publications around Europe. Most of these concerned his investigations into the esoterica of Nordic mythology and cosmology. At a certain point, after he had compiled a large portion of his book, the prison authorities decided to take away his computer; presumably they were worried he was somehow employing it for nefarious ends.” “By titling his treatise Vargsmål, Vikernes seeks to place himself in mythic lineage as a modern-day figure worthy of the ancient sagas.” “The official publication of Vargsmål would only come about years after it was written. With Varg’s front-page notoriety there were certain publishers interested in releasing the book, obviously figuring to make a quick buck on the sensationalism that could be generated, but it appears that most backed out when they had a chance to review the actual contents. In addition to mythological commentary, the book brims with volatile statements and racial, anti-Christian, nationalist rhetoric.”

I would like to find a woman to live with in peace and quiet, far away from the world’s problems, but I cannot. It is my duty to sacrifice myself and my personal wishes for the benefit of my tribe.” He-he

Varg Vikernes serves the role of a pariah and heretic to Norwegians, similar on a number of levels to that of Charles Manson in America. Both profess a radical ideology at odds with, and at times unintelligible to the average citizen. Both insist they have done nothing wrong. Both espouse a revolutionary attitude, imbued with strong racial overtones. Both have become media bogeymen in their respective countries, and both knowingly contribute to their own mythicization. Both also understand well the inherent archetypal power of symbols and names—especially those they adopt for themselves.”

With his increasing nationalism, Vikernes has discovered his predecessor in Vidkun Quisling, the Norwegian political leader who founded a collaborationist pro-German government in the midst of the Second World War. Quisling was tried and executed for treason shortly after the war’s end. As a result his name has entered international vernacular as a synonym for <traitor>. In Norway, that name is still anathema even today.” Quisling – That Inhabited Worlds Are To Be Found Outside of the Earth, and the Significance Thereof for Our View of Life, o manifesto deste idiota.

Norway’s conversion to Christianity, made possible by St. Olav’s death as a martyr at Stiklestad, was described by Jacobsen [dissidente do quislinguismo, ainda mais extremista] as the introduction of <something false and unnatural into our folk’s life>. It was therefore logical for him to condemn Quisling’s adoption of the St. Olav’s cross as the NS symbol, declaring that the party symbol itself was non-Nordic.”

He lamented not being able to legally register his own religious organization in Norway due to his criminal record. Toward this goal he has, however, formed the Norwegian Heathen Front, a loosely knit operation through which he will issue propaganda. The members of German Black Metal band Absurd, also currently behind bars, are involved with a branch of the organization in their country.” Além de ideólogos degenerados, péssimos músicos. Um absurdo, literalmente.

he plans to employ his philosophy on the nature of women as a basis for NHF strategy. His awareness of the woman’s role in revolutionary activities is not unlike that of Charles Manson before him, although Vikernes claims to have arrived at it from personal observation during his Black Metal period.”

A PSICOLOGIA INFANTO-JUVENIL DO FASCISMO: “The groundwork of the Black Metal scene is the will to be different from the masses.¹ That’s the main object. Also girls have a very important part in this, because they like mystical things and are attracted to people who are different, who have a mystique.² When a girl says <Look how cute he is> when she sees a picture of someone, her male friends will think <She likes him. If I look like him maybe she will like me as well.> They turn toward the person she admires.² The way to make Norway heathen is to go through the girls, because the males follow the girls.³” Varg

¹ Baudrillard diria: Coitado, ele ainda está preso às concepções socialistas-revolucionárias! As massas não são nada conceituável, ou são tudo, não há relação binária passível de ser feita entre massa e não-massa, não é simples assim. Não mais. Mas sendo a massa o advento inevitável do mundo moderno decadente, negar a massa como os neo-pagãos presumem, seria negar a vida, e não reafirmá-la, como pensam os Anti-Nazarenos.

² Gado demais. Boi ou vaca.

³ No Brasil atual isso seria mais condizente com tornar-se funkeiro. Mundial e macroscopicamente falando, talvez aderir ao k-pop.

Males aren’t extreme really. You find females are more to the left or more to the right than the males. Females are more communistic, more extremely Marxist-Leninist, or more extremely rightist than the males.”

In Oslo everybody fucks everybody in the scene. If one person gets a venereal disease, everyone does. The females I know in the Black Metal scene are not very intelligent, they are basically just whores. That’s a typical Oslo phenomenon.

The people I correspond with are not Black Metal girls at all. Some of them were, but they realized that I don’t like it and then they realized they didn’t really like it either. They were just doing it because they wanted to get in touch with certain people. The way to power is through the women. Hitler knew this as well. Women elected Hitler.”

O TRAPÉZIO DOS MÍMICOS: “Ironically, while Vikernes’s name is more or less synonymous with Black Metal, he takes great care to distance himself from that musical milieu. He even now claims the early Burzum releases—records regarded today as milestones of the genre—never were Black Metal music at all, instead classifying them as <standard, bad Heavy Metal>. He passionately distances himself from all forms of Rock and Roll, stressing that Rock’s roots in Afro-American culture make it alien to white people.”

Presently, Vikernes is no longer even permitted to listen to CDs. The only music he is currently allowed to experience must come via MTV—something which, in his case, might be considered a cruel and unusual form of punishment.”

Denied a musical outlet, Vikernes has focused his strong creative drive on writing. His output has encompassed political tracts, a book on mythology called Germansk Mytologi og Verdensanskuelse (Germanic Mythology and Worldview), and fiction, including a short novel. His fictional works can be compared to the infamous neo-Nazi novels Hunter and The Turner Diaries, in the sense that much of it functions as a dramatization of National Socialist rhetoric. Vikernes seems to be slightly more aware of his literary limitations than the late author of the aforementioned books, Dr. William Pierce (a former physics professor who became director of the American racialist political group the National Alliance), who makes his characters’ tender pillow-talk read like political sermonizing.”

In the early days of the Heathen Front, the organization’s mailing address was one and the same with Vikernes’s private P.O. box prison address. This would, of course, mean that any prospective members would have their letters read and, one presumes, registered by the authorities. And this actually strengthens the Heathen Front’s assertion that Vikernes is not the leader: it would be very hard for him to do an effective job of it. Whatever his official role may be, Vikernes certainly has left a strong mark on the Heathen Front. Its program was written by Vikernes, and this is a mix of rather orthodox National Socialist doctrine and neo-Heathen, anti-Christian ideas, along with some emphasis on environmentalism.” “The Allgermanische Heidnische Front [subdivisão do já irrelevante Heathen Front] and its subdivisions in Norway, Sweden, Belgium, Denmark, Holland, Iceland, Germany, and Sweden (with <affiliated subdivisions> in Russia, Finland, and the USA) are probably little more than Internet tigers. While the AHF’s policy of concentrating on producing web pages might be a bid to attract [“““]intellectually[”””] inclined youthful recruits rather than the streetfighters that make up much of the younger rank-and-file of other European National Socialist organizations, the focus on the Internet may have a more pragmatic motive.

One of the wonders of the Internet is that, in theory, a single person with a little know-how, a modem, and an acceptable computer can create web pages just as impressive as those of any huge organization. And, still theoretically, a loose group of e-mail correspondents across Europe can take on the appearance of a tremendously organized international network. In addition to its functioning as a political equalizer, the added attraction to all this is that Net know-how is mainly the field of younger people—exactly the sort the AHF has aboard. But while Vikernes’s network might theoretically consist of one teenage computer nerd per country, each still living in his parents’ house, such an estimation would probably be way off the mark. So how real is the AHF?” “whether the AHF will be noticed in the future probably depends most on if it can succeed at recruiting young Burzum fans (its most realistic recruitment base) into political activism—or at providing a conduit for them into more militant groups and scenes.” Cenário pouco auspicioso para a “organização”.

He also explains their recruiting strategy: <We don’t approach the great masses, but rather let individuals from the masses approach us instead. This is probably why so many see us as an ‘Internet project’ or as inactive and passive.> braço sueco

National-Socialists in Sweden are as much a minority as they are everywhere else, and young activists are likely to rub brown-shirted¹ shoulders with members of other groups in informal settings like concerts, meetings, and parties.”

¹ Essencialmente, <Juventude Hitlerista>, qualquer grupo paramilitar subversivo de extrema-direita – análogo aos camisas-negras para a Alemanha.

while the Third Reich was in some ways a modern welfare state (at least for those whose blood and ideology were in line with NS doctrines), Vikernes asserts that military veterans who are disabled in future wars for the greatness of Germania should commit suicide rather than be a burden on the resources of the Nation.”

SS

solo sangue Scandinavia

The journal Kulturorgan Skadinaujo appears to be the work of young students, some of whom have adopted an academic writing style. Though the fanzine-style musings that occasionally appear in its pages detract from its academic tone, the main reason why Skadinaujo seems doomed to fail as a scholarly venture is the fact that it reviews books like the pseudo-archaeology of Graham Hancock side by side with properly executed scholarly works. The end result is hardly something to show your professor.”

He has taken to interpreting the Old Norse texts as proof of—or at the very least circumstantial evidence for—contact between humans and extra-terrestrials in ancient times.”

And in the same way that Hymir sent all his trolls out to wreak revenge on Thor for having gone fishing and catching the Midgard Serpent in one of the most well-known of the Norse myths, a war was waged on Atlantis. After the conflict, the island sank into the ocean and the Aryans sought refuge on other continents, where they eventually mixed with lower races of men. The Atlantean Aryans only survived as a pure race in Northern Europe, where they can produce children like Vikernes: blonde, blue-eyed, and long-skulled.”

LIGANDO LÉ COM CRÉ E NO KIBE DANDO RÉ: “Thor had red hair, but all our ancestors had blonde hair prior to the degeneration of the Viking Age. [?] But the planet Jupiter is the colour of rust! [?] And Thor protected men against uncontrollable natural forces, just like Jupiter’s gravitation protects earth. […] Why does Thor have a belt of strength? Does not Jupiter have a ring around it? [??]”

The roots of Nazi preoccupation with flying saucers are complex, and date back to before the Second World War. Clear indications exist that the Third Reich had a program for developing flying saucers as part of its war machine.” Legal, salvou meu dia.

After the war, the UFO myth entered the subconscious of the West, with the rumored UFO crash at Roswell and alien abduction stories becoming standard features in modern folklore. And while many of the contemporary myths dramatized by the tremendously successful TV series The X-Files might seem fantastic, the strangest ideas are the ones that people actually seem to believe in.”

While the circumstances that led to the creation of the book [ufologia babaca envolvendo a tribo Africana dos Dogon!] are convoluted (as any arguments dealing with ancient astronauts invariably are), at the root of the mystery lie the writings of the French anthropologists Marcel Griaule and Germaine Dieterlen, who did research on the Dogon in the 1930s. Twenty years later, the Frenchmen published their story of how the Dogon had revealed this astronomical knowledge about Sirius (Sigu Tolo in the native language) to them.

But other anthropologists who later visited the area have been unable to find the same astronomical knowledge circulating among the Dogon, and the most realistic hypotheses seem to be that the one Dogon informant who divulged the information to the two Frenchmen either learned his Sirius lore from earlier visitors (of the human variety), or indeed from Marcel Griaule himself, a keen astronomy fan who took along star-charts to help extract information. Either wittingly or unconsciously, the Dogon native might have had this knowledge transferred to him from his interviewer—or else Griaule overemphasized what was passed to him through his interpreter, thus finding exactly what he wanted to. Furthermore, many of the Dogon’s astronomical <facts> are just plain wrong.

In the world of the pop esotericism, however, the fact that claims are exposed as lackluster or even fraudulent often has little bearing on their continuing distribution via the myriad magazines and bookshops that cater to alternative ideas.”

Sitchin was first attracted to this peculiar field of research because he was puzzled by the Nefilim, who are mentioned in Genesis, 6. There, the Nefilim (also spelled Nephilim) are described as the sons of the gods who married the daughters of Man in the days before the great flood, the Deluge. The word Nefilim is often translated as <giants>, meaning that the Old Testament asserts there were days when giants walked upon the earth. If this sounds a bit like the occult narrative of Varg Vikernes, it only becomes more so when Sitchin claims that the correct and literal meaning of the word Nefilim is <those who have come down to earth from the heavens>. [eram filósofos: viviam com a cabeça nas nuvens!] Fallen angels procured the daughters of men as mates, which Sitchin takes to mean that the space-farers mixed their superior DNA with that of primitive mankind, leading to a quantum leap in human genetic and cultural evolution which spawned the blossoming Mesopotamian cultures.” Tão crível seria a hipótese de que caiu um meteorito radioativo na Terra e fez com que gorilas e chimpanzés entrassem em acelerada mutação – com mortalidade de virtuais 100%… Os escassos sobreviventes desta hecatombe ecológica, entretanto, viriam a ser Prometeus… Cof, cof.

IS THERE A SPECIAL CONNECTION BETWEEN NATIONAL-SOCIALISM AND UFOs?

DR. MICHAEL ROTHSTEIN [cético que estuda gente que acredita em OVNIs]: In certain ways, yes. Nazism has always had some kind of relation to the occult and certain Nazi groups (often outside the actual Nazi parties) have made a special point out of it. However, this really is fringe stuff [indie, marginal]. What is more interesting is the fact that UFOs on many occasions have been interpreted as devices developed by Nazi scientists, as German secret weapons. This is, I believe, more interesting than notions of clones of Hitler hiding under Antarctica in huge UFO-related facilities. Nazis are in many ways the demons of the modern world, at least most people find them disgusting and dangerous, and any association between the bewildering UFOs and these groups points to a certain understanding of UFOs as sinister or demonic.”

As long as people wish to believe, they will readily accept authorities that support their beliefs. The phenomenon is not that Von Däniken is able to persuade people of anything. The phenomenon is that people want Von Däniken to provide material for them to believe in. Furthermore, this is not in itself a <far-out> belief. Any belief in things out of the ordinary could be considered <far out>: God, for instance, or the Resurrection of Christ, flying yogis, whatever.”

As hinted by Rothstein, one of the most unusual marriages of UFO lore and National Socialism is the idea that the Third Reich is alive and well under the Antarctic ice-cap, keeping watch over the world by means of its flying saucers and waiting for the day to return and free the world from Zionist bankers, communists, and other enemies of the Aryan race.” “The most eloquent spiritual representative of such ideas in the present day is the Chilean dignitary and author Miguel Serrano [1917-2009], a former diplomat (to India, Yugoslavia and Austria) who counted both Carl Jung and Herman Hesse [curiosamente, anti-nazi notório – autor da novela Steppenwolf] among his circle of friends.” Serrano – C.G. Jung and Hermann Hesse: A Record of Two Friendships (1965) (original: El círculo hermético, de Hesse a Jung)

Mattias Gardell is a lecturer in religious anthropology at the University of Stockholm. He has studied radical religions extensively, and is the author of a book on the Nation of Islam, Countdown to Armageddon. His latest research project has involved a year of travelling around North America and interviewing figures involved in the neo-Nazi and Ásatru movements, two milieus that sometimes overlap—and especially so in the case of Varg Vikernes.”

Such ideas of blood as a carrier of hereditary information are common in Nazi circles, and can in some way be compared to Carl Jung’s theory of the collective unconscious.”

Their law of the strong scorns pity as a four-letter word; they await the day it is banished from the dictionaries. They despise doctrines of humility. Christ’s Sermon on the Mount is even worse poison to their ears. War is their ideal, and they romanticize the grim glory of older epochs where it was a fact of life. Where is the source for such a river of animosity and primal urges? Did torrents of hatred arise simply from the amplification of a phonograph needle vibrating through the spiralled grooves of a Venom album? Is Black Metal music possessed of the inherent power to impregnate destructive messages into the minds of the impressionable, laying a fertile seed destined to sprout into deed? To an enlightened mind it would seem unlikely.”

After reading a number of similar texts by Varg Vikernes, the Austrian artist and occult researcher named Kadmon was inspired to investigate in detail what enigmatic connections might exist between the phenomena of modern Black Metal and the ancient myths of the Oskorei. The Oskorei is the Norse name for the legion of dead souls who are witnessed flying, en masse, across the night sky on certain occasions. They are rumored to sometimes swoop down from the dark heavens and whisk a living person away with them. This army of the dead is often led by Odin or another of the heathen deities. Throughout the centuries, there are many reports from people who claim to have experienced the terrifying phenomenon—they attest to having seen and heard the Oskorei with their own eyes and ears. The tales of the Oskorei also refer to real-life folk customs which were still prevalent a few hundred years ago in rural parts of Northern Europe.” “noise, corpse-paint, ghoulish appearances, the adoption of pseudonyms, high-pitched singing, and even arson.”

In German folklore, stories of the Oskorei correspond directly to the Wild Hunt, also termed Wotan’s Host. Wotan (alternately spelled Wodan) is the continental German title for Odin, Varg Vikernes’s <patron deity>”

Gyldendal’s Store Norske Leksikon (The Large Norse Encyclopedia)

O SATÃ DE VIKERNES É O JUDEU ERRANTE: “There were often fights and killings at those places Oskoreia stopped. They could drink the yule ale and eat the food, but also carry people away if they were out in the dark. One could protect against the ride by gesturing in the shape of a cross or by throwing oneself to the ground with the arms stretched out like a cross. The best way was to place a cross above all the doors. Steel above the stalls was effective as well. The Oskorei was probably regarded as a riding company of dead people, perhaps those who deserved neither Heaven nor Hell.”

the cover of Bathory’s first <Viking> album, Blood Fire Death (1988), features a haunting depiction of the Oskorei in action. The remarkable development is how so many of the minute details of the legends would inadvertently or coincidentally resurface in unique traits of the Norwegian Black Metal adherents. This behavior had already become prominent years before the scene acquired its current attraction toward Nordic mythological themes, and before Vikernes ever began writing commentaries on such topics.”

Many of the <Satanic> bands even evince a strong fascination for native folklore and tradition, seeing them as vital allegories which represent primal energies within man. This type of viewpoint is expressed well by Erik Lancelot of the band Ulver:

<The theme of Ulver has always been the exploration of the dark sides of Norwegian folklore, which is strongly tied to the close relationship our ancestors

had to the forests, mountains, and sea. The dark side of our folklore therefore has a different outlook from the traditional Satanism using cosmic symbolism from Hebraic mythology, but the essence remains the same: the ‘demons’ represent the violent, ruthless forces feared and disclaimed by ordinary men, but without whom the world would lose the impetus which is the fundamental basis of evolution.>”

atavistic ativism

folclorenoruegues
IMAGEM 2. Extraído dum livro de lendas

Ler Two Essays on Analytical Psychology do Jung: “There are present in every individual, besides his personal memories, the great <primordial> images, as Jacob Burckhardt once aptly called them, the inherited powers of human imagination as it was from time immemorial. The fact of this inheritance explains the truly amazing phenomena that certain motifs from myths and legends repeat themselves […] It also explains why it is that our mental patients can reproduce exactly the same images and associations that are known to us from the old texts.”

Kadmon also points out a few strong contrasts between the rural folklore and Black Metal, which he sees as an urban phenomena. He is not entirely correct in this assertion, however, as many of the Norwegian Black Metal musicians do not come [from] cities such as Oslo, Bergen, or Trondheim, but live in small villages in the countryside. And Varg Vikernes, too, is proud to make the distinction that he is originally from a rural area some distance outside of Bergen, rather than the city itself. Further examples can be found with the members of Emperor, Enslaved, and a number of other bands.”

Besides Bathory, one other early Scandinavian Metal band had also extolled the religion and lifestyle of the Vikings in their music, a group from the ‘80s called Heavy Load. Possibly they also inspired some of the kids later involved in Black Metal, and indeed they have been mentioned with appreciation by some close to the scene, like Metalion.”

The group Immortal even went so far as to make a professional video clip with every band member shirtless in the midst of a freezing winter snowscape, furiously playing one of their songs. A video for the Burzum song Darkness goes much further, leaving out any human traces whatsoever—the entire 8:00 clip is based on images of runic stone carvings, over which shots flash of rushing storm clouds, sunsets, rocks, and woods. Co-directed by Vikernes from prison via written instructions, the result is impressively evocative despite the absence of any storyline or drama.”

POUCO IMANENTE VOCÊ, NÃO É, DISCÍPULO EX-QUERIDINHO DE FREUD? “According to Carl Jung, it is not always modern man who actively seeks to consciously revive a pre-Christian worldview, but rather he may become involuntarily possessed by the archetypes of the gods in question. In March, 1936, Jung published a remarkable essay in the Neue Schweizer Rundschau, which remains highly controversial to the present day. Originally written only a few years after the National-Socialists came to power in Germany, it is entitled Wotan.

Jung states in no uncertain terms his conviction that the Nazi movement is a result of <possession> by the god Wotan on a massive scale. He traces elements of the heathen revival back to various German writers, Nietzsche especially, who he feels were <seized> by Wotan and became transmitters for aspects of the god’s archetypal nature. He states, <It is curious, to say the least of it […] that an old god of storm and frenzy, the long quiescent Wotan, should awake, like an extinct volcano, to a new activity, in a country that had long been supposed to have outgrown the Middle Ages.>

Jung would some years later reveal his conviction [not proofs, like Moro] that both Nietzsche and he himself had experienced personal visits [Jung estuprado na infância?] in their dreams from the ghostly procession of the <Wild Hunt>, the German equivalent of the Oskorei.”

In Norway and Sweden there has also been growing general interest in the indigenous religion of their forefathers, to the point that at least one heathen group, Draupnir, has been recognized as a legitimate religious organization by the Norwegian government. Along with them, other Ásatrú organizations such as Bifrost also hold regular gatherings where they offer blot, or symbolic sacrifice, to the deities of old.

There is absolutely no specific connection between these Nordic religious practitioners and the Black Metal scene. In fact, public assumptions that such a link would exist have been a severe liability to these groups. Dispelling negative public impressions of their religion is made considerably more difficult with characters like Vikernes speaking so frequently of his own heathen beliefs to the press.”

VonStuck
IMAGEM 3. Franz von Stuck, A caçada selvagem

O TRÁGICO ATRASADOR DA REASCENSÃO MITOLÓGICA: “Vikernes’s extreme and bloody interpretation of indigenous Norse religion is just as problematic to the neo-heathen groups as was his flaming-stave-church and brimstone variety of Satanism a few years earlier to organizations like the Church of Satan. When contemporary figures sought to revive the old religion of Northern Europe, they had not intended to bring back uncontrollable barbarism and lawlessness with it.”

There is another obscure old fable of the Oskorei, where they fetch a dead man up from the ground, rather than their usual choice of someone among the living. It was collected by Kjetil A. Flatin in the book Tussar og trolldom (Goblins and Witchcraft) in 1930. If the folkloristic and heathen impulses of Norwegian Black Metal are in fact some untempered form of resurgent atavism, then this short tale is even more surprising in its ominously allegorical portents of events to come over 60 years later with Grishnackh, Euronymous, and the fiery deeds that swirled around them”

Originally bestowed with Kristian for his first name, Vikernes found this increasingly intolerable in his late teenage years. When he first introduced himself to the Black Metal scene it was still his forename. Sometime in 1991–92 he legally changed his name to Varg. His choice of a new title is curious in light of the actions he would later commit, and the legend that would surround him—although he claims to have adopted it mainly for its common meaning of <wolf>. If one understands the etymology and usage of the word varg in the various ancient Germanic cultures (and there is no evidence that Vikernes did at the time of his name change), his decision becomes downright ominous.

A fascinating dissertation exists entitled Wargus, Vargr—‘Criminal’ ‘Wolf’: A Linguistic and Legal Historical Investigation by Michael Jacoby, published in Uppsala, Sweden, but written in German. It is a highly detailed, heavily referenced exploration of the Germanic word Warg, or vargr in Norse.”

Qual é o lado mais podre do LobisOmen?

The designation was used in the oldest written laws of Northern Europe, often with a prefix to add a specific legal meaning, such as gorvargher (cattle thief) or morthvargr (killer).”

another ancient Germanic legal text, the Salic Law, which states: <If any one shall have dug up or despoiled an already buried corpse, let him be a varg.> Hehehe

LICANTROPIA ETIMOLOGIZADA E SOCIOLOGIZADA

Vargr is the same as u-argr, restless; argr being the same as the Anglo-Saxon earg. Vargr had its double signification in Norse. It signified a wolf, and also a godless man. […] The Anglo Saxons regarded him as an evil man: wearg, a scoundrel; Gothic vargs, a fiend. […] the ancient Norman laws said of the criminals condemned to outlawry for certain offenses, Wargus esto: be an outlaw! (be a varg!) […] among the Anglo Saxons an utlagh, or out-law, was said to have the head of a wolf. If then the term vargr was applied at one time to a wolf, at another to an outlaw who lived the life of a wild beast, away from the haunts of men—<he shall be driven away as a wolf, and chased so far as men chase wolves farthest,> was the legal form of sentence—it is certainly no matter of wonder that stories of outlaws should have become surrounded with mythical accounts of their transformation into wolves.” “As can be seen from the Baring-Gould quote above, the wolf connotation of the term later became associated with werewolves, and in certain sources the Devil himself is referred to as a werewolf. However, this negative outlook on wolves appears to surface after the onset of the Christian period of Europe; the pre-Christian heathens had a quite different perception. “A number of Black Metal bands display a fascination for the wolf. The most obvious example is Ulver, whose name itself means wolves in Norwegian.”

The wolf lives in the forest, symbol of the demonic world outside the control of human civilization, and serves thus as a link between the demonic and the cultural, chaos and order, light and dark, subconscious and conscious. Still I do not by this mean to say that the wolf represents the balance point between good and evil—rather he is the promoter of <evil> in a culture which has focused too much on the light side and disowned the animalistic. He symbolizes the forces which human civilization does not like to recognize, and is therefore looked upon with suspicion and awe.” E. Lancelot

In the older Viking times, wolves were totem animals for certain cults of warriors, the Berserkers. A specific group is mentioned in the sagas, the Ulfhethnar or <wolf-coats>, who donned the skin of wolves. Baring-Gould recounts the behavior of the Berserks who, wearing these special vestments, reached an altered state of consciousness:

<They acquired superhuman force […] No sword would wound them, no fire burn them, a club alone could destroy them, by breaking their bones, or crushing their skulls. Their eyes glared as though a flame burned in the sockets, they ground their teeth, and frothed at the mouth; they gnawed at their shield rims, and are said to have sometimes bitten them through, and as they rushed into conflict they yelped as dogs or howled as wolves.>”

Wolves are sacred to Odin, the <Allfather>, who is usually accompanied by his own two wolf-elementals, Geri and Freki. Many Germanic personal first names can be traced back to another root word for wolf, ulv or ulf, so this was clearly not an ignoble or derisive connotation, except in its varg form.” “In the old sagas Odin is bestowed with myriad names and titles, some of which include Herjan (War God), Yggr (the Terrible One), Bölverkr, (The Evil Doer), Boleyg (Fiery Eyed), and Grímnir (the Masked One).”

It happens that he betrays his believers and his protégés, and he sometimes seems to take pleasure in sowing the seeds of fatal discord..” Georges Dumézil

In her essay on the word Warg, Mary Gerstein also discusses comparative symbolism between Odin, who hung on the world tree Yggdrasil for 9 nights in order to gain wisdom, and Christ, who was hung on the cross as an outlaw [3 days], only to be reborn as an empowered heavenly deity. Vikernes, despite his heathenism, has in certain respects set himself up as both avatar and Christ-like martyr for his cause, willing to suffer in prison for his sacrifice.”

SUarEZ

zeus arrrrrrghhhhhhhhh

horror arquetípico:

argh!!!típico

GIMME THE HARP: “Odin is the embodiment of every form of frenzy, from the insane bloodlust that characterized the werewolf warriors who dedicated themselves to him, to erotic and poetic madness.” Não leia senhor dos anéis demaaais…

Odin’s hall is easy to recognize: a varg hangs before the western door, an eagle droops above.”

the renunciation oath which was enforced under Boniface among the Saxons and Thuringians, who were ordered to repeat: <I forsake all the Devil’s works and words, and Thunær (Thor) and Woden (Odin) and Saxnôt (the tribal deity of the Saxons) and all the monsters who are their companions.>”

In my town all they do is have their cars and they drive up and down the one main street. They have nothing else to do—it’s a kind of competition for who has the finest car and the loudest stereo. They basically live in their cars. Those who are younger, who don’t have a car—they sit at the side of the road and look at the cars. Their lives are extremely boring, and I can see that some people want more out of existence, they want to have their own personality and expression which makes it impossible to be associated with all those meaningless humans who walk around everywhere.” Isahn

It started up with the whole <anti-LaVey> attitude that was common within the scene, because his form of Satanism is very humane. No one wanted a humane Satanism” “When LaVey says that the simplest housewife can be a Satanist, which it seems like he does in the Satanic Bible, I guess some were terrified that he had views that would take the special thing they had away from them.” “Many people did not laugh; they were very serious all the time. Nothing should be <good>. Everybody was very grim looking. Everyone wanted to be like that, and I guess there are some who are that way still.” “Of course you were affected by the whole atmosphere, that you don’t sit and laugh in this Helvete place, and you have respect for the known figures in the scene, and were careful what to say to Euronymous in the beginning, before you got to know him.”

Normal people assume, <Oh, people into Black Metal must have had a terrible childhood and have been molested. They’re weak and come from terrible backgrounds.> But as far as I’m concerned, many people I know in the scene actually come from good families, non-religious families, and had a great childhood with very nice parents and no pressure at all. Quite wealthy families, really.”

LÁ VEM O SATANISTA: “Sometimes I think it would be great to be more anonymous—it’s a small town that I live in, everyone knows who I am. People look at me even though I don’t dress particularly extremely, just because everybody knows what I am. Also with where I work, people are very skeptical towards me, and sometimes it would be easier if no one knew.”

The essence of Black Metal is Heavy Metal culture, not Satanic philosophy. Just look at our audience. The average Black Metal record buyer is a stereotypical loser: a good-for-nothing who was teased as a child, got bad grades at school, lives on social welfare and seeks compensation for his inferiority complexes and lack of identity by feeling part of an exclusive gang of outcasts uniting against a society which has turned them down. And with Heavy Metal as a cultural and intellectual foundation, these dependents on social altruism proclaim themselves the <elite>! Hah!” E. Lancelot

MANIFESTUM UNIVERSALIS: “The Satanist is an observer of society—to him, the world is like a stage, in relation to which he chooses sometimes to be a spectator, other times a participant, according to his will. He can watch from the outside and laugh, cry, sigh, or applaud depending on the effect the scenery has on his emotions; or he can throw himself into the game for the thrill; but his nature is always that of the watcher, the artist. He is not overly concerned with changing society, for his commitment to humanity is minimal.”

An appropriate example of how such futile aspirations may end is the case of Varg Vikernes: a neo-Viking martyr. A prophet of the ego who paradoxically enough chose to be the Jesus of his ideals, and now must suffer for it behind the walls of spleen. I have much respect for this man’s conviction and courage, but not his sense of reality.” Garm

I think many of them have grown up with the Bible and phone book as the only books in the house.” Simen Midgaard, jornalista free-lancer e ocultista, líder do grupo Ordo Templi Orientis. “The O.T.O. is established in Norway, unlike the Church of Satan, Temple of Set, or other real Satanic organizations.”

if they are going to get rid of Judeo-Christianity, they will have to get rid of Satan as well, as a matter of fact. He is a sort of Trotsky in the revolution”

I’m rather indifferent to the State Church. I’m not indifferent to these terrible small sects who teach their people with fear from the day they are able to talk [essas pulgas de rodoviária!]. I support any revolt, however strong it is, against that kind of Christianity because I think it makes people into neurotics. It should be forbidden by law because they torture their own children.”

O BRASIL TEM O SATANISMO MAIS MADURO (O CARNAVALESCO – A LUBRICIDADE DA CARNE): “Satanism in Norway has become strong because it’s a despotic form of Satanism, but that is also why it’s going to fade so fast—because people are not able to live like that for a very long period of time.” Pål Mathiesen, teólogo cristão

The Satanists say—to put it brutally—that we are animals. The animal culture is the most important one, and we are losing that part of us. This is broad in the culture today, with the “wild women,” etc., this whole thing of going back to nature. Being part of nature instead of spirit or morals is very strong now.”

That struck me when I was talking to Ihsahn, the symbols he was using of 3,000 or 4,000-year-old Eastern religions, and at the same to say that it’s only Norway for me and only the Nordic religion that counts. It’s not rational on that point at all. It doesn’t relate to history as something rational—you just use it.”

I think Vikernes has been analyzing our times and thinking, what can we do to achieve something? But I also think that over the years he will find out that for us to go back to the heathen religion is very, very unrealistic. It’s not going to happen if you look at the religious aspect of it. We’re not going to go back to that kind of religious ritual. That is not going to happen.”

If you are declared a Satanist or Nazi in Norway, then you are that for the rest of your life, there’s not a question about it. You will be condemned for the rest of your life. I hate that aspect of our culture, I really think it’s a bad thing, because if we don’t have an opening for forgiveness it becomes very alien to me.”

I think in society when something like that happens it’s a very good opportunity for the media. They like it because they can start a lasting soap opera with strong characters, and these Satanic groups. The media embraced it to a certain extent, and made it really big in Norway. Of course it was big, but I would say that the media capitalized on it, because it was something extreme, new, and specifically Norwegian. For them to sell newspapers, they treat it as extremely as possible. Very early on the media started to define them as total extremists, the same way they might look upon the neo-Nazi movement. They defined them as that right away; then they had them there and they can look upon them like animals doing strange things, and they can report it like something that is very different from the rest of our society.”

This is something that’s important—individualism in Norway has been held down. That has happened. If you are different in school, or very good for example, or very intelligent, that becomes a problem for you. We don’t accept people with exceptional gifts or anything like that. In England or the US, you have schools for these kind of youngsters, you send them somewhere else, and say, <You are different, go over there>. We don’t have that. Everything is supposed to fit in, in a classroom of 25 or 30 people. If you are too weak or too healthy, or if you’re too good, you’re supposed to shut up. It’s mediocrity.” “We have a very special relationship to nature, a very close one. And during the Christian period this thing with nature has been suppressed—nature is not good, nature is <evil>, so to speak. Norwegians interact with nature and are very closely connected to it, just due to the way the country itself is formed.”

They’ve spent fifty years after the war bringing down Christianity, and for the first time they’re saying now that we need more Christianity in the schools. It shows the times have changed. Maybe we have become conscious to some extent about the Christian culture when people start to burn down our churches—maybe, you can’t rule that out.”

Asbjørn Dyrendal is a Research Fellow at the Department of Cultural Studies at the University in Oslo. He has been primarily researching the new and emergent religions, especially Wicca.”

There you had a lot of young people who wanted to be Satanists. Where could they hear about what you do when you’re a Satanist? They had to get it through the media and Christian sources. They got the myths, and they tried as best as they could, by their rather modest means, to live up to them. You can see that in the early interviews with Varg Vikernes. There were situations where the journalists were trying to see this in light of the stories supplied by Kobbhaug [policial que fantasiava sobre <sacrifícios de bebês>], and where Vikernes played the appropriate role. He was hinting that many people disappear each year, that these might have been killed, and then said that he cannot comment on who was doing the killings. When asked if he has killed anyone: I can’t talk about that. He was building up to get the question of whether he had killed anyone, and then denying it in a manner which implied the opposite.” Dyrendal

Vikernes was very fond of telling people that he read LaVey and Crowley. However, what he has come out with in interviews indicates that he hasn’t understood it all very well.”

WAIT & BLEED: “If you are an adolescent, you are in a period of your life where it is impossible for you to exert influence upon your surroundings. Being able to hate and feel strong can be very liberating. This is much of the same power that lay in other forms of Metal and in Punk.” “It has passed the point where people point at you and laugh, and reached the point where people shy away from you.”

Almost every form of shocking behavior will only make your parents say, <Well, we did that when we were young too>. So, to get a shock effect, you have to go much further in your symbolism. Personally, I think these explanations are a bit simplistic.”

I am of the opinion that most people see Vikernes as a rather pathetic figure—

someone with delusions of grandeur who is only able to function within this self-created image.”

The myth of the outwardly respectable, even upstanding, citizens that go out at night to do terrible things to children has been around for thousands of years and has been levelled at Christians, Jews, Catholics, Protestants, heretics, Freemasons, and lots of other groups. It was then recycled by horror writers, who fictionalized the material. It now seems to be influencing reality again. One account of <ritual abuse> I have read seems to have been lifted directly from Rosemary’s Baby, one of the great horror classics.”

There have only been a handful of Metal groups with direct ties to LaVey’s church over the years (King Diamond being one of the more outspoken), although in recent times this has begun to change. LaVey was himself a musician, specializing in lost or obscure songs of ages past, but he often mentioned a personal distaste for Rock and other modern music in interviews. This might have alienated some musicians—who otherwise exemplify LaVey’s philosophy—from any public allegiance with the Church of Satan. In reality, LaVey understood fully why a genre like Black Metal has appeal for youth, though he may not had have much interest in the cacophony of the music itself.” “The Black Metalers are also quite mistaken if they believe LaVey is merely a humanist. Even a cursory study of LaVey’s actual writings will uncover his unabashed misanthropy and derisive scorn for the follies of humankind.”

A lot of people had tried to give it exposure, as Devil’s advocates—writers like Twain and Nietzsche—but none had codified it as a religion, a belief system.” LaVey

In the case of the Nine Satanic Statements, it took me twenty minutes to write them out. I was listening to Chopin being played in the next room and I was so moved I just wrote them out on a pad of paper lying next to me. The crux of the philosophy of Satanism can be found in the Satanic Rules of the Earth, Pentagonal Revisionism, and the Nine Satanic Sins, of which of course <stupidity> is tantamount, closely followed by <pretentiousness>. Often pretentiousness comes in the form of so-called <independent thinkers> that have a knee-jerk reaction [reação reflexa, instantânea] to any association with us.” Não compreendo o sentido exato.

It sounds like there’s a lot of stupid people in Norway too, like any country.” “We get more mail from Russia than ever, now that the Soviet Union is gone. They’ve been under atheist control for so long and the new religious <freedom> is pushing bullshit they can’t swallow. They almost yearn for the good old days of Soviet atheism…”

A lot of them are kids and they like the name Satan just as they might be attracted to a swastika and the colors red and black.” “Now, if a representative of the Church of Satan had just one entire hour on national TV to say what we want to say, Christianity would be finished.”

