LYSIAS’ SELECTED SPEECHES (edição bilíngüe) (Greek Series for Colleges and Schools) – Eds. Weir Smyth & Darwin Adams, 1905.


hoplita: soldado grego de infantaria, com pesada armadura equipada

meteco: ver “metecs” 3 parágrafos abaixo e também “metics”


In Lysias we have the first really successful application of rhetorical theory to practical speech. The more vehement and showy style of Demosthenes, imitated by Cicero, and through him passed on to the modern world, long dominated English oratory.”


Introdução e Considerações sobre o Discurso

It is an attack upon Eratosthenes (probably from the autumn of 403 BC), one of the Thirty, and involves the discussion of the whole administration of that body, and to some extent of that of the 400, the oligarchy of 411 BC.

Early in the administration of the Thirty Eratosthenes had set forth with others of their number to arrest certain rich metecs [estrangeiros domiciliados em Atenas, caso da família de Lísias]. It fell to him to seize Polemarchus, Lysias’s brother, who was immediately put to death. When, after the battle at Munychia (Spring, 403), most of the Thirty retired to Eleusis, Eratosthenes, with one other of their number, remained in Athens, though not as a member of the new governing board of Ten. In the final amnesty between the 2 parties it was provided that any one of the Thirty who was willing to risk a judicial examination of his conduct as a member of the late administration might remain in the city. Otherwise all were obliged to settle at Eleusis or remain permanently in exile. Eratosthenes, believing himself to be less compromised than the others of the Thirty, ventured to remain and submit to his <accounting>.”

The more moderate democrats, notably Thrasybulus, the hero of the Return, were totally opposed to any attempt to strike back at the city party. (…) The task then which Lysias undertook was difficult. He had to convince the jury that the one man of the Thirty who was commonly believed least responsible for their crimes was so guilty that he was not to be forgiven, at a time when the watchword of the leaders of both parties was <Forgive and forget>.” “The real question of the day was as to the power of the democracy to regain the confidence and support of the great conservative middle class, men who had formerly been represented by Theramenes, and later by Eratosthenes. If these men could be convinced that the restored democracy would use its power moderately, foregoing revenge for the past, turning its back upon the demagogue and the political blackmailer, there was hope for the future.”

No one could blame the Sicilian Lysias for seeking his personal revenge [hehehe] (…) It is this larger political aspect of the case which gives to the speech against Eratosthenes its historical interest. (…) To distinguish between those of the Thirty who had sought to establish personal tyranny and those who had honestly striven for a reformed, conservative democracy was of first importance.”


1. EXÓRDIO. Apresentação do caso.

2. NARRATIVA. Contextualização da procedência de Lísias e do crime dos Trinta contra esta família.

3. DIGRESSÃO. Denúncia formal do réu.



A. Argumentos imediatos.

i. Eratóstenes agiu de forma contraditória.

ii. Por que a tese de que Eratóstenes foi compelido ao ato é sem base.

iii. O caso pode gerar precedentes perigosos para cidadãos e estrangeiros de Atenas.

iv. É contraditório executar os generais de Arginusa e perdoar os Trinta Tiranos.

v. Reiteração.

B. Argumentos sobre a biografia de Eratóstenes. O passado reputado de Eratóstenes não entraria em jogo na acusação presente.

i. A conduta de Eratóstenes no período dos 400.

ii. A conduta de Eratóstenes no estabelecimento do governo dos Trinta.

iii. A conduta de Eratóstenes enquanto um dos Trinta.

iv. A conduta de Eratóstenes no período dos Dez.

C. Argumento-réplica sobre Eratóstenes ser amigo e apoiador de Teramenes. Ataque à carreira de Teramenes.

i. A conduta de Teramenes e suas conexões com os 400.

ii. A conduta de Teramenes depois do governo dos 400.

iii. A conduta de Teramenes na negociação da paz.

iv. A conduta de Teramenes quando do estabelecimento dos 30.

v. Conclusão: A amizade com Teramenes não é suficiente como prova de lealdade.

D. Conclusões gerais.


A. A pior pena existente ainda seria exígua perante o montante de crimes cometidos.

B. Ataque ao advogado do réu.

C. O perdão seria equivalente a aprovar a conduta dos réus.

D. Apelo aos partidos (júri).

i. Aos aristocratas

ii. Aos democratas

E. Conclusão: Sumário dos crimes; apelo ao júri para executar a vingança dos mortos.

The speaker can pass at once to the narrative of the conduct upon which he bases his attack. And here Lysias is at his best. In the simplest language he describes the life of his own family and their sufferings (…) the sentences become very short, significant details of the story follow rapidly, and the hearer is made to see the events as if passing before his eyes.”

The term digression applies to this section only as an interruption of the strictly logical order, which would require the presentation of the arguments before the attempt to move the feelings of the jury by denunciation.”



In the review of Eratosthenes’s conduct as one of the Thirty (§§48-52), Lysias can bring no specific charge beyond that of the arrest of Polemarchus. He tries to forestall the plea of Eratosthenes that he actively opposed certain of the crimes of the Thirty by the shrewd claim that this would only prove that he could safely have opposed them all. He finally (§§53-61) tries to give the impression that Eratosthenes was connected with the bad administration of the Board of Ten, a charge that seems to be entirely without foundation.

To a jury already prejudiced by the affecting narrative of the arrest, and hurried on from one point to another, this whole attack was convincing; but the modern reader finds little of real proof, and an abundance of sophistry.”


Lysias comes now to the refutation of the main argument of the defense, that Eratosthenes was a member of that honorable minority among the Thirty who opposed the crimes of Critias’ faction, and whose leader, Theramenes, lost his life in the attempt to bring the administration to an honest course.