The anti-Christian strength of National-Socialist Germany is part of the appeal to Satanists—the drama, the lighting, the choreography with which they moved millions of people. However, the Satanic attitude is that people should be judged by their own merit—in every race there are leaders and followers. Satanists are the <Others>, who will push the pendulum in the direction it needs to go to reset the balance—depending on circumstances, this could be toward fascism or in the opposite direction. Satanism is a very brutal, realistic way of looking at things sometimes.” Barton, boqueteiro (assessor, amante, secretário, sei lá!) oficial de LaVey – verde a cor do nojo

How can someone say I don’t like Rock and Roll? It’s never been defined. There’s so much that’s fallen under that general heading, but I guess it then evolved into what we have now, which I’ve described as being like a linear metronome, i.e., music without music. They’ve just run out of ideas, really.” Continua ouvindo seu Chopin no Inferno, velhote.

kids who don’t know anything besides Rock music can still gain strength and motivation from Black Metal, Death Metal, and so forth.” Enough to found a new “religion”.

…And then you have to get a job! That’s no market place for 2 (or 20, whatever) LaFEIs…

O SEGUNDO VARG É MAIS ESPERTO: “The biggest success story in Norwegian Black Metal—measured in chart positions, magazine coverage, and gaudy magazine posters—is Dimmu Borgir, a band which boasts of six-figure CD sales on the German label Nuclear Blast. Dimmu Borgir were not part of the initial waves of Norwegian Black Metal, and therefore they have neither blood nor soot on their hands. But they have been very adept at capitalizing on the shocking image of their predecessors in the genre, while at the same time carefully distancing themselves from the worst excesses so as not to lose record sales or gigs. A typical example can be seen in the promo pictures of Dimmu Borgir engaging in the mock sacrifice of a virgin —pictures that were produced in versions ranging from <softcore> (less gore) to <hardcore> (very bloody), so that different media could pick the version most suited to their audience. In other words, it seemed as if Dimmu Borgir wanted to be provocative enough to make the kids think they were cool, but not so provocative that the kids couldn’t get their parents to buy them the album for Christmas.”

Two or three years ago it was on the verge of becoming really, really big, and the international press was interested in Black Metal. If there had been more bands like Dimmu Borgir and The Kovenant that could have made it big in the mainstream, Black Metal could have been another example of an underground that stepped up to the major league. But strong forces in the scene suddenly became very introverted and reverted to an older, harder style of Black Metal.” AsbjØrn Slettemark

There is a handful of bands that sell well, about 10,000 to 20,000 copies of each release. But sales figures are hard to confirm, because labels tend to exaggerate; and on the other hand, many of the retailers for Black Metal records don’t register their sales.”

It is my impression that Nuclear Blast realized their stable of Death Metal and Speed Metal artists were starting to lag behind. It seems to me like they picked Dimmu Borgir more or less by chance, because the records that got them the contract weren’t really that special. But Dimmu Borgir were still developing as a band, and they were willing to do the image and magazine poster thing. It wouldn’t be possible to sell a more established band like Mayhem or Darkthrone the same way. I guess Dimmu Borgir have the good old Pop Star ambition, the standing in front of the mirror singing into the toothbrush thing.”

Compared to the multinational record companies, Nuclear Blast Records is like a hot dog stand. But the German label has its home base in the world’s biggest market for heavy metal, and is serious enough to have an American distribution deal with Warner Records. And Nuclear Blast know how to <move units>, in record business parlance. The Marketing Director of Nuclear Blast, Yorck Eysel, says Dimmu Borgir has sold 150,000 copies of their last album and 400,000 discs in all during the time they have been with his label. These numbers are repeated like a mantra by everyone that works with the band, but should be taken with a pinch of salt, as exaggerating sales figures is the oldest trick in the book for vinyl and CD pushers. They know that it is easier to sell you a record that has been in the charts than one which has only been coveted by a few obsessive collectors. Even if the sales figures might be inflated, Dimmu Borgir has sold an impressive amount of records, and Eysel thinks that is due to the band’s merit.”

Interestingly, during Varg Vikernes’s trial a Burzum album was reviewed in the news section of Dagbladet, one of Norway’s most important tabloids; this was at a time when his band was being treated with contempt [even] by the Rock [specialized] press.” “Pop music there generally has been difficult to export and the Metal bands regularly outsell the <commercial> Norwegian bands”

Sigurd Wongraven of Satyricon, who had earlier starred in a Rock Furore exposé about racism in Black Metal, later received the full Rock star treatment in mainstream tabloid Dagbladet for a 2-page article which focused on the fact that Wongraven liked Italian designer clothes. Black Metal had become popular enough, and house-trained enough, for the mainstream press to dispense with the barge pole when touching it, even if the specters of racism and satanism still surfaced often enough to make the bands seem somewhat scary.”

Ketil Sveen, a co-founder of the record label and distributor Voices of Wonder, was one of the first people to sell Norwegian Black Metal records on a bigger scale. He ended his cooperation with Burzum after Varg Vikernes stated that he was a National-Socialist. Today there is a racism clause in the contracts which prospective artists have to sign in order to work with Voices of Wonder.”

We sell Black Metal in 25 countries—there’s not a lot of other music that we get out to so many.” Sveen

BURZUM_lighter

IMAGEM 4. Igreja de Fantoft em brasa e logotipo da banda de Vikernes num isqueiro promocional da Voices of Wonder. “I’ve done a few stupid things in my life, and that lighter was one of the stupidest. In my defense I want to say that none of us suspected Vikernes had really done anything like that. We figured that if he was crazy enough to torch a church he would not be crazy enough to go around bragging about it.” Sveen

Welcome to the world of German Black Metal. Less well known than its Norwegian counterpart, the German scene remains genuinely underground, an obscure exit off the darkened Autobahn of extreme Rock. That changed briefly following the night of April 29, 1993, however, when the members of the Black Metal band [arguably] Absurd followed the example set by Bård Eithun and Varg Vikernes and replaced thought with crime.”

Lianne von Billerbeck & Frank Nordhausen – Satanskinder (Satan’s Children: The murder case of Sandro B., 1994)

Such curiosities were difficult to satisfy until the Wall fell in 1989 and East Germany was opened to the West. At this point previously forbidden or impossible-to-obtain records and videos steadily came within reach. The three 17-year-olds Hendrik Möbus, Sebastian Schauscheill, and Andreas Kirchner began to draw attention to themselves with their Satanic obsessions and penchant for Black Metal. They were antagonized for their interests by many of the other kids in town—both left-wing punks and right-wing skinheads [curiosamente, o som da banda é nazi, sobre guitarras punks estéreis] —but developed a group of admirers among the local schoolgirls.” “At a certain point in 1992, a younger student, a 14-year-old named Sandro, also developed a fascination for the members of this sinister band and their associates.” “Widely disliked due to his irritating manners, he had almost no real friends. He quickly began to adopt the style and interests of the satanists and desperately tried to ingratiate himself into their circle. He would ask to attend band rehearsals and began corresponding with them and the others in the clique [panela] around Absurd. Satanskinder describes a peculiar <letter writing culture> that thrived among all of these youths.” “Heated arguments also took place there between them and members of the Christian Youth Club, which met regularly at the Center as well.”

Together with a young girl named Rita, Sandro began to plot actions against Sebastian and Hendrik, hoping to make a mockery of them in Sondershausen.” “He was also aware of an ongoing affair between Sebastian and an older married woman named Heidegrit Goldhardt, now pregnant with Sebastian’s child.” “Sebastian’s romantic relationship with Heidegrit, who oddly enough was an evangelical Christian schoolteacher, had produced some unexpected results. He had joined in with her pet projects for environmentalism and animal rights, and now spent time writing polemical letters to the newspapers about such issues.” “Absurd no longer rehearsed at the Youth Center, but had moved their equipment to a small cottage built by Hendrik’s father in the nearby woods. Through the guise of a female friend, Juliane, a letter was sent to Sandro in which she confided her hatred of Absurd. She asked Sandro to meet her one evening at the Rondell, a WW1 memorial in the forest above the town, in order to discuss how she could contribute to Sandro’s campaign against the satanists.” “Juliane didn’t appear, but the members of Absurd did instead. Sandro must have been confused, but dismissed any idea that he had been set up. They then somehow convinced him to accompany them elsewhere so that they could all discuss an important matter.” “Suddenly Andreas grabbed an electrical cord and wrapped it around Sandro’s neck. A struggle ensued, Sandro tried to scream for help. At this point, Hendrik is alleged to have pulled a knife and cut Sandro. They tied his hands behind his back. Sandro begged to be let free, promising to never speak about anything that had just happened. They could even have his life savings—500 German Marks (approximately $325). The boys considered the idea of letting him go free in the woods, but feared he would not keep his promise of silence about the abduction, especially now that he had been wounded.” “On May 1st [2 dias depois] the three members of Absurd returned to the scene of the crime and dragged Sandro’s corpse, wrapped in a blanket, to a nearby excavation pit, where they quickly buried him.” “Sebastian related a strange personal anecdote: about 6 months before the murder he heard a voice in his head. It was difficult to understand; he thought it uttered the nonsensical phrase <Küster Maier>. Later he decided it probably must have said <töte Beyer> (Kill Beyer!).” “The story detailed above follows the chronology presented in Satanskinder, although the book embellishes it with endless psychological speculation. The descriptions of the authors are based entirely on comments by disgruntled ex-friends and hangers-on who had interacted with the killers, since the latter refused to speak to them. The picture painted is one of an outsider group of youths whose fantasies got the best of them.”

We used to listen to British and German Punk Rock, British Oi, as well as Thrash Metal (Slayer, Destruction, Sodom, Morbid Angel, Possessed).” Hendrik

mostly we obtained Polish or Hungarian bootlegs, or recorded stuff from the West German radio.” “I guess it was just a question of time before we became aware of splendid bands like Deicide, Beherit, Sarcófago, Bathory, Mayhem, and Darkthrone…”

Before he <moved to the beyond>, Øystein Aarseth wanted to sign Absurd to Deathlike Silence, since our Death from the Forest demo appealed to him quite a bit.”

ABSURD HAS CALLED ITSELF <LUCIFERIAN PAGANS>…

You can use the terms <Luciferian>, <Promethean>, and <Faustian> to describe one and the same principle: reaching out toward a higher stage of existence and awareness by facing and overcoming the limiting circumstances. That is the trail we are on. However, a <Luciferian will> on its own would fall into hedonism and egomania. For that reason we need heathenism; on the one hand for expression of free will, but also for its channeling toward the greater good. In other words, a person of this sort should not operate only according to self-interest, but rather should serve his ethnic community and be the <light bringer> for it.

What we didn’t know, and only first learned from the court record, was that Sandro was bisexual. With a likelihood bordering on certainty, Sandro had fallen in love with Sebastian. That is also not astonishing, as in those days Sebastian had a certain <sex appeal> among the youths.

So Sandro discovered the relationship between Sebastian and his lover, who was married and 8 years older, while Sebastian was also considered the leader of the local satanists. If this relationship were to become public—which did indeed happen after the arrests—then it would have caused a significant fuss in the small town of Sondershausen, the result being that the girl would have been expelled from her congregation.”

WHAT WERE YOU EACH FOUND GUILTY OF?

Due to our age of 17, they had to use the youth laws for punishment, which meant a maximum of ten years in detention, no matter if even for mass-murder. At the start of 1994 our trial took place, which was a giant media spectacle. Among other things, the court found us guilty of first degree murder, deprivation of liberty, threat and duress, and bodily injury. (…) Ironically, the section we were sentenced under is one of the few pieces of legislation that remains today from National-Socialist jurisprudence.

Besides the trashy book Satanskinder, at least 3 other books feature our case. However, this book is certainly wrong with its version (although several phrases sound familiar…), due to the fact we refused to cooperate. A TV-film has also been made based on the events in Sondershausen. We have become <Satan murderers> and <Children of Satan> for all time. One could laugh about these stories, which are eternally the same old thing, if only they hadn’t led to such dire consequences. Apart from the media’s self interest for an ongoing story, there are also circles of people that have utilized the media for engaging in personal conflicts with, for example, my parents. It has long since ceased to have anything to do with <discovering the truth> (if that ever had even played a role) or <informing the public>. It has to do with chicanery, with calculated slander. It can further be asserted in my case that I turn more and more into the archetype of the scapegoat. I am the modern Loki, whom the gods punished for their own sins.

Andreas was released a year before Sebastian and I. After getting reacquainted with the scene for a half-year (among other things, he attended a Mayhem reunion concert in Bischofswerda), he retreated completely back into his private life. He broke off all contacts, lives with his girlfriend, and has a good job. Even if I was unhappy about his <departure>, I nevertheless wish him all the best.

Sebastian has totally devoted himself to a folkish world of ideas. He is married and has made a small circle of friends and acquaintances in which he actually plays the same role as he once did in our clique in Sondershausen. In the meantime he has also recorded and released new Absurd material. In addition he sings with Halgadom, a joint project with the band Stahlgewitter who are friends of his. He has only a peripheral contact with the scene, a situation that has probably kept him out of the media’s sights. It is different with me, for I have always had and maintained numerous contacts in the scene. In addition, I worked at Darker Than Black Records, through which I naturally was in a more prominent situation than my two former accomplices. Since then the media has decided to put me in the stocks and clothe me as their new scapegoat. Because I also nurtured an association with nationalistically inclined people, I have been charged severely. Nobody was interested in the facts anymore, the only thing that counted was sensationalism.”

Beginning meagerly with hymns to demons discovered in Satanic horror films, the early demo cassettes of the band are low-fi chunks of adolescent noise, soaked with distortion and offering unintentionally humorous spoken introductions to the songs. Their music is more akin to ’60s garage Punk than some of the well-produced Black Metal of their contemporaries—but what they lacked by way of musical execution they were more than willing to make up for with the real-life execution of the sad figure of Sandro Beyer.” “If there is any clear spiritual mentor behind Absurd’s transformation over the years, it is Varg Vikernes. Varg himself seems to be aware of this, and smiles when talking of recent events inspired by what happened in Norway: <In Germany some churches have burned. And there are the Absurd guys, who have also turned neo-Nazi…>”

The long quotation Hendrik attributes to <Herr Wolf> at the end of the interview is in actuality the words of Adolph Hitler, speaking of the new prototype of hardened, pitiless youth which Nazi Germany would produce.”

WHITEWASHED CARBON COPY: “Such sentiments would make Varg Vikernes proud. Absurd’s own tiny record label, Burznazg, takes its name from a term Varg once planned to use for his own operations, and the most infamous criminal in Norway was surely proud to know of the Tribute to Burzum compilation CD project initiated by Hendrik Möbus and friends.”

Möbus also reveals the existence of a Germanic <Black Circle> which he claims the members of Absurd are also connected to, called Die Teutsche Brüderschaft (Teutonic Brotherhood). The Brüderschaft is mentioned prominently in the dedication list on Absurd’s debut CD.”

In July of 1999 announcements circulated about the release of Absurd’s new 4-song CD entitled Asgardsrei. The CD featured a more aesthetic presentation and an evolved sound, although with much of Absurd’s garage-band ambience still intact. Guests on the release included Graveland’s Rob Darken and well as an <ex-member of the German mainstream band Weissglut>. The end of the advertisement advised interested customers to <ORDER IT NOW before ZOG¹ take YOUR copy>.”

¹ “A sarcastic acronym for Zionist Occupational Government, often employed in radical political circles to describe any of the present-day Western democratic states.”

The public prosecutor had now decided to launch an effort to revoke Hendrik’s parole on the basis of alleged political crimes he had committed since his release from juvenile prison. These consisted of displaying banned political emblems and also giving a <Hitler salute> at a concert.” “Travelling across the USA, Hendrik passed through a string of ill-fated liaisons with racists upon whom he depended for safe-housing, culminating with two of them violently threatening him. Following this incident, he eventually made his way to the state of West Virginia and to the headquarters of William Pierce’s racialist group the National Alliance. All was relatively quiet for a number of weeks until Hendrik was arrested in late August, 2000 by US federal agents acting on an international warrant. The German government had requested to have Hendrik extradited to face his charges of parole violation.

The press treatment of the case was unusual, with Hendrik being elevated from a <Satanic murderer> to a <neo-Nazi fugitive>. He became an international cause célèbre—garnering headlines in US News and World Report, as well as major papers like the Los Angeles Times and the Washington Post—and his case raised many serious issues about the way in which modern democratic states handle persons who they deem as threats to democracy itself. Soon after his arrest, Hendrik wrote a letter to US President Bill Clinton and Attorney-General Janet Reno and requested status as a political refugee, stating that if he were extradited back to Germany he would be persecuted on account of his political beliefs.” “A <Free Hendrik Möbus> campaign was also launched on the Internet, and William Pierce produced episodes of his radio program American Dissident Voices in which he addressed the topic of Möbus’s case in detail. In the first major ruling, the U.S. magistrate decided that Hendrik was not eligible for political asylum as he was a <convicted felon> in Germany. Hendrik then attempted to appeal the decision. In their commentaries on the case, both he and William Pierce attempted to make the fundamental issue one of free speech, since the actions which resulted in the original parole revocation were not of a violent nature, but rather <political> misdeeds (which would be perfectly legal according to US laws). Both the US and German governments tried to avoid this thorny issue and confine the legal proceedings to the logistical issues of Hendrik’s parole violation itself, rather than debating the validity of the charges that led to the violation.” A FRAQUEZA CONGÊNITA DO TOTALITARISMO: “His strategy for avoiding extradition created a further paradox: he was forced to seek the mercy of liberal democratic political asylum laws—exactly the sort of laws which a strident German nationalist would vehemently oppose in their own country for anti-immigration reasons.”

Two further court judgments against him, one for public display of the Hitler salute and the other for mocking his victim in published statements, have added more than two years of additional incarceration to the time he will serve in jail. It quickly became clear that Hendrik’s personal goal of collaborating with William Pierce in a venture to promote radical Black Metal through the racial music underground would be impossible to realize from a German prison cell. An equally significant obstacle arose exactly one year later when William Pierce died suddenly from cancer on July 23, 2002.”

Gorefest, an antiracist and politically correct Death Metal group.”

The teenager’s room was described as quite ordinary, except for a collection of disturbing compact discs. His neighbors had often noticed sounds blaring from his room, <gnawing music, hard and stressful, which one would hear late at night>—not a bad description of standard Black Metal from an unfamiliar listener.”

When a black-metaller enters a party at nite, we can say he cvlt up from his home.

Jean-Paul Bourre – Les Profanateurs (The Desecrators): “The fascination surrounding the grave of Jim Morrison of The Doors (buried in Paris’ famous Père La Chaise cemetery) and those of other notable personalities is also inexplicably discussed in one chapter. Les Profanateurs desperately attempts to pull all these disparate elements into a sinister scenario in hopes of alarming its readers.” Parece até o livro que estou lendo!

They got pissed and destroyed a few graveyards and subsequently they were in prison for it. The hoo-hah died down pretty quickly over it, and that sort of thing isn’t good for a band of our stature anyway because people get the whole ideology wrong straight away. This is why we kind of branched off from the Norwegian thing because as soon as you’ve got the Black Metal tag, people assume you are a fascist and you’re into Devil worship, which can be linked to child abuse.” Dani Filth, a ovelha negra (lúcida)

uktabloid
IMAGEM 5. Queen tabloid

The band began fairly quickly to distance themselves from their musical peers in Scandinavia by employing evocative aesthetics in the album artwork, and covering more romanticized themes drawn from nineteenth century literature and poetry. They wore the requisite Black Metal corpsepaint, but began to cultivate an atmosphere befitting of Hammer horror films rather than the one-dimensional <evilness> projected by other groups. Later releases Vempire and Dusk and Her Embrace brought the group to a exponentially increasing audience.”

In a strange political twist, an extremist racial group, the National Radical Party, nominated the singer of Metal band Korrozia Metalla (Коррозия Металла) as a mayoral candidate in Moscow. His name is Sergei Troitsky, AKA Spider, and he normally dresses in black T-shirts, jeans, and jackboots. Korrozia Metalla’s most popular song among fans is called Kill the Sunarefa, a slang term for darkly hued minorities from the south.” “Additional titillation regularly comes from naked females dancers who prance [rebolam, sensualizam] and masturbate on stage beside the musicians.”

The name Russia itself, after all, comes from the predominantly Swedish Viking tribe of the Rus who settled the region in the year 852C.E.[?].”

Poland, too, has a rapidly growing Black Metal scene which is closely linked to the rise of extreme right-wing activity there. The most visible band from that country is Graveland, led by the outspoken frontman Robert Fudali, AKA Darken.”

Fans of extreme Metal in this country are often far less intelligent than their Norwegian or European counterparts.” Which means, actually, that they are more intelligent.

SOCIEDADE DO ESPETÁCULO CONSUMADA: “The primary American interests outside of music include drugs and alcohol, neither of which played any significant part in the Norwegian Black Metal milieu. As a result, any antisocial actions are likely to be misdirected at best. The attempts to interrelate them into any kind of grand Satanic conspiracy are fruitless; the main similitude of these crimes lies in their irrational confusion.”

Singer Glen Benton branded an upside-down cross into his forehead years ago, and (to the obvious irritation of groups like Animal Militia) often advocates animal sacrifice in interviews. Allegedly the band’s albums have sold hundreds of thousands of copies worldwide.”

On April 13th, a group of male teenagers commenced a campaign of mayhem and terror with startling similarities in spirit to the Norse eruption in 1992–93. Calling themselves the Lords of Chaos, the cabal of six began their crusade by burning down a supermarket construction trailer. They followed this with the arson of a Baptist church. The terror spree escalated in perversity when the youths spread gasoline around a tropical aviary cage adjacent to a theme restaurant, then ignited the thatched-roof structure and watched the blaze exterminate the entire collection of exotic birds.”

Finnish groups like Beherit and Impaled Nazarene have enjoyed considerable success worldwide, paving the way for many fans to form their own bands and follow in their footsteps. And just as in Norway, segments of the Black Metal subculture also wed themselves to an especially virulent strain of teenaged Satanism. (…) They wear the distinctive Black Metal make-up, which gives cause for some Finns to call them <penguins>, and they flock to music festivals where their favorite bands play.” É o finlandês da picada…

Finnish metal him! Flo Mounier’s victory!

Unlike the scene in Norway, the crimes connected with Black Metal in Finland emanate from the fans, not the prominent artists. Despite its small size, this confused scene has produced one of the grisliest events to arise anywhere out of the Black Metal phenomenon. In one of the most notable cases in Finnish court history, four young Black Metalers murdered a friend in a scenario which featured overtones of Satanic sacrifice, cannibalism, and necrophilia.” “Reporting on the case is further complicated by the fact that the court has implemented a forty-year secrecy act on the entire legal proceedings.”

Jarno Elg’s career as a glue-sniffer and aspiring alcoholic led to psychiatric care at the young age of 11. He tried hashish the following year. By the time he was 16, young Jarno was drinking daily and devouring books on Satanism. This diet of Kilju [bebida etílica baseada na fermentação da laranja, com gusto e cheiro horríveis, típica da Finlândia], psychoactive chemicals, and teenaged Satanism was bound to go awry.”

The Poetic Edda, translated by Henry Adams Bellows

Sociologist Jeffrey Arnett has described Heavy Metal music as the <sensory equivalent of war.>” Segundo consta, numa rápida googlada, o sr. Arnett é PSICÓLOGO na área da adolescência/jovens adultos, e não SOCIÓLOGO.

[????????????????????????????] In France the journal Napalm Rock is issued regularly under the auspices of the National-Bolshevist political group Nouvelle Résistance.” Erva mais vencida que Hitler em 44.

The rebellious impulse in Metal therefore has yet to synthesize the nihilism with the fascism, and since fascism is a synthesis itself, there’s no reason this cannot eventually be achieved.” Kerry Bolton

The ‘60s music genres were thoroughly phony in their radicalism. Unlike Black Metal (and for that matter Oi, and much Industrial) the ‘60s musicians had no fundamental difference in outlook to the establishment they were supposedly rebelling against.”

ILLUMINATI: “The possibility of being bought off by the music business would most likely be by way of insisting on a return to the specifically anti-Christian themes at the expense of the heathen resurgence, since I’m sure many of the executives of the music industry can co-exist well enough and even utilize anti-Christianity, including Satanism, especially if it is of the nature of yet one more superficial American commodity.”

Será que esses albinos “phoneys” e bastardos utilizam Mozart o Maçom como garoto-propaganda de seu ideário europeu?

According to the police, the Einsatzgruppe was plotting direct action against prominent Norwegian politicians, bishops, and public figures. The group’s plans included a scheme to break Varg Vikernes out of jail by force. The Einsatzgruppe had all the trappings of a paramilitary unit: bulletproof vests, steel helmets, cartridge belts, and ski masks. In addition, the police found a list of 12 firearms and a map for a hiding place at a mountain. However, the only weapons the police confiscated right away were some sawed-off shotguns and dynamite with blasting caps. The police also found a war chest with 100,000 Norwegian Kroner (close to $20,000). This had been supplied by Lene Bore, Varg Vikernes’s mother. She was also arrested and charged with financing an illegal group. Bore confessed, but claimed she had no idea these people were <right-wing extremists>. She expressed concerns about the treatment her son received in jail, and claimed that he was subjected to violence by his fellow inmates. This was dismissed as unfounded by the prison director. However, it is true that Varg’s jaw had been broken in an altercation with another inmate in late 1996.” “Curiously, Bore could not be prosecuted under Norwegian law—conspiracy to break the law is not illegal if it is done to help a close family member.” “The group was, according to some sources, aiming to escape with the freed Vikernes to Africa—hardly the hideout of choice for passionate racists.”

The stigma associated with Nazism is much stronger in Norway than it is in neighboring Sweden or the US, where most of the Norwegian Nazis draw their inspiration from. This is largely due to the fact that Norway was occupied by Nazi Germany from 1940 to 1945.”

The Mayor of Brumunddal was subjected to what one would call low-level harassment. No physical attacks, no real serious vandalism, but an endless stream of mail-order merchandise, pizzas and ambulances ordered in his name. Pornographic photo montages were also posted along the route his children walked to school. Two of the activists from Brumunddal defecated on the steps of the town hall to express their discontent with municipal policy. They thought this was really smart, so they did it once more, and then were caught.”

Gaston Bachelard – Psychoanalysis of Fire

Fire stirs the spirit of human artistry; it is the spark of the will-to-create. It expresses the polarity of emotions, as Bachelard notes, and represents both the passionate higher ideals, as well as the hot and consuming tempers of irrationality.”

Most people have lost interaction with real fire; the once universal, mystical experience of blazing night fires is gone from their lives. Stoking the flames of resentment or dissension is frowned upon in a world which depends on the smooth exchange of services. Those possessed of unrestrained spirit are silenced, or ordered to fit in. Their tendencies must be stifled. Extreme emotions are shunned; those who act on them become outcasts. Mainstream culture produces a bulging sea of quaint diversions, the ostensible rewards for good behavior. The music and art made available to the masses has the consistency of soft, damp pulp—hardly a conducive medium for fire.”

re-fuse/reexist

* * *

ANEXOS

It’s not good for us to laugh. We have nothing to laugh at in this laughable society.” Varguxo

The wild hunt appeared in many legends—a ghostly flock of dark, martial shapes riding through the night on their horses through the woods, lead by Odin, the one-eyed ruler of the dead, or sometimes by a female rider… a perception that in Christian times was transposed onto the Archangel Michael and his hosts.”

The Austrian folklorist Otto Höfler was able to prove in his books Kultische Geheimbünde der Germanen and Verwandlungskulte (Transformation Cults) that the wild hunt was not at all a mythological interpretation of storms, thunder, or flocks of birds—as many researchers thought—but a union of mythology and folklore, of myth and reality which was of great importance in the Nordic mystery cults.” “Höfler stressed that in the Germanic Weltanschauung, like that of most pre-Christian cultures, there was no sharp distinction between this world and the one beyond—the borders were fluid. The folklore of the cult groups was often very brutal. With or without drugs the members felt a furor teutonicus which Höfler called a <decidedly terroristic ecstasy> with various excesses”

Beer was was their special goal—kegs were stolen or secretly emptied, sometimes to be refilled with water or horse urine, or they themselves urinated back into the barrels. Often horses were also stolen; they became the property of the Oskorei. In the morning the farmers found their horses completely exhausted, or they had to search for them because the apocalyptic riders had set them free somewhere.”

Hoping for a rich harvest, one accepted the demands and offenses of the Oskorei as part of the bargain. Similar perceptions existed in the Alps when the Perchten were given nourishment as they went from house to house, or they were allowed to plunder the pantry.” “Gradually, however, many farmers were no longer willing to accept the outrages of the Oskorei. The cultic background of the thefts and pranks fell into oblivion, becoming superstition. The sympathy of the populace disappeared—now the disguised young men were no longer considered embodiments of the dead or fertility demons, but rather trouble-makers and evil-doers.” “The louder the drums, bells, cries, rattles, and whips, the more effective the noise magic became.”

They dress as ghostly as possible, speaking with a falsetto voice, reaching ecstasy by dancing, music and noise. … Their clothes should be as nightmarish as possible. They attempted to dress as ugly as they were able. They had terrible eyes, with big white rings or painted up with coal. (Johannessen, Norwegisches Burschenbrauchtum. Kult und Saga. Wien, 1967 (dissertation), pp. 13, 95.)”

The disguised members of the Oskorei altered their voices and gave themselves false names—they represented demons and had to remain unknown. In Black Metal as well only a few musicians use their real names; many take pseudonyms from Nordic history and mythology and in the meantime it is possible to find in Black Metal culture almost all deities of the Eddas.”

munch_scream
IMAGEM 6. O Grito, de Munch, pintor norueguês expressionista.

But Black Metal is above all heathen noise, electronically enhanced. The music is powerful, violent, dark and grim; a demonic sonic art with several elements in common with the Norwegian expressionist painter Edvard Munch, whose famous work The Scream would fit well on a record cover. The eternal recurrence of certain leitmotifs, the dark blazing atmosphere, the obscure, viscous sonic landscape of many songs—often lasting more than ten minutes— have at times an almost psychedelic effect. In the heaviness and darkness of certain compositions it is possible to realize some subliminal melodies only after listening to these works several times. Black Metal is a werewolf culture, a werewolf romanticism.”

<A hard heart was placed in my breast by Wotan.> (Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil, aph. 260)” Muito bacana descontextualizar aforismos!

The first song I heard by Burzum was Det Som Engang Var in the CD Hvis lyset tar oss. Even now this song remains for me the most beautiful and powerful work of Burzum; its symphonic sonic violence is impressive over and over again. It is a 14-minute-long composition full of grim, blazing beauty—dark and fateful. The uniquely hair-raising, screaming-at-the-heavens vocal of Varg Vikernes turns the piece into an expressionistic shriek-opera, the words of which are probably incomprehensible even for Norwegians. The song was composed in the spring of 1992. Another work which fascinates me very much is Tomhet (Emptiness), on the same CD. This song too has an extraordinary length; from my point of view it is an exceptional soundtrack to the Norwegian landscape—that is, Norway as I imagine it, a country ruled by silence and storm, solitude and natural violence.”

I am no racist because I do not hate other races. I am no Nazi either, but I am a fascist. I love my race, my culture, and myself. I am a follower of Odin, god of war and death. He is also the god of wisdom, magic, and poetry. Those are the things I am searching for. Burzum exists only for Odin, the cyclopian enemy of the Kristian god. I do not consider my ideas to be extreme at all. That which stupid people call evil is for me the actual reason to survive.”

Daniel Bernard – Wolf und Mensch. Saarbrücken, 1983. [outro?]

Mircea Eliade – Shamanismus und archaische Ekstasetechnik. Frankfurt, 1991.

Rudolf Simek – Lexikon der Germanischen Mythologie. Stuttgart, 1984.

Grimm, Jacob – Teutonic Mythology (4 Vols). Magnolia, MA: Peter Smith, 1976.

Hoidal, Oddvar K. – Quisling: A Study in Treason. Oslo: Norwegian University Press, 1989.

Tarjei Vesaas – Land of Many Fires

Anúncios

À SOMBRA DAS MAIORIAS SILENCIOSAS: O fim do social e o surgimento das massas (4ª ed.) – Baudrillard (MANUAL EM CONTRA-SOCIOLOGIA)

Trad. de 1985, Suely Bastos

Não são boas condutoras do político, nem boas condutoras do social, nem boas condutoras do sentido em geral. Tudo as atravessa, tudo as magnetiza, mas nelas se dilui sem deixar traços. E na realidade o apelo às massas sempre ficou sem resposta. Elas não irradiam, ao contrário, absorvem toda a irradiação das constelações periféricas do Estado, da História, da Cultura, do Sentido. Elas são a inércia, a força da inércia, a força do neutro.” “neutro = nem 1 nem 0utr0”

hoje referente mudo, amanhã protagonista da história, quando elas tomarão a palavra e deixarão de ser a <maioria silenciosa> – ora, justamente as massas não têm história a escrever, nem passado, nem futuro, elas não têm energias virtuais para liberar, nem desejo a realizar: sua força é atual, toda ela está aqui, e é a do seu silêncio.”

A sociologia só pode descrever a expansão do social e suas peripécias. Ela vive apenas da hipótese positiva e definitiva do social. A assimilação, a implosão do social lhe escapam. A hipótese da morte do social é também a da sua própria morte.

O termo massa não é um conceito. Leitmotiv da demagogia política, é uma noção fluida, viscosa, <lumpen-analítica>. Uma boa sociologia procurará abarcá-la em categorias <mais finas>: sócio-profissionais, de classe, de status cultural, etc. Erro: é vagando em torno dessas noções fluidas e acríticas (como outrora a de <mana>) que se pode ir além da sociologia critica inteligente. Além do que, retrospectivamente, se poderá observar que os próprios conceitos de <classe>, de <relação social>, de <poder>, de <status>, todos estes conceitos muito claros que fazem a glória das ciências legítimas, também nunca foram mais do que noções confusas, mas sobre as quais se conciliaram misteriosos objetivos, os de preservar um determinado código de análise.”

As <massas camponesas> de outrora não eram exatamente massas: só se comportam como massa aqueles que estão liberados de suas obrigações simbólicas, <anulados> (presos nas infinitas <redes>) e destinados a serem apenas o inumerável terminal dos mesmos modelos, que não chegam a integrá-los e que finalmente só os apresentam como resíduos estatísticos.” “Qualquer tentativa de qualificá-la é somente um esforço para transferi-Ia para a sociologia e arrancá-la dessa indistinção que não é sequer a da equivalência (soma ilimitada de indivíduos equivalentes: 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 – tal é a definição sociológica)”

Infelizmente não existem aliens. O inferno não é ninguém, o inferno não existe. O inferno sou eu e esse lustre.

O último avatar de deus dura um século. Foi selado, se não fôra selado ficaria ao relento, louco de si mesmo, esfalfado, inútil, um cu negro diante das civilizações selvagens.

Nada de histeria nem de fascismo potencial, mas simulação por precipitação de todos os referenciais perdidos. Caixa preta de todos os referenciais, de todos os sentidos que não admitiu, da história impossível, dos sistemas de representação inencontráveis, a massa é o que resta quando se esqueceu tudo do social.”

Foram pagãs e permaneceram pagãs à sua maneira, jamais freqüentadas pela Instância Suprema, mas vivendo das miudezas das imagens, da superstição e do diabo.” “Esta é a sua maneira de minar o imperativo categórico da moral e da fé, o imperativo sublime do sentido

imperativo incessantemente renovado de moralização da informação: melhor informar, melhor socializar, elevar o nível cultural das massas” “O que elas rejeitam é a <dialética> do sentido. E de nada adianta alegar que elas são mistificadas. Hipótese sempre hipócrita que permite salvaguardar o conforto intelectual dos produtores de sentido: as massas aspirariam espontaneamente às luzes naturais da razão. Isso para conjurar o inverso, ou seja, que é em plena <liberdade> que as massas opõem ao ultimato do sentido a sua recusa e sua vontade de espetáculo. Temem essa transparência e essa vontade política como temem a morte.” “trabalho de absorção e de aniquilamento da cultura” “nós somos apenas episodicamente condutores de sentido, no essencial e em profundidade nós nos comportamos como massa, vivendo a maior parte do tempo num modo pânico ou aleatório, aquém ou além do sentido.”

Nos Estados Unidos, a playlist dá shuffle em vosmecê!

essa indiferença não deveria existir, ela não tem nada a nos dizer. Em outros termos, a <maioria silenciosa> é despossuída até de sua indiferença, ela não tem nem mesmo o direito de que esta lhe seja reconhecida e imputada, é necessário que também esta apatia lhe seja insuflada pelo poder.” “Ora, é exatamente essa indiferença que exigiria ser analisada na sua brutalidade positiva, em vez de ser creditada a uma magia branca, a uma alienação mágica que sempre desviaria as multidões de sua vocação revolucionária.” A indiferença em relação à indiferença é forçoso.

É curioso que essa constatação jamais tenha subvertido a análise, reforçando-a, ao contrário, em sua fantasia de um poder todo-poderoso na manipulação, e de uma massa prostrada num coma ininteligível.”

O poder está muito satisfeito por colocar sobre o futebol uma responsabilidade fácil, ou seja, a de assumir a responsabilidade diabólica pelo embrutecimento das massas.”

VIDA TRANS,CORRA NORMAL: Rancor e Mal

Bom dia, diabo! Casemos essa música em nossos olvidos. Desovados de nosso próprio planeta. Contra-estratégia expressa aos pais fantasmas nebulosos azuis zumbis: nothing beyond our pseudofamily, so… nothing like family routines, nothing like normal boys usually do things. O fascismo não existe, Bolsonaro muito menos; ora, ninguém (me) liga, meu telephone está sempre no silencioso das massas pretas de absorção da matéria escura da Samsung. atroCIDADE alerta…:… ban ban e não bang bang. A missa mulheril de cada dia, ruminando poliânus, ciprestes a cair. Saudade e açucalinidade. Mútuo piscar de olhos de almas desentendidas que se entendem muito bem, pois. Que assim seja! Amem.a.meta.

O Homem veio da @

ANTI-FREUD (E DE CARONA REICH): “Ora, não se trata de maneira alguma de encontrar uma nova interpretação das massas em termos da economia libidinal (remeter o conformismo ou o <fascismo> das massas a uma estrutura latente, a um obscuro desejo de poder e de repressão que eventualmente se alimentaria de uma repressão primária ou de uma pulsão de morte).” Ironia: até quem vai contra Reich vai contra o nazismo!

Esta é hoje a única alternativa para a declinante análise marxista. Outrora se atribuía às massas um destino revolucionário contrariado pela servidão sexual (Reich), hoje se lhes atribui um desejo de alienação e servidão, ou ainda uma espécie de microfascismo cotidiano tão incompreensível quanto sua virtual pulsão de liberação. Ora, não há nem desejo de fascismo e de poder nem desejo de revolução.” Será? O revolucionário encara com otimismo o espectro fascista clássico, pois se existe a vontade de autoescravização, existirá a posteriori, sem dúvida, a revolução. O tique-taque do pêndulo do relógio.

RECADO A DELEUZE: “Última esperança: que as massas tenham um inconsciente ou um desejo, o que permitiria reinvesti-las como suporte ou suposto de sentido. O desejo, reinventado em toda parte, não é senão o referencial do desespero político.”

O cinismo e a imoralidade da política maquiaveliana estão nisso: não no uso sem escrúpulos dos meios com que se o confundiu na concepção vulgar, mas na desenvoltura com relação aos fins. Pois, Nietzsche o viu bem, é nesse menosprezo por uma verdade social, psicológica, histórica, nesse exercício dos simulacros enquanto tais, que se encontra o máximo de energia política, nesse momento em que o político é um jogo e ainda não se deu uma razão. É a partir do século XVIII, e particularmente depois da Revolução, que o político se infletiu de uma maneira decisiva.” Carta de compromissos (grilhões). “No mesmo momento começa a ser representação” “(o teatro segue um destino paralelo: torna-se um teatro representativo – o mesmo acontece com o espaço perspectivo [da pintura]: de instrumental que era no início, torna-se o lugar de inscrição de uma verdade do espaço e da representação)” “idade de ouro dos sistemas representativos burgueses (a constitucionalidade: a Inglaterra do século XVIII, os Estados Unidos da América, a França das revoluções burguesas, a Europa de 1848).

É com o pensamento marxista em seus desenvolvimentos sucessivos que se inaugura o fim do político e de sua energia própria. Nesse momento começa a hegemonia definitiva do social e do econômico, e a coação, para o político, de ser o espelho, legislativo, institucional, executivo, do social.” “a energia do social se inverte, sua especificidade se perde, sua qualidade histórica e sua idealidade desaparecem em benefício de uma configuração em que não só o político se volatilizou, mas em que o próprio social não tem mais nome.”

não há mais investidura política porque também não há mais referente social de definição clássica” massinha: representante da massa.

O fato de a maioria silenciosa (ou as massas) ser um referente imaginário não quer dizer que ela não existe. (…) Elas não se expressam, são sondadas.”

A cabine de votação parece um banheiro químico misturado com cápsula do tempo (um revestimento futurista, branco, metálico, moderno, com coisas bregas e ultrapassadas, fetichistas, por dentro da embalagem), cabine telefônica, uma urna (para os mortos).

jogo nojo gozo enajenación naja-nación luto Geena não

churrasco de cerveja zero álcool na laje na segunda-feira de noite

Fim das esperanças revolucionárias. Porque estas sempre especularam sobre a possibilidade de as massas, como da classe proletária, se negarem enquanto tais. Mas a massa não é um lugar de negatividade nem de explosão, é um lugar de absorção e de implosão.”

Na massa o político se deteriora como vontade e representação.” #IDÉIATÍTULODELIVRO O Único e seus fenômenos. “Durante muito tempo a estratégia do poder pôde parecer se basear na apatia das massas. Quanto mais elas eram passivas, mais ele estava seguro. Mas essa lógica só é característica da fase burocrática e centralista do poder. E é ela que hoje se volta contra ele: a inércia que fomentou se tornou o signo de sua própria morte. É por isso que o poder procura inverter as estratégias: da passividade à participação, do silêncio à palavra. Mas é muito tarde. O limite da <massa crítica>, o da involução do social por inércia, foi transposto.”

Agora buracos negros até existem, pois aparecem em fotografias. O real começou de facto a ser engolido por si mesmo. Nem energia ele arrota, nonobstant.

Em toda parte se procura fazer as massas falarem, se as pressiona a existir de forma social eleitoralmente, sindicalmente, sexualmente, na participação, nas festas, na livre expressão, etc. É preciso conjurar o espectro, é preciso que ele diga seu nome. Nada demonstra com mais clareza que hoje o único problema verdadeiro é o silêncio da massa, o silêncio da maioria silenciosa.” Comprovante de votação nas duas últimas eleições: prove que você existe; comprovante de residência: esse não precisa, sabemos que você pode mesmo morar nas ruas, pular de hotel em motel, pode ter seu organismo alterado artificialmente para jamais dormir. Injetar-se drogas, matar pessoas sonâmbulo pelas ruas de madrugada. Mas isso não nos diz respeito. Votaste? É isso que importa! Não que estejamos indignados com os outros, apenas sabemos que você existe… A propósito, você quer entrar para o sindicato? Nós descontamos a parcela no seu contracheque, não precisa se preocupar. Quem não tem foto no instagram ou facebook, quem não comprova sua vida sexual ativa, tampouco existe. Portanto, cuidado. Você tem direito a ter fases depressivas, mas não exagere… Estamos de olho, passar bem. Ótima semana!

Como não é mais do reino da vontade nem do da representação, ela cai sob o golpe do diagnóstico, da adivinhação pura e simples – de onde o reino universal da informação e da estatística: é preciso auscultá-la, senti-Ia, retirar-lhe algum oráculo. Daí o furor de sedução, de solicitude e de solicitação em torno dela. Daí a predição por ressonância, os efeitos de antecipação e de futuro da multidão em miragens como: <O povo francês pensa… A maioria dos alemães reprova… Toda a Inglaterra vibra com o nascimento do Príncipe…, etc.> – espelho que tende a um reconhecimento sempre cego, sempre ausente.”

Acredita-se que se estruturam as massas injetando-lhes informação, acredita-se que se libera sua energia social cativa à força de informação e de mensagens (a tal ponto que não é mais o enquadramento institucional, mas a quantidade de informação e a taxa de exposição aos meios de comunicação que hoje medem a socialização).”

A massa só é massa porque sua energia social já se esfriou. É um estoque frio, capaz de absorver e de neutralizar todas as energias quentes. Ela se assemelha a esses sistemas semimortos em que se injeta mais energia do que se retira, a essas minas esgotadas que se mantêm em estado de exploração artificial a preço de ouro.”

A energia que se dispende para atenuar a baixa tendencial da taxa de investimento político e a fragilidade absoluta do princípio social de realidade, para manter essa situação do social e impedi-lo de implodir totalmente, essa energia é imensa, e o sistema se precipita aí.”

Não se trata também de produção do social, porque senão o socialismo bastaria, até mesmo o próprio capitalismo. De fato, tudo muda com a precedência da produção da demanda sobre a das mercadorias. A relação lógica (da produção ao consumo) se desfaz, e estamos numa ordem inteiramente diferente, que não é mais nem de produção nem de consumo, mas de simulação de ambas graças à inversão do processo. De repente, não se trata mais de uma crise <real> do capital, como o supõe Attali, crise que depende de um pouco mais de social e de socialismo, mas de um dispositivo absolutamente diferente, hiper-real, que não tem mais nada a ver nem com o capital nem com o social.”

como massa, se limita a ser boa condutora dos fluxos, mas de todos os fluxos, boa condutora da informação, mas de qualquer informação, boa condutora de normas, mas de todas as normas; com isso, se limita a remeter o social à sua transparência absoluta, a só dar lugar aos efeitos do social e do poder, constelações flutuantes em torno desse núcleo imperceptível.”

Nunca houve manipulação. A partida foi jogada pelos dois, com as mesmas armas, e ninguém hoje poderia dizer quem a venceu”

hiperconformismo, forma imanente de humor” “a massa realiza esse paradoxo de não ser um sujeito, um grupo-sujeito, mas de também não ser um objeto.” “a noção de objeto aí se perde, como o campo da microfísica se perde na análise última da <matéria> – impossível captá-la como objeto neste limite infinitesimal

Todo o mundo conhece a profunda indeterminação que reina sobre as estatísticas (o cálculo de probabilidades ou os grandes números também correspondem a uma indeterminação, a uma <flutuação> do conceito de matéria, a que pouco corresponde uma insignificante noção de <lei objetiva>.”

Daí partiria, no sentido literal, uma patafÍsica ou a ciência das soluções imaginárias, ciência da simulação e da hiper-simulação de um mundo exato, verdadeiro, objetivo, com suas leis universais, incluindo o delírio daqueles que o interpretam segundo estas leis. As massas e seu humor involuntário nos introduziriam a uma patafísica do social que finalmente nos desembaraçaria de toda esta metafísica do social que nos atravanca.”

O publicitário não pode deixar de crer que as pessoas acreditam – por pouco que seja, isso quer dizer que existe uma probabilidade mínima de que a mensagem alcance seu objetivo e seja decodificada segundo seu sentido.”

O MEIO É A MENSAGEM, profetizava Mac Luhan: fórmula característica da fase atual, a fase cool de qualquer cultura mass-media

Enquanto o político há muito tempo é considerado só como espetáculo no interior da vida privada, digerido como divertimento semi-esportivo, semilúdico (veja-se o voto vencedor das eleições americanas, ou as tardes de eleições no rádio ou na tevê), e na forma ao mesmo tempo fascinada e maliciosa das velhas comédias de costumes. O jogo eleitoral se identifica há muito tempo aos jogos televisados na consciência do povo. Este, que sempre serviu de álibi e de figurante para a representação política, se vinga entregando-se à representação teatral da cena política e de seus atores.” “É o jogo, o filme ou os desenhos animados que servem de modelos de percepção da esfera política.” Neymar vingador e seu Death Note.

Até os anos 60, a história se impõe como tempo forte: o privado e o cotidiano não são mais do que o avesso obscuro da esfera política. No melhor dos casos, intervém uma dialética entre os dois e pode-se pensar que um dia o cotidiano, como o individual, resplandecerá além da história, no universal. Mas até lá só se pode deplorar o recuo das massas a sua esfera doméstica, sua recusa da história, da política e do universal, e sua absorção na cotidianidade embrutecida do consumo (felizmente elas trabalham, o que lhes garante um estatuto histórico <objetivo> até o momento da tomada de consciência). Hoje, inversão do tempo fraco e do tempo forte: começa-se a vislumbrar que o cotidiano, que os homens em sua banalidade até que poderiam não ser o reverso insignificante da história – melhor: que o recuo para o privado até poderia ser um desafio direto ao político, uma forma de resistência ativa à manipulação política. Os papéis se invertem: é a banalidade da vida, a vida corrente, tudo o que se estigmatizara como pequeno-burguês, abjeto e apolítico (inclusive o sexo) que se torna o tempo forte

Hipótese vertiginosa. As massas despolitizadas não estariam aquém mas além da política. (…) As massas executariam em sua prática <ingênua> (e sem ter esperado as análises sobre o <fim do político>) a sentença da anulação do político, seriam espontaneamente transpolíticas, como são translingüísticas em sua linguagem. Mas, atenção! (…) alguns desejariam que se tratasse (em particular em sua versão sexual e de desejo) de uma nova fonte de energia revolucionária, desejariam lhe dar um sentido e o reconstituir como negatividade histórica em sua própria banalidade. Exaltação de microdesejos, de pequenas diferenças, de práticas cegas, de marginalidades anônimas. Último sobressalto dos intelectuais para exaltar a insignificância, para promover o não-sentido na ordem do sentido. E revertê-lo à razão política. A banalidade, a inércia, o apoliticismo eram fascistas, agora se tornam revolucionários – sem mudar de sentido, isto é, sem deixar de ter sentido. Micro-revolução da banalidade, transpolítica do desejo – mais um truque dos <libertadores>.”

UMA ETNOGRAFIA DA AMÉRICA LATINA 2020’S: “A emergência das maiorias silenciosas se integra no ciclo completo da resistência histórica ao social. Resistência ao trabalho, evidentemente, mas também resistência à medicina, resistência à escola, resistência à segurança, resistência à informação. A história oficial só registra o progresso ininterrupto do social, relegando às trevas, como culturas passadas, como vestígios bárbaros, tudo que não concorreria para esse glorioso acontecimento.” “(o social vai bem, obrigado, só restam uns loucos para escapar ao registro, à vacinação e às vantagens da segurança)”

QUANDO A REDE GLOBO SE TORNA VÍTIMA DO MONSTRO QUE CRIOU (OU MELHOR: QUANDO ELA DESCOBRE QUE A MASSA ERA O DOUTOR E ELA MERO FRANKENSTEIN): “Sempre se acreditou que são os meios de comunicação que enredam as massas – o que é a própria ideologia dos mass media. Procurou-se o segredo da manipulação numa semiologia que combate os mass media. Mas se esqueceu, nessa lógica ingênua da comunicação, que as massas são um meio muito mais forte que todos os meios de comunicação, que são elas que os enredam e os absorvem – ou que pelo menos não há nenhuma prioridade de um sobre o outro. O processo da massa e o dos meios de comunicação são um processo único. Mass(age) é a mensagem.”

trata-se de lhes inculcar de todos os lados (propaganda oficial [Keenes], associação de consumidores, ecólogos [Uirás], sociólogos) a boa prática e o cálculo funcional em matéria de consumo, mas sem esperança.” “Valor/signo em vez de valor de uso já é um desvio da economia política.” “Uso a-social, resistente a todas as pedagogias socialistas – uso aberrante através do qual as massas (nós, vocês, todo o mundo) inverteram a economia política desde agora. Não esperaram as revoluções futuras nem as teorias que pretendem libertá-las de um movimento <dialético>. Elas sabem que não se liberta de nada e que só se abole um sistema obrigando-o ao hiperlógico, impelindo-o a um uso excessivo que equivale a um amortecimento brutal. <Vocês querem que se consuma – pois bem, consumamos sempre mais, e não importa o quê; para todos os fins inúteis e absurdos.>”

O mesmo aconteceu com a medicina: à resistência frontal (que aliás não desapareceu) se substituiu uma forma mais sutil de subversão, um consumo excessivo, irrefreável, da medicina, um conformismo pânico às injunções da saúde. Escalada fantástica do consumo médico que desvia completamente os objetivos e as finalidades sociais da medicina. Que melhor meio de aboli-Ia? Desde então os médicos não sabem mais o que fazem, o que são, muito mais manipulados do que manipuladores. <Queremos mais cuidados, mais médicos, mais medicamentos, mais segurança, mais saúde, sempre mais, sem limites!> As massas são alienadas na medicina? De modo algum: ao exigirem sempre mais, como mercadoria, estão prestes a arruinar sua instituição, a explodir a segurança social, a colocar o próprio social em perigo. Que maior ironia pode haver do que nesta exigência do social como bem de consumo individual, submetido ao excesso da oferta e da procura? Paródia e paradoxo: é por sua inércia nos caminhos do social que lhes foram traçados que as massas lhes ultrapassam a lógica e os limites, e destroem todo o edifício.”

o terrorismo na verdade pretende visar o capital (o imperialismo mundial, etc.) mas se engana de inimigo, e ao fazer isso visa seu verdadeiro inimigo, que é o social.” NADA A VER COM COPA OU OLIMPÍADAS: “terrorismo não-explosivo, não-histórico, não-político; implosivo, cristalizante, siderante” V de Vacância

Ele é o único ato não-representativo. É nisso que ele tem afinidade com as massas, que são a única realidade não-representável. Sobretudo isso não quer dizer que novamente o terrorismo representaria o silêncio e o não-dito das massas, que exprimiria violentamente sua resistência passiva. Isso quer dizer simplesmente: não há equivalente ao caráter cego, não-representativo, desprovido de sentido, do ato terrorista, senão o comportamento cego, desprovido de sentido e além da representação que é o das massas. Eles têm isso de comum porque são a forma atual mais radical, mais exacerbada, de negação de qualquer sistema representativo. É tudo.” “Só conhecemos bem os encadeamentos representativos, não sabemos grande coisa dos encadeamentos analógicos, a-finitários, imediatizados, irreferenciais e outros sistemas.”

Não se pode dizer que é a <era das maiorias silenciosas> que <produz> o terrorismo. É a simultaneidade dos dois que é assombrosa e causa estranheza. Único acontecimento, aceite-se ou não sua brutalidade, que verdadeiramente marca o fim do político e do social. O único que traduz essa realidade de uma implosão violenta de todos os nossos sistemas de representação.” “O terrorismo não visa de modo algum desmascarar o caráter repressivo do Estado (essa é a negatividade provocadora dos grupelhos, que aí encontram uma última oportunidade de serem representativos aos olhos das massas).”

solidariedade dos ativistas mortos “onda de choque”

P. 29: terrorismo x banditismo

os meios são apenas meios

roleta russa mode on

Rael is a problem.

patafísica reacionária do nazista frustrado

de toda forma,

já-deu

agora

fodeu

fode eu

Esahubris 9001 & Stephen Jacobs

Não há diferença alguma entre um terremoto na Guatemala e a queda de um Boeing da Lufthansa com 300 passageiros a bordo, entre a intervenção <natural> e a intervenção <humana> terrorista. A natureza é terrorista, como o é a interrupção abrupta de todo o sistema tecnológico: os grandes black-outs de Nova Iorque (1965 e 1977) criam situações terroristas melhores que as verdadeiras, situações sonhadas. Melhor: esses grandes acidentes tecnológicos, como os grandes acidentes naturais, exemplificam a possibilidade de uma subversão radical sem sujeito. A pane de 1977 em Nova Iorque poderia ser fomentada por um grupo terrorista muito organizado e isso não mudaria nada no resultado objetivo. Teriam sucedido os mesmos atos de violência, de pilhagem, de levante, a mesma suspensão da ordem <social>. Isso significa que o terrorismo não está na decisão de violência, mas em toda parte na normalidade do social, de modo que ela pode de um momento para o outro se transfigurar numa realidade inversa, absurda, incontrolável. A catástrofe natural funciona dessa maneira e é assim que, paradoxalmente, ela se torna a expressão mítica da catástrofe do social. Ou melhor, sendo a catástrofe natural por excelência um incidente desprovido de sentido, não-representativo (senão de Deus, eis por que o responsável pela Continental Edison pôde falar de Deus e de sua intervenção no episódio do último black-out de Nova Iorque), torna-se uma espécie de sintoma ou de encarnação violenta do estado do social, a saber, de sua catástrofe e da ruína de todas as representações que o sustentavam.”

a fascinação é a intensidade extrema do neutro.”

A implosão, para nós e hoje, só pode ser violenta e catastrófica, porque ela resulta do fracasso do sistema de explosão e de expansão dirigida que foi o nosso no Ocidente há alguns séculos.” “A implosão é inelutável, e todos os esforços para salvar os princípios de realidade, de acumulação, de universalidade, os princípios de evolução que dependem dos sistemas em expansão, são arcaicos, regressivos, nostálgicos. Inclusive todos aqueles que querem liberar as energias libidinais, as energias plurais, as intensidades fragmentárias, etc.” “Há traços disso, de diversas tentativas de controlar os novos impulsos anti-universais [satanização do “globalismo”], anti-representativos, tribais, centrípetos, etc.: as comunidades, a ecologia, o crescimento zero [CPTK(SIC) – Centro de Pesquisas Tirei do Ku para a Sustentação Idônea do Capital], as drogas [a única ‘evasão de divisas’ politicamente correta] – tudo isso sem dúvida é dessa natureza. Mas é preciso não se iludir sobre a implosão lenta. Ela está destinada à efemeridade e ao fracasso. Não houve transição equilibrada de sistemas implosivos aos sistemas explosivos: isso sempre aconteceu violentamente, e há toda a possibilidade de que nossa passagem para a implosão também seja violenta e catastrófica.”

ESTE ZERO: “Só a <sociologia> pode parecer testemunhar sua eternidade, e a soberana algaravia das <ciências sociais> ainda o divulgará muito tempo após ele ter desaparecido.”

SANTÍSSIMA TRINDADE SPONSORED BY K. – RIMA COM…: “como o espaço e o tempo, o social efetivamente abre uma perspectiva ao infinito. Não há definição do social senão nessa perspectiva panótica.”

Se o sexo e a sexualidade, dado que a revolução sexual os muda em si mesmos, são verdadeiramente um modo de troca e de produção de relações sexuais, já a sedução é o inverso da troca, e próxima ao desafio. A sexualidade realmente só se tornou <relação sexual>, só pôde ser falada nesses termos já racionalizados de valor e de troca, ao se esquecer qualquer forma de sedução – assim como o social só se torna <relação social> quando perdeu toda a dimensão simbólica.

SEMPRE CABE +1: “Ver, em L’Échange Simbolique et le Mort¹, a tripla residualidade: do valor na ordem econômica, do fantasma na ordem psíquica, da significação da ordem lingüística. É preciso portanto acrescentar aí a residualidade do social na ordem… social.”

¹ Talvez o único livro de Baudrillard que ainda não li!

não se pode dizer que o social morre, pois ele é desde sempre acumulação do morto. Com efeito, estamos numa civilização do super-social, e simultaneamente do resíduo indegradável, indestrutível, que se expande na própria medida da extensão do social.”

O REI MAGNÂNIMO: “Em 1544 abriu-se o primeiro grande estabelecimento de pobres em Paris: vagabundos, dementes, doentes, todos aqueles que o grupo não integrou e deixou como sobras serão adotados sob o signo nascente do social.”

4 CENTURIES LATER…: “Quando a sobra atinge as dimensões da sociedade toda, tem-se uma socialização perfeita. Vejam-se os Guaiaqui [Kwakiutl?] ou os Tupi-Guarani: quando um tal resíduo aparece, é drenado pelos líderes messiânicos para o Atlântico, sob a forma de movimentos escatológicos que purgam o grupo dos resíduos <sociais>. Não só o poder político (Clastres) mas o próprio social é conjurado como instância desintegrada/desintegrante.” Não há uma obra de Baudrillard sem Pierre Clastres…

Sea-arriba: O paradoxo do sociólogo que combate os anti-sociólogos: parcial no cultivo da neutralidade, torna-se tendencioso. A evolução social re-quer o autogolpe, uma espécie de “Brasil transformado em ciência”. Onde tudo é ruçamente permitido!

gestão usurária da morte” “É nessa perspectiva de gestão de resíduos que o social pode aparecer hoje pelo que é: um direito, uma necessidade, um serviço, um puro e simples valor de uso.” “o social como ecossistema, homeostase e superbiologia funcional da espécie“Uma espécie de espaço fetal de segurança (…) a forma mais baixa da energia social”

* * *

Se toda a riqueza fosse sacrificada, as pessoas perderiam o sentido do real. Se toda a riqueza se tornasse disponível, as pessoas perderiam o sentido do útil e do inútil. O social existe para garantir o consumo inútil da sobra a fim de que os indivíduos se dediquem à gestão útil de suas vidas.” Transformar leite e queijo em livros.

Não é à toa que cálculo (estudo de relações entre coisas) se chama razão.

o afluxo repentino de divisas é a maneira mais rápida e mais radical de arruinar uma moeda”

NEGATIVE LOTTO: “A loucura de Hölderlin lhe veio desta prodigalidade dos deuses, desta graça dos deuses que afoga e se torna mortal se não pode ser reparada e compensada por uma equivalência humana, a da terra, a do trabalho. Há aí uma espécie de lei que não tem nada a ver com a moral burguesa. Mais próximo de nós, citemos a confusão mortal das pessoas superexpostas à riqueza e à felicidade – como clientes de uma grande loja aos quais se oferece escolher o que desejam: é o pânico. Ou ainda esses vinhateiros a quem o Estado oferece mais dinheiro para arrancar suas vinhas do que ganhariam trabalhando nelas. São muito mais desestruturados por este prêmio inesperado do que pela tradicional exploração de força de trabalho.”

Eu preciso de imbecis me aparando ou eu seria só cabelo.

Se meu talento fosse reconhecido da noite para o dia, fatalmente eu ficaria louco como se toda a metanfetamina do mundo fosse-me injetada duma vez.

DESAFIO: Cite 10 coisas mais úteis que pisar na Lua.

A verdadeira candura é a dos socialistas e humanistas de toda espécie, que querem que toda a riqueza seja redistribuída, que não haja nenhuma despesa inútil, etc.”

É o que o socialismo não vê: ao querer abolir essa escassez, e ao reivindicar o usufruto generalizado da riqueza, põe fim ao social acreditando que o está conduzindo ao auge.” “Quando tudo, inclusive o social, se torna valor de uso, o mundo se tornou inerte, onde se opera o inverso do que Marx sonhava. Ele sonhava com uma reabsorção do econômico no social (transfigurado). O que nos acontece é a reabsorção do social na economia política (banalizada): a gestão pura e simples.”

Nada mudou desde Mandeville e sua Fábula das Abelhas.”

Terceira hipótese: “O social não foi sempre um equívoco, como na primeira hipótese, nem uma sobra, como na segunda. Mas justamente só teve sentido, como o poder, como o trabalho, como o capital, num espaço perspectivo de distribuição racional (…) e hoje morre” “Ora, o social só existe num espaço perspectivo, morre no espaço de simulação”

Curto-circuito fantástico: o real é hiper-realizado; nem realizado, nem idealizado. O hiper-real é a abolição do real não por destruição violenta, mas pela afirmação, elevação à potência do modelo.” “Há real em demasia, cai-se no obsceno e no pornô.”

CAGADA HAT-TRICK

A direita

A esquerda

O espírito aristocráticotirânico AMEMuns aos outros

Doña Flôbert e seus 2 Partidos

* * *

A esquerda é o monstro do Alien.

Por que, no final das contas, o fascismo (genuíno, pur sang) é sempre eleito democraticamente: “Os representantes do povo são bastante ingênuos a esse respeito: tomam sua eleição por uma aprovação e um consenso popular, não desconfiam nunca que não há nada mais ambíguo do que impelir alguém ao poder e que o espetáculo mais gratificante para o povo sem dúvida sempre foi a derrota de uma classe política.”

O advento do socialismo como modelo é absolutamente diferente de seu advento histórico. Como acontecimento, como mito, como força de ruptura, o socialismo não tem, como se diz, o tempo de se parecer consigo mesmo, de se fortalecer como modelo, não tem tempo de se confundir com a sociedade – nessa qualidade ele não é um estado estável, e aliás só fez breves aparições históricas. Ao passo que hoje o socialismo se propõe como modelo estável e confiável – não é mais uma exigência revolucionária, é uma simulação de mudança (simulação no sentido de desenvolvimento do melhor cenário possível) e uma simulação do futuro. Nada de surpresa, nada de violência, nada de ultrapassagem, nada de verdadeira paixão.”

A menos que haja uma reversão miraculosa da história, que daria sua carne e seu sangue a qualquer projeto social que apareça, e à realidade sem mais, é-nos necessário, como diz Canetti, perseverar na destruição atual.”

* * *

o intelectual infelizmente sempre é bastante virginal para ser cúmplice da repressão ao vício.” Nunca cansamos de ser críticos. Só com críticas explícitas fazemos 3 pontos fora de casa. Como político, excelente filósofo; como filósofo, excelente político. Como legislador, excelente burocrata. Enquanto funcionário racional-legal, criador de exceções imprevisíveis incontroláveis o tempo inteiro. Como pai ótimo filho.

Ou Stalin ou Nada, de que lado Você (o[u] Eu) está?

O CORPO DECIDE QUANDO O TEATRO FICA ENJOADO: “Nós vagueamos entre os fantasmas do capital, de hoje em diante vaguearemos no modelo póstumo do socialismo. A hiper-realidade de tudo isso não mudará nem um pouco, num certo sentido é nossa paisagem familiar há muito tempo. Estamos doentes de leucemia política, e essa indiferença crescente (estamos atravessados pelo poder sem por ele sermos atingidos, analisamos, atravessamos o poder sem alcançá-lo) é absolutamente semelhante ao tipo de patologia mais moderna: a saber, não a agressão biológica objetiva, mas a incapacidade crescente do organismo de fabricar anticorpos (ou mesmo, como na esclerose em placas, a possibilidade de os anticorpos se voltarem contra o próprio organismo).”

E aí nós, intelectuais, fomos pegos. Porque enquanto se tratava de economia, de programação e do desencantamento de uma sociedade liberal, mantivemos nosso foro íntimo, ricos de uma reserva mental e política indefinida, vestais de uma pequena chama crítica e filosófica, promessa de uma eficácia silenciosa da teoria (aliás a teoria se portava muito bem, ela não reencontrará sem dúvida jamais a qualidade ofensiva e jubilatória ao mesmo tempo que a grandiosa sinecura de que desfrutou nesses últimos 20 anos).” “Nada pior do que a absorção da força teórica numa instituição. Eu compreendo: a própria utopia dos conceitos segundo os quais analisávamos esta situação que não era a nossa, e a dissolvíamos em seus componentes imaginários, essa utopia mesma se volta contra nós sob a forma de julgamento de valor real, de jurisdição intelectualmente armada com nossas próprias armas, sob a forma desse fantasma da vontade coletiva, essa utopia foi a de nossa própria classe [os intelectuais], que mantém, mesmo na simulação, o poder de nos anular.”

velho slogan rimbaudiano que se tornou socialista – alegrai-vos, hoje se vai mudar verdadeiramente a vida – é maravilhoso!”

Thomas En(do)gênio: “Tal é o sonho socialista, enlouquecido de transparência, inundado de ingenuidade. Porque nenhum grupo jamais funcionou assim – mas sobretudo: que grupo não sonhou com isso? Felizmente é verossímil que algum projeto social digno desse nome jamais existiu, que nenhum grupo na verdade jamais se concebeu idealmente como social, em suma, jamais houve <a sombra> (salvo nas cabeças intelectuais) nem o embrião de um sujeito coletivo com responsabilidade limitada, nem a possibilidade mesma de um objetivo dessa ordem.”

ODIN NUNCA FOI ZEUS

Tribos vikings eram conglomerados de retardados. E ainda que, antropologicamente falando, você os considere em nível de equivalência com as tribos pré-colombianas ou outros povos nômades totalmente aniquilados pelo “homem branco civilizado” (e depreciados post mortem como “sociedades inferiores”), basta ver o que é a Europa hoje (essa flor fedida) para entender que pau que nasce torto, só podia mesmo morrer torto. (RESSALVA IMPORTANTE: os vikings não “evoluíram paulatinamente rumo ao Estado de Direito”; esse conceito permaneceria completamente desconhecido pelas gerações seguintes, na Europa Ocidental, não fosse a influência do direito romano, quer seja, no fundo, não fosse a SINGULARIDADE MIRACULOSA chamada “gregos”, que em poucos séculos de organização que tenha deixado rastros transmutaram para sempre o devir do homem, criatura sórdida que rasteja e vegeta há dezenas de milhares de milênios, apesar dos esforços de alguns gênios esporádicos.) (RESSALVA 2: Digam o que disserem dos judeus – há quem pense que eles arruinaram o mundo -, Jeová continuaria sendo um culto periférico e irrelevante para os povos da Terra, não fosse a injeção espiritual de Sócrates, Platão & cia. que transformou uma religião de seita em crença ecumênica – mesmo o Cristianismo, esse inimigo-mor dos vikings, o autêntico Ragnarok da besta-loira, é, também, herança – trágica herança – grega.)

LA(LES) FEMME(S) DE TRENTE ANS OU DA FRIGIDEZ E DA AUTO-REALIZAÇÃO NA MESMA ÁRVORE GENEALÓGICA – Balzac

“– L’on te croit ma femme, dit-il à l’oreille de la jeune personne en se redressant et marchant avec une lenteur qui la désespéra.

Il semblait avoir de la coquetterie pour sa fille et jouissait peut-être plus qu’elle des oeillades que les curieux lançaient sur ses petits pieds chaussés de brodequins en prunelle puce, sur une taille délicieuse dessinée par une robe à guimpe, et sur le cou frais qu’une collerette brodée ne cachait pas entièrement.”

Ce dimanche était le treizième de l’année 1813. Le surlendemain, Napoléon partait pour cette fatale campagne pendant laquelle il allait perdre successivement Bessières et Duroc, gagner les mémorables batailles de Lutzen et de Bautzen, se voir trahi par l’Autriche, la Saxe, la Bavière, par Bernadotte, et disputer la terrible bataille de Leipsick. La magnifique parade commandée par l’empereur devait être la dernière de celles qui excitèrent si longtemps l’admiration des Parisiens et des étrangers. La vieille garde allait exécuter pour la dernière fois les savantes manoeuvres dont la pompe et la précision étonnèrent quelquefois jusqu’à ce géant lui-même, qui s’apprêtait alors à son duel avec l’Europe. Un sentiment triste amenait aux Tuileries une brillante et curieuse population. Chacun semblait deviner l’avenir, et pressentait peut-être que plus d’une fois l’imagination aurait à retracer le tableau de cette scène, quand ces temps héroïques de la France contracteraient, comme aujourd’hui, des teintes presque fabuleuses.”

Son amour pour cette belle créature lui faisait autant admirer le présent que craindre l’avenir. Il semblait se dire : – Elle est heureuse aujourd’hui, le sera-telle toujours? Car les vieillards sont assez enclins à doter de leurs chagrins l’avenir des jeunes gens.

“– Restons, mon père. D’ici je puis encore apercevoir l’empereur. S’il périssait pendant la campagne, je ne l’aurais jamais vu.”

Le cordon de sentinelles, établi pour laisser un passage libre à l’empereur et à son état-major, avait beaucoup de peine à ne pas être débordé par cette foule empressée et bourdonnant comme un essaim.”

La France allait faire ses adieux à Napoléon, à la veille d’une campagne dont les dangers étaient prévus par le moindre citoyen. Il s’agissait, cette fois, pour l’Empire Français, d’être ou de ne pas être.” “Entre la plupart des assistants et des militaires, il se disait des adieux peut-être éternels ; mais tous les coeurs, même les plus hostiles à l’empereur, adressaient au ciel des voeux ardents pour la gloire de la patrie. Les hommes les plus fatigués de la lutte commencée entre l’Europe et la France avaient tous déposé leurs haines en passant sous l’arc de triomphe, comprenant qu’au jour du danger Napoléon était toute la France. L’horloge du château sonna une demi-heure. En ce moment les bourdonnements de la foule cessèrent, et le silence devint si profond, que l’on eût entendu la parole d’un enfant.”

Des cris de: Vive l’empereur! furent poussés par la multitude enthousiasmée. Enfin tout frissonna, tout remua, tout s’ébranla. Napoléon était monté à cheval. Ce mouvement avait imprimé la vie à ces masses silencieuses, avait donné une voix aux instruments, un élan aux aigles et aux drapeaux, une émotion à toutes les figures. Les murs des hautes galeries de ce vieux palais semblaient crier aussi: Vive l’empereur! Ce ne fut pas quelque chose d’humain, ce fut une magie, un simulacre de la puissance divine, ou mieux une fugitive image de ce règne si fugitif. L’homme entouré de tant d’amour, d’enthousiasme, de dévouement, de voeux, pour qui le soleil avait chassé les nuages du ciel, resta sur son cheval, à trois pas en avant du petit escadron doré qui le suivait, ayant le grand-maréchal à sa gauche, le maréchal de service à sa droite. Au sein de tant d’émotions excitées par lui, aucun trait de son visage ne parut s’émouvoir.”

Le colonel Victor d’Aiglemont à peine âgé de trente ans, était grand, bien fait, svelte; et ses heureuses proportions ne ressortaient jamais mieux que quand il employait sa force à gouverner un cheval dont le dos élégant et souple paraissait plier sous lui.”

Je pense, Julie, que vous avez des secrets pour moi. – Tu aimes, reprit vivement le vieillard en s’apercevant que sa fille venait de rougir. Ah! j’espérais te voir fidèle à ton vieux père jusqu’à sa mort, j’espérais te conserver près de moi heureuse et brillante! t’admirer comme tu étais encore naguère. En ignorant ton sort, j’aurais pu croire à un avenir tranquille pour toi ; mais maintenant il est impossible que j’emporte une espérance de bonheur pour ta vie, car tu aimes encore plus le colonel que tu n’aimes le cousin. Je n’en puis plus douter.

Julie, j’aimerais mieux te savoir amoureuse d’un vieillard que de te voir aimant le colonel. Ah! si tu pouvais te placer à dix ans d’ici dans la vie, tu rendrais justice à mon expérience. Je connais Victor: sa gaieté est une gaieté sans esprit, une gaieté de caserne, il est sans talent et dépensier. C’est un de ces hommes que le ciel a créés pour prendre et digérer quatre repas par jour, dormir, aimer la première venue et se battre. Il n’entend pas la vie. Son bon coeur, car il a bon coeur, l’entraînera peut-être à donner

sa bourse à un malheureux, à un camarade ; mais il est insouciant, mais il n’est pas doué de cette délicatesse de coeur qui nous rend esclaves du bonheur d’une femme ; mais il est ignorant, égoïste… Il y a beaucoup de mais.”

Mais, ma pauvre Julie, tu es encore trop jeune, trop faible, trop délicate pour supporter les chagrins et les tracas du mariage. D’Aiglemont a été gâté par ses parents, de même que tu l’as été par ta mère et par moi. Comment espérer que vous pourrez vous entendre tous deux avec des volontés différentes dont les tyrannies seront inconciliables? (…) Je connais les militaires, ma Julie; j’ai vécu aux armées. Il est rare que le coeur de ces gens-là puisse triompher des habitudes produites ou par les malheurs au sein desquels ils vivent, ou par les hasards de leur vie aventurière.

Épouse Victor, ma Julie. Un jour tu déploreras amèrement sa nullité, son défaut d’ordre, son égoïsme, son indélicatesse, son ineptie en amour, et mille autres chagrins qui te viendront par lui. Alors, souviens-toi que, sous ces arbres, la voix prophétique de ton vieux père a retenti vainement à tes oreilles!”

* * *

Un an après…

À travers le tendre feuillage des îles, au fond du tableau, Tours semble, comme Venise, sortir du sein des eaux.”

En plus d’un endroit il existe trois étages de maisons, creusées dans le roc et réunies par de dangereux escaliers taillés à même la pierre. Au sommet d’un toit, une jeune fille en jupon rouge court à son jardin. La fumée d’une cheminée s’élève entre les sarments et le pampre naissant d’une vigne. Des closiers labourent des champs perpendiculaires.”