Whatever we may think of the real motives of Theramenes, there can be no question that at the time of this trial the people were already coming to think of him as a martyr for popular rights. All knew Eratosthenes was his friend and supporter. Lysias saw therefore that he must blacken the character of Theramenes. He accordingly turns to a rapid review of his career. In a few clear-cut sentences he pictures Theramenes at each crisis, always the same shrewd, self-seeking, unscrupulous man, always pretending to serve the state, always ready to shift to the popular side, always serving his own interests.

The attack is a masterpiece. There is no intemperate language, no hurling of epithets. <He accuses by narrating. The dramatically troubled time from 411 to 403 rises before us in impressive pictures. At every turn Theramenes appears as the evil genius of the Athenians. His wicked egoism stands out in every fact.> Bruns, Das literarische Porträt der Griechen, p. 493.

(…) but is this picture of Theramenes true to the facts? In his narrative Lysias selects those acts only upon which he can put a bad construction. He fails to tell us what appears so clearly in the narrative of Thucydides, and in the defense put into the mouth of Theramenes by Xenophon in his answer to Critias before the Senate, that his opposition to the extreme faction of the 400 was, whatever may have been his motive, an efficient cause of their overthrow, at a time when there was reason to fear that they were on the point of betraying the city to the Peloponnesians. (…) He misrepresents Theramenes’ responsibility for the hard terms of the Peace, and he ignores the fact that the final opposition to Critias which cost him his life was in every particular what would have been demanded of the most patriotic citizen. (…) Thucydides’ praise of the administration after the 400 is rather a praise of the form of government than of its leader.”

In the next generation opinions were sharply divided as to the character of Theramenes. Aristotle, to whom he stood as the representative of the ideal government by the upper class, places him among the great men of Athens.” “The best of the statesmen at Athens, after those of early times, seem to have been Nicias, Thucydides, and Theramenes. As to Nicias and Th., nearly every one agrees that they were not merely men of birth and character, but also statesmen, and that they acted in all their public life in a manner worthy of their ancestry. On the merits of Theramenes opinion is divided, because it so happened that in his time public affairs were in a very stormy state. But those who give their opinion deliberately find him not, as his critics falsely assert, overthrowing every kind of constitution, but supporting every kind so long as it did not transgress the laws; thus showing that he was able, as every good citizen, to live under any form of constitution, while he refused to countenance illegality and was its constant enemy. (Kenyon’s trans.) “Para um resumo das discussões modernas sobre o caráter de Teramenes, ver Busolt, História Grega, III. ii. 1463 [original em alemão].”

By a phrase here, a single invidious word there, he shrewdly colors the medium through which we see the events. Every statement is so turned as to become an argument. (…) even antitheses are only sparingly used.”

The study of the style of this speech is especially interesting because it is the only extant speech which Lysias wrote for his own delivery, and one of the first in his career as a practical speech writer. In preparing each of his other speeches he had to adapt the speech to the man who was to deliver it; in this he was free to follow his judgement of what a speech should be.”

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At first, indeed, they behaved with moderation towards the citizens and pretended to administer the state according to the ancient constitution … and they destroyed the professional accusers and those mischievous and evil-minded persons who, to the great detriment of the democracy, had attached themselves to it in order to curry favor with it. With all of this the city was much pleased, and thought the Thirty did it with the best of motives. But so soon as they had got a firmer hold on the city, they spared no class of citizens, but put to death any persons who were eminent for wealth or birth or character” Arist. “Xenophon gives similar testimony” “The Tholus, a building near the senate-house, was the headquarters and dining-hall of the Prytanes. It was thus the natural center of the administration of the Thirty, who used the subservient Senate to give a form of legality to their own acts.”

when the Thirty took control they found the treasury exhausted by the expenses of the Peloponnesian War. They had not only to provide for the ordinary expenses of the government but to pay their Spartan garrison on the Acropolis. Xenophon says that the despoiling of the metics [a família de Lísias inclusa] was to meet the latter expense.”

This entrance into Lysias’ house was, in spirit, a violation of the principle that a man’s house is his sanctuary, a principle as jealously maintained in Athens as in modern states.”

Gardner, The Greek House, in: Journal of Hellenic Studies, 21 (1901), 293ss.

Gardner & Jevons, Greek Antiquities

One of the most common charges against them is that they condemned citizens to death without a trial, whereas the right of every citizen to trial with full opportunity for defense was one of the fundamental principles of the democracy. This right was extended to metics also.”

the doubling of words merely for rhetorical effect is as rare in the simple style of Lysias as it is common in the rhetorical style of Demosthenes” (vide anexo ao fim)

the ceremonial impurity of a murderer was so great that the accused was, after indictment, forbidden entrance to the sanctuaries or the Agora while awaiting trial. The trial itself was held in the open air, in order, as Antiphon (5:11) tells us, <that the jurors might not come into the same inclosure with those whose hands were defiled, nor the prosecutor come under the same roof with the murderer.>

whom in the world WILL you punish? KAÍ is used as an emphatic particle in questions, implying the inability of the speaker to answer his own question, or his impatience at the circumstances that raise the question. Its only English equivalent is a peculiar emphasis.” “In English we prefer the indefinite expression of place, in the world.”

We infer that some of the states friendly to Athens had made formal proclamation excluding members of the late oligarchy from taking refuge with them. While Eleusis had been set apart as an asylum for the Thirty and their supporters, it is not unlikely that some, fearing that the democracy would not keep its promise of immunity, sought refuge in other states.”

In the summer of 406 the Athenian fleet under Conon was shut up in the harbor of Mytilene