Cette partie de la France, la seule que les armées étrangères ne devaient point troubler, était en ce moment la seule qui fût tranquille, et l’on eût dit qu’elle défiait l’Invasion.”

Julie d’Aiglemont ne ressemblait déjà plus à la jeune fille qui courait naguère avec joie et bonheur à la revue des Tuileries. Son visage, toujours délicat, était privé des couleurs roses qui jadis lui donnaient un si riche éclat. Les touffes noires de quelques cheveux défrisés par l’humidité de la nuit faisaient ressortir la blancheur mate de sa tête, dont la vivacité semblait engourdie. Cependant ses yeux brillaient d’un feu surnaturel; mais au-dessous de leurs paupières, quelques teintes violettes se dessinaient sur les joues fatiguées. Elle examina d’un oeil indifférent les campagnes du Cher, la Loire et ses îles, Tours et les longs rochers de Vouvray; puis, sans vouloir regarder la ravissante vallée de la Cise, elle se rejeta promptement dans le fond de la calèche, et dit d’une voix qui en plein air paraissait d’une extrême faiblesse: – Oui, c’est

admirable. Elle avait comme on le voit pour son malheur triomphé de son père.

Julie, n’aimerais-tu pas à vivre ici?

Oh! là ou ailleurs, dit-elle avec insouciance.

Souffres-tu? lui demanda le colonel d’Aiglemont.

Pas du tout, répondit la jeune femme avec une vivacité momentanée. Elle contempla son mari en souriant et ajouta : – J’ai envie de dormir.”

Elle eut un air aussi stupide que peut l’être celui d’un paysan breton écoutant le prône de son curé.”

Il y a beaucoup d’hommes dont le coeur est puissamment ému par la seule apparence de la souffrance chez une femme: pour eux la douleur semble être une promesse de constance ou d’amour.”

Chargé par l’empereur de porter des ordres au maréchal Soult, qui avait à défendre la France de l’invasion faite par les Anglais dans le Béarn, le colonel d’Aiglemont profitait de sa mission pour soustraire sa femme aux dangers qui menaçaient alors Paris, et la conduisait à Tours chez une vieille parente à lui.”

Ma Julie n’est ni coquette ni jalouse, elle a une douceur d’ange…”

il était bien difficile à une femme amie de Duclos et du maréchal de Richelieu de ne pas chercher à deviner le secret de ce jeune ménage.”

Après avoir échangé quelques mots avec cette tante, à laquelle elle avait écrit naguère une lettre de nouvelle mariée, elle resta silencieuse comme si elle eût écouté la musique d’un opéra.”

Ma chère petite, nous connaissons la douleur des veuves, répondit la tante.

Aussi, malgré l’envie qu’avait la vieille dame de promener orgueilleusement sa jolie nièce, finit-elle par renoncer à vouloir la mener dans le monde. La comtesse avait trouvé un prétexte à sa solitude et à sa tristesse dans le chagrin que lui avait causé la mort de son père, de qui elle portait encore le deuil. Au bout de huit jours, la douairière admira la douceur angélique, les grâces modestes, l’esprit indulgent de Julie, et s’intéressa, dès lors, prodigieusement à la mystérieuse mélancolie qui rongeait ce jeune coeur. (…) Un mois suffit pour établir entre elles une éternelle amitié.”

Elle devina que ni le souvenir paternel ni l’absence de Victor n’étaient la cause de la mélancolie profonde qui jetait un voile sur la vie de sa nièce; puis elle eut tant de mauvais soupçons, qu’il lui fut difficile de s’arrêter à la véritable cause du mal, car nous ne rencontrons peut-être le vrai que par hasard. Un jour, enfin, Julie fit briller aux yeux de sa tante étonnée un oubli complet du mariage, une folie de jeune fille étourdie, une candeur d’esprit, un enfantillage digne du premier âge, tout cet esprit délicat, et parfois si profond, qui distingue les jeunes personnes en France. Madame de Listomère résolut alors de sonder les mystères de cette âme dont le naturel extrême équivalait à une impénétrable dissimulation.”

La tante, bien convaincue que sa nièce n’aimait pas son neveu, fut stupéfaite en découvrant qu’elle n’aimait personne. Elle trembla d’avoir à reconnaître en Julie un coeur désenchanté, une jeune femme à qui l’expérience d’un jour, d’une nuit peut-être, avait suffi pour apprécier la nullité de Victor.”

Elle se proposait alors de convertir Julie aux doctrines monarchiques du siècle de Louis XV; mais, quelques heures plus tard, elle apprit, ou plutôt elle devina la situation assez commune dans le monde à laquelle la comtesse devait sa mélancolie.”

Confusão nesta edição entre os títulos de “comtesse” e “marquise”, que parecem se referir alternadamente à jovem “sobrinha” recém-casada com o coronel da era bonapartista e a “tia”, não de sangue, tia do coronel, a velha que a acolhe no campo devido à guerra estourando na capital. Erro de revisão ou de redação de Balzac?

Tu vas te marier, Louisa. Cette pensée me fait frémir. Pauvre petite, marie-toi; puis, dans quelques mois, un de tes plus poignants regrets viendra du souvenir de ce que nous étions naguère, quand un soir, à Écouen, parvenues toutes deux sous les plus grands chênes de la montagne, nous contemplâmes la belle vallée que nous avions à nos pieds, et que nous y admirâmes les rayons du soleil couchant dont les reflets nous enveloppaient. Nous nous assîmes sur un quartier de roche, et tombâmes dans un ravissement auquel succéda la plus douce mélancolie. Tu trouvas la première que ce soleil lointain nous parlait d’avenir. Nous étions bien curieuses et bien folles alors! Te souviens-tu de toutes nos extravagances? Nous nous embrassâmes comme deux amants, disions-nous. Nous nous jurâmes que la première mariée de nous deux raconterait fidèlement à l’autre ces secrets d’hyménée, ces joies que nos âmes enfantines nous peignaient si délicieuses. Cette soirée fera ton désespoir, Louisa. Dans ce temps, tu étais jeune, belle, insouciante, sinon heureuse; un mari te rendra, en peu de jours, ce que je suis déjà, laide, souffrante et vieille. Te dire combien j’étais fière, vaine et joyeuse d’épouser le colonel Victor d’Aiglemont, ce serait une folie! Et même comment te le dirai-je? je ne me souviens plus de moi-même. En peu d’instants mon enfance est devenue comme un songe. La contenance pendant la journée solennelle qui consacrait un lien dont l’étendue m’était cachée n’a pas été exempte de reproches. Mon père a plus d’une fois tâché de réprimer ma gaieté, car je témoignais des joies qu’on trouvait inconvenantes, et mes discours révélaient de la malice, justement parce qu’ils étaient sans malice. Je faisais mille enfantillages avec ce voile nuptial, avec cette robe et ces fleurs. Restée seule, le soir, dans la chambre où j’avais été conduite avec apparat, je méditai quelque espièglerie [faceirice] pour intriguer Victor ; et, en attendant qu’il vînt, j’avais des palpitations de coeur semblables à celles qui me saisissaient autrefois en ces jours solennels du 31 décembre, quand, sans être aperçue, je me glissais dans le salon où les étrennes [embrulhos de Natal] étaient entassées. Lorsque mon mari entra, qu’il me chercha, le rire étouffé que je fis entendre sous les mousselines qui m’enveloppaient a été le dernier éclat de cette gaieté douce qui anima les jeux de notre enfance…

depuis Ève jusqu’à nous, le mariage a paru chose si excellente – Vous n’avez plus de mère?”

Parfois ne pensez-vous point que l’amour légitime est plus dur à porter que ne le serait une passion criminelle?”

Enfin, mon ange, vous adorez Victor, n’est-ce pas? mais vous aimeriez mieux être sa soeur que sa femme, et le mariage enfin ne vous réussit point.

Hé! bien, oui, ma tante. Mais pourquoi sourire?”

“– Enfim, meu anjo, você adora o Victor, não é? mas você amaria ainda mais ser sua irmã que sua mulher, e o casamento, portanto, em nada lhe apraz!

É… é isso mesmo, minha tia! Mas por que a gargalhada?”

Sous le règne de notre bien-aimé Louis XV, une jeune femme qui se serait trouvée dans la situation où vous êtes aurait bientôt puni son mari de se conduire en vrai lansquenet. L’égoïste ! Les militaires de ce tyran impérial sont tous de vilains ignorants. Ils prennent la brutalité pour de la galanterie, ils ne connaissent pas plus les femmes qu’ils ne savent aimer; ils croient que d’aller à la mort le lendemain les dispense d’avoir, la veille, des égards et des attentions pour nous. Autrefois, l’on savait aussi bien aimer que mourir à propos. Ma nièce, je vous le formerai. Je mettrai fin au triste désaccord, assez naturel, qui vous conduirait à vous haïr l’un et l’autre, à souhaiter un divorce, si toutefois vous n’étiez pas morte avant d’en venir au désespoir.” “Sob o reinado de nosso adorado Luís XV, uma jovem na sua situação cedo saberia punir seu marido por agir como um militarzinho destemperado¹. O egoísta! Os militares desse tirano imperial são todos uns vilães ignorantes. Confundem brutalidade com charme, são incapazes de compreender as mulheres, não sabem mais amá-las; eles crêem piamente que por terem, em média, uma vida curta, devotada ao campo de batalha, isso lhes dá licença de, antes de partirem deste mundo, ser prestativos e atenciosos. Antigamente, sabia-se tanto morrer pelo seu país quanto amar dignamente. Ah, sobrinha, eu tomarei os cuidados de formá-la! Porei fim a esse triste desacordo, tão natural, afinal, que condu-la, e ao seu marido, ao mútuo ódio e desprezo; se não ao divórcio, à morte precoce, de tanta tristeza, ou quem sabe à loucura, principalmente da fêmea, a sofredora-mor.”

¹ Escolha difícil de tradução. Lansquenet se refere, de modo geral, a três significados diferentes: 1. soldado alemão, de onde veio a palavra; 2. soldado de infantaria francês; 3. tornou-se, ainda, um jogo de azar (de cartas). O termo adquiriu ar pejorativo na França, conotando “brutalidade”, “falta de espírito”. Poderíamos dizer que um lansquenet é um mero tratante. É conhecida a rivalidade histórica entre a França e a Alemanha. Um lansquenet da época de Napoleão, para quem vive na era pós-napoleônica, sintetiza tudo de repulsivo que havia na classe militar do tempo imperial; arrogantes como o mestre das guerras Napoleão Bonaparte, seu venerado chefe militar, esta(s) geração(ões) de soldados se transformou(aram) em homens absolutamente faltos de caráter e incapazes de constituir uma família feliz nos tempos de paz. Ou seja, a tia admoesta a sobrinha: antigamente, quando havia os valores aristocratas, as mulheres saberiam maltratar um mau marido, devolver o tratamento na mesma moeda. E os maus maridos eram escassos. Hoje, que os valores estão degenerados, falta às esposas o vigor, e quase todos os maridos militares são uns pulhas insensíveis.

“– Soyez ma mère! La tante ne pleura pas, car la Révolution a laissé aux femmes de

l’ancienne monarchie peu de larmes dans les yeux.” Seja minha mãe! A tia não chorou, porque a Revolução deixou às mulheres da antiga monarquia poucas, quase nada de lágrimas nos olhos.”

Ne serait-ce pas lui donner à penser qu’il est dangereux? Et d’ailleurs pouvez-vous empêcher un homme d’aller et venir où bon lui semble? Demain nous ne mangerons plus dans cette salle; quand il ne nous y verra plus, le jeune gentilhomme discontinuera de vous aimer par la fenêtre. Voilà, ma chère enfant, comment se comporte une femme qui a l’usage du monde.

Victor, qui avait quitté l’empereur, annonçait à sa femme la chute du régime impérial, la prise de Paris, et l’enthousiasme qui éclatait en faveur des Bourbons sur tous les points de la France; mais ne sachant comment pénétrer jusqu’à Tours, il la priait de venir en toute hâte à Orléans où il espérait se trouver avec des passeports pour elle. Ce valet de chambre, ancien militaire, devait accompagner Julie de Tours à Orléans, route que Victor croyait libre encore.

Madame, vous n’avez pas un instant à perdre, dit le valet de chambre, les Prussiens, les Autrichiens et les Anglais vont faire leur jonction à Blois ou à Orléans…”

Comme la plupart des jeunes femmes réellement innocentes et sans expérience, elle voyait une faute dans un amour involontairement inspiré à un homme. Elle ressentait une terreur instinctive, que lui donnait peut-être la conscience de sa faiblesse devant une si audacieuse agression. Une des plus fortes armes de l’homme est ce pouvoir terrible d’occuper de lui-même une femme dont l’imagination naturellement mobile s’effraie ou s’offense d’une poursuite.

Cependant, au milieu des fêtes qui marquèrent le retour des Bourbons, un malheur bien profond, et qui devait influer sur sa vie, assaillit la pauvre Julie : elle perdit la comtesse de Listomère-Landon. La vieille dame mourut de joie et d’une goutte remontée au coeur, en revoyant à Tours le duc d’Angoulême. Ainsi, la personne à laquelle son âge donnait le droit d’éclairer Victor, la seule qui, par d’adroits conseils, pouvait rendre l’accord de la femme et du mari plus parfait, cette personne était morte.”

Ne se rencontre-t-il pas beaucoup d’hommes dont la nullité profonde est un secret pour la plupart des gens qui les connaissent? Un haut rang, une illustre naissance, d’importantes fonctions, un certain vernis de politesse, une grande réserve dans la conduite, ou les prestiges de la fortune sont, pour eux, comme des gardes qui empêchent les critiques de pénétrer jusqu’à leur intime existence. Ces gens ressemblent aux rois dont la véritable taille, le caractère et les moeurs ne peuvent jamais être ni bien connus ni justement appréciés, parce qu’ils sont vus de trop loin ou de trop près. Ces personnages à mérite factice interrogent au lieu de parler, ont l’art de mettre les autres en scène pour éviter de poser devant eux; puis, avec une heureuse adresse, ils tirent chacun par le fil de ses passions ou de ses intérêts, et se jouent ainsi des hommes qui leur sont réellement supérieurs, en font des marionnettes et les croient petits pour les avoir rabaissés jusqu’à eux. Ils obtiennent alors le triomphe naturel d’une pensée mesquine, mais fixe, sur la mobilité des grandes pensées. Aussi pour juger ces têtes vides, et peser leurs valeurs négatives, l’observateur doit-il posséder un esprit plus subtil que supérieur, plus de patience que de portée dans la vue, plus de finesse et de tact que d’élévation et grandeur dans les idées. Néanmoins, quelque habileté que déploient ces usurpateurs en détendant leurs côtés faibles, il leur est bien difficile de tromper leurs femmes, leurs mères, leurs enfants ou l’ami de la maison; mais ces personnes leur gardent presque toujours le secret sur une chose qui touche, en quelque sorte, à l’honneur commun; et souvent même elles les aident à en imposer au monde. (…) Songez maintenant au rôle que doit jouer une femme d’esprit et de sentiment en présence d’un mari de ce genre, n’apercevez-vous pas des existences pleines de douleurs et de dévouement dont rien ici-bas ne saurait récompenser certains coeurs pleins d’amour et de délicatesse?”

Tant que Napoléon resta debout, le comte d’Aiglemont, colonel comme tant d’autres, bon officier d’ordonnance, excellant à remplir une mission dangereuse, mais incapable d’un commandement de quelque importance n’excita nulle envie, passa pour un des braves que favorisait l’empereur, et fut ce que les militaires nomment vulgairement un bon enfant. La Restauration, qui lui rendit le titre de marquis, ne le trouva pas ingrat: il suivit les Bourbons à Gand.” itálicos: mistério dos títulos esclarecidos; conde ‘ilegítimo’ cassado pela nobreza, devolveram-lhe um biscoito, bom consolo, à meia-altura.

son instinct si délicatement féminin lui disait qu’il est bien plus beau d’obéir à un homme de talent que de conduire un sot, et qu’une jeune épouse, obligée de penser et d’agir en homme, n’est ni femme ni homme, abdique toutes les grâces de son sexe en en perdant les malheurs, et n’acquiert aucun des privilèges que nos lois ont remis aux plus forts. Son existence cachait une bien amère dérision. N’était-elle pas obligée d’honorer une idole creuse, de protéger son protecteur, pauvre être qui, pour salaire d’un dévouement continu, lui jetait l’amour égoïste des maris, ne voyait en elle que la femme, ne daignait ou ne savait pas, injure toute aussi profonde, s’inquiéter de ses plaisirs, ni d’où venaient sa tristesse et son dépérissement?”

La marquise, chargée de tous les malheurs de cette triste existence, devait sourire encore à son maître imbécile, parer de fleurs une maison de deuil, et afficher le bonheur sur un visage pâli par de secrets supplices. Cette responsabilité d’honneur, cette abnégation magnifique donnèrent insensiblement à la jeune marquise une dignité de femme, une conscience de vertu qui lui servirent de sauvegarde contre les dangers du monde. (…) elle attendit avec résignation la fin de ses peines en espérant mourir jeune.” “souffrance élégante d’ailleurs, maladie presque voluptueuse en apparence, et qui pouvait passer aux yeux des gens superficiels pour une fantaisie de petite maîtresse. Les médecins avaient condamné la marquise à rester couchée sur un divan, où elle s’étiolait au milieu des fleurs qui l’entouraient, en se fanant comme elle. Sa faiblesse lui interdisait la marche et le grand air; elle ne sortait qu’en voiture fermée. Sans cesse environnée de toutes les merveilles de notre luxe et de notre industrie modernes, elle ressemblait moins à une malade qu’à une reine indolente. Quelques amis, amoureux peut-être de son malheur et de sa faiblesse, sûrs de toujours la trouver chez elle, et spéculant sans doute aussi sur sa bonne santé future, venaient lui apporter les nouvelles et l’instruire de ces mille petits événements qui rendent à Paris l’existence si variée. Sa mélancolie, quoique grave et profonde, était donc la mélancolie de l’opulence. La marquise d’Aiglemont ressemblait à une belle fleur dont la racine est rongée par un insecte noir.”

Son mari n’aimait pas la musique. Enfin, elle se trouvait presque toujours gênée dans les salons où sa beauté lui attirait des hommages intéressés. Sa situation y excitait une sorte de compassion cruelle, une curiosité triste. Elle était atteinte d’une inflammation assez ordinairement mortelle, que les femmes se confient à l’oreille, et à laquelle notre néologie n’a pas encore su trouver de nom. Malgré le silence au sein duquel sa vie s’écoulait, la cause de sa souffrance n’était un secret pour personne. Toujours jeune fille, en dépit du mariage, les moindres regards la rendaient honteuse. Aussi, pour éviter de rougir, n’apparaissait-elle jamais que riante, gaie; elle affectait une fausse joie, se disait toujours bien portante, ou prévenait les questions sur sa santé par de pudiques mensonges. Cependant, en 1817, un événement contribua beaucoup à modifier l’état déplorable dans lequel Julie avait été plongée jusqu’alors. Elle eut une fille, et voulut la nourrir. Pendant deux années, les vives distractions et les inquiets plaisirs que donnent les soins maternels lui firent une vie moins malheureuse. Elle se sépara nécessairement de son mari. Les médecins lui pronostiquèrent une meilleure santé ; mais la marquise ne crut point à ces présages hypothétiques. Comme toutes les personnes pour lesquelles la vie n’a plus de douceur, peut-être voyait-elle dans la mort un heureux dénouement.”

Quoiqu’elle fût certaine de conserver un grand empire sur Victor et d’avoir obtenu son estime pour toujours, elle craignait l’influence des passions sur un homme si nul et si vaniteusement irréfléchi.”

Les prévoyantes paroles de son père retentissaient derechef à son oreille”

Dans le tableau que sa mémoire lui traçait du passé, la candide figure d’Arthur s’y dessinait chaque jour plus pure et plus belle, mais rapidement; car elle n’osait s’arrêter à ce souvenir. Le silencieux et timide amour du jeune Anglais était le seul événement qui, depuis le mariage, eût laissé quelques doux vestiges dans ce coeur sombre et solitaire.”

dores latentes e lactantes

À qui se serait-elle plainte? de qui pouvait-elle être entendue? Puis, elle avait cette extrême délicatesse de la femme, cette ravissante pudeur de sentiment qui consiste à taire une plainte inutile, à ne pas prendre un avantage quand le triomphe doit humilier le vainqueur et le vaincu. Julie essayait de donner sa capacité, ses propres vertus à monsieur d’Aiglemont, et se vantait de goûter le bonheur qui lui manquait. Toute sa finesse de femme était employée en pure perte à des ménagements ignorés de celui-là même dont ils perpétuaient le despotisme. Par moments, elle était ivre de malheur, sans idée, sans frein ; mais, heureusement, une piété vraie la ramenait toujours à une espérance suprême: elle se réfugiait dans la vie future, admirable croyance qui lui faisait accepter de nouveau sa tâche douloureuse. Ces combats si terribles, ces déchirements intérieurs étaient sans gloire, ces longues mélancolies étaient inconnues; nulle créature ne recueillait ses regards ternes, ses larmes amères jetées au hasard et dans la solitude.”

Quand deux époux se connaissent parfaitement et ont pris une longue habitude d’eux-mêmes, lorsqu’une femme sait interpréter les moindres gestes d’un homme et peut pénétrer les sentiments ou les choses qu’il lui cache, alors des lumières soudaines éclatent souvent après des réflexions ou des remarques précédentes, dues au hasard, ou primitivement faites avec insouciance. Une femme se réveille souvent tout à coup sur le bord ou au fond d’un abîme. Ainsi la marquise, heureuse d’être seule depuis quelques jours, devina le secret de sa solitude. Inconstant ou lassé, généreux ou plein de pitié pour elle, son mari ne lui appartenait plus. En ce moment, elle ne pensa plus à elle, ni à ses souffrances, ni à ses sacrifices; elle ne fut plus que mère, et vit la fortune, l’avenir, le bonheur de sa fille; sa fille, le seul être d’où lui vînt quelque félicité; son Hélène, seul bien qui l’attachât à la vie.”

Jusqu’alors, sûre d’être aimée par Victor, autant qu’il pouvait aimer, elle s’était dévouée à un bonheur qu’elle ne partageait pas; mais, aujourd’hui, n’ayant plus la satisfaction de savoir que ses larmes faisaient la joie de son mari, seule dans le monde, il ne lui restait plus que le choix des malheurs. Au milieu du découragement qui, dans le calme et le silence de la nuit, détendit toutes ses forces; au moment où, quittant son

divan et son feu presque éteint, elle allait, à la lueur d’une lampe, contempler sa fille d’un oeil sec, monsieur d’Aiglemont rentra plein de gaieté. Julie lui fit admirer le sommeil d’Hélène; mais il accueillit l’enthousiasme de sa femme par une phrase banale.

À cet âge, dit-il, tous les enfants sont gentils.”

Elle n’eut plus aucun remords de lui imposer une vie difficile. D’un seul bond, elle s’élança dans les froids calculs de l’indifférence. Pour sauver sa fille, elle devina tout à coup les perfidies, les mensonges des créatures qui n’aiment pas, les tromperies de la coquetterie, et ces ruses atroces qui font haïr si profondément la femme chez qui les hommes supposent alors des corruptions innées. À l’insu de Julie, sa vanité féminine, son intérêt et un vague désir de vengeance s’accordèrent avec son amour maternel pour la faire entrer dans une voie où de nouvelles douleurs l’attendaient. Mais elle avait l’âme trop belle, l’esprit trop délicat, et surtout trop de franchise pour être longtemps complice de ces fraudes. Habituée à lire en elle-même, au premier pas dans le vice, car ceci était du vice, le cri de sa conscience devait étouffer celui des passions et de l’égoïsme. En effet, chez une jeune femme dont le coeur est encore pur, et où l’amour est resté vierge, le sentiment de la maternité même est soumis à la voix de la pudeur. La pudeur n’est-elle pas toute la femme? Mais Julie ne voulut apercevoir aucun danger, aucune faute dans sa nouvelle vie. Elle vint chez madame de Sérizy. Sa rivale comptait voir une femme pâle, languissante; la marquise avait mis du rouge, et se présenta dans tout l’éclat d’une parure qui rehaussait encore sa beauté.”

Lorsque Julie se leva pour aller au piano chanter la romance de Desdémone, les hommes accoururent de tous les salons pour entendre cette célèbre voix, muette depuis si longtemps, et il se fit un profond silence. La marquise éprouva de vives émotions en voyant les têtes pressées aux portes et tous les regards attachés sur elle. Elle chercha son mari, lui lança une oeillade pleine de coquetterie, et vit avec plaisir qu’en ce moment son amour-propre était extraordinairement flatté. Heureuse de ce triomphe, elle ravit l’assemblée dans la première partie d’al piu salice. Jamais ni la Malibran, ni la Pasta n’avaient fait entendre des chants si parfaits de sentiment et d’intonation; mais, au moment de la reprise, elle regarda dans les groupes, et aperçut Arthur dont le regard fixe ne la quittait pas. Elle tressaillit vivement, et sa voix s’altéra.” “Elle lut sur le visage presque féminin du jeune anglais les pensées profondes, les mélancolies douces, les résignations douloureuses dont elle-même était la victime. Elle se reconnut en lui.”

La malade et son médecin marchaient du même pas sans être étonnés d’un accord qui paraissait avoir existé dès le premier jour où ils marchèrent ensemble, ils obéissaient à une même volonté, s’arrêtaient, impressionnés par les mêmes sensations, leurs regards, leurs paroles correspondaient à des pensées mutuelles.”

Oh! Mon Dieu, combien j’aime ce pays, répéta Julie avec un enthousiasme croissant et naïf. Vous l’avez habité longtemps ? reprit-elle après une pause.

À ces mots, lord Grenville tressaillit.

C’est là, répondit-il avec mélancolie en montrant un bouquet de noyers sur la route, là que prisonnier je vous vis pour la première fois…

Les femmes ont un inimitable talent pour exprimer leurs sentiments sans employer de trop vives paroles; leur éloquence est surtout dans l’accent, dans le geste, l’attitude et les regards. Lord Grenville se cacha la tête dans ses mains, car des larmes roulaient dans ses yeux. Ce remerciement était le premier que Julie lui fît depuis leur départ de Paris. Pendant une année entière, il avait soigné la marquise avec le dévouement le plus entier. Secondé par d’Aiglemont, il l’avait conduite aux eaux d’Aix, puis sur les bords de la mer à La Rochelle. Épiant à tout moment les changements que ses savantes et simples prescriptions produisaient sur la constitution délabrée de Julie, il l’avait cultivée comme une fleur rare peut l’être par un horticulteur passionné. La marquise avait paru recevoir les soins intelligents d’Arthur avec tout l’égoïsme d’une Parisienne habituée aux hommages, ou avec l’insouciance d’une courtisane qui ne sait ni le coût des choses ni la valeur des hommes, et les prise au degré d’utilité dont ils lui sont. L’influence exercée sur l’âme par les lieux est une chose digne de remarque. Si la mélancolie nous gagne infailliblement lorsque nous sommes au bord des eaux, une autre loi de notre nature impressible fait que, sur les montagnes, nos sentiments s’épurent: la passion y gagne en profondeur ce qu’elle paraît perdre en vivacité. L’aspect du vaste bassin de la Loire, l’élévation de la jolie colline où les deux amants s’étaient assis, causaient peut-être le calme délicieux dans lequel ils savourèrent d’abord le bonheur qu’on goûte à deviner l’étendue d’une passion cachée sous des paroles insignifiantes en apparence. Au moment où Julie achevait la phrase qui avait si vivement ému lord Grenville, une brise caressante agita la cime des arbres, répandit la fraîcheur des eaux dans l’air, quelques nuages couvrirent le soleil, et des ombres molles laissèrent voir toutes les beautés de cette jolie nature. Julie détourna la tête pour dérober au jeune lord la vue des larmes qu’elle réussit à retenir et à sécher, car l’attendrissement d’Arthur l’avait promptement gagnée. Elle n’osa lever les yeux sur lui dans la crainte qu’il ne lût trop de joie dans ce regard. Son instinct de femme lui faisait sentir qu’à cette heure dangereuse elle devait ensevelir son amour au fond de son coeur. Cependant le silence pouvait être également redoutable. En s’apercevant que lord Grenville était hors d’état de prononcer une parole, Julie reprit d’une voix douce : – Vous êtes touché de ce que je vous ai dit, milord. Peut-être cette vive expansion est-elle la manière que prend une âme gracieuse et bonne comme l’est la vôtre pour revenir sur un faux jugement. Vous m’aurez crue ingrate en me trouvant froide et réservée, ou moqueuse et insensible pendant ce voyage qui heureusement va bientôt se terminer. Je n’aurais pas été digne de recevoir vos soins, si je n’avais su les apprécier. Milord, je n’ai rien oublié. Hélas! je n’oublierai rien, ni la sollicitude qui vous faisait veiller sur moi comme une mère veille sur son enfant, ni surtout la noble confiance de nos entretiens fraternels, la délicatesse de vos procédés; séductions contre lesquelles nous sommes toutes sans armes. Milord, il est hors de mon pouvoir de vous récompenser…

À ce mot, Julie s’éloigna vivement, et lord Grenville ne fit aucun mouvement pour l’arrêter, la marquise alla sur une roche à une faible distance, et y resta immobile; leurs émotions furent un secret pour eux-mêmes; sans doute ils pleurèrent en silence ; les chants des oiseaux, si gais, si prodigues d’expressions tendres au coucher du soleil, durent augmenter la violente commotion qui les avait forcés de se séparer: la nature se chargeait de leur exprimer un amour dont ils n’osaient parler.”

L’oiseau n’oisais pas parler

J’ai plusieurs fois calculé trop habilement les moyens de tuer cet homme pour pouvoir y toujours résister, si je restais près de vous.”

Les lois du monde, reprit-elle, exigent que je lui rende l’existence heureuse, j’y obéirai; je serai sa servante; mon dévouement pour lui sera sans bornes, mais d’aujourd’hui je suis veuve. Je ne veux être une prostituée ni à mes yeux ni à ceux du monde; si je ne suis point à monsieur d’Aiglemont, je ne serai jamais à un autre. Vous n’aurez de moi que ce que vous m’avez arraché. Voilà l’arrêt que j’ai porté sur moi-même, dit-elle en regardant Arthur avec fierté. Il est irrévocable, milord. Maintenant, apprenez que si vous cédiez à une pensée criminelle, la veuve de monsieur d’Aiglemont entrerait dans un cloître, soit en Italie, soit en Espagne. Le malheur a voulu que nous ayons parlé de notre amour. Ces aveux étaient inévitables peut-être; mais que ce soit pour la dernière fois que nos coeurs aient si fortement vibré. Demain, vous feindrez de recevoir une lettre qui vous appelle en Angleterre, et nous nous quitterons pour ne plus nous revoir.”

“– Voici, certes, le plus beau site que nous ayons vu, dit-elle. Je ne l’oublierai jamais. Voyez donc, Victor, quels lointains, quelle étendue et quelle variété. Ce pays me fait concevoir l’amour.

Riant d’un rire presque convulsif, mais riant de manière à tromper son mari, elle sauta gaiement dans les chemins creux, et disparut.”

La noble et délicate conduite que lord Grenville tenait pendant ce voyage avait détruit les soupçons du marquis, et depuis quelque temps il laissait sa femme libre, en se confiant à la foi punique du lord-docteur.”

Telle femme incapable de se rappeler les événements les plus graves, se souviendra pendant toute sa vie des choses qui importent à ses sentiments. Aussi, Julie eut-elle une parfaite souvenance de détails même frivoles. Elle reconnut avec bonheur les plus légers accidents de son premier voyage, et jusqu’à des pensées qui lui étaient venues à certains endroits de la route. Victor, redevenu passionnément amoureux de sa femme depuis qu’elle avait recouvré la fraîcheur de la jeunesse et toute sa beauté, se serra près d’elle à la façon des amants. Lorsqu’il essaya de la prendre dans ses bras, elle se dégagea doucement, et trouva je ne sais quel prétexte pour éviter cette innocente caresse. Puis, bientôt, elle eut horreur du contact de Victor de qui elle sentait et partageait la chaleur, par la manière dont ils étaient assis. Elle voulut se mettre seule sur le devant de la voiture; mais son mari lui fit la grâce de la laisser au fond. Elle le remercia de cette attention par un soupir auquel il se méprit, et cet ancien séducteur de garnison, interprétant à son avantage la mélancolie de sa femme, la mit à la fin du jour dans l’obligation de lui parler avec une fermeté qui lui imposa.”

Mais qui donc oserait blâmer les femmes? Quand elles ont imposé silence au sentiment exclusif qui ne leur permet pas d’appartenir à deux hommes, ne sont-elles pas comme des prêtres sans croyance?”

* * *

Deux ans se passèrent, pendant lesquels monsieur et madame d’Aiglemont menèrent la vie des gens du monde, allant chacun de leur côté, se rencontrant dans les salons plus souvent que chez eux; élégant divorce par lequel se terminent beaucoup de mariages dans le grand monde.”

Madame de Wimphen était cette Louisa à laquelle jadis madame d’Aiglemont voulait conseiller le célibat. Les deux femmes se jetèrent un regard d’intelligence qui prouvait que Julie avait trouvé dans son amie une confidente de ses peines, confidente précieuse et charitable, car madame de Wimphen était très heureuse en mariage ; et, dans la situation opposée où elles étaient, peut-être le bonheur de l’une faisait-il une garantie de son dévouement au malheur de l’autre. En pareil cas, la dissemblance des

destinées est presque toujours un puissant lien d’amitié.”

Je suis une femme très vertueuse selon les lois: je lui rends sa maison agréable, je ferme les yeux sur ses intrigues, je ne prends rien sur sa fortune, il peut en gaspiller les revenus à son gré, j’ai soin seulement d’en conserver le capital. À ce prix, j’ai la paix. Il ne s’explique pas, ou ne veut pas s’expliquer mon existence.”

Croirais-tu, ma chère, que je lis les journaux anglais, dans le seul espoir de voir son nom imprimé.”

Ceci est un secret, répondit la marquise en laissant échapper un geste de naïveté presque enfantine. Écoute. Je prends de l’opium. L’histoire de la duchesse de…, à Londres, m’en a donné l’idée. Tu sais, Mathurin en a fait un roman. Mes gouttes de laudanum sont très faibles. Je dors. Je n’ai guère que sept heures de veille, et je les donne à ma fille…

Un mari, nous pouvons l’abandonner même quand il nous aime. Un homme est un être fort, il a des consolations. Nous pouvons mépriser les lois du monde. Mais un enfant sans mère!

Vous épousez une jolie femme, elle enlaidit; vous épousez une jeune fille pleine de santé, elle devient malingre; vous la croyez passionnée, elle est froide; ou bien, froide en apparence, elle est réellement si passionnée qu’elle vous tue ou vous déshonore. Tantôt la créature la plus douce est quinteuse, et jamais les quinteuses ne deviennent douces; tantôt, l’enfant que vous avez eue niaise et faible, déploie contre vous une volonté de fer, un esprit de démon. Je suis las du mariage.”

À propos, veux-tu venir à Saint-Thomas-d’Aquin avec moi voir l’enterrement de lord Grenville?”

Il lui était si difficile de supporter le moindre bruit que toute voix humaine, même celle de son enfant, l’affectait désagréablement. Les gens du pays s’occupèrent beaucoup de ces singularités; puis, quand toutes les suppositions possibles furent faites, ni les petites villes environnantes, ni les paysans ne songèrent plus à cette femme malade.

La marquise, laissée à elle-même, put donc rester parfaitement silencieuse au milieu du silence qu’elle avait établi autour d’elle, et n’eut aucune occasion de quitter la chambre tendue de tapisseries où mourut sa grand-mère, et où elle était venue pour y mourir doucement, sans témoins, sans importunités, sans subir les fausses démonstrations des égoïsmes fardés d’affection qui, dans les villes, donnent aux mourants une double agonie. Cette femme avait 26 ans. À cet âge, une âme encore pleine de poétiques illusions aime à savourer la mort, quand elle lui semble bienfaisante. Mais la mort a de la coquetterie pour les jeunes gens; pour eux, elle s’avance et se retire, se montre et se cache; sa lenteur les désenchante d’elle, et l’incertitude que leur cause son lendemain finit par les rejeter dans le monde où ils rencontreront la douleur, qui, plus impitoyable que ne l’est la mort, les frappera sans se laisser attendre. Or, cette femme qui se refusait à vivre allait éprouver l’amertume de ces retardements au fond de sa solitude, et y faire, dans une agonie morale que la mort ne terminerait pas, un terrible apprentissage d’égoïsme qui devait lui déflorer le coeur et le façonner au monde.

La marquise souffrait véritablement pour la première et pour la seule fois de sa vie peut-être. En effet, ne serait-ce pas une erreur de croire que les sentiments se reproduisent? Une fois éclos, n’existent-ils pas toujours au fond du coeur? Ils s’y apaisent et s’y réveillent au gré des accidents de la vie ; mais ils y restent, et leur séjour modifie nécessairement l’âme. Ainsi, tout sentiment n’aurait qu’un grand jour, le jour plus ou moins long de sa première tempête. Ainsi, la douleur, le plus constant de nos sentiments, ne serait vive qu’à sa première irruption; et ses autres atteintes iraient en s’affaiblissant, soit par notre accoutumance à ses crises, soit par une loi de notre nature qui, pour se maintenir vivante, oppose à cette force destructive une force égale mais inerte, prise dans les calculs de l’égoïsme. La perte des parents est un chagrin auquel la nature a préparé les hommes; le mal physique est passager, n’embrasse pas l’âme; et s’il persiste, ce n’est plus un mal, c’est la mort. Qu’une jeune femme perde un nouveau-né, l’amour conjugal lui a bientôt donné un successeur. Cette affliction est passagère aussi. Enfin, ces peines et beaucoup d’autres semblables sont, en quelque sorte, des coups, des blessures; mais aucune n’affecte la vitalité dans son essence, et il faut qu’elles se succèdent étrangement pour tuer le sentiment qui nous porte à chercher le bonheur. La grande, la vraie douleur serait donc un mal assez meurtrier pour étreindre à la fois le passé, le présent et l’avenir, ne laisser aucune partie de la vie dans son intégrité, dénaturer à jamais la pensée, s’inscrire inaltérablement sur les lèvres et sur le front, briser ou détendre les ressorts du plaisir, en mettant dans l’âme un principe de dégoût pour toute chose de ce monde. Encore, pour être immense, pour ainsi peser sur l’âme et sur le corps, ce mal devrait arriver en un moment de la vie où toutes les forces de l’âme et du corps sont jeunes, et foudroyer un coeur bien vivant.”

O TRISTE CREPÚSCULO DA DOR DE VIVER

Os novos sofrimentos são apenas lembranças dos dias concretamente pungentes. Vivo apenas na nostalgia de euforias e lutos já para mim perdidos, em perpétuo déjà vu à l’écran. Ainda que seja uma tela que dá para a alma, não passa de uma tela, de um sofrimento mediado no tempo e no espaço, indireto. Reflexo do reflexo do reflexo da coisa em si, paredes de espelhos infinitos sem quinas nem esquinas nem inclinações, perfeitamente paralelos e reluzentes. Mas é um corredor particular, cerrado ao público.

et nul être ne peut sortir de cette maladie sans quelque poétique changement : ou il prend la route du ciel, ou, s’il demeure ici-bas, il rentre dans le monde pour mentir au monde, pour y jouer un rôle; il connaît dès lors la coulisse où l’on se retire pour calculer, pleurer, plaisanter. Après cette crise solennelle, il n’existe plus de mystères dans la vie sociale qui dès lors est irrévocablement jugée. Chez les jeunes femmes qui ont l’âge de la marquise, cette première, cette plus poignante de toutes les douleurs, est toujours causée par le même fait. La femme et surtout la jeune femme, aussi grande par l’âme qu’elle l’est par la beauté, ne manque jamais à mettre sa vie là où la nature, le sentiment et la société la poussent à la jeter tout entière. Si cette vie vient à lui faillir et si elle reste sur terre, elle y expérimente les plus cruelles souffrances, par la raison qui rend le premier amour le plus beau de tous les sentiments. Pourquoi ce malheur n’a-t-il jamais eu ni peintre ni poète? Mais peut-il se peindre, peut-il se chanter? Non, la nature des douleurs qu’il engendre se refuse à l’analyse et aux couleurs de l’art. D’ailleurs, ces souffrances ne sont jamais confiées: pour en consoler une femme, il faut savoir les deviner; car, toujours amèrement embrassées et religieusement ressenties, elles demeurent dans l’âme comme une avalanche qui, en tombant dans une vallée, y dégrade tout avant de s’y faire une place.”

Un homme aimé, jeune et généreux, de qui elle n’avait jamais exaucé les désirs afin d’obéir aux lois du monde, était mort pour lui sauver ce que la société nomme l’honneur d’une femme.”

Non, cette pauvre affligée ne pouvait pleurer à son aise que dans un désert, y dévorer sa souffrance ou être dévorée par elle, mourir ou tuer quelque chose en elle, sa conscience peut-être.”

Il y avait en elle une femme qui raisonnait et une femme qui sentait, une femme qui souffrait et une femme qui ne voulait plus souffrir. Elle se reportait aux joies de son enfance, écoulée sans qu’elle en eût senti le bonheur, et dont les limpides images revenaient en foule comme pour lui accuser les déceptions d’un mariage convenable aux yeux du monde, horrible en réalité. À quoi lui avaient servi les belles pudeurs de sa jeunesse, ses plaisirs réprimés et les sacrifices faits au monde?”

Sa beauté même lui était insupportable, comme une chose inutile. Elle entrevoyait avec horreur que désormais elle ne pouvait plus être une créature complète.”

Neuf neuves

Après l’enfance de la créature vient l’enfance du coeur. Or, son amant avait emporté dans la tombe cette seconde enfance. Jeune encore par ses désirs, elle n’avait plus cette entière jeunesse d’âme qui donne à tout dans la vie sa valeur et sa saveur.”

Puis, en soulevant toutes les questions, en remuant tous les ressorts des différentes existences que nous donnent les natures sociale, morale et physique, elle relâchait si bien les forces de l’âme, qu’au milieu des réflexions les plus contradictoires elle ne pouvait rien saisir. Aussi parfois, quand le brouillard tombait, ouvrait-elle sa fenêtre, en y restant sans pensée, occupée à respirer machinalement l’odeur humide et terreuse épandue dans les airs, debout, immobile, idiote en apparence, car les bourdonnements [murmúrios] de sa douleur la rendaient également sourde aux harmonies de la nature et aux charmes de la pensée.”

La marquise avait perdu sa mère en bas âge, et son éducation fut naturellement influencée par le relâchement qui, pendant la révolution, dénoua les liens religieux en France. La piété est une vertu de femme que les femmes seules se transmettent bien, et la marquise était un enfant du dix-huitième siècle dont les croyances philosophiques furent celles de son père. Elle ne suivait aucune pratique religieuse. Pour elle, un prêtre était un fonctionnaire public dont l’utilité lui paraissait contestable. Dans la situation où elle trouvait, la voix de la religion ne pouvait qu’envenimer ses maux; puis, elle ne croyait guère aux curés de village, ni à leurs lumières, elle résolut donc de mettre le sien à sa place, sans aigreur, et de s’en débarrasser à la manière des riches, par un bienfait. Le curé vint, et son aspect ne changea pas les idées de la marquise. Elle vit un gros petit homme à ventre saillant, à figure rougeaude, mais vieille et ridée, qui affectait de sourire et qui souriait mal; son crâne chauve et transversalement sillonné de rides nombreuses retombait en quart de cercle sur son visage et le rapetissait; quelques cheveux blancs garnissaient le bas de la tête au-dessus de la nuque et revenaient en avant vers les oreilles. Néanmoins, la physionomie de ce prêtre avait été celle d’un homme naturellement gai. Ses grosses lèvres, son nez légèrement retroussé, son menton, qui disparaissait dans un double pli de rides, témoignaient d’un heureux caractère. La marquise n’aperçut d’abord que ces traits principaux; mais, à la première parole que lui dit le prêtre, elle fut frappée par la douceur de cette voix; elle le regarda plus attentivement, et remarqua sous ses sourcils grisonnants des yeux qui avaient pleuré; puis le contour de sa joue, vue de profil, donnait à sa tête une si auguste expression de douleur, que la marquise trouva un homme dans ce curé.”

Nous périssons moins par les effets d’un regret certain que par ceux des espérances trompées. J’ai connu de plus intolérables, de plus terribles douleurs qui n’ont pas donné la mort.”

Puis elle éprouva cette espèce de satisfaction qui réjouit le prisonnier quand, après avoir reconnu la profondeur de sa solitude et la pesanteur de ses chaînes, il rencontre un voisin qui frappe à la muraille en lui faisant rendre un son par lequel s’expriment des pensées communes.”

Le mariage, institution sur laquelle s’appuie aujourd’hui la société, nous en fait sentir à nous seules tout le poids: pour l’homme la liberté, pour la femme des devoirs. Nous vous devons toute notre vie, vous ne nous devez de la vôtre que de rares instants. Enfin l’homme fait un choix là où nous nous soumettons aveuglément. Oh! monsieur, à vous je puis tout dire. Hé bien, le mariage, tel qu’il se pratique aujourd’hui, me semble être une prostitution légale. De là sont nées mes souffrances. Mais moi seule parmi les malheureuses créatures si fatalement accouplées je dois garder le silence! moi seule suis l’auteur du mal, j’ai voulu mon mariage.”

Monsieur, rien de rien ou rien pour rien est une des plus justes lois de la nature et morale et physique.” “Il existe deux maternités, monsieur. J’ignorais jadis de telles distinctions; aujourd’hui je les sais. Je ne suis mère qu’à moitié, mieux vaudrait ne pas l’être du tout. Hélène n’est pas de lui! Oh! ne frémissez pas! Saint-Lange est un abîme où se sont engloutis bien des sentiments faux, d’où se sont lancées de sinistres lueurs, où se sont écroulés les frêles édifices des lois antinaturelles. J’ai un enfant, cela suffit; je suis mère, ainsi le veut la loi. (…) S’il ne tient pas à toutes les fibres du corps comme à toutes les tendresses du coeur; s’il ne rappelle pas de délicieuses amours, les temps, les lieux où ces deux êtres furent heureux, et leur langage plein de musiques humaines, et leurs suaves idées, cet enfant est une création manquée. Oui, pour eux, il doit être une ravissante miniature où se retrouvent les poèmes de leur double vie secrète; il doit leur offrir une source d’émotions fécondes, être à la fois tout leur passé, tout leur avenir. Ma pauvre petite Hélène est l’enfant de son père, l’enfant du devoir et du hasard”

l’amour m’a fait rêver une maternité plus grande, plus complète. J’ai caressé dans un songe évanoui l’enfant que les désirs ont conçu avant qu’il ne fût engendré, enfin cette délicieuse fleur née dans l’âme avant de naître au jour.”

Pour moi le jour est plein de ténèbres, la pensée est un glaive, mon coeur est une plaie, mon enfant est une négation. Oui, quand Hélène me parle, je lui voudrais une autre voix; quand elle me regarde, je lui voudrais d’autres yeux. Elle est là pour m’attester tout ce qui devrait être et tout ce qui n’est pas. Elle m’est insupportable! Je lui souris, je tâche de la dédommager des sentiments que je lui vole. Je souffre! oh! monsieur, je souffre trop pour pouvoir vivre. Et je passerai pour être une femme vertueuse! Et je n’ai pas commis de fautes! Et l’on m’honorera! J’ai combattu l’amour involontaire auquel je ne devais pas céder; mais, si j’ai gardé ma foi physique, ai-je conservé mon coeur? Ceci, dit-elle en appuyant la main droite sur son sein, n’a jamais été qu’à une seule créature. (…) Parfois je tremble de trouver en elle un tribunal où je serai condamnée sans être entendue. Fasse le ciel que la haine ne se mette pas un jour entre nous! Grand Dieu! ouvrez-moi plutôt la tombe, laissez-moi finir à Saint-Lange! Je veux aller dans le monde où je retrouverai mon autre âme, où je serai tout à fait mère! oh ! pardon, monsieur, je suis folle. Ces paroles m’étouffaient, je les ai dites. Ah! vous pleurez aussi! vous ne me mépriserez pas. – Hélène ! Hélène ! ma fille, viens! s’écria-t-elle avec une sorte de désespoir en entendant son enfant qui revenait de sa promenade.”

Le sourire est l’apanage, la langue, l’expression de la maternité. La marquise ne pouvait pas sourire. Elle rougit en regardant le prêtre: elle avait espéré se montrer mère, mais ni elle ni son enfant n’avaient su mentir. En effet, les baisers d’une femme sincère ont un miel divin qui semble mettre dans cette caresse une âme, un feu subtil par lequel le coeur est pénétré. Les baisers dénués de cette onction savoureuse sont âpres et secs. Le prêtre avait senti cette différence: il put sonder l’abîme qui se trouve entre la maternité de la chair et la maternité du coeur.”

Mon corps a été lâche quand mon âme était forte, et quand ma main ne tremblait plus, mon âme vacillait! J’ignore le secret de ces combats et de ces alternatives. Je suis sans doute bien tristement femme, sans persistance dans mes vouloirs, forte seulement pour aimer. Je me méprise! Le soir, quand mes gens dormaient, j’allais à la pièce d’eau courageusement; arrivée au bord, ma frêle nature avait horreur de la destruction. Je vous confesse mes faiblesses. Lorsque je me retrouvais au lit, j’avais honte de moi, je redevenais courageuse. Dans un de ces moments j’ai pris du laudanum; mais j’ai souffert et ne suis pas morte. J’avais cru boire tout ce que contenait le flacon et je m’étais arrêtée à moitié.”

Quel sera le sort d’Hélène? le mien sans doute. Quels moyens ont les mères d’assurer à leurs filles que l’homme auquel elles les livrent sera un époux selon leur coeur? Vous honnissez de pauvres créatures qui se vendent pour quelques écus à un homme qui passe, la faim et le besoin absolvent ces unions éphémères; tandis que la société tolère, encourage l’union immédiate bien autrement horrible d’une jeune fille candide et d’un homme qu’elle n’a pas vu trois mois durant; elle est vendue pour toute sa vie. Il est vrai que le prix est élevé! Si en ne lui permettant aucune compensation à ses douleurs vous l’honoriez; mais non, le monde calomnie les plus vertueuses d’entre nous! Telle est notre destinée, vue sous ses deux faces: une prostitution publique et la honte, une prostitution secrète et le malheur. Quant aux pauvres filles sans dot, elles deviennent folles, elles meurent; pour elles aucune pitié ! La beauté, les vertus ne sont pas des valeurs dans votre bazar humain et vous nommez Société ce repaire d’égoïsme. Mais exhérédez les femmes! au moins accomplirezvous ainsi une loi de nature en choisissant vos compagnes en les épousant au gré des voeux du coeur.”

Le philosophisme et l’intérêt personnel ont attaqué votre coeur; vous êtes sourde à la voix de la religion comme le sont les enfants de ce siècle sans croyance! Les plaisirs du monde n’engendrent que des souffrances. Vous allez changer de douleurs voilà tout.

Je ferai mentir votre prophétie, dit-elle en souriant avec amertume, je serai fidèle à celui qui mourut pour moi.

La douleur, répondit-il, n’est viable que dans les âmes préparées par la religion.”

* * *

Quatre ans après…

les jouissances de Paris, à cette vie rapide, à ce tourbillon de pensées et de plaisirs que l’on calomnie assez souvent, mais auquel il est si doux de s’abandonner. Habitué depuis trois ans à saluer les capitales européennes, et à les déserter au gré des caprices de sa destinée diplomatique, Charles de Vandenesse avait cependant peu de chose à regretter en quittant Paris. Les femmes ne produisaient plus aucune impression sur lui, soit qu’il regardât une passion vraie comme tenant trop de place dans la vie d’un homme politique, soit que les mesquines occupations d’une galanterie superficielle lui parussent trop vides pour une âme forte. Nous avons tous de grandes prétentions à la force d’âme. En France, nul homme, fût-il médiocre, ne consent à passer pour simplement spirituel. Ainsi, Charles, quoique jeune (à peine avait-il trente ans), s’était déjà philosophiquement accoutumé à voir des idées, des résultats, des moyens, là où les hommes de son âge aperçoivent des sentiments, des plaisirs et des illusions. Il refoulait la chaleur et l’exaltation naturelle aux jeunes gens dans les profondeurs de son âme que la nature avait créée généreuse. Il travaillait à se faire froid, calculateur; à mettre en manières, en formes aimables, en artifices de séduction, les richesses morales qu’il tenait du hasard; véritable tâche d’ambitieux; rôle triste, entrepris dans le but d’atteindre à ce que nous nommons aujourd’hui une belle position. Il jetait un dernier coup d’oeil sur les salons où l’on dansait. Avant de quitter le bal, il voulait sans doute en emporter l’image, comme un spectateur ne sort pas de sa loge à l’opéra sans regarder le tableau final. Mais aussi, par une fantaisie facile à comprendre, monsieur de Vandenesse étudiait l’action tout française, l’éclat et les riantes figures de cette fête parisienne, en les rapprochant par la pensée des physionomies nouvelles, des scènes pittoresques qui l’attendaient à Naples, où il se proposait de passer quelques jours avant de se rendre à son poste. Il semblait comparer la France si changeante et sitôt étudiée à un pays dont les moeurs et les sites ne lui étaient connus que par des ouï-dires contradictoires, ou par des livres, mal faits pour la plupart. Quelques réflexions assez poétiques, mais devenues aujourd’hui très vulgaires, lui passèrent alors par la tête, et répondirent, à son insu peut-être, aux voeux secrets de son coeur, plus exigeant que blasé, plus inoccupé que flétri.

Voici, se disait-il, les femmes les plus élégantes, les plus riches, les plus titrées de Paris. Ici sont les célébrités du jour, renommées de tribune, renommées aristocratiques et littéraires: là, des artistes; là, des hommes de pouvoir. Et cependant je ne vois que de petites intrigues, des amours mort-nés, des sourires qui ne disent rien, des dédains sans cause, des regards sans flamme, beaucoup d’esprit, mais prodigué sans but. Tous ces visages blancs et roses cherchent moins le plaisir que des distractions. Nulle émotion n’est vraie. Si vous voulez seulement des plumes bien posées, des gazes fraîches, de jolies toilettes, des femmes frêles; si pour vous la vie n’est qu’une surface à effleurer, voici votre monde. Contentez-vous de ces phrases insignifiantes, de ces ravissantes grimaces, et ne demandez pas un sentiment dans les coeurs. Pour moi, j’ai horreur de ces plates intrigues qui finiront par des mariages, des sous-préfectures, des recettes générales, ou, s’il s’agit d’amour, par des arrangements secrets, tant l’on a honte d’un semblant de passion. Je ne vois pas un seul de ces visages éloquents qui vous annonce une âme abandonnée à une idée comme à un remords. Ici, le regret ou le malheur se cachent honteusement sous des plaisanteries. Je n’aperçois aucune de ces femmes avec lesquelles j’aimerais à lutter, et qui vous entraînent dans un abîme. Où trouver de l’énergie à Paris? Un poignard est une curiosité que l’on y suspend à un clou doré, que l’on pare d’une jolie gaine. Femmes, idées, sentiments, tout se ressemble. Il n’y existe plus de passions, parce que les individualités ont disparu. Les rangs, les esprits, les fortunes ont été nivelés, et nous avons tous pris l’habit noir comme pour nous mettre en deuil de la France morte. Nous n’aimons pas nos égaux. Entre deux amants, il faut des différences à effacer, des distances à combler. Ce charme de l’amour s’est évanoui en 1789! Notre ennui, nos moeurs fades sont le résultat du système politique. Au moins, en Italie, tout y est tranché. Les femmes y sont encore des animaux malfaisants, des sirènes dangereuses, sans raison, sans logique autre que celle de leurs goûts, de leurs appétits, et desquelles il faut se défier comme on se défie des tigres…”

Le mérite d’une rêverie est tout entier dans son vague, n’est-elle pas une sorte de vapeur intellectuelle?”

Une femme de qui vous vous êtes, certes, entretenu plus d’une fois pour la louer ou pour en médire, une femme qui vit dans la solitude, un vrai mystère.

Si vous avez jamais été clémente dans votre vie, de grâce, dites-moi son nom?

La marquise d’Aiglemont.

Je vais aller prendre des leçons près d’elle: elle a su faire d’un mari bien médiocre un pair de France, d’un homme nul une capacité politique. Mais, dites-moi, croyez-vous que lord Grenville soit mort pour elle, comme quelques femmes l’ont prétendu?

Peut-être.

C’est quelque chose, à Paris, qu’une constance de quatre ans.”

Quatro anos sem trair o marido em plena Paris é um feito e tanto.”

Charles resta pendant un moment immobile, le dos légèrement appuyé sur le chambranle de la porte, et tout occupé à examiner une femme devenue célèbre sans que personne pût rendre compte des motifs sur lesquels se fondait sa renommée. Le monde offre beaucoup de ces anomalies curieuses. La réputation de madame d’Aiglemont n’était pas, certes, plus extraordinaire que celle de certains hommes toujours en travail d’une oeuvre inconnue: statisticiens tenus pour profonds sur la foi de calculs qu’ils se gardent bien de publier; politiques qui vivent sur un article de journal; auteurs ou artistes dont l’oeuvre reste toujours en portefeuille; gens savants avec ceux qui ne connaissent rien à la science, comme Sganarelle est latiniste avec ceux qui ne savent pas le latin; hommes auxquels on accorde une capacité convenue sur un point, soit la direction des arts, soit une mission importante. Cet admirable mot: c’est une spécialité, semble avoir été créé pour ces espèces d’acéphales politiques ou littéraires. Charles demeura plus longtemps en contemplation qu’il ne le voulait, et fut mécontent d’être si fortement préoccupé par une femme; mais aussi la présence de cette femme réfutait les pensées qu’un instant auparavant le jeune diplomate avait conçues à l’aspect du bal.”

MULHER CENTRÍPETA

centopéia

fugaz

tout homme supérieur se sentait-il curieusement attiré vers cette femme douce et silencieuse. Si l’esprit cherchait à deviner les mystères de la perpétuelle réaction qui se faisait en elle du présent vers le passé, du monde à sa solitude, l’âme n’était pas moins intéressée à s’initier aux secrets d’un coeur en quelque sorte orgueilleux de ses souffrances. En elle, rien d’ailleurs ne démentait les idées qu’elle inspirait tout d’abord. Comme presque toutes les femmes qui ont de très longs cheveux, elle était pâle et parfaitement blanche.”

ces sortes de cous sont les plus gracieux, et donnent aux têtes de femmes de vagues affinités avec les magnétiques ondulations du serpent. S’il n’existait pas un seul des mille indices par lesquels les caractères les plus dissimulés se révèlent à l’observateur, il lui suffirait d’examiner attentivement les gestes de la tête et les torsions du cou, si variées, si expressives, pour juger une femme. Chez madame d’Aiglemont, la mise était en harmonie avec la pensée qui dominait sa personne.”

À un certain âge seulement, certaines femmes choisies savent seules donner un langage à leur attitude. Est-ce le chagrin, est-ce le bonheur qui prête à la femme de trente ans, à la femme heureuse ou malheureuse, le secret de cette contenance éloquente? Ce sera toujours une vivante énigme que chacun interprète au gré de ses désirs, de ses espérances ou de son système.”

l’insouciance de sa pose, ses mouvements pleins de lassitude, tout révélait une femme sans intérêt dans la vie, qui n’a point connu les plaisirs de l’amour (…) une femme inoccupée qui prend le vide pour le néant.”

vocação: vazio:

voto: de silêncio

em branco

paz

silêncio

branco chiado

O que eu não obtive não existe!

Ass: Napoleão,

que nega a Europa.

NA VELOCIDADE DA MEDULA ESPINHAL (OU DE UM METEORO SENTIMENTAL): “Une conversation s’établit alors entre la marquise et le jeune homme, qui, suivant l’usage, abordèrent en un moment une multitude de sujets: la peinture, la musique, la littérature, la politique, les hommes, les événements et les choses. Puis ils arrivèrent par une pente insensible au sujet éternel des causeries françaises et étrangères, à l’amour, aux sentiments et aux femmes.

Nous sommes esclaves.

Vous êtes reines.

Les phrases plus ou moins spirituelles dites par Charles et la marquise pouvaient se réduire à cette simple expression de tous les discours présents et à venir tenus sur cette matière. Ces deux phrases ne voudront-elles pas toujours dire dans un temps donné : – Aimez-moi. – Je vous aimerai.”

Il existe des pensées auxquelles nous obéissons sans les connaître: elles sont en nous à notre insu. Quoique cette réflexion puisse paraître plus paradoxale que vraie, chaque

personne de bonne foi en trouvera mille preuves dans sa vie. En se rendant chez la marquise, Charles obéissait à l’un de ces textes préexistants dont notre expérience et les conquêtes de notre esprit ne sont, plus tard, que les développements sensibles.”

L’une [la jeune femme] cède, l’autre choisit.”

en se donnant, la femme expérimentée semble donner plus qu’elle-même”

Pour qu’une jeune fille soit la maîtresse, elle doit être trop corrompue, et on l’abandonne alors avec horreur; tandis qu’une femme a mille moyens de conserver tout à la fois son pouvoir et sa dignité. L’une, trop soumise, vous offre les tristes sécurités du repos; l’autre perd trop pour ne pas demander à l’amour ses mille métamorphoses. L’une se déshonore toute seule, l’autre tue à votre profit une famille

entière. La jeune fille n’a qu’une coquetterie, et croit avoir tout dit quand elle a quitté son vêtement; mais la femme en a d’innombrables et se cache sous mille voiles; enfin elle caresse toutes les vanités, et la novice n’en flatte qu’une. Il s’émeut d’ailleurs des indécisions, des terreurs, des craintes, des troubles et des orages chez la femme de trente ans, qui ne se rencontrent jamais dans l’amour d’une jeune fille. Arrivée à cet âge, la femme demande à un jeune homme de lui restituer l’estime qu’elle lui a sacrifiée; elle ne vit que pour lui, s’occupe de son avenir, lui veut une belle vie, la lui ordonne glorieuse; elle obéit, elle prie et commande, s’abaisse et s’élève, et sait consoler en mille occasions, où la jeune fille ne sait que gémir. Enfin, outre tous les avantages de sa position, la femme de trente ans peut se faire jeune fille, jouer tous les rôles, être pudique, et s’embellir même d’un malheur. Entre elles deux se trouve l’incommensurable différence du prévu à l’imprévu, de la force à la faiblesse.”

La sainteté des femmes est inconciliable avec les devoirs et les libertés du monde. Émanciper les femmes, c’est les corrompre. En accordant à un étranger le droit d’entrer dans le sanctuaire du ménage, n’est-ce pas se mettre à sa merci? mais qu’une femme l’y attire, n’est-ce pas une faute, ou, pour être exact, le commencement d’une faute? Il faut accepter cette théorie dans toute sa rigueur, ou absoudre les passions. Jusqu’à présent, en France, la Société a su prendre un mezzo termine: elle se moque des malheurs. Comme les Spartiates qui ne punissaient que la maladresse, elle semble admettre le vol. Mais peut-être ce système est-il très sage. Le mépris général constitue le plus affreux de tous les châtiments, en ce qu’il atteint la femme au coeur.” “La plus corrompue d’entre elles exige, même avant tout, une absolution pour le passé, en vendant son avenir, et tâche de faire comprendre à son amant qu’elle échange contre d’irrésistibles félicités, les honneurs que le monde lui refusera.”

Brunne marquise-né

Mais la marquise prit bientôt cet air affectueux, sous lequel les femmes s’abritent contre les interprétations de la vanité.”

Les femmes se tiennent alors aussi longtemps qu’elles le veulent dans cette position équivoque, comme dans un carrefour qui mène également au respect, à l’indifférence, à l’étonnement ou à la passion. À trente ans seulement une femme peut connaître les ressources de cette situation. Elle y sait rire, plaisanter, s’attendrir sans se compromettre. Elle possède alors le tact nécessaire pour attaquer chez un homme toutes les cordes sensibles, et pour étudier les sons qu’elle en tire. Son silence est aussi dangereux que sa parole. Vous ne devinez jamais si, à cet âge, elle est franche ou fausse, si elle se moque ou si elle est de bonne foi dans ses aveux. Après vous avoir donné le droit de lutter avec elle, tout à coup, par un mot, par un regard, par un de ces gestes dont la puissance leur est connue, elles ferment le combat, vous abandonnent, et restent maîtresses de votre secret, libres de vous immoler par une plaisanterie, libres de s’occuper de vous, également protégées par leur faiblesse et par votre force. Quoique la marquise se plaçât, pendant cette première visite, sur ce terrain neutre, elle sut y conserver une haute dignité de femme. Ses douleurs secrètes planèrent toujours sur sa gaieté factice comme un léger nuage qui dérobe imparfaitement le soleil. Vandenesse sortit après avoir éprouvé dans cette conversation des délices inconnus; mais il demeura convaincu que la marquise était de ces femmes dont la conquête coûte trop cher pour qu’on puisse entreprendre de les aimer.”

En France l’amour-propre mène à la passion. Charles revint chez madame d’Aiglemont et crut s’apercevoir qu’elle prenait plaisir à sa conversation. Au lieu de se livrer avec naïveté au bonheur d’aimer, il voulut alors jouer un double rôle. Il essaya de paraître passionné, puis d’analyser froidement la marche de cette intrigue, d’être amant et diplomate; mais il était généreux et jeune, cet examen devait le conduire à un amour sans bornes; car, artificieuse ou naturelle, la marquise était toujours plus forte que lui. Chaque fois qu’il sortait de chez madame d’Aiglemont, Charles persistait dans sa méfiance et soumettait les situations progressives par lesquelles passait son âme à une sévère analyse, qui tuait ses propres émotions.

Or, je ne suis ni son frère ni son confesseur, pourquoi m’a-t-elle confié ses chagrins? Elle m’aime.”

L’amour prend la couleur de chaque siècle. En 1822 il est doctrinaire. Au lieu de se prouver, comme jadis, par des faits, on le discute, on le disserte, on le met en discours de tribune. Les femmes en sont réduites à trois moyens: d’abord elles mettent en question notre passion, nous refusent le pouvoir d’aimer autant qu’elles aiment. Coquetterie! véritable défi que la marquise m’a porté ce soir. Puis elles se font très malheureuses pour exciter nos générosités naturelles ou notre amour-propre. Un jeune homme n’est-il pas flatté de consoler une grande infortune? Enfin elles ont la manie de la virginité! Elle a dû penser que je la croyais toute neuve. Ma bonne foi peut devenir une excellente spéculation.

elle vivait dans une solitude profonde, et dévorait en silence des chagrins qu’elle laissait à peine deviner par l’accent plus ou moins contraint d’une interjection. Dès ce moment Charles prit un vif intérêt à madame d’Aiglemont. Cependant, en venant à un rendez-vous habituel qui leur était devenu nécessaire l’un à l’autre, heure réservée par un mutuel instinct, Vandenesse trouvait encore sa maîtresse plus habile que vraie, et sondernier mot était : – Décidément, cette femme est très adroite. Il entra, vit la marquise dans son attitude favorite, attitude pleine de mélancolie; elle leva les yeux sur lui sans faire un mouvement, et lui jeta un de ces regards pleins qui ressemblent à un sourire. Madame d’Aiglemont exprimait une confiance, une amitié vraie, mais point d’amour. Charles s’assit et ne put rien dire. Il était ému par une de ces sensations pour lesquelles il manque un langage.

Qu’avez-vous? lui dit-elle d’un son de voix attendrie.”

elle n’imaginait pas que le bonheur pût apporter deux fois à une femme ses enivrements, car elle ne croyait pas seulement à l’esprit, mais à l’âme, et, pour elle, l’amour n’était pas une séduction, il comportait toutes les séductions nobles. En ce moment Charles redevint jeune homme, il fut subjugué par l’éclat d’un si grand caractère, et voulut être initié dans tous les secrets de cette existence flétrie par le hasard plus que par une faute.”

Si je n’ai pas su mourir, je dois être au moins fidèle à mes souvenirs.”

les larmes d’un deuil de trois ans fascinèrent Vandenesse qui resta silencieux et petit devant cette grande et noble femme: il n’en voyait plus les beautés matérielles si exquises, si achevées, mais l’âme si éminemment sensible. Il rencontrait enfin cet être idéal si fantastiquement rêvé, si vigoureusement appelé par tous ceux qui mettent la vie dans une passion, la cherchent avec ardeur, et souvent meurent sans avoir pu jouir de tous ses trésors rêvés.”

Raisonner là où il faut sentir est le propre des âmes sans portée.”

à ce bel âge de trente ans, sommité poétique de la vie des femmes, elles peuvent en embrasser tout le cours et voir aussi bien dans le passé que dans l’avenir. Les femmes connaissent alors tout le prix de l’amour et en jouissent avec la crainte de le perdre: alors leur âme est encore belle de la jeunesse qui les abandonne, et leur passion va se renforçant toujours d’un avenir qui les effraie.”

Cette triste réflexion, due au découragement et à la crainte de ne pas réussir, par lesquels commencent toutes les passions vraies, fut le dernier calcul de sa diplomatie expirante. Dès lors il n’eut plus d’arrière-pensées, devint le jouet de son amour et se perdit dans les riens de ce bonheur inexplicable qui se repaît d’un mot, d’un silence, d’un vague espoir. Il voulut aimer platoniquement, vint tous les jours respirer l’air que respirait madame d’Aiglemont, s’incrusta presque dans sa maison et l’accompagna partout avec la tyrannie d’une passion qui mêle son égoïsme au dévouement le plus absolu. L’amour a son instinct, il sait trouver le chemin du coeur comme le plus faible insecte marche à sa fleur avec une irrésistible volonté qui ne s’épouvante de rien. Aussi, quand un sentiment est vrai, sa destinée n’est-elle pas douteuse.”

Or, il est impossible à une femme, à une épouse, à une mère, de se préserver contre l’amour d’un jeune homme ; la seule chose qui soit en sa puissance est de ne pas continuer à le voir au moment où elle devine ce secret du coeur qu’une femme devine toujours. Mais ce parti semble trop décisif pour qu’une femme puisse le prendre à un âge où le mariage pèse, ennuie et lasse, où l’affection conjugale est plus que tiède, si déjà même son mari ne l’a pas abandonnée. Laides, les femmes sont flattées par un amour qui les fait belles; jeunes et charmantes, la séduction doit être à la hauteur de leurs séductions, elle est immense; vertueuses, un sentiment terrestrement sublime les porte à trouver je ne sais quelle absolution dans la grandeur même des sacrifices qu’elles font à leur amant et de la gloire dans cette lutte difficile. Tout est piège. Aussi nulle leçon n’est-elle trop forte pour de si fortes tentations. La réclusion ordonnée autrefois à la femme en Grèce, en orient, et qui devient de mode en Angleterre, est la seule sauvegarde de la morale domestique; mais, sous l’empire de ce système, les agréments du monde périssent: ni la société, ni la politesse, ni l’élégance des moeurs ne sont alors possibles. Les nations devront choisir.”

Não há sociedade, não há etiqueta, não há modos, não há chifres.

Avait-elle pris les idées de Vandenesse, ou Vandenesse avait-il épousé ses moindres caprices? elle n’examina rien. Déjà saisie par le courant de la passion, cette adorable femme se dit avec la fausse bonne foi de la peur: – Oh! non! je serai fidèle à celui qui mourut pour moi.”

Pascal a dit: Douter de Dieu, c’est y croire. De même, une femme ne se débat que quand elle est prise. Le jour où la marquise s’avoua qu’elle était aimée, il lui arriva de flotter entre mille sentiments contraires. Les superstitions de l’expérience parlèrent leur langage. Serait-elle heureuse? pourrait-elle trouver le bonheur en dehors des lois dont la Société fait, à tort ou à raison, sa morale? Jusqu’alors la vie ne lui avait versé que de l’amertume. Y avait-il un heureux dénouement possible aux liens qui unissent deux êtres séparés par des convenances sociales? Mais aussi le bonheur se paie-t-il jamais trop cher? Puis ce bonheur si ardemment voulu, et qu’il est si naturel de chercher, peut-être le rencontrerait-elle enfin! La curiosité plaide toujours la cause des amants. Au milieu de cette discussion secrète, Vandenesse arriva. Sa présence fit évanouir le fantôme métaphysique de la raison. Si telles sont les transformations successives par lesquelles passe un sentiment même rapide chez un jeune homme et chez une femme de trente ans, il est un moment où les nuances se fondent, où les raisonnements s’abolissent en un seul, en une dernière réflexion qui se confond dans un désir et qui le corrobore. Plus la résistance a été longue, plus puissante alors est la voix de l’amour.”

A curiosidade sempre ajuda a causa dos amantes.

Je suis déjà vieille, dit-elle, rien ne m’excuserait donc de ne pas continuer à souffrir comme par le passé. D’ailleurs il faut aimer, dites-vous? Eh! bien, je ne le dois ni ne le puis. Hors vous, dont l’amitié jette quelques douceurs sur ma vie, personne ne me plaît, personne ne saurait effacer mes souvenirs. J’accepte un ami, je fuirais un amant.

Ces paroles, empreintes d’une horrible coquetterie, étaient le dernier effort de la sagesse.

S’il se décourage, eh! bien, je resterai seule et fidèle. Cette pensée vint au coeur de cette femme, et fut pour elle ce qu’est la branche de saule trop faible que saisit un nageur avant d’être emporté par le courant.”

…Essas palavras, impregnadas de um charme horrendo, foram o esforço final da sabedoria.

– Bem, se ele se desencoraja agora, seguirei, como sempre, solitária e fiel! Esse foi o pensamento que iluminou o coração dessa mulher, comparável a um nadador na forte correnteza, que agarra inutilmente um galho fraco, sem poder se prender ao próprio tronco, na iminência da perdição.”

La passion fait un progrès énorme chez une femme au moment où elle croit avoir agi peu généreusement, ou avoir blessé quelque âme noble. Jamais il ne faut se défier des sentiments mauvais en amour, ils sont très salutaires, les femmes ne succombent que sous le coup d’une vertu. L’enfer est pavé de bonnes intentions n’est pas un paradoxe de prédicateur.”

Le ciel et l’enfer sont deux grands poèmes qui formulent les deux seuls points sur lesquels tourne notre existence: la joie ou la douleur. Le ciel n’est-il pas, ne sera-t-il pas

toujours une image de l’infini de nos sentiments qui ne sera jamais peint que dans ses détails, parce que le bonheur est un, et l’enfer ne représente-t-il pas les tortures infinies de nos douleurs dont nous pouvons faire oeuvre de poésie, parce qu’elles sont toutes dissemblables?”

En ce moment le général d’Aiglemont entra.

Le ministère est changé, dit-il. Votre oncle fait partie du nouveau cabinet. Ainsi, vous avez de bien belles chances pour être ambassadeur, Vandenesse.”

Pour moi, je ne connais maintenant rien de plus horrible qu’une pensée de vieillard sur un front d’enfant le blasphème aux lèvres d’une vierge est moins monstrueux encore. Aussi l’attitude presque stupide de cette fille déjà pensive, la rareté de ses gestes, tout m’intéressa-t-il. Je l’examinai curieusement. Par une fantaisie naturelle aux observateurs, je la comparais à son frère, en cherchant à surprendre les rapports et les différences qui se trouvaient entre eux. La première avait des cheveux bruns, des yeux noirs et une puissance précoce qui formaient une riche opposition avec la blonde chevelure, les yeux vert de mer et la gracieuse faiblesse du plus jeune. L’aînée pouvait avoir environ sept à huit ans, l’autre six à peine. Ils étaient habillés de la même manière.”

Le beau jeune homme, blond comme lui, le faisait danser dans ses bras, et l’embrassait en lui prodiguant ces petits mots sans suite et détournés de leur sens véritable que nous adressons amicalement aux enfants. La mère souriait à ces jeux, et, de temps à autre, disait, sans doute à voix basse, des paroles sorties du coeur; car son compagnon s’arrêtait, tout heureux, et la regardait d’un oeil bleu plein de feu, plein d’idolâtrie. Leurs voix mêlées à celle de l’enfant avaient je ne sais quoi de caressant. Ils

étaient charmants tous trois. Cette scène délicieuse, au milieu de ce magnifique paysage, y répandait une incroyable suavité. Une femme, belle, blanche, rieuse, un enfant d’amour, un homme ravissant de jeunesse, un ciel pur, enfin toutes les harmonies de la nature s’accordaient pour réjouir l’âme. Je me surpris à sourire, comme si ce bonheur était le mien.”

En voyant son frère sur le penchant du talus, Hélène lui lança le plus horrible regard qui jamais ait allumé les yeux d’un enfant, et le poussa par un mouvement de rage. Charles glissa sur le versant rapide, y rencontra des racines qui le rejetèrent violemment sur les pierres coupantes du mur; il s’y fracassa le front; puis, tout sanglant, alla tomber dans les eaux boueuses de la rivière.” “L’eau noire bouillonnait sur un espace immense. Le lit de la Bièvre a, dans cet endroit, dix pieds de boue. L’enfant devait y mourir, il était impossible de le secourir. À cette heure, un dimanche, tout était en repos. La Bièvre n’a ni bateaux ni pêcheurs. Je ne vis ni perches pour sonder le ruisseau puant, ni personne dans le lointain. Pourquoi donc aurais-je parlé de ce sinistre accident, ou dit le secret de ce malheur? Hélène avait peut-être vengé són père. Sa jalousie était sans doute le glaive [épée] de Dieu.”

L’enfance a le front transparent, le teint diaphane; et le mensonge est, chez elle, comme une lumière qui lui rougit même le regard.”

Le père était parti sans attendre le dessert, tant sa fille et son fils l’avaient tourmenté pour arriver au spectacle avant le lever du rideau.”

O Vale da Torrente

Foi d’homme d’honneur, dit le notaire, les auteurs de nos jours sont à moitié fous! La

Vallée du torrent! Pourquoi pas le Torrent de la vallée? il est possible qu’une vallée n’ait pas de torrent, et en disant le Torrent de la vallée, les auteurs auraient accusé quelque chose de net, de précis, de caractérisé, de compréhensible. Mais laissons cela. Maintenant comment peut-il se rencontrer un drame dans un torrent et dans une vallée? Vous me répondrez qu’aujourd’hui le principal attrait de ces sortes de spectacles gît dans les décorations, et ce titre en indique de fort belles. Vous êtes-vous bien amusé, mon petit compère? ajouta-t-il en s’asseyant devant l’enfant.

Au moment où le notaire demanda quel drame pouvait se rencontrer au fond d’un torrent, la fille de la marquise se retourna lentement et pleura. La mère était si violemment contrariée qu’elle n’aperçut pas le mouvement de sa fille.”

Il y avait dans la pièce un petit garçon bien gentil qu’était seul au monde, parce que son papa n’avait pas pu être son père. Voilà que, quand il arrive en haut du pont qui est sur le torrent, un grand vilain barbu, vêtu tout en noir, le jette dans l’eau. Hélène s’est mise alors à pleurer, à sangloter; toute la salle a crié après nous, et mon père nous a bien vite, bien vite emmenés…

Monsieur de Vandenesse et la marquise restèrent tous deux stupéfaits, et comme saisis par un mal qui leur ôta la force de penser et d’agir.

Gustave, taisez-vous donc, cria le général. Je vous ai défendu de parler sur ce qui s’est passé au spectacle, et vous oubliez déjà mês recommandations.”

Assez, Hélène, lui dit-elle, allez sécher vos larmes dans le boudoir.

Qu’a-t-elle donc fait, cette pauvre petite? dit le notaire, qui voulut calmer à la fois la colère de la mère et les pleurs de la fille. Elle est si jolie que ce doit être la plus sage créature du monde; je suis bien sûr, madame, qu’elle ne vous donne que des jouissances; pas vrai, ma petite?

Hélène regarda sa mère en tremblant, essuya ses larmes, tâcha de se composer un visage calme, et s’enfuit dans le boudoir.

Et certes, disait le notaire en continuant toujours, madame, vous êtes trop bonne mère pour ne pas aimer également tous vos enfants. Vous êtes d’ailleurs trop vertueuse pour avoir de ces tristes préférences dont les funestes effets se révèlent plus particulièrement à nous autres notaires. La société nous passe par les mains. Aussi en voyons-nous les passions sous leur forme la plus hideuse, l’intérêt. Ici, une mère veut déshériter les enfants de son mari au profit des enfants qu’elle leur préfère; tandis que, de son côté, le mari veut quelquefois réserver as fortune à l’enfant qui a mérité la haine de la mère. Et c’est alors des combats, des craintes, des actes, des contre-lettres, des ventes simulées, des fidéicommis; enfin, un gâchis pitoyable, ma parole d’honneur, pitoyable! Là, des pères passent leur vie à déshériter leurs enfants em volant le bien de leurs femmes… Oui, volant est le mot. Nous parlions de drame, ah! je vous assure que si nous pouvions dire le secret de certaines donations, nos auteurs pourraient en faire de terribles tragédies bourgeoises. Je ne sais pas de quel pouvoir usent les femmes pour faire ce qu’elles veulent: car, malgré les apparences et leur faiblesse, c’est toujours elles qui l’emportent. Ah! par exemple, elles ne m’attrapent pas, moi. Je devine toujours la raison de ces prédilections que dans le monde on qualifie poliment d’indéfinissables! Mais les maris ne la devinent jamais, c’est une justice à leur rendre. Vous me répondrez à cela qu’il y a des grâces d’ét…–

Un ancien officier d’ordonnance de Napoléon, que nous appellerons seulement le marquis ou le général, et qui sous la restauration fit une haute fortune, était venu passer les beaux jours à Versailles, où il habitait une maison de campagne située entre l’église et la barrière de Montreuil, sur le chemin qui conduit à l’avenue de Saint-Cloud. Son service à la cour ne lui permettait pas de s’éloigner de Paris.”

Il contemplait le plus petit de ses enfants, un garçon à peine âgé de cinq ans, qui, demi-nu, se refusait à se laisser déshabiller par sa mère.” “La petite Moïna, son aînée de deux ans, provoquait par des agaceries déjà féminines d’interminables rires, qui partaient comme des fusées et semblaient ne pas avoir de cause”

Âgée d’environ trente-six ans, elle conservait encore une beauté due à la rare perfection des lignes de son visage, auquel la chaleur, la lumière et le bonheur prêtaient en ce moment un éclat surnaturel.”

N’y a-t-il pas toujours un peu d’amour pour l’enfance chez les soldats qui ont assez expérimenté les malheurs de la vie pour avoir su reconnaître les misères de la force et les privilèges de la faiblesse? Plus loin, devant une table ronde éclairée par des lampes astrales dont les vives lumières luttaient avec les lueurs pâles des bougies placées sur la cheminée, était un jeune garçon de treize ans qui tournait rapidement les pages d’un gros livre. (…) Il restait immobile, dans une attitude méditative, un coude sur la table et la tête appuyée sur l’une de ses mains, dont les doigts blancs tranchaient au moyen d’une chevelure brune.” “Entre cette table et la marquise, une grande et belle jeune fille travaillait, assise devant un métier à tapisserie sur lequel se penchait et d’où s’éloignait alternativement sa tête, dont les cheveux d’ébène artistement lissés réfléchissaient la lumière. À elle seule Hélène était un spectacle.” “Les deux aînés étaient en ce moment complètement oubliés par le mari et par la femme.”

La vie conjugale est pleine de ces heures sacrées dont le charme indéfinissable est dû peut-être à quelque souvenance d’un monde meilleur. Des rayons célestes jaillissent sans doute sur ces sortes de scènes, destinées à payer à l’homme une partie de ses chagrins, à lui faire accepter l’existence. Il semble que l’univers soit là, devant nous, sous une forme enchanteresse, qu’il déroule ses grandes idées d’ordre, que la vie sociale plaide pour ses lois en parlant de l’avenir.

          Cependant, malgré le regard d’attendrissement jeté par Hélène sur Abel et Moïna quand éclatait une de leurs joies; malgré le bonheur peint sur sa lucide figure lorsqu’elle contemplait furtivement son père, un sentiment de profonde mélancolie était empreint dans ses gestes, dans son attitude, et surtout dans ses yeux voilés par de longues paupières.” “Ces deux femmes se comprirent alors par un regard terne, froid, respectueux chez Hélène, sombre et menaçant chez la mère. Hélène baissa promptement sa vue sur le métier, tira l’aiguille avec prestesse, et de longtemps ne releva sa tête, qui semblait lui être devenue trop lourde à porter. La mère était-elle trop sévère pour sa fille, et jugeait-elle cette sévérité nécessaire? Était-elle jalouse de la beauté d’Hélène, avec qui elle pouvait rivaliser encore, mais en déployant tous les prestiges de la toilette? Ou la fille avait-elle surpris, comme beaucoup de filles quand elles deviennent clairvoyantes, des secrets que cette femme, en apparence si religieusement fidèle à ses devoirs, croyait avoir ensevelis dans son coeur aussi profondément que dans une tombe?”

Dans certains esprits, les fautes prennent les proportions du crime; l’imagination réagit alors sur la conscience; souvent alors les jeunes filles exagèrent la punition en raison de l’étendue qu’elles donnent aux forfaits. Hélène paraissait ne se croire digne de personne. Un secret de sa vie antérieure, un accident peut-être, incompris d’abord, mais développé par les susceptibilités de son intelligence sur laquelle influaient les idées religieuses, semblait l’avoir depuis peu comme dégradée romanesquement à ses propres yeux. Ce changement dans sa conduite avait commencé le jour où elle avait lu, dans la récente traduction des théâtres étrangers, la belle tragédie de Guillaume Tell, par Schiller.” “Devenue humble, pieuse et recueillie, Hélène ne souhaitait plus d’aller au bal. Jamais elle n’avait été si caressante pour son père, surtout quand la marquise n’était pas témoin de ses cajoleries de jeune fille. Néanmoins, s’il existait du refroidissement dans l’affection d’Hélène pour sa mère, il était si finement exprimé, que le général ne devait pas s’en apercevoir, quelque jaloux qu’il pût être de l’union qui régnait dans sa famille. Nul homme n’aurait eu l’oeil assez perspicace pour sonder la profondeur de ces deux coeurs féminins: l’un jeune et généreux, l’autre sensible et fier; le premier, trésor d’indulgence; le second, plein de finesse et d’amour. Si la mère contristait sa fille par un adroit despotisme de femme, il n’était sensible qu’aux yeux de la victime. Au reste, l’événement seulement fit naître ces conjectures toutes insolubles. Jusqu’à cette nuit, aucune lumière accusatrice ne s’était échappée de ces deux âmes; mais entre elles et Dieu certainement il s’élevait quelque sinistre mystère.

Gustave, ajouta-t-il en se tournant vers son fils, je ne t’ai donné ce livre qu’à la condition de le quitter à dix heures; tu aurais dû le fermer toi-même à l’heure dite et t’aller coucher comme tu me l’avais promis. Si tu veux être un homme remarquable, il faut faire de ta parole une seconde religion, et y tenir comme à ton honneur. Fox, un des plus grands orateurs de l’Angleterre, était surtout remarquable par la beauté de son caractère. La fidélité aux engagements pris est la principale de ses qualités.”

(…) Je ne reconnais à personne le droit de me plaindre, de m’absoudre ou de me condamner. Je dois vivre seul. Allez, mon enfant, ajouta-t-il avec un geste de souverain, je reconnaîtrais mal le service que me rend le maître de cette maison, si je laissais une seule des personnes qui l’habitent respirer le même air que moi. Il faut me soumettre aux lois du monde.

Cette dernière phrase fut prononcée à voir basse. En achevant d’embrasser par sa profonde intuition les misères que réveilla cette idée mélancolique, il jeta sur Hélène un regard de serpent, et remua dans le coeur de cette singulière jeune fille un monde de pensées encore endormi chez elle. Ce fut comme une lumière qui lui aurait éclairé des pays inconnus. Son âme fut terrassée, subjuguée, sans qu’elle trouvât la force de se défendre contre le pouvoir magnétique de ce regard, quelque involontairement lancé qu’il fût.

Honteuse et tremblante, elle sortit et ne revint au salon qu’un instant avant le retour de son père, en sorte qu’elle ne put rien dire à sa mère.

Le marquis et sa fille, certains d’avoir enfermé l’assassin de monsieur de Mauny, attribuèrent ces mouvements à une des femmes, et ne furent pas étonnés d’entendre

ouvrir les portes de la pièce qui précédait le salon. Tout à coup le meurtrier apparut au milieu d’eux. La stupeur dans laquelle le marquis était plongé, la vive curiosité de la mère et l’étonnement de la fille lui ayant permis d’avancer presque au milieu du salon, il dit au général d’une voix singulièrement calme et mélodieuse: – Monseigneur, les deux heures vont expirer.”

Au mot d’assassin, la marquise jeta un cri. Quant à Hélène, ce mot sembla décider de sa vie, son visage n’accusa pas le moindre étonnement. Elle semblait avoir attendu cet homme. Ses pensées si vastes eurent un sens. La punition que le ciel réservait à ses fautes éclatait. Se croyant aussi criminelle que l’était cet homme, la jeune fille le regarda d’un oeil serein : elle était sa compagne, sa soeur. Pour elle, un commandement de Dieu se manifestait dans cette circonstance. Quelques années plus tard, la raison aurait fait justice de ses remords ; mais en ce moment ils la rendaient insensée. L’étranger resta immobile et froid. Un sourire de dédain se peignit dans ses traits et sur ses larges lèvres rouges.”

Ah ! ma fille?… dit la marquise à voix basse mais de manière à ce que son mari l’entendît. Hélène, vous mentez à tous les principes d’honneur, de modestie, de vertu, que j’ai tâché de développer dans votre coeur. Si vous n’avez été que mensonge jusqu’à cette heure fatale, alors vous n’êtes point regrettable. Est-ce la perfection morale de cet inconnu qui vous tente? serait-ce l’espèce de puissance nécessaire aux gens qui commettent un crime?… Je vous estime trop pour supposer…

Oh! supposez tout, madame, répondit Hélène d’un ton froid.

(…) Voyons, es-tu jalouse de notre affection pour tes frères ou ta jeune soeur? As-tu dans l’âme un chagrin d’amour? Es-tu malheureuse ici? Parle? explique-moi les raisons qui te poussent à laisser ta famille, à l’abandonner, à la priver de son plus grand charme, à quitter ta mère, tes frères, ta petite soeur.

Mon père, répondit-elle, je ne suis ni jalouse ni amoureuse de personne, pas même de votre ami le diplomate, monsieur de Vandenesse.”

Savons-nous jamais, dit-elle en continuant, à quel être nous lions nos destinées? Moi, je crois en cet homme.

Enfant, dit le général en élevant la voix, tu ne songes pas à toutes les souffrances qui vont t’assaillir.

Je pense aux siennes…

Quelle vie! dit le père.

Une vie de femme, répondit la fille en murmurant.

Vous êtes bien savante, s’écria la marquise en retrouvant la parole.

Madame, les demandes me dictent les réponses ; mais, si vous le désirez, je parlerai plus clairement.

Dites tout, ma fille, je suis mère. Ici la fille regarda la mère, et ce regard fit faire une pause à la marquise.

Soit! mon père, répondit-elle avec un calme désespérant, j’y mourrai. Vous n’êtes comptable de ma vie et de son âme qu’à Dieu.

Que seja, papai!, respondeu Helèna, com uma calma que soava desesperante para seus pais: eu definharei. Você não é responsável por minha vida nem pela alma dele senão perante o Senhor.

L’hospitalité que je vous ai donnée me coûte cher, s’écria le général en se levant. Vous n’avez tué, tout à l’heure, qu’un vieillard; ici, vous assassinez toute une famille. Quoi qu’il arrive, il y aura du malheur dans cette maison.

Et si votre fille est heureuse? demanda le meurtrier en regardant fixement le militaire.

Vous qu’un meurtrier n’épouvante pas, ange de miséricorde, dit-il, venez, puisque vous persistez à me confier votre destinée.

Par où vont-ils? s’écria le général en écoutant les pas des deux fugitifs. – Madame, reprit-il en s’adressant à sa femme, je crois rêver: cette aventure me cache un mystère. Vous devez le savoir.

La marquise frissonna.

À sept heures du matin, les recherches de la gendarmerie, du général, de ses gens et des voisins avaient été inutiles. Le chien n’était pas revenu. Harassé de fatigue, et déjà vieilli par le chagrin, le marquis rentra dans son salon, désert pour lui, quoique ses trois autres enfants y fussent.”

* * *

La terrible nuit de Noël, pendant laquelle le marquis et sa femme eurent le malheur de perdre leur fille aînée sans avoir pu s’opposer à l’étrange domination exercée par son ravisseur involontaire, fut comme un avis que leur donna la fortune. La faillite d’un agent de change ruina le marquis. Il hypothéqua les biens de sa femme pour tenter une spéculation dont les bénéfices devaient restituer à sa famille toute sa première fortune; mais cette entreprise acheva de le ruiner. Poussé par son désespoir à tout tenter, le général s’expatria. Six ans s’étaient écoulés depuis son départ. Quoique sa famille eût rarement reçu de ses nouvelles, quelques jours avant la reconnaissance de l’indépendance des républiques américaines par l’Espagne, il avait annoncé son retour.”

Un beau jour, un vent frais, la vue de la patrie, une mer tranquille, un bruissement mélancolique, un joli brick solitaire, glissant sur l’océan comme une femme qui vole à un rendez-vous, c’était un tableau plein d’harmonies, une scène d’où l’âme humaine pouvait embrasser d’immuables espaces, en partant d’un point où tout était mouvement. Il y avait une étonnante opposition de solitude et de vie, de silence et de bruit, sans qu’on pût savoir où était le bruit et la vie, le néant et le silence; aussi pas une voix humaine ne rompait-elle ce charme céleste. Le capitaine espagnol, ses matelots, les Français restaient assis ou debout, tous plongés dans une extase religieuse pleine de souvenirs.” “Cependant, de temps en temps, le vieux passager, appuyé sur le bastingage, regardait l’horizon avec une sorte d’inquiétude. Il y avait une défiance du sort écrite dans tous ses traits, et il semblait craindre de ne jamais toucher assez vite la terre de France. Cet homme était le marquis. La fortune n’avait pas été sourde aux cris et aux efforts de son désespoir. Après 5 ans de tentatives et de travaux pénibles, il s’était vu possesseur d’une fortune considérable. Dans son impatience de revoir son pays et d’apporter le bonheur à sa famille, il avait suivi l’exemple de quelques négociants français de la Havane, en s’embarquant avec eux sur un vaisseau espagnol en charge pour Bordeaux. Néanmoins son imagination, lassée de prévoir le mal, lui traçait les images les plus délicieuses de son bonheur passé. En voyant de loin la ligne brune décrite par la terre, il croyait contempler sa femme et ses enfants. Il était à sa place, au foyer, et s’y sentait pressé, caressé. Il se figurait Moïna, belle, grandie, imposante comme une jeune fille. Quand ce tableau fantastique eut pris une sorte de réalité, des larmes roulèrent dans ses yeux; alors, comme pour cacher son trouble, il regarda l’horizon humide, opposé à la ligne brumeuse qui annonçait la terre.

C’est lui, dit-il, il nous suit.

Qu’est-ce? s’écria le capitaine espagnol.

Un vaisseau, reprit à voix basse le général.

Je l’ai déjà vu hier, répondit le capitaine Gomez. Il contempla le Français comme pour l’interroger. – Il nous a toujours donné la chasse, dit-il alors à l’oreille du général.

Et je ne sais pas pourquoi il ne nous a jamais rejoints, reprit le vieux militaire, car il est meilleur voilier que votre damné Saint-Ferdinand.

Il aura eu des avaries, une voie d’eau.

Il nous gagne, s’écria le Français.

C’est un corsaire colombien, lui dit à l’oreille le capitaine. Nous sommes encore à 6 lieues de terre, et le vent faiblit.

Il ne marche pas, il vole, comme s’il savait que dans 2 heures sa proie lui aura échappé. Quelle hardiesse!

Lui? s’écria le capitaine. Ah! il ne s’appelle pas l’Othello sans raison. Il a dernièrement coulé bas une frégate espagnole, et n’a cependant pas plus de 30 canons! Je n’avais peur que de lui, car je n’ignorais pas qu’il croisait dans les Antilles… – Ah! ah! reprit-il après une pause pendant laquelle il regarda les voiles de son vaisseau, le vent s’élève, nous arriverons. Il le faut, le Parisien serait impitoyable.

Lui aussi arrive! répondit le marquis.”

Pourquoi vous désoler? reprit le général. Tous vos passagers sont Français, ils ont frété votre bâtiment. Ce corsaire est un Parisien, dites=vous; hé bien, hissez pavillon blanc, et…

Et il nous coulera, répondit le capitaine. N’est-il pas, suivant les circonstances, tout ce qu’il faut être quand il veut s’emparer d’une riche proie?

Ah! si c’est un pirate!

Pirate! dit le matelot d’un air farouche. Ah! il est toujours en règle, ou sait s’y mettre.

Le Saint-Ferdinand portait en piastres 4 millions, qui composaient la fortune de 5 passagers, et celle du général était de 1,1 million francs. Enfin l’Othello, qui se trouvait alors à 10 portées de fusil, montra distinctement les gueules menaçantes de 12 canons prêts à faire feu.”

Il avait sur la tête, pour se garantir du soleil, un chapeau de feutre à grands bords, dont l’ombre lui cachait le visage.”

Le général se croyait sous la puissance d’un songe, quand il se trouva les mains liées et jeté sur un ballot comme s’il eût été lui-même une marchandise. Une conférence avait lieu entre le corsaire, son lieutenant et l’un des matelots qui paraissait remplir les fonctions de contremaître. Quand la discussion, qui dura peu, fut terminée, le matelot

siffla ses hommes, sur un ordre qu’il leur donna, ils sautèrent tous sur le Saint-Ferdinand, grimpèrent dans les cordages, et se mirent à le dépouiller de ses vergues, de ses voiles, de ses agrès, avec autant de prestesse qu’un soldat déshabille sur le champ de bataille un camarade mort dont les souliers et la capote étaient l’objet de sa convoitise.”

Les corsaires regardaient avec une curiosité malicieuse les différentes manières dont ces hommes tombaient, leurs grimaces, leur dernière torture; mais leurs visages ne trahissaient ni moquerie, ni étonnement, ni pitié. C’était pour eux un événement tout simple, auquel ils semblaient accoutumés.”

Ah! brigands, vous ne jetterez pas à l’eau comme une huître un ancien troupier de Napoléon.

En ce moment le général rencontra l’oeil fauve du ravisseur de sa fille. Le père et le gendre se reconnurent tout à coup.”

C’est le père d’Hélène, dit le capitaine d’une voix claire et ferme. Malheur à qui ne le respecterait pas!

Enfin Hélène semblait être la reine d’un grand empire au milieu du boudoir dans lequel son amant couronné aurait rassemblé les choses les plus élégantes de la terre.”

Écoutez, mon père, répondit-elle, j’ai pour amant, pour époux, pour serviteur, pour maître, un homme dont l’âme est aussi vaste que cette mer sans bornes, aussi fertile en douceur que le ciel, un dieu enfin! Depuis sept ans, jamais il ne lui est échappé une parole, un sentiment, un geste, qui pussent produire une dissonance avec la divine harmonie de ses discours, de ses caresses et de son amour. Il m’a toujours regardée en ayant sur les lèvres un sourire ami et dans les yeux un rayon de joie. Là-haut sa voix tonnante domine souvent les hurlements de la tempête ou le tumulte des combats; mais ici elle est douce et mélodieuse comme la musique de Rossini, dont les oeuvres m’arrivent. Tout ce que le caprice d’une femme peut inventer, je l’obtiens. Mes désirs sont même parfois surpassés. Enfin je règne sur la mer, et j’y suis obéie comme peut l’être une souveraine. – Oh! heureuse! reprit-elle en s’interrompant elle-même, heureuse n’est pas un mot qui puisse exprimer mon bonheur. J’ai la part de toutes les femmes! Sentir un amour, un dévouement immense pour celui qu’on aime, et rencontrer dans son coeur, à lui, un sentiment infini où l’âme d’une femme se perd, et toujours! dites, est-ce un bonheur? j’ai déjà dévoré mille existences. Ici je suis seule, ici je commande. Jamais une créature de mon sexe n’a mis le pied sur ce noble vaisseau, où Victor est toujours à quelques pas de moi. – Il ne peut pas aller plus loin de moi que de la poupe à la proue, reprit-elle avec une fine expression de malice. Sept ans! un amour qui résiste pendant sept ans à cette perpétuelle joie, à cette épreuve de tous les instants, est-ce l’amour? Non! oh! non, c’est mieux que tout ce que je connais de la vie… le langage humain manque pour exprimer un bonheur céleste.

Un torrent de larmes s’échappa de ses yeux enflammés. Les quatre enfants jetèrent alors un cri plaintif, accoururent à elle comme des poussins à leur mère, et l’aîné frappa le général en le regardant d’un air menaçant.

Abel, dit-elle, mon ange, je pleure de joie.

(…)

Tu ne t’ennuies pas? s’écria le général étourdi par la réponse exaltée de sa fille.

Si, répondit-elle, à terre quand nous y allons; et encore ne quitté-je jamais mon mari.

Mais tu aimais les fêtes, les bals, la musique!

La musique, c’est sa voix; mes fêtes, c’est les parures que j’invente pour lui. Quand une toilette lui plaît, n’est-ce pas comme si la terre entière m’admirait! Voilà seulement pourquoi je ne jette pas à la mer ces diamants, ces colliers, ces diadèmes de pierreries, ces richesses, ces fleurs, ces chefs-d’oeuvre des arts qu’il me prodigue en me disant: – Hélène, puisque tu ne vas pas dans le monde, je veux que le monde vienne à toi.

Mais sur ce bord il y a des hommes, des hommes audacieux, terribles, dont les passions…

Je vous comprends, mon père, dit-elle em souriant. Rassurez-vous. Jamais impératrice n’a été environnée de plus d’égards que l’on ne m’en prodigue. Ces gens-là sont superstitieux, ils croient que je suis le génie tutélaire de ce vaisseau, de leurs entreprises, de leurs succès. Mais c’est lui qui est leur dieu! Un jour, une seule fois, un matelot me manqua de respect… em paroles, ajouta-t-elle en riant. Avant que Victor eût pu l’apprendre, les gens de l’équipage le lancèrent à la mer malgré le pardon que je lui accordais. Ils m’aiment comme leur bon ange, je les soigne dans leurs maladies, et j’ai eu le bonheur d’en sauver quelques-uns de la mort em les veillant avec une persévérance de femme. Ces pauvres gens sont à la fois des géants et des enfants.

(…)

Et tes enfants?

Ils sont fils de l’Océan et du danger, ils partagent la vie de leurs parents… Notre existence est une, et ne se scinde pas. Nous vivons tous de la même vie, tous inscrits sur la même page, portés par le même esquif, nous le savons.

Le vieux militaire sentit toutes ces choses, et comprit aussi que sa fille n’abandonnerait jamais une vie si large, si féconde en contrastes, remplie par un amour si vrai; puis, si elle avait une fois goûté le péril sans en être effrayée, elle ne pouvait plus revenir aux petites scènes d’un monde mesquin et borné.”

Général, dit le corsaire d’une voix profonde, je me suis fait une loi de ne jamais rien distraire du butin. Mais il est hors de doute que ma part sera plus considérable que ne l’était votre fortune. Permettez-moi de vous la restituer en autre monnaie…

Il prit dans le tiroir du piano une masse de billets de banque, ne compta pas les paquets, et présenta un million au marquis.”

Or, à moins que vous ne soyez séduit par les dangers de notre vie bohémienne, par les scènes de l’Amérique méridionale, par nos nuits des tropiques, par nos batailles, et par le plaisir de faire triompher le pavillon d’une jeune nation, ou le nom de Simon Bolivar, il faut nous quitter… Une chaloupe et des hommes dévoués vous attendent. Espérons une troisième rencontre plus complètement heureuse…

Victor, je voudrais voir mon père encore un moment, dit Hélène d’un ton boudeur.”

Hélène, reprit le vieillard en la regardant avec attention, ne dois-je plus te revoir? Ne saurai-je donc jamais à quel motif ta fuite est due?

Ce secret ne m’appartient pas, dit-elle d’un ton grave. J’aurais le droit de vous l’apprendre, peut-être ne vous le dirais-je pas encore. J’ai souffert pendant dix ans des maux inouïs…

Soyez toujours heureux! s’écria le grandpère en s’élançant sur le tillac.

L’Othello était loin; la chaloupe s’approchait de terre; le nuage s’interposa entre cette frêle embarcation et le brick. La dernière fois que le général aperçut sa fille, ce fut à travers une crevasse de cette fumée ondoyante. Vision prophétique! Le mouchoir blanc, la robe se détachaient seuls sur ce fond de bistre. Entre l’eau verte et le ciel bleu, le brick ne se voyait même pas. Hélène n’était plus qu’un point imperceptible, une ligne déliée, gracieuse, un ange dans le ciel, une idée, un souvenir.”

* * *

Et aussitôt la marquise monta chez l’inconnue sans penser au mal que sa vue pouvait faire à cette femme dans un moment où on la disait mourante, car elle était encore en deuil. La marquise pâlit à l’aspect de la mourante. Malgré les horribles souffrances qui avaient altéré la belle physionomie d’Hélène, elle reconnut sa fille aînée. À l’aspect d’une femme vêtue de noir, Hélène se dressa sur son séant, jeta un cri de terreur, et retomba lentement sur son lit, lorsque, dans cette femme, elle retrouva sa mère.

Ma fille! dit madame d’Aiglemont, que vous faut-il? Pauline!… Moïna!…

elle oublia qu’Hélène était un enfant conçu jadis dans les larmes et le désespoir, l’enfant du devoir, un enfant qui avait été cause de ses plus grands malheurs; elle s’avança doucement vers sa fille aînée, en se souvenant seulement qu’Hélène la première lui avait fait connaître les plaisirs de la maternité. Les yeux de la mère étaient pleins de larmes; et, em embrassant sa fille, elle s’écria: – Hélène! ma fille…”

Exaspérée par le malheur, la veuve du marin, qui venait d’échapper à un naufrage en ne sauvant de toute sa belle famille qu’un enfant, dit d’une voix horrible à sa mère: – Tout ceci est votre ouvrage! si vous eussiez été pour moi ce que…”

Tout est inutile, reprit Hélène. Ah! pourquoi ne suis-je pas morte à seize ans, quand je voulais me tuer! Le bonheur ne se trouve jamais en dehors des lois…

* * *

LA FEMME DE SOIXANTE ANS (Epílogo)

La vieille dame si matinale était la marquise d’Aiglemont, mère de madame de Saint-Héreen, à qui ce bel hôtel appartenait. La marquise s’en était privée pour sa fille, à qui elle avait donné toute sa fortune, en ne se réservant qu’une pension viagère. La comtesse Moïna de Saint-Héreen était le dernier enfant de madame d’Aiglemont. Pour lui faire épouser l’héritier d’une des plus illustres maisons de France, la marquise avait tout sacrifié. Rien n’était plus naturel: elle avait successivement perdu deux fils; l’un, Gustave marquis d’Aiglemont, était mort du choléra; l’autre, Abel, avait succombé devant Constantinople. Gustave laissa des enfants et une veuve. Mais l’affection assez tiède que madame d’Aiglemont avait portée à ses deux fils s’était encore affaiblie en passant à ses petitsenfants. Elle se comportait poliment avec madame d’Aiglemont la jeune: mais elle s’en tenait au sentiment superficiel que le bon goût et les convenances nous prescrivent de témoigner à nos proches. La fortune de ses enfants morts ayant été parfaitement réglée, elle avait réservé pour sa chère Moïna ses économies et ses biens propres. Moïna, belle et ravissante depuis son enfance, avait toujours été pour madame d’Aiglemont l’objet d’une de ces prédilections innées ou involontaires chez les mères de famille; fatales sympathies qui semblent inexplicables, ou que les observateurs savent trop bien expliquer. La charmante figure de Moïna, le son de voix de cette fille chérie, ses manières, sa démarche, sa physionomie, ses gestes, tout en elle réveillait chez la marquise les émotions les plus profondes qui puissent animer, troubler ou charmer le coeur d’une mère. Le principe de sa vie présente, de sa vie du lendemain, de sa vie passée, était dans le coeur de cette jeune femme, où elle avait jeté tous ses trésors. Moïna avait heureusement survécu à 4 enfants, ses aînés. Madame d’Aiglemont avait en effet perdu, de la manière la plus malheureuse, disaient les gens du monde, une fille charmante dont la destinée était presque inconnue, et un petit garçon, enlevé à cinq ans par une horrible catastrophe [pas Gustave?].

Le monde aurait pu demander à la marquise un compte sévère de cette insouciance et de cette prédilection; mais le monde de Paris est entraîné par un tel torrent d’événements, de modes, d’idées nouvelles, que toute la vie de madame d’Aiglemont devait y être en quelque sorte oubliée. Personne ne songeait à lui faire un crime d’une froideur, d’un oubli qui n’intéressait personne, tandis que sa vive tendresse pour Moïna intéressait beaucoup de gens, et avait toute la sainteté d’un préjugé.”

que ne pardonne-t-on pas aux vieillards lorsqu’ils s’effacent comme des ombres et ne veulent plus être qu’un souvenir?”

Enfin, peut-être ne doit-on jamais prononcer qui a tort ou raison de l’enfant ou de la mère. Entre ces deux coeurs, il n’y a qu’un seul juge possible. Ce juge est Dieu! Dieu qui, souvent, assied sa vengeance au sein des familles, et se sert éternellement des enfants contre les mères, des pères contre les fils, des peuples contre les rois, des princes contre les nations, de tout contre tout; remplaçant dans le monde moral les sentiments par les sentiments comme les jeunes feuilles poussent les vieilles au printemps; agissant en vue d’un ordre immuable, d’un but à lui seul connu. Sans doute, chaque chose va dans son sein, ou, mieux encore, elle y retourne.”

Elle était un de ces types qui, entre mille physionomies dédaignées parce qu’elles sont sans caractère, vous arrêtent un moment, vous font penser (…) Le visage glacé de madame d’Aiglemont était une de ces poésies terribles, une de ces faces répandues par milliers dans la divine Comédie de Dante Alighieri.”

La figure d’une jeune femme a le calme, le poli, la fraîcheur de la surface d’un lac. La physionomie des femmes ne commence qu’à trente ans.”

une tête de vieille femme n’appartient plus alors ni au monde qui, frivole, est effrayé d’y apercevoir la destruction de toutes les idées d’élégance auxquelles il est habitué ni aux artistes vulgaires qui n’y découvrent rien; mais aux vrais poètes, à ceux qui ont le sentiment d’un beau indépendant de toutes les conventions sur lesquelles reposent tant de préjugés en fait d’art et de beauté.”

Les peintres ont des couleurs pour ces portraits, mais les idées et les paroles sont impuissantes pour les traduire fidèlement”

Ces souffrances sans cesse refoulées avaient produit à la longue je ne sais quoi de morbide en cette femme. Sans doute quelques émotions trop violentes avaient physiquement altéré ce coeur maternel, et quelque maladie, un anévrisme peut-être, menaçait lentement cette femme à son insu. Les peines vraies sont en apparence si tranquilles dans le lit profond qu’elles se sont fait, où elles semblent dormir, mais où elles continuent à corroder l’âme comme cet épouvantable acide qui perce le cristal! En ce moment deux larmes sillonnèrent les joues de la marquise, et elle se leva comme si quelque réflexion plus poignante que toutes les autres l’eût vivement blessée. Elle avait sans doute jugé l’avenir de Moïna. Or, en prévoyant les douleurs qui attendaient sa fille, tous les malheurs de as propre vie lui étaient retombés sur le coeur.

          La situation de cette mère sera comprise em expliquant celle de sa fille.”

Elle savait d’avance que Moïna n’écouterait aucun de ses sages avertissements; elle n’avait aucun pouvoir sur cette âme, de fer pour elle et toute moelleuse pour les autres. Sa tendresse l’eût portée à s’intéresser aux malheurs d’une passion justifiée par les nobles qualités du séducteur, mais sa fille suivait un mouvement de coquetterie; et la marquise méprisait le comte Alfred de Vandenesse, sachant qu’il était homme à considérer sa lutte avec Moïna comme une partie d’échecs.” “le marquis de Vandenesse, père d’Alfred”

Le sentiment maternel est si large dans les coeurs aimants qu’avant d’arriver à l’indifférence une mère doit mourir ou s’appuyer sur quelque grande puissance, la religion ou l’amour.”

Ce sourire prouvait à cette jeune parricide que le coeur d’une mère est un abîme au fond duquel se trouve toujours un pardon.”

14 anos investidos no livro

DO CAOS AO BARRO, DA LAMA AO CAOS: Lisboa, 1755

Este microconto foi inspirado – ou é a “tradução intersemiótica música-conto” – pelo álbum conceitual “1755” da banda portuguesa e lisboeta Moonspell (lançado em 2017).

 

*  *  *

 

…Do caos primordial Deus criou o que não havia e fez a Terra, que era boa. E, insatisfeito, fez da terra o Homem, que era ainda melhor. Mas queriam os desígnios divinos insondáveis que, após uma passagem incalculável – da perspectiva humana – de tempo, a lama regressasse ao caos, sem destruir a perfeição de todo o seu Plano. Vamos direto, como um diretor de teatro que anseia por montar o cenário do Epílogo para a platéia em suspensão e ansiedade asfixiantes, ao desfecho desta história: Lisboa, capital portuguesa, Ano do Domínio da Igreja Apostólica Romana 1755.

A humanidade, ao menos a parte devota, sempre especulou sobre o quando e o como do seu fim. O livro de João, o João profeta apocalíptico, não o primeiro João, benévolo, nunca falou de forma clara. Sua poesia enunciativa e admoestadora dificilmente poderia ser entendida senão de forma figurada, críptica. Como, afinal, seriam os cristãos julgados no Último Dia, no Segundo Advento de Jesus Cristo? Seria através de ondas de fogo, labaredas que chovessem dos céus, uma guerra inaudita entre todos os homens com armas brancas ou pólvora, ou mediante um Neo-Dilúvio, uma tsunami? Na virada de 999 d.C. para o ano 1000, muitos padres e intérpretes autorizados pelo Papa anunciavam a chegada da marca fatal – que não veio, a despeito da virada cabalística. Mas o Eevento estava cada vez mais próximo, isso nenhum lógico, beato ou herege, poderia negar. Certamente não demoraria mais um milênio inteiro! Havia sinais…

As sucessivas gerações corruptas de homens apenas atestavam as Escrituras, página por página, crime por crime, e ignomínia por ignomínia. Permita-me, no entanto, aludir, em meio a matéria tão importante: as gentes que discorriam sobre o Apocalipse sempre se olvidavam do onde, como coisa óbvia, autoevidente demais! Talvez tivessem pensado que o cataclismo final sobreviria de forma simultânea sobre todo o globo terrestre, circunavegado por Fernão de Magalhães ainda no século XVI. Mas, de forma simbólica, e, repito, só Deus sabe o porquê, a Hecatombe, ou pelo menos seu epicentro, pois não chegaram mais notícias ao autor deste manuscrito, se deu inopinadamente em Lisboa, afetando o coração da nação que ousou, a primeira de todas, dominar o mundo com bravura, sendo não obstante tão pequena em território e escassa em número.

Então foi assim que se deu, no local referido: as fundações, onde pisam os homens, foram de repente desestabilizadas. O concreto virou virou areia. Onde não virou areia, cindiu-se; e o horizontal verticalizou-se, e o vertical deitou-se. Formou-se uma onda de choque. As placas tectônicas africana e euroasiática se atritaram com veemência e ferocidade. Abismos se abriram. A força inigualável, imparável, inanalisável, colossal, arrancando raízes de árvores ancestrais, desabando edificações, gerando montanhas em planícies, desfigurando planaltos e achatando e homogeneizando picos e vales, sem discriminar nenhum panorama, fez-se sentir por todas as criaturas mortais lusitanas. Aquela força, em suma, que os pagãos teimam em chamar pelo simples e neutro epíteto de “Natureza”.

Na cidade não havia mais a Mão do Homem, só a Mão Todo-Poderosa da tal “Natureza”. E logo não havia mais cidade. Apenas um sítio arqueológico sem arqueólogos para estudá-lo e escavá-lo.

Se uma voz então dissesse alguma coisa, é provável que dissesse: – É porque te amo tanto, Homem, que ouso fazê-lo! Um fim indolor e grandiloquente. Uma ópera geográfica, geológica, grave, dissonante, profunda. – Assim se expressaria, decerto, o Diretor desta magnum opus da aniquilação.

Vede, todos são já cadáveres; mas é como se ainda escorresse o sangue em profusão. Vede! Para quê todas as tumbas do passado? Eis um cemitério muito mais eficaz e superlativo, muito mais imediato; a todos escapa a luz do sol, as caveiras ocupam o devido lugar, sem cerimônia, sem velo, sem coveiro – a não ser Um só.

E não há chamas, mas é como se tudo ardesse. E já nada se move, mas é como se as pedras não cessassem de rolar e o chão nunca deixasse de desmoronar, o destino de deslizar… A morte se tornou um quadro eterno que precisa se completar na Estática da beleza da tragédia. Nem um chiado branco se houve nesse negro dia. Está-se diante do retrato humano mais belo, porque nenhum artista de talento acabado e com os modelos mais perfeitos à mão poderia reproduzir esta… cena. Já narrada há tanto tempo, em linhas tortas, por João, não custa reiterar.

Quarenta foi o número de fundações de templos de igrejas caídas, soterradas, pulverizadas, esfareladas, como se elas representassem mais do que as centenas de milhares de seres humanos que desapareceram em fugazes instantes. E se houvesse 666, o número da besta em templos seria escombros, igualmente. O Poder Supremo não faz concessões à aritmética. Nenhum camelo atravessou qualquer agulha. Lisboa foi Sodoma, foi Gomorra: ricos e pobres jazem agora juntos, só corpo, sem alma, condenados, sem dúvida, pelo previdente Juízo Divino. Dentre todos, ninguém se encontrava à destra do Livro. Não havia nenhum Eleito na cidade de Lisboa.

Um dia, e este dia foi Primeiro de Novembro, véspera do Dia dos Mortos, os conquistadores dos Sete Mares, exaltados por Camões, foram marcados — pelos Sete Pecados. E abatidos num átimo por Quatro Navegadores-Bestas, Anjos-Vingadores. Que sirva esta história que já começou em ruínas como alegoria — do frágil destino humano: oriundos do pó das dignas Estrelas, estamos fadados a decair do material de que fomos feitos, o Barro Celeste, à Sepultura infecta, às recônditas cavernas do Hades, indiferentes a noções tais quais ordem e caos…

 

*  *  *

 

CURIOSIDADE HISTÓRICA: Realmente houve um grande terremoto em Lisboa no ano de 1755, ou “sismo”, como chamam os portugueses. Registra-se que pelo menos 1/3 da cidade foi totalmente destruído. No litoral, houve a formação de ondas de 20 metros de altura e a ocorrência de múltiplos incêndios nos destroços deixados. A Livraria Real foi consumida pelo fogo, perdendo-se livros que remontavam à Idade Antiga, perda imensurável de tesouros que nos faz lembrar de Alexandria mas também do descaso que acabou por “assassinar” nosso Museu Nacional, no Rio de Janeiro, em 2018. Não havia condições de medir os tremores como hoje se faz, mas especula-se que este evento atingiu de 8.5 a 9 pontos na escala Richter. Estatísticas, consideradas inconfiáveis pelos sismólogos mais pessimistas, que julgam que a mortandade foi muito maior, apontam para 10 mil vítimas fatais àquela ocasião.

O grande desastre serviu como catalisador para o surgimento da própria sismologia moderna e foi citado por pensadores de primeira grandeza, como Voltaire, em ensaios de cunho filosófico.

TRANSLATION STUDIES – Susan Bassnett (3ª ed., 2002)

0. FUNDAMENTAÇÃO DA DISCIPLINA

In 1978, in a brief Appendix to the collected papers of the 1976 Louvain Colloquium on Literature and Translation, André Lefevere proposed that the name Translation Studies should be adopted for the discipline that concerns itself with <the problems raised by the production and description of translations>.”

The art of translation is a subsidiary art and derivative. On this account it has never been granted the dignity of original work, and has suffered too much in the general judgement of letters.” Belloc

studies purporting to discuss translation <scientifically> are often little more than idiosyncratic value judgements of randomly selected translations of the work of major writers such as Homer, Rilke, Baudelaire or Shakespeare. What is analysed in such studies is the product only, the end result of the translation process and not the process itself.”

1791 had seen the publication of the first theoretical essay on translation in English, Alexander Tytler’s Essay on the Principles of Translation

Hence Dante Gabriel Rossetti could declare in 1861 that the work of the translator involved self-denial and repression of his own creative impulses” “At the opposite extreme Edward Fitzgerald, writing about Persian poetry in 1851, could state <It is an amusement to me to take what liberties I like with these Persians, who, (as I think) are not Poets enough to frighten one from such excursions, and who really do want a little Art to shape them.>” “These two positions are both quite consistent with the growth of colonial imperialism in the nineteenth century. From these positions derives the ambiguity with which translations have come to be regarded in the twentieth century.” “Hence a growing number of British or North American students read Greek and Latin authors in translation or study major nineteenth-century prose works or twentieth-century theatre texts whilst treating the translated text as if it were originally written in their own language.”

Some scholars, such as Theodore Savory, define translation as an <art>; others, such as Eric Jacobsen, define it as a <craft>; whilst others, perhaps more sensibly, borrow from the German and describe it as a <science>. Horst Frenz even goes so far as to opt for <art> but with qualifications, claiming that <translation is neither a creative art nor an imitative art, but stands somewhere between the two.>”

The most important advances in Translation Studies in the twentieth century derive from the ground-work done by groups in Russia in the 1920s and subsequently by the Prague Linguistic Circle and its disciples. Vološinov’s work on Marxism and philosophy, Mukařovský’s on the semiotics of art, Jakobson, Prochazka and Levý on translation have all established new criteria for the founding of a theory of translation and have showed that, far from being a dilettante pursuit accessible to anyone with a minimal knowledge of another language, translation is, as Randolph Quirk puts it, <one of the most difficult tasks that a writer can take upon himself.>” “To divorce the theory from the practice, to set the scholar against the practitioner as has happened in other disciplines, would be tragic indeed.”

The fourth category, loosely called Translation and Poetics, includes the whole area of literary translation, in theory and practice. Studies may be general or genre-specific, including investigation of the particular problems of translating poetry, theatre texts or libretti and the affiliated problem of translation for the cinema, whether dubbing or sub-titling. Under this category also come studies of the poetics of individual, translators and comparisons between them, studies of the problems of formulating a poetics, and studies of the interrelationship between SL [Source Language] and TL [Target Language] texts and author—translator—reader.” “It is important for the student of translation to be mindful of the four general categories, even while investigating one specific area of interest, in order to avoid fragmentation.”

All too often, in discussing their work, translators avoid analysis of their own methods and concentrate on exposing the frailties of other translators. Critics, on the other hand, frequently evaluate a translation from one or other of two limited standpoints: from the narrow view of the closeness of the translation to the SL text (an evaluation that can only be made if the critic has access to both languages) or from the treatment of the TL text as a work in their own language. And whilst this latter position clearly has some validity—it is, after all, important that a play should be playable and a poem should be readable—the arrogant way in which critics will define a translation as good or bad from a purely monolingual position again indicates the peculiar position occupied by translation vis-à-vis another type of metatext (a work derived from, or containing another existing text), literary criticism itself.

In his famous reply to Matthew Arnold’s attack on his translation of Homer, Francis Newman declared that

Scholars are the tribunal of Erudition, but of Taste the educated but unlearned public is the only rightful judge; and to it I wish to appeal. Even scholars collectively have no right, and much less have single scholars, to pronounce a final sentence on questions of taste in their court.

A TRADUÇÃO DEFINITIVA DO CLÁSSICO DEFINITIVO DO ESCRITOR DEFINITIVO

A BÍBLIA DA LITERATURA OU A LITERATURA DA BÍBLIA?

In his useful book Translating Poetry, Seven Strategies and a Blueprint, André Lefevere compares translations of Catullus’ Poem 64 with a view not to comparative evaluation but in order to show the difficulties and at times advantages of a particular method. For there is no universal canon according to which texts may be assessed. There are whole sets of canons that shift and change and each text is involved in a continuing dialectical relationship with those sets. There can no more be the ultimate translation than there can be the ultimate poem or the ultimate novel

The nineteenth-century English concern with reproducing <period flavour> by the use of archaisms in translated texts, often caused the TL text to be more inaccessible to the reader than the SL text itself. In contrast, the seventeenth-century French propensity to gallicize the Greeks even down to details of furniture and clothing was a tendency that German translators reacted to with violent opposition. Chapman’s energetic Renaissance Homer is far removed from Pope’s controlled, masterly eighteenth-century version.”

if there are criteria to be established for the evaluation of a translation, those criteria will be established from within the discipline and not from without.”

1. LINGUAGEM E CULTURA

The first step towards an examination of the processes of translation must be to accept that although translation has a central core of linguistic activity, it belongs most properly to semiotics, the science that studies sign systems or structures, sign processes and sign functions (Hawkes, Structuralism and Semiotics, London 1977).”

Language, then, is the heart within the body of culture, and it is the interaction between the two that results in the continuation of life-energy. In the same way that the surgeon, operating on the heart, cannot neglect the body that surrounds it, so the translator treats the text in isolation from the culture at his peril.”

Jakobson declares that all poetic art is therefore technically untranslatable” “Jakobson gives the example of the Russian word syr (a food made of fermented pressed curds [tecnicamente, coalhada, tofu ou queijo coalho]) which translates roughly into English as cottage cheese. In this case, Jakobson claims, the translation is only an adequate interpretation of an alien code unit and equivalence is impossible.”

consider the question of translating yes and hello into French, German and Italian. This task would seem, at first glance, to be straightforward, since all are Indo-European languages, closely related lexically and syntactically, and terms of greeting and assent are common to all three. For yes standard dictionaries give:

French: oui, si

German: ja

Italian: si

It is immediately obvious that the existence of two terms in French involves a usage that does not exist in the other languages. Further investigation shows that whilst oui is the generally used term, si is used specifically in cases of contradiction, contention and dissent. The English translator, therefore, must be mindful of this rule when translating the English word that remains the same in all contexts.” “French, German and Italian all frequently double or <string> affirmatives in a way that is outside standard English procedures (e.g. si, si, si; ja, ja, etc). Hence the Italian or German translation of yes by a single word can, at times, appear excessively brusque, whilst the stringing together of affirmatives in English is so hyperbolic that it often creates a comic effect.”

Whilst English does not distinguish between the word used when greeting someone face to face and that used when answering the telephone, French, German and Italian all do make that distinction. The Italian pronto can only be used as a telephonic greeting, like the German hallo. Moreover, French and German use as forms of greeting brief rhetorical questions, whereas the same question in English How are you? or How do you do? is only used in more formal situations. The Italian ciao, by far the most common form of greeting in all sections of Italian society, is used equally on arrival and departure, being a word of greeting linked to a moment of contact between individuals either coming or going and not to the specific context of arrival or initial encounter.” “Jakobson would describe this as interlingual transposition, while Ludskanov would call it a semiotic transformation

butter in British English carries with it a set of associations of whole-someness, purity and high status (in comparison to margarine, once perceived only as second-rate butter though now marketed also as practical because it does not set hard under refrigeration).

When translating butter into Italian there is a straightforward word-for-word substitution: butter—burro. Both butter and burro describe the product made from milk and marketed as a creamy-coloured slab of edible grease for human consumption. And yet within their separate cultural contexts butter and burro cannot be considered as signifying the same. In Italy, burro, normally light coloured and unsalted, is used primarily for cooking, and carries no associations of high status, whilst in Britain butter, most often bright yellow and salted, is used for spreading on bread and less frequently in cooking. Because of the high status of butter, the phrase bread and butter is the accepted usage even where the product used is actually margarine.” “The butter—burro translation, whilst perfectly adequate on one level, also serves as a reminder of the validity of Sapir’s statement that each language represents a separate reality.” “Good appetite in English used outside a structured sentence is meaningless. Nor is there any English phrase in general use that fulfills the same function as the French.”

The translator, Levý believed, had the responsibility of finding a solution to the most daunting of problems, and he declared that the functional view must be adopted with regard not only to meaning but also to style and form. The wealth of studies on Bible translation and the documentation of the way in which individual translators of the Bible attempt to solve their problems through ingenious solutions is a particularly rich source of examples of semiotic transformation.

Hence Albrecht Neubert’s view that Shakespeare’s Sonnet <Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?> cannot be semantically translated into a language where summers are unpleasant is perfectly proper”

Giovanni sta menando il can per I’aia.

becomes

John is leading his dog around the threshing floor.

The image conjured up by this sentence is somewhat startling and, unless the context referred quite specifically to such a location, the sentence would seem obscure and virtually meaningless. The English idiom that most closely corresponds to the Italian is to beat about the bush, also obscure unless used idiomatically, and hence the sentence correctly translated becomes

John is beating about the bush.

Não é que seja tradução livre. É que estamos condenados a ir além da liberdade!

OS NÓS DA TRANSLITERAÇÃO

#TítulodeLivro

“o <elo perdido> entre os componentes de uma teoria completa das traduções parece ser a teoria das relações de equivalência que possam ser estabelecidas tanto para o modelo dinâmico quanto para o modelo estático.”

E que valência têm seus vãos louros?

E.V.Rieu’s deliberate decision to translate Homer into English prose because the significance of the epic form in Ancient Greece could be considered equivalent to the significance of prose in modern Europe, is a case of dynamic equivalence applied to the formal properties of a text which shows that Nida’s categories can actually be in conflict with each other.”

Formules are for mules

Hence a woman writing to a friend in 1812 would no more have signed her letters with love or in sisterhood as a contemporary Englishwoman might, any more than an Italian would conclude letters without a series of formal greetings to the recipient of the letter and his relations.”

stress that you are stressed

It is again an indication of the low status of translation that so much time should have been spent on discussing what is lost in the transfer of a text from SL to TL whilst ignoring what can also be gained, for the translator can at times enrich or clarify the SL text as a direct result of the translation process.”

Nida cites the case of Guaica, a language of southern Venezuela, where there is little trouble in finding satisfactory terms for the English murder, stealing, lying, etc., but where the terms for good, bad, ugly and beautiful cover a very different area of meaning. As an example, he points out that Guaica does not follow a dichotomous classification of good and bad, but a trichotomous one as follows:

(1) Good includes desirable food, killing enemies, chewing dope in moderation, putting fire to one’s wife to teach her to obey, and stealing from anyone not belonging to the same band.

(2) Bad includes rotten fruit, any object with a blemish, murdering a person of the same band, stealing from a member of the extended family and lying to anyone.

(3) Violating taboo includes incest, being too close to one’s mother-in-law, a married woman’s eating tapir before the birth of the first child, and a child’s eating rodents.”

“Nida cita o caso do Guaica, uma língua do sul da Venezuela, em que não é complicado encontrar termos satisfatórios para os vocábulos do Inglês assassinato, furto, mentir, etc., mas em que os termos bom, ruim, feio e bonito se estendem a uma zona de significados muito distinta. Por exemplo, ele assinala que o Guaica não segue uma classificação dicotômica de bom e ruim, mas uma classificação tricotômica, como segue:

(1) Bom inclui a comida desejável, matar inimigos, mastigar maconha com moderação, provocar queimaduras nas esposas como repreensão pela insubordinação ao marido, roubar alguém desde que não seja do seu clã.

(2) Ruim inclui frutas podres, qualquer objeto maculado, matar alguém do próprio clã, roubar de um membro da própria linhagem familiar e mentir sob quaisquer circunstâncias.

(3) Violar o tabu inclui incesto, ser muito íntimo da sogra, se uma mulher casada come carne de anta antes de dar a luz ao primeiro filho, uma criança comer roedores.”

Nor is it necessary to look so far beyond Europe for examples of this kind of differentiation. The large number of terms in Finnish for variations of snow, in Arabic for aspects of camel behaviour, in English for light and water, in French for types of bread, all present the translator with, on one level, an untranslatable problem. Bible translators have documented the additional difficulties involved in, for example, the concept of the Trinity or the social significance of the parables in certain cultures [eu não sabia o tamanho de um grão de mostarda!]. In addition to the lexical problems, there are of course languages that do not have tense systems or concepts of time that in any way correspond to Indo-European systems. Whorf’s comparison (which may not be reliable, but is cited here as a theoretical example) between a <temporal language> (English) and a <timeless language> (Hopi) serves to illustrate this aspect.”

If I’m going home is translated as Je vais chez moi, the content meaning of the SL sentence (i.e. self-assertive statement of intention to proceed to place of residence and/or origin) is only loosely reproduced. And if, for example, the phrase is spoken by an American resident temporarily in London, it could either imply a return to the immediate <home> or a return across the Atlantic, depending on the context in which it is used, a distinction that would have to be spelled out in French. Moreover the English term home, like the French foyer, has a range of associative meanings that are not translated by the more restricted phrase chez moi. Home, therefore, would appear to present exactly the same range of problems as the Finnish or Japanese bathroom.”

POLISSEMIA: A MISSÃO (IMAGINA SE INCLUÍSSEM O MUNDO ANTIGO)

the American Democratic Party

the German Democratic Republic

the democratic wing of the British Conservative Party.”

Against Catford, in so far as language is the primary modelling system within a culture, cultural untranslatability must be de facto implied in any process of translation.”

A slightly more difficult example is the case of the Italian tomponamento in the sentence C’è stato un tamponamento.

There has been/there was a slight accident (involving a vehicle).

Because of the differences in tense-usage, the TL sentence may take one of two forms depending on the context of the sentence, and because of the length of the noun phrase, this can also be cut down, provided the nature of the accident can be determined outside the sentence by the receiver. But when the significance of tomponamento is considered vis-à-vis Italian society as a whole, the term cannot be fully understood without some knowledge of Italian driving habits, the frequency with which <slight accidents> occur and the weighting and relevance of such incidents when they do occur. In short, tomponamento is a sign that has a culture-bound or context meaning, which cannot be translated even by an explanatory phrase. The relation between the creative subject and its linguistic expression cannot therefore be adequately replaced in the translation. [Barbeiragem?]”

SUPERESTIMANDO A ALTURA DAS MONTANHAS: “Boguslav Lawendowski, in an article in which he attempts to sum up the state of translation studies and semiotics, feels that Catford is <divorced from reality>, while Georges Mounin feels that too much attention has been given to the problem of untranslatability at the expense of solving some of the actual problems that the translator has to deal with.”

Mounin acknowledges the great benefits that advances in linguistics have brought to Translation Studies; the development of structural linguistics, the work of Saussure, of Hjelmslev, of the Moscow and Prague Linguistic Circles has been of great value, and the work of Chomsky and the transformational linguists has also had its impact, particularly with regard to the study of semantics. Mounin feels that it is thanks to developments in contemporary linguistics that we can (and must) accept that:

(1) Personal experience in its uniqueness is untranslatable.

(2) In theory the base units of any two languages (e.g. phonemes, monemes, etc.) are not always comparable.

(3) Communication is possible when account is taken of the respective situations of speaker and hearer, or author and translator.”

Translation theory tends to be normative, to instruct translators on the OPTIMAL solution; actual translation work, however, is pragmatic; the translator resolves for that one of the possible solutions which promises a maximum of effect with a minimum of effort. That is to say, he intuitively resolves for the so-called MINIMAX STRATEGY.” Levý

literary criticism does not seek to provide a set of instructions for producing the ultimate poem or novel, but rather to understand the internal and external structures operating within and around a work of art.”

it would seem quite clear that any debate about the existence of a science of translation is out of date: there already exists, with Translation Studies, a serious discipline investigating the process of translation, attempting to clarify the question of equivalence and to examine what constitutes meaning within that process. But nowhere is there a theory that pretends to be normative, and although Lefevere’s statement about the goal of the discipline suggests that a comprehensive theory might also be used as a guideline for producing translations, this is a long way from suggesting that the purpose of translation theory is to be proscriptive.”

2. HISTÓRIA DA TEORIA DA TRADUÇÃO

The persecution of Bible translators during the centuries when scholars were avidly translating and retranslating Classical Greek and Roman authors is an important link in the chain of the development of capitalism and the decline of feudalism. In the same way, the hermeneutic approach of the great English and German Romantic translators connects with changing concepts of the role of the individual in the social context. It cannot be emphasized too strongly that the study of translation, especially in its diachronic aspect, is a vital part of literary and cultural history.”

George Steiner, in After Babel, divides the literature on the theory, practice and history of translation into 4 periods. The first, he claims, extends from the statements of Cicero and Horace on translation up to the publication of Alexander Fraser Tytler’s Essay on the Principles of Translation in 1791. (…) Steiner’s second period, which runs up to the publication of Larbaud’s Sous I’invocation de Saint Jérome in 1946 is characterized as a period of theory and hermeneutic enquiry with the development of a vocabulary and methodology of approaching translation. The third period begins with the publication of the first papers on machine translation in the 1940s, and is characterized by the introduction of structural linguistics and communication theory into the study of translation. Steiner’s fourth period, coexisting with the third has its origins in the early 1960s and is characterized by <a reversion to hermeneutic, almost metaphysical inquiries into translation and interpretation>” “his first period covers a span of some 1700 years while his last two periods cover a mere thirty years.” “His quadripartite division is, to say the least, highly idiosyncratic, but it does manage to avoid one great pitfall: periodization, or compartmentalization of literary history. It is virtually impossible to divide periods according to dates for, as Lotman points out, human culture is a dynamic system.”

Classical philology and comparative literature, lexical statistics and ethnography, the sociology of class-speech, formal rhetoric, poetics, and the study of grammar are combined in an attempt to clarify the act of translation and the process of <life between languages>.” Ge.St.

There is a large body of literature that attempts to decide whether Petrarch and Chaucer were medieval or Renaissance writers, whether Rabelais was a medieval mind post hoc, or whether Dante was a Renaissance mind two centuries too soon.”

André Lefevere has compiled a collection of statements and documents on translation that traces the establishment of a German tradition of translation, starting with Luther and moving on via Gottsched and Goethe to the Schlegels [?] and Schleiermacher and ultimately to Rosenzweig.”

BRANCHES FOR #TCC:

All too often, however, studies of past translators and translations have focused more on the question of influence; on the effect of the TL product in a given cultural context, rather than on the processes involved in the creation of that product and on the theory behind the creation. So, for example, in spite of a number of critical statements about the significance of translation in the development of the Roman literary canon, there has yet to be a systematic study of Roman translation theory in English. The claims summed up by Matthiesson when he declared that <a study of Elizabethan translations is a study of the means by which the Renaissance came to England> are not backed by any scientific investigation of the same.”

Eric Jacobsen claims rather sweepingly that translation is a Roman invention, and although this may be considered as a piece of critical hyperbole, it does serve as a starting point from which to focus attention on the role and status of translation for the Romans. The views of both Cicero and Horace on translation were to have great influence on successive generations of translators, and both discuss translation within the wider context of the two main functions of the poet: the universal human duty of acquiring and disseminating wisdom and the special art of making and shaping a poem.

The significance of translation in Roman literature has often been used to accuse the Romans of being unable to create imaginative literature in their own right, at least until the first century BC. Stress has been laid on the creative imagination of the Greeks as opposed to the more practical Roman mind, and the Roman exaltation of their Greek models has been seen as evidence of their lack of originality. But the implied value judgement in such a generalization is quite wrong. The Romans perceived themselves as a continuation of their Greek models and Roman literary critics discussed Greek texts without seeing the language of those texts as being in any way an inhibiting factor. The Roman literary system sets up a hierarchy of texts and authors that overrides linguistic boundaries and that system in turn reflects the Roman ideal of the hierarchical yet caring central state based on the true law of Reason. Cicero points out that mind dominates the body as a king rules over his subjects or a father controls his children, but warns that where Reason dominates as a master ruling his slaves, <it keeps them down and crushes them>. With translation, the ideal SL text is there to be imitated and not to be crushed by the too rigid application of Reason. Cicero nicely expresses this distinction: <If I render word for word, the result will sound uncouth, and if compelled by necessity I alter anything in the order or wording, I shall seem to have departed from the function of a translator.>

Horace, whilst advising the would-be writer to avoid the pitfalls that beset <the slavish translator> [o imitador barato], also advised the sparing use of new words. He compared the process of the addition of new words and the decline of other words to the changing of the leaves in spring and autumn, seeing this process of enrichment through translation as both natural and desirable, provided the writer exercised moderation. The art of the translator, for Horace and Cicero, then, consisted in judicious interpretation of the SL text so as to produce a TL version based on the principle non verbum de verbo, sed sensum exprimere de sensu (of expressing not word for word, but sense for sense), and his responsibility was to the TL readers.

But there is also an additional dimension to the Roman concept of enrichment through translation, i.e. the pre-eminence of Greek as the language of culture and the ability of educated Romans to read texts in the SL. When these factors are taken into account, then the position both of translator and reader alters. The Roman reader was generally able to consider the translation as a metatext in relation to the original. The translated text was read through the source text, in contrast to the way in which a monolingual reader can only approach the SL text through the TL version.”

Ser compilador não era algo degradante per se.

The good translator, therefore, presupposed the reader’s acquaintance with the SL text and was bound by that knowledge, for any assessment of his skill as translator would be based on the creative use he was able to make of his model.”

Bien que…: “Longinus, in his Essay On the Sublime, cites <imitation and emulation of the great historians and poets of the past> as one of the paths towards the sublime and translation is one aspect of imitation in the Roman concept of literary production.”

Moreover, it should not be forgotten that with the extension of the Roman Empire, bilingualism and trilingualism became increasingly commonplace, and the gulf between oral and literary Latin widened. The apparent licence of Roman translators, much quoted in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, must therefore be seen in the context of the overall system in which that approach to translation was applied.

With the spread of Christianity, translation came to acquire another role, that of disseminating the word of God. A religion as text-based as Christianity presented the translator with a mission that encompassed both aesthetic and evangelistic criteria. The history of Bible translation is accordingly a history of western culture in microcosm. Translations of the New Testament were made very early, and St Jerome’s famous contentious version that was to have such influence on succeeding generations of translators was commissioned by Pope Damasus in AD 384.” “but the problem of the fine line between what constituted stylistic licence and what constituted heretical interpretation was to remain a major stumbling block for centuries. § Bible translation remained a key issue well into the seventeenth century, and the problems intensified with the growth of concepts of national cultures and with the coming of the Reformation. Translation came to be used as a weapon in both dogmatic and political conflicts as nation states began to emerge and the centralization of the church started to weaken, evidenced in linguistic terms by the decline of Latin as a universal language. § The first translation of the complete Bible into English was the Wycliffite Bible produced between 1380 and 1384, which marked the start of a great flowering of English Bible translations linked to changing attitudes to the role of the written text in the church, that formed part of the developing Reformation. John Wycliffe (c. 1330–84), the noted Oxford theologian, put forward the theory of <dominion by grace> according to which man was immediately responsible to God and God’s law (by which Wycliffe intended not canon law but the guidance of the Bible). Since Wycliffe’s theory meant that the Bible was applicable to all human life it followed that each man should be granted access to that crucial text in a language that he could understand, i.e. in the vernacular.” “his disciple John Purvey revised the first edition some time before 1408 (the first dated manuscript).”

WIKIPÉDIA NOS TEMPOS DO RONCA

(1) a collaborative effort of collecting old Bibles and glosses and establishing an authentic Latin source text;

(2) a comparison of the versions;

(3) counselling <with old grammarians and old divines> about hard words and complex meanings; and

(4) translating as clearly as possible the <sentence> (i.e. meaning), with the translation corrected by a group of collaborators.”

After the Wycliffite versions, the next great English translation was William Tyndale’s (1494–1536) New Testament printed in 1525. Tyndale’s proclaimed intention in translating was also to offer as clear a version as possible to the layman, and by the time he was burned at the stake in 1536 he had translated the New Testament from the Greek and parts of the Old Testament from the Hebrew.”

In 1482, the Hebrew Pentateuch had been printed at Bologna and the complete Hebrew Bible appeared in 1488, whilst Erasmus, the Dutch Humanist, published the first Greek New Testament in Basle in 1516. This version was to serve as the basis for Martin Luther’s 1522 German version. Translations of the New Testament appeared in Danish in 1529 and again in 1550, in Swedish in 1526–41, and the Czech Bible appeared between 1579–93. Translations and revised versions of existing translations continued to appear in English, Dutch, German and French.”

I would desire that all women should reade the gospell and Paules episteles and I wold to God they were translated in to the tonges of all men so that they might not only be read and knowne of the scotes and yrishmen/

But also of the Turkes and the Sarracenes…. I wold to God the plowman wold singe a texte of the scripture at his plow-beme. And that the wever at his lowme with this wold drive away the tediousnes of tyme. I wold the wayfaringeman with this pastyme wold expelle the weriness of his iorney. And to be shorte I wold that all the communication of the christen shuld be of the scripture for in a manner such are we oure selves as our daylye tales are.” Erasmus

Coverdale’s Bible (1535) was also banned but the tide of Bible translation could not be stemmed, and each successive version drew on the work of previous translators, borrowing, amending, revising and correcting.”

(1) To clarify errors arising from previous versions, due to inadequate SL manuscripts or to linguistic incompetence;

(2) To produce an accessible and aesthetically satisfying vernacular style;

(3) To clarify points of dogma and reduce the extent to which the scriptures were interpreted and re-presented to the laypeople as a metatext.

In his Circular Letter on Translation of 1530 Martin Luther lays such emphasis on the significance of (2) that he uses the verbs übersetzen (to translate) and verdeutschen (to Germanize) almost indiscriminately.”

In an age when the choice of a pronoun could mean the difference between life or condemnation to death as a heretic, precision was of central importance.”

In the Preface to the King James Bible of 1611, entitled The Translators to the Reader, the question is asked <is the kingdom of God words or syllables?>”

With regard to English, for example, the Lindisfarne Gospels (copied out c. AD 700), had a literal rendering of the Latin original inserted between the lines in the tenth century in Northumbrian dialect. These glosses subordinated notions of stylistic excellence to the word-for-word method, but may still be fairly described as translations, since they involved a process of interlingual transfer. However, the system of glossing was only one aspect of translation in the centuries that saw the emergence of distinct European languages in a written form. In the ninth century King Alfred (reign 871–99), who had translated (or caused to be translated) a number of Latin texts, declared that the purpose of translating was to help the English people to recover from the devastation of the Danish invasions that had laid waste the old monastic centres of learning and had demoralized and divided the kingdom. In his Preface to his translation of the Cura Pastoralis (a handbook for parish priests) Alfred urges a revival of learning through greater accessibility of texts as a direct result of translations into the vernacular, and at the same time he asserts the claims of English as a literary language in its own right. Discussing the way in which the Romans translated texts for their own purposes, as did <all other Christian nations>, Alfred states that <I think it better, if you agree, that we also translate some of the books that all men should know into the language that we can all understand.> In translating the Cura Pastoralis, Alfred claims to have followed the teachings of his bishop and priests and to have rendered the text hwilum word be worde, hwilum andgiet of andgiete (sometimes word by word, sometimes sense by sense), an interesting point in that it implies that the function of the finished product was the determining factor in the translation process rather than any established canon of procedure. Translation is perceived as having a moral and didactic purpose with a clear political role to play, far removed from its purely instrumental role in the study of rhetoric that coexisted at the same time.

The concept of translation as a writing exercise and as a means of improving oratorical style was an important component in the medieval educational system based on the study of the Seven Liberal Arts. This system, as passed down from such Roman theoreticians as Quintilian (first century AD) whose Institutio Oratoria was a seminal text, established two areas of study, the Trivium (grammar, rhetoric and dialectic) and the Quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy), with the Trivium as the basis for philosophical knowledge.” “Quintilian recommends translating from Greek into Latin as a variation on paraphrasing original Latin texts in order to extend and develop the student’s imaginative powers.”

In his useful article on vulgarization and translation, Gianfranco Folena suggests that medieval translation might be described either as vertical, by which he intends translation into the vernacular from a SL that has a special prestige or value (e.g. Latin), or as horizontal, where both SL and TL have a similar value (e.g. Provençal into Italian, Norman-French into English).” “And whilst the vertical approach splits into two distinct types, the interlinear gloss, or word-for-word technique, as opposed to the Ciceronian sense-for-sense method, elaborated by Quintilian’s concept of para-phrase, the horizontal approach involves complex questions of imitatio and borrowing.”

Within the opus of a single writer, such as Chaucer (c. 1340–1400) there is a range of texts that include acknowledged translations, free adaptations, conscious borrowings, reworkings and close correspondences.”

One of the first writers to formulate a theory of translation was the French humanist Étienne Dolet (1509–46) who was tried and executed for heresy after <mistranslating> one of Plato’s dialogues in such a way as to imply disbelief in immortality. In 1540 Dolet published a short outline of translation principles, entitled La manière de bien traduire d’une langue en aultre (How to Translate Well from one Language into Another)

the frequent replacement of indirect discourse by direct discourse in North’s translation of Plutarch (1579), a device that adds immediacy and vitality to the text”

Translation was by no means a secondary activity, but a primary one, exerting a shaping force on the intellectual life of the age, and at times the figure of the translator appears almost as a revolutionary activist rather than the servant of an original author or text.”

O DEMORADO ECO ITALIANO: “Translation of the classics increased considerably in France between 1625 and 1660, the great age of French classicism and of the flowering of French theatre based on the Aristotelian unities. French writers and theorists were in turn enthusiastically translated into English.”

for it is not his business alone to translate Language into Language, but Poesie into Poesie; and Poesie is of so subtile a spirit, that in pouring out of one Language into another, it will all evaporate; and if a new spirit be not added in the transfusion, there will remain nothing but a Caput mortuum.” John Denham

“o prefácio de Cowley foi tomado como o manifesto dos <tradutores libertinos dos fins do século XVII>.”

PINTOR AB EXTRATO

I have endeavoured to make Virgil speak such English as he would himself have spoken, if he had been born in England, and in this present age.” Dryden

NÓS OS JURAMENTADOS HÁ 200 ANOS ÉRAMOS MAIS DESIMPEDIDOS: “The impulse to clarify and make plain the essential spirit of a text led to large-scale rewritings of earlier texts to fit them to contemporary standards of language and taste. Hence the famous re-structuring of Shakespearian texts, and the translations/reworkings of Racine. Dr. [nem existia doutorado nessa época, fala sério] Johnson (1709–84), in his Life of Pope [que não era o Papa] (1779–80), discussing the question of additions to a text through translation, comments that if elegance is gained, surely it is desirable, provided nothing is taken away [mais é mais], and goes on to state that <the purpose of a writer is to be read> [diria que acertou em cheio, mas não é muito difícil…], claiming that Pope wrote for his own time and his own nation. The right of the individual to be addressed in his own terms, on his own ground is an important element in eighteenth-century translation and is linked to changing concepts of <originality>.”

Pope’s Andromache [Ilíada] suffers and despairs, whilst Chapman’s Andromache comes across as a warrior in her own right. Chapman’s use of direct verbs gives a dramatic quality to the scene, whilst Pope’s Latinate structures emphasize the agony of expectation leading up to the moment when the horror is plain to see. And even that horror is quite differently presented—Pope’s <god-like Hector> contrasts with Chapman’s longer description of the hero’s degradation:

(…)

Too soon her Eyes the killing Object found,

The god-like Hector dragg’d along the ground.

A sudden Darkness shades her swimming Eyes:

She faints, she falls; her Breath, her colour flies. (Pope)

(…)

Round she cast her greedy eye, and saw her Hector slain, and bound

T’Achilles chariot, manlessly dragg’d to the Grecian fleet,

Black night strook through her, under her trance took away her feet. (Chapman)

Goethe (1749–1832) argued that every literature must pass through three phases of translation, although as the phases are recurrent all may be found taking place within the same language system at the same time. The first epoch <acquaints us with foreign countries on our own terms>, and Goethe cites Luther’s German Bible as an example of this tendency. The second mode is that of appropriation through substitution and reproduction, where the translator absorbs the sense of a foreign work but reproduces it in his own terms, and here Goethe cites Wieland and the French tradition of translating (a tradition much disparaged by German theorists). The third mode, which he considers the highest, is one which aims for perfect identity between the SL text and the TL text, and the achieving of this mode must be through the creation of a new <manner> which fuses the uniqueness of the original with a new form and structure. Goethe cites the work of Voss, who translated Homer, as an example of a translator who had achieved this prized third level. Goethe is arguing for both a new concept of <originality> in translation, together with a vision of universal deep structures that the translator should strive to meet. The problem with such an approach is that it is moving dangerously close to a theory of untranslatability.”

the translator cannot use the same colours as the original, but is nevertheless required to give his picture <the same force and effect>.”

With the affirmation of individualism came the notion of the freedom of the creative force, making the poet into a quasi-mystical creator, whose function was to produce the poetry that would create anew the universe, as Shelley argued in The Defence of Poesy (1820).”

In England, Coleridge (1772–1834) in his Biographia Literaria (1817) outlined his theory of the distinction between Fancy and Imagination, asserting that Imagination is the supreme creative and organic power, as opposed to the lifeless mechanism of Fancy. This theory has affinities with the theory of the opposition of mechanical and organic form outlined by the German theorist and translator, August Wilhelm Schlegel (1767–1845) in his Vorlesungen über dramatische Kunst und Literatur (1809), translated into English in 1813.” “A.W. Schlegel, asserting that all acts of speaking and writing are acts of translation because the nature of communication is to decode and interpret messages received, also insisted that the form of the original should be retained (for example, he retained Dante’s terza rima in his own translations). Meanwhile, Friedrich Schlegel (1772–1829) conceived of translation as a category of thought rather than as an activity connected only with language or literature.”

The idea of writers at all times being involved in a process of repeating what Blake called <the Divine Body in Every Man> resulted in a vast number of translations, such as the Schlegel-Tieck translations of Shakespeare (1797–1833), Schlegel’s version and Cary’s version of the Divina Commedia (1805–14) and the large intertraffic of translations of critical works and of contemporary writings across the European languages. Indeed, so many texts were translated at this time that were to have a seminal effect on the TL (e.g. German authors into English and vice versa, Scott and Byron into French and Italian, etc.) that critics have found it difficult to distinguish between influence study and translation study proper. Stress on the impact of the translation in the target culture in fact resulted in a shift of interest away from the actual processes of translation.”

If poetry is perceived as a separate entity from language, how can it be translated unless it is assumed that the translator is able to read between the words of the original and hence reproduce the text-behind-the-text; what Mallarmé would later elaborate as the text of silence and spaces?” “with the shift of emphasis away from the formal processes of translation, the notion of untranslatability would lead on to the exaggerated emphasis on technical accuracy and resulting pedantry of later nineteenth-century translating.”

an explanation of the function of peculiarity can be found in G.A. Simcox’s review of Morris’ translation of The Story of the Volsungs and Niblungs (1870) when he declared that the <quaint archaic English of the translation with just the right outlandish flavour> did much to <disguise the inequalities and incompletenesses of the original>”

What emerges from the Schleiermacher—Carlyle—Pre-Raphaelite concept of translation, therefore, is an interesting paradox. On the one hand there is an immense respect, verging on adulation, for the original, but that respect is based on the individual writer’s sureness of its worth. In other words, the translator invites the intellectual, cultivated reader to share what he deems to be an enriching experience, either on moral or aesthetic grounds. Moreover, the original text is perceived as property, as an item of beauty to be added to a collection, with no concessions to the taste or expectations of contemporary life. On the other hand, by producing consciously archaic translations designed to be read by a minority, the translators implicitly reject the ideal of universal literacy. The intellectual reader represented a very small minority in the increasingly diffuse reading public that expanded throughout the century, and hence the foundations were laid for the notion of translation as a minority interest.”

Let not the translator, then, trust to his notions of what the ancient Greeks would have thought of him; he will lose himself in the vague. Let him not trust to what the ordinary English reader thinks of him; he will be taking the blind for his guide. Let him not trust to his own judgement of his own work; he may be misled by individual caprices. Let him ask how his work affects those who both know Greek and can appreciate poetry.” Matthew Arnold [vide polêmica elencada acima]

But although archaizing [afetação, hermetismo] has gone out of fashion, it is important to remember that there were sound theoretical principles for its adoption by translators. George Steiner raises important issues when he discusses the practice, with particular reference to Émile Littré’s theory and his L’Enfer mis en vieux longage François (1879) and to Rudolf Borchardt and his Dante Deutsch:

<The proposition ‘the foreign poet would have produced such and such a text had he been writing in my language’ is a projective fabrication. It underwrites the autonomy, more exactly, the ‘meta-autonomy’ of the translation. But it does much more: it introduces an alternate existence, a ‘might have been’ or ‘is yet to come’ into the substance and historical condition of one’s own language, literature and legacy of sensibility.>

The archaizing principle, then, in an age of social change on an unprecedented scale, can be compared to an attempt to <colonize> the past. (…) The distance between this version of translation and the vision of Cicero and Horace, also the products of an expanding state, could hardly be greater.”

IANQUES, VANGUARDA DO ATRASO: “The increased isolationism of British and American intellectual life, combined with the anti-theoretical developments in literary criticism did not help to further the scientific examination of translation in English. Indeed, it is hard to believe, when considering some of the studies in English, that they were written in the same age that saw the rise of Czech Structuralism and the New Critics, the development of communication theory, the application of linguistics to the study of translation: in short, to the establishment of the bases from which recent work in translation theory has been able to proceed.”

The work of Ezra Pound [Literary Essays] is of immense importance in the history of translation, and Pound’s skill as a translator was matched by his perceptiveness as critic and theorist.”

George Steiner, taking a rather idiosyncratic view of translation history, feels that although there is a profusion of pragmatic accounts by individuals the range of theoretic ideas remains small:

[OS TREZE CAVALEIROS] <List Saint Jerome, Luther, Dryden, Hölderlin, Novalis, Schleiermacher, Nietzsche, Ezra Pound, Valéry, MacKenna, Franz Rosenzweig, Walter Benjamin, Quine—and you have very nearly the sum total of those who have said anything fundamental or new about translation.>

3. PROBLEMAS ESPECÍFICOS

Anne Cluysenaar goes on to analyse C.Day Lewis’ translation of Valéry’s poem, Les pas and comes to the conclusion that the translation does not work because the translator <was working without an adequate theory of literary translation>.” “what is needed is a description of the dominant structure of every individual work to be translated.”

Every literary unit from the individual sentence to the whole order of words can be seen in relation to the concept of system. In particular, we can look at individual works, literary genres, and the whole of literature as related systems, and at literature as a system within the larger system of human culture.” Robert Scholes

Entram num bar: um conteudista, um contextualista, um interesseiro (ou pragmatista) e um deviacionista (selecionador de citações). Qual deles sou eu?

devil acionista

Um concurseiro, um leitor dinâmico, um diletante, um político e um filho de escritor numa roda intelectual-boêmia. Todos falam, mas só o próprio falante se escuta.

The translator is, after all, first a reader and then a writer and in the process of reading he or she must take a position.”

CHOICER”: “The twentieth-century reader’s dislike of the Patient Griselda motif is an example of just such a shift in perception, whilst the disappearance of the epic poem in western European literatures has inevitably led to a change in reading such works.”

suco de palavras

(brincadeira de adultocriança)

the reader/translator will be unable to avoid finding himself in Lotman’s fourth position [aquele que seleciona conteúdos conforme seu interesse humanista-cultural, eu no Seclusão: menos um nazista que cita Nietzsche com propósitos escusos do que alguém que busca simplesmente tirar proveito de algo que possa ainda repercutir num mar de coisas que perderam a referência e o sentido para o homem contemporâneo…] without detailed etymological research. So when Gloucester, in King Lear, Act III sc. vii, bound, tormented and about to have his eyes gouged out, attacks Regan with the phrase <Naughty lady>, it ought to be clear that there has been considerable shift in the weight of the adjective, now used to admonish children or to describe some slightly comic (often sexual) peccadillo.” Danadinha… Perniciosa, insidiosa. Erva daninha!

PIRE(PYRE) COM MODERAÇÃO(FOGO BAIXO): “Quite clearly, the idea of the reader as translator and the enormous freedom this vision bestows must be handled responsibly. The reader/translator who does not acknowledge the dialectical materialist basis of Brecht’s plays or who misses the irony in Shakespeare’s sonnets or who ignores the way in which the doctrine of the transubstantiation is used as a masking device for the production of Vittorini’s anti-Fascist statement in Conversazioni in Sicilia is upsetting the balance of power by treating the original as his own property.”

4. TRADUZINDO POESIA

Catullus, after all, was an aristocrat, whose language, although flexible, is elegant, and Copley’s speaker is a caricature of a teenager from the Johnny [sic – Johnnie] Ray generation. Copley’s choice of register makes the reader respond in a way that downgrades the material itself. The poem is no longer a rather suave and sophisticated mingling of several elements, it is located very precisely in a specific time and context. And, of course, in the relatively short time since the translation appeared, its language and tone have become almost as remote as that of the original!” “The great difference between a text and a metatext is that the one is fixed in time and place, the other is variable. There is only one Divina Commedia but there are innumerable readings and in theory innumerable translations.”

Both English versions appear to stress the I pronoun, because Italian sentence structure is able to dispense with pronouns in verbal phrases. Both opt for the translation make out for distinguo, which alters the English register. The final line of the poem, deliberately longer in the SL version, is rendered longer also in both English versions, but here there is substantial deviation between the two. Version B keeps closely to the original in that it retains the Latinate abandoned as opposed to the Anglo-Saxon adrift in version A. Version B retains the single word infinite, that is spelled out in more detail in version A with infinite space, a device that also adds an element of rhyme to the poem.

The apparent simplicity of the Italian poem, with its clear images and simple structure conceals a deliberate recourse to that process defined by the Russian Formalists as ostranenie, i.e. making strange, or consciously thickening language within the system of the individual work to heighten perception (see Tony Bennet, Formalism and Marxism, London 1979). Seen in this light, version A, whilst pursuing the ‘normalcy’ of Ungaretti’s linguistic structures, loses much of the power of what Ungaretti described as the ‘word-image’. Version B, on the other hand, opts for a higher tone or register, with rhetorical devices of inverted sentence structure and the long, Latinate final line in an attempt to arrive at a ‘thickened’ language by another route.”

The most striking aspect of any comparison of these three sonnets is the range of variation between them. Petrarch’s sonnet splits into octet and sestet and follows the rhyme scheme a b b a/a b b a/c d c/c d c. Wyatt’s poem is similarly divided, but here the rhyme scheme is a b b a/a b b a/c d c/c d d which serves to set the final two lines apart. Surrey’s poem varies much more: a b a b/c d c d/e c e c/f f and consists of three four-line sections building to the final couplet. The significance of these variations in form becomes clear once each sonnet is read closely.”

What can I do, he asks, since my Lord Amor is afeared (and I fear him), except to stay with him to the final hour? and adds, in the last line, that he who dies loving well makes a good end.” “He does not act but is acted upon, and the structure of the poem, with the first person singular verbal form only used at the end, and then only in a question that stresses his helplessness, reinforces this picture.” “But it is not enough to consider this poem in isolation, it must be seen as part of Petrarch’s Canzoniere and linked therefore through language structures, imagery and a central shaping concept, to the other poems in the collection.”

Wyatt creates the image of ‘the hertes forrest’, and by using nouns ‘with payne and cry’, instead of verbs lessens the picture of total, abject humiliation painted by Petrarch.” “The Lover in Wyatt’s poem asks a question that does not so much stress his helplessness as his good intentions and bravery. The Italian temendo il mio signore carries with it an ambiguity (either the Lord fears or the Lover fears the Lord, or, most probably, both) whilst Wyatt has stated very plainly that ‘my master fereth’. The final line, ‘For goode is the liff, ending faithfully’ strengthens the vision of the Lover as noble. Whereas the Petrarchan lover seems to be describing the beauty of death through constant love, Wyatt’s lover stresses the virtues of a good life and a faithful end.” “Love shows his colours and is repulsed and the Lover sets up the alternative ideal of a good life. We are in the world of politics, of the individual geared towards ensuring his survival, a long way from the pre-Reformation world of Petrarch.”

It is in Surrey’s version that the military language prevails, whilst Wyatt reduces the terminology of battle to a terminology of pageantry.” “The Lover is ‘captyve’, and he and Love have often fought. Moreover, the Lady is not in an unreachable position, angered by the display of Love. She is already won and is merely angered by what appears to be excessive ardour.” “Moreover, in the final line of the third quartet, the Lover states plainly that he is ‘fawtless’ and suffers because of ‘my lordes gylt’. The device of splitting the poem into three four-line stanzas can be seen as a way of reshaping the material content. The poem does not build to a question and a final line on the virtues of dying, loving well. It builds instead to a couplet in which the Lover states his determination not to abandon his guilty lord even in the face of death. The voice of the poem and the voice of the Lover are indistinguishable, and the stress on the I, apparent in Wyatt’s poem already, is strengthened by those points in the poem where there is a clear identification with the Lover’s position against the bad behaviour of the false lord Love.

But Wyatt and Surrey’s translations, like Jonson’s Catullus translation, would have been read by their contemporaries through prior knowledge of the original, and those shifts that have been condemned by subsequent generations as taking something away from Petrarch, would have had a very different function in the circles of Wyatt and Surrey’s cultured intellectual readership.” Now nobody reads Petrarch!

5. TRADUZINDO PROSA

“although analysis of narrative has had enormous influence since Shlovsky’s early theory of prose, there are obviously many readers who still adhere to the principle that a novel consists primarily of paraphrasable material content that can be translated straight-forwardly. And whereas there seems to be a common consensus that a prose paraphrase of a poem is judged to be inadequate, there is no such consensus regarding the prose text.”

Belloc points out that the French historic present must be translated into the English narrative tense, which is past, and the French system of defining a proposition by putting it into the form of a rhetorical question cannot be transposed into English where the same system does not apply.”

Let us consider as an example the problem of translating proper names in Russian prose texts, a problem that has bedevilled generations of translators. Cathy Porter’s translation of Alexandra Kollontai’s Love of Worker Bees contains the following note:

Russians have a first (‘Christian’) name, a patronymic and a surname. The customary mode of address is first name plus patronymic, thus, Vasilisa Dementevna, Maria Semenovna. There are more intimate abbreviations of first names which have subtly affectionate, patronizing or friendly overtones. So for instance Vasilisa becomes Vasya, Vasyuk, and Vladimir becomes Volodya, Volodka, Volodechka, Volya.

So in discussing The Brothers Karamazov Uspensky shows how the naming system can indicate multiple points of view, as a character is perceived both by other characters in the novel and from within the narrative. In the translation process, therefore, it is essential for the translator to consider the function of the naming system, rather than the system itself. It is of little use for the English reader to be given multiple variants of a name if he is not made aware of the function of those variants, and since the English naming system is completely different the translator must take this into account and follow Belloc’s dictum to render ‘idiom by idiom’.”

6. TRADUZINDO PEÇAS

Arguably, the volume of ‘complete plays’ has been produced primarily for a reading public where literalness and linguistic fidelity have been principal criteria. But in trying to formulate any theory of theatre translation, Bogatyrev’s description of linguistic expression must be taken into account, and the linguistic element must be translated bearing in mind its function in theatre discourse as a whole.” Platão seria Teatro?

The leaden pedantry of many English versions of Racine, for example, is apt testimony to the fault of excessive literalness, but the problem of defining ‘freedom’ in a theatre translation is less easy to discern.”

* * *

7. (MAIS) APROFUNDAMENTO

André Lefevere, Translating Literature: The German Tradition. From Luther to Rosenzweig (Assen and Amsterdam: Van Gorcum, 1977)

Anton Popovič, Dictionary for the Analysis of Literary Translation (Dept. of Comparative Literature, University of Alberta, 1976)

De Beaugrande, Robert, Shunnaq, Abdulla and Heliel, Mohamed H., (eds.), Language, Discourse and Translation in the West and Middle East (Amsterdam: John Bejamins, 1994)

Benjamin Lee Whorf, Language, Thought and Reality (Selected Writings) ed. J.B.Carroll (Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1956)

Chan, Sin-Wai, and Pollard, David, (eds), An Encyclopaedia of Translation. Chinese/English, English/Chinese (Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 1994)

Cicero, ‘Right and Wrong’, in Latin Literature, ed. M.Grant (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1978)

Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Preface to his translations of Early Italian Poets, Poems and Translations, 1850–1870 (London: Oxford University Press, 1968)

Erasmus, Novum Instrumentum (Basle: Froben, 1516). 1529, tr. W. Tindale.

Francis Newman, ‘Homeric Translation in Theory and Practice’ in Essays by Matthew Arnold (London: Oxford University Press, 1914)

Hilaire Belloc, On Translation (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1931)

Horace, On the Art of Poetry, in Classical Literary Criticism (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1965)

Jacobsen, Eric, Translation: A Traditional Craft (Copenhagen: Nordisk Forlag, 1958) “This book contains much interesting information about the function of translation within the terms of medieval rhetorical tradition, but, as the author states in the introduction, avoids as far as possible discussion of the general theory and principles of translation.”

Joachim du Bellay – Défense et lllustration de la Langue française

Josephine Balmer, Classical Women Poets (Newcastle upon Tyne: Bloodaxe Books 1997)

Keir Elam, Semiotics of Theatre and Drama (London: Methuen, 1980)

Levý, Jiří, ‘The Translation of Verbal Art’, in L.Matejka and I.R.Titunik (eds), Semiotics of Art (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1976)

Liu, Lydia H., Translingual Practice: Literature, National Culture and Translated Modernity in China 1900–7937 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995)

Luis, William and Rodriguez-Luis, Julio, (eds), Translating Latin America. Culture as Text (Binghamton: Centre for Research in Translation: State University of New York at Binghamton, 1991)

Mukherjee, Sujit, Translation as Discovery and Other Essays on Indian Literature in English Translation (New Delhi: Allied Publishers/London: Sangam Books, 1981), 2nd ed. (New Delhi: Orient Longman, 1994)

Nirenburg, S. (ed.), Machine Translation: Theoretical and Methodological Issues (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987)

Oittinen, Riita, I am Me—I am Other: On the Dialogics of Translating for Children (Tampere: University of Tampere, 1993)

Rafael, Vicente, Contracting Colonialism: Translation and Christian Conversion in Tagalog Society under Early Spanish Rule (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1988)

Simon, Sherry, Gender in Translation. Cultural Identity and the Politics of Transmission (London: Routledge, 1996)

Somekh, Sasson, ‘The Emergence of two sets of Stylistic Norms in the early Literary Translation into Modern Arabic Prose’, Poetics Today, 2, 4, 1981, pp. 193–200.

Vanderauwera, Ria, Dutch Novels Translated into English: The Transformation of a ‘Minority’ Literature (Amsterdam: Rodolpi, 1985)

Wollin, Hans and Lindquist Hans, (eds), Translation Studies in Scandinavia (Lund: CWK Gleerup, 1986)

L’ENCYCLOPÉDIE – AG

AG

* AGE, (Myth.) Les Poëtes ont distribué le tems qui suivit la formation de l’homme en quatre âges. L’âge d’or, sous le regne de Saturne au ciel, & sous celui de l’innocence & de la justice en terre. La terre produisoit alors sans culture, & des fleuves de miel & de lait couloient de toutes parts. L’âge d’argent, sous lequel ces hommes commencerent à être moins justes & moins heureux. L’âge d’airain, où le bonheur des hommes diminua encore avec leur vertu; & l’âge de fer, sous lequel, plus méchans que sous l’âge d’airain, ils furent plus malheureux. On trouvera tout ce système exposé plus au long dans l’ouvrage d’Hésiode, intitulé Opera & dies; ce Poëte fait à son frère l’histoire des siècles écoulés, & lui montre le malheur constamment attaché à l’injustice, afin de le détourner d’être méchant [?]. Cette allégorie des âges est très-philosophique & très-instructive; elle étoit très-propre à apperendre aux peuples à estimer la vertu ce qu’elle vaut.

Les Historiens, ou plûtôt les Chronologistes, ont divisé l’age du Monde en six époques principales, entre lesquelles ils laissent plus ou moins d’intervalles, selon qu’ils font le monde plus ou moins vieux. Ceux qui placent la création six mille ans avant Jesus-Christ, comptent pour l’âge d’Adam jusqu’au déluge, 2.262 ans; depuis le déluge jusqu’au partage des Nations, 738; depuis le partage des Nations jusqu’à Abraham, 460; depuis Abraham jusqu’à la pâque des Israëlites, 645; depuis la pâque des Israëlites jusqu’à Saül, 774; depuis Saül jusqu’à Cyrus, 583; & depuis Cyrus jusqu’à Jesus-Christ, 538.

Ceux qui ne font le monde âgé que de 4 mille ans, comptent de la création au déluge, 1.656; du déluge à la vocation d’Abraham, 426; depuis Abraham jusqu’à la sortie d’Egypte, 430; depuis la sortie d’Egypte jusqu’à la fondation du Temple, 480; depuis la fondation du Temple jusqu’à Cyrus, 476; depuis Cyrus jusqu’à Jesus-Christ, 532.

D’autres comptent de la création à la prise de Troie, 2.830 ans; & à la fondation de Rome, 3.250; de Carthage vaincue par Scipion à Jesus-Christ, 200; de Jesus-Christ à Constantin, 312, & au rétablissement de l’Empire d’Occident, 808.”

TRADUÇÃO COMPLETA DO VERBETE:

IDADES, (Mitologia) Os Poetas dividiram o tempo que sucedeu à criação do homem em 4 partes. A idade de ouro, sob o reinado de Saturno nos Céus, e da Inocência e da Justiça na Terra. A própria terra dava de comer sem precisar ser cultivada, pois era excessivamente fértil, e havia favos de mel e leite jorrando de todas as partes. A idade de prata, em que os homens principiaram a ser menos justos e felizes. A idade de bronze, quando a felicidade do homem decaía mais e mais, em proporção ao rebaixamento da virtude. E finalmente a idade de ferro, a idade mais infeliz dos homens, quando já eram mais maus que na idade de bronze. Esse sistema é meticulosamente descrito na obra de Hesíodo Os Trabalhos e Os Dias. Esse poeta dedica a seu irmão caçula a história dos séculos passados, mostrando a desgraça inexoravelmente ligada à injustiça, como uma espécie de educação sentimental ao menino: não sejas cruel! Essa alegoria das idades é bastante filosófica e intuitiva; nenhuma melhor a fim de transmitir ao homem o real valor da virtude.

Os Historiadores, ou melhor diria Cronologistas, dividiram as épocas do mundo em 6 principais, de forma geral, mas discordando, entre si, a respeito da duração de cada época, e dos marcos que representaram as transições, explicando-se assim a variação nas teorias acerca da idade total do mundo:

Aqueles que optam pela criação do mundo a 6.000 a.C. contam, de Adão ao Dilúvio, 2.262 anos; do dilúvio à partilha das nações pelos Eleitos de Jeová, 738; da divisão das tribos até Abraão, decorreram mais 460 anos; de Abraão ao Êxodo, outros 645; do exílio no deserto ao reinado de Saul, temos 774 anos; de Saul a Ciro, 583; de Ciro a Jesus, 538.”¹

¹ Perceba que a soma dos 6 períodos, tão irregulares entre si, dá exatamente 6.000. Mas se o mundo tem 6.000 anos, e esta Enciclopédia é do século XVIII, provavelmente esses historiadores eram contemporâneos de Cristo, ou muito maus matemáticos!

Outros, partidários da teoria de que a Terra não tem mais do que 4 mil anos de existência, computam da Criação ao Dilúvio 1.656 anos; do Dilúvio ao pacto monoteísta de Abraão, 426; do aparecimento de Abraão à fuga do Egito, 430; entre o grande expurgo e a fundação do Templo de Salomão, mais 480; a partir da fundação do templo até o reinado de Ciro, 476; e de Ciro a Jesus 532.”¹

¹ Outra vez a mágica: as 6 parcelas totalizam 4 mil.

Um terceiro grupo contabiliza do Gênese à destruição de Tróia precisamente 2.830 anos; daí à fundação de Roma, mais 3.250 anos; de quando Cipião¹ venceu Cartago até Jesus Cristo, dois séculos exatos; até Constantino surgir, transcorreram-se mais 312 anos; o reestabelecimento do Império do Ocidente ter-se-ia dado, por fim, 808 anos após.”²

¹ Públio Cornélio Cipião Africano, cônsul e general romano. Com uma margem de erro de uma ou duas décadas, a contagem desse intervalo segue muito provável, segundo os dados da historiografia contemporânea, aperfeiçoada desde o tempo dos Enciclopedistas.

² Essa conta, que fecha em 7.400, é a mais particular das 3, e além de escolher “menos datas bíblicas” se estende até quase a época de Diderot. Curioso, no entanto, é a uniformidade das perspectivas sobre as dimensões da “idade do universo” então: nunca mais antigo do que um punhadinho de milênios que se contam nos dedos.

AGITATEURS, s. m. (Hist. mod.) nom que l’on donna en Angleterre vers le milieu du siecle passé à certains Agens ou Solliciteurs que l’armée créa pour veiller à ses intérêts. Cromwel se ligua avec les Agitateurs, trouvant qu’ils étoient plus écoutés que le Conseil de guerre même. Les Agitateurs commencerent à proposer la réforme de la Religion & de l’État, & contribuerent plus que tous les autres factieux à l’abolition de l’Épiscopat & de la Royauté: mais Cromwel parvenu à ses fins par leur moyen, vint à bout de les faire casser.

AGLIBOLUS.png* AGLIBOLUS, (Myth.) Dieu des Palmyréniens. Ils adoroient le soleil sous ce nom: ils le représentoient sous la figure d’un jeune homme vêtu d’une tunique relevée par la ceinture, & qui ne lui descendoit que jusqu’au genou, & ayant à sa main gauche un petit bâton en forme de rouleau; ou selon Hérodien, sous la forme d’une grosse pierre ronde par enbas, & finissant en pointe; ou sous la forme d’un homme fait, avec les cheveux frisés, la figure de la lune sur l’épaule, des cothurnes aux piés, & un javelot à la main.”

AGON, s. m. (Hist. anc.) chez les Anciens étoit une dispute ou combat pour la supériorité dans quelqu’exercice du corps ou de l’esprit.

Il y avoit de ces combats dans la plupart des fêtes anciennes en l’honneur des Dieux ou des Héros. V. Fête, Jeu.

Il y en avoit aussi d’institués exprès, & qui ne se célébroient pas simplement pour rendre quelque fête plus solemnelle. Tels étoient à Athenes l’agon gymnicus, l’agon nemeus, institué par les Argiens dans la 53e Olympiade; l’agon olympius, institué par Hercule 430 ans avant la premiere Olympiade. Voyez Néméen, Olympique, &c.

Les Romains, à l’imitation des Grecs, instituerent aussi de ces sortes de combats. L’Empereur Aurélien en établit un sous le nom d’agon solis, combat du soleil; Diocletien un autre, sous le nom d’agon capitolinus, qui se célébroit tous les quatre ans à la maniere des jeux Olympiques. C’est pourquoi au lieu de compter les années par lustres, les Romains les ont quelquefois comptées par agones.

Agon se disoit aussi du Ministre dans les sacrifices dont la fonction étoit de frapper la victime. Voyez Sacrifice, Victime.

On croit que ce nom lui est venu de ce que se tenant prêt à porter le coup, il demandoit: agon ou agone, frapperai-je?

L’agon en ce sens s’appelloit aussi pona cultr arius & victimarius. (G)”

AGRANIES, AGRIANIES ou AGRIONIES, (Hist. anc. Myth.) fête instituée à Argos en l’honneur d’une fille de Proëtus. Plutarque décrit ainsi cette fête. Les femmes y cherchent Bacchus, & ne le trouvant pas elles cessent leurs poursuites, disant qu’il s’est retiré près des Muses. Elles soupent ensemble, & après le repas elles se proposent des énigmes: mystere qui signifioit que l’érudition & les Muses doivent accompagner la bonne chere; & si l’ivresse y survient, sa fureur est cachée par les Muses qui la retiennent chez elles, c’est-à-dire, qui en répriment l’excès. On célébroit ces fêtes pendant la nuit, & l’on y portoit des ceintures & des couronnes de lier[r]e, arbuste consacré à Bacchus & aux Muses. (G)”

* AGRÉABLE, GRACIEUX, “On aime la rencontre d’un homme gracieux; il plaît. On recherche la compagnie d’un homme agréable; il amuse. Les personnes polies sont toûjours gracieuses. Les personnes enjoüées sont ordinairement agréables. Ce n’est pas assez pour la société d’être d’un abord gracieux, & d’un commerce agréable. On fait une réception gracieuse. On a la conversation agréable. Il semble que les hommes sont gracieux par l’air, & les femmes par les manières.”

AGRICULTURE. “Les Egyptiens faisoient honneur de son invention à Osiris; les Grecs à Cerès & à Triptoleme son fils; les Italiens à Saturne ou à Janus leur Roi, qu’ils placerent au rang des Dieux en reconnoissance de ce bienfait. L’agriculture fut presque l’unique emploi des Patriarches, les plus respectables de tous les hommes par la simplicité de leurs moeurs, la bonté de leur ame, & l’élevation de leurs sentimens. Elle a fait les délices des plus grands hommes chez les autres peuples anciens. Cyrus le jeune avoit planté lui-même la plûpart des arbres de ses jardins, & daignoit les cultiver; & Lisandre de Lacédemone, & l’un des chefs de la République, s’écrioit à la vûe des jardins de Cyrus: O Prince, que tous les hommes vous doivent stimer heureux, d’avoir sü joindre ainsi la vertu à tant de grandeur & de dignité! Lisandre dit la vertu, comme si l’on eût pensé dans ces tems qu’un Monarque agriculteur ne pouvoit manquer d’être un homme vertueux; & il est constant du moins qu’il doit avoir le goût des choses utiles & des occupations innocentes. Hiéron de Syracuse, Attalus, Philopator de Pergame, Archelaüs de Macédoine, & une infinité d’autres, sont loüés par Pline & par Xénophon, qui ne loücient pas sans connoissance, & qui n’étoient pas leurs sujets, de l’amour qu’ils ont eu pour les champs & pour les travaux de la campagne. La culture des champs fut le premier objet du Législateur des Romains; & pour en donner à ses sujets la haute idée qu’il en avoit lui-même, la fonction des premiers Prêtres qu’il institua, fut d’offrir aux Dieux les prémices de la terre, & de leur demander des recoltes abondantes. Ces Prêtres étoient au nombre de douze; ils étoient appellés Arvals, de arva, champs, terres labourables. Un d’entr’eux étant mort, Romulus lui-même prit sa place; & dans la suite on n’accorda cette dignité qu’à ceux qui pouvoient prouver une naissance illustre. Dans ces premiers tems, chacun faisoit valoir son héritage, & en tiroit sa subsistance. Les Consuls trouverent les choses dans cet état, & n’y firent aucun changement. Toute la campagne de Rome fut cultivée par les vainqueurs des Nations. On vit pendant plusieurs siecles, les plus célebres d’entre les Romains, passer de la campagne aux premiers emplois de la République, &, ce qui est infiniment plus digne d’être observé, revenir des premiers emplois de la République aux occupations de la campagne. Ce n’étoit point indolence; ce n’étoit point dégoût des grandeurs, ou éloignement des affaires publiques: on retrouvoit dans les besoins de l’État nos illustres agriculteurs, toujours prêts à devenir les défenseurs de la patrie. Serranus semoit son champ, quand on l’appella à la tête de l’Armée Romaine: Quintius Cincinnatus la bouroit une piece de terre qu’il possédoit au-delà du Tibre, quand il reçut ses provisions de Dictateur; Quintius Cincinnatus quitta ce tranquille exercice; prit le commandement des armées; vainquit les ennemis; fit passer les captifs sous le joug; reçut les honneurs du triomphe, & fut à son champ au bout de 16 jours. Tout dans les premiers tems de la République & les plus beaux jours de Rome, marqua la haute estime qu’on y faisoit de l’agriculture: les gens riches, locupletes, n’étoient autre chose que ce que nous appellerions aujourd’hui de gros Laboureurs & de riches Fermiers. La premiere monnoie, pecunia à pecu, porta l’empreinte d’un mouton ou d’un boeuf, comme symboles principaux de l’opulence: les registres des Questeurs & des Censeurs s’appellerent pascua. Dans la distinction des citoyens Romains, les premiers & les plus considérables furent ceux qui formoient les tribus rustiques, rusticoe tribus: c’étoit une grande ignominie, d’être réduit, par le défaut d’une bonne & sage oeconomie de ses champs, au nombre des habitans de la ville & de leurs tribus, in tribu urbana. On prit d’assaut la ville de Carthage: tous les livres qui remplissoient ses Bibliotheques furent donnés en présent à des Princes amis de Rome; elle ne se réserva pour elle que les 28 livres d’agriculture du Capitaine Magon. Decius Syllanus fut chargé de les traduire; & l’on conserva l’original & la traduction avec un très-grand soin. Le vieux Caton étudia la culture des champs, & en écrivit: Ciceron la recommande à son fils, & en fait un très bel éloge: Omnium rerum, lui dit-il, ex quibus aliquid exquisitur, nihil est agriculturâ melius, nihil uberius, nihil dulcius, nihil homine libero dignius. Mais cet éloge n’est pas encore de la force de celui de Xénophon. L’agriculture naquit avec les lois & la société; elle est contemporaine de la division des terres. Les fruits de la terre furent la premiere richesse: les hommes n’en connurent point d’autres, tant qu’ils furent plus jaloux d’augmenter leur félicité dans le coin de terre qu’ils occupoient, que de se transplanter en différens endroits pour s’instruire du bonheur ou du malheur des autres: mais aussitôt que l’esprit de conquête eut agrandi les sociétés & enfanté le luxe, le commerce, & toutes les autres marques éclatantes de la grandeur & de la méchanceté des peuples; les métaux devinrent la représentation de la richesse, l’agriculture perdit de ses premiers honneurs; & les travaux de la campagne abandonnés à des hommes subalternes, ne conserverent leur ancienne dignité que dans les chants des Poëtes. Les beaux esprits des siecles de corruption, ne trouvant rien dans les villes qui prêtât aux images & à la peinture, se répandirent encore en imagination dans les campagnes, & se plurent à retracer les moeurs anciennes, cruelle satyre de celles de leur tems: mais la terre sembla se venger elle-même du mépris qu’on faisoit de sa culture. «Elle nous donnoit autrefois, dit Pline, ses fruits avec abondance; elle prenoit, pour ainsi dire, plaisir d’être cultivée par des charrues couronnées par des mains triomphantes; & pour correspondre à cet honneur, elle multiplioit de tout son pouvoir ses productions. Il n’en est plus de même aujourd’hui; nous l’avons abandonnée à des Fermiers mercenaires; nous la faisons cultiver par des esclaves ou par des forçats; & l’on seroit tenté de croire qu’elle a ressenti cet affront.» [Je] ne sai[s] quel est l’état de l’agriculture à la Chine: mais le Pere du Halde nous apprend que l’Empereur, pour en inspirer le goût à ses sujets, met la main à la charrue tous les ans une fois; qu’il trace quelques sillons; & que les plus distingués de sa Cour lui succèdent tour à tour au même travail & à la même charrue.”

Constantin le Grand défendit à tout créancier de saisir pour dettes civiles les esclaves, les boeufs, & tous les instrumens du labour. «S’il arrive aux créanciers, aux cautions, aux Juges mêmes, d’enfreindre cette loi, ils subiront une peine arbitraire à laquelle ils seront condamnés par un Juge supérieur.» Le même Prince étendit cette défense par une autre loi, & enjoignit aux Receveurs de ses deniers [denários], sous peine de mort, de laisser en paix le Laboureur indigent. Il concevoit que les obstacles qu’on apporteroit à l’agriculture diminueroient l’abondance des vivres & du commerce, & par contrecoup l’étendue de ses droits. Il y eut un tems où l’habitant des provinces étoit tenu de fournir des chevaux de poste aux couriers, & des boeufs aux voitures publiques; Constantin eut l’attention d’excepter de ces corvées le cheval & le boeuf servant au labour.”

Mais les lois qui protegent la terre, le Laboureur & le boeuf, ont veillé à ce que le Laboureur remplît son devoir. L’Empereur Pertinax voulut que le champ laissé en friche appartînt à celui qui le cultiveroit; que celui qui le défricheroit fût exempt d’imposition pendant dix ans; & s’il étoit esclave, qu’il devînt libre. Aurelien ordonna aux Magistrats municipaux des villes d’appeller d’autres citoyens à la culture des terres abandonnées de leur domaine, & il accorda trois ans d’immunité à ceux qui s’en chargeroient. Une loi de Valentinien, de Théodose & d’Arcade met le premier occupant en possession des terres abandonnées, & les lui accorde sans retour, si dans l’espace de deux ans personne ne les réclame: mais les Ordonnances de nos Rois ne sont pas moins favorables à l’agriculture que les Lois Romaines.”

Cet article n’auroit point de fin, si nous nous proposions de rapporter toutes les Ordonnances relatives à la conservation des grains depuis la semaille jusqu’à la récolte. Mais ne sont-elles pas toutes bien justes? Est-il quelqu’un qui voulût se donner les fatigues & faire toutes les dépenses nécessaires à l’agriculture, & disperser sur la terre le grain qui charge son grenier, s’il n’attendoit la récompense d’une heureuse moisson?”

«Si quelque voleur de nuit dépouille un champ qui n’est pas à lui, il sera pendu, s’il a plus de 14 ans; il sera battu de verges, s’il est plus jeune, est livré au propriétaire du champ, pour être son esclave jusqu’à ce qu’il ait réparé le dommage, suivant la taxe du Préteur. Celui qui mettra le feu à un tas de blé, sera fouetté & brûlé vif. Si le feu y prend par sa négligence, il payera le dommage, ou sera battu de verges, à la discrétion du Préteur».

AGRIPPA, (Hist. anc.) nom que l’on donnoit anciennement aux enfans qui étoient venus au monde dans une attitude autre que celle qui est ordinaire & naturelle, & specialement à ceux qui étoient venus les piés en devant.”

ce mot a été à Rome un nom, puis un surnom d’hommes, qu’on a féminisé en Agrippina. (G)”

* AGUAS, (Géogr.) peuple considérable de l’Amérique méridionale, sur le bord du fleuve des Amazones. Ce sont, dit-on dans l’excellent Dictionnaire portatis de M. Vosgien, les plus raisonnables des Indiens: ils serrent la tête entre deux planches à leurs enfans aussitôt qu’ils sont nés.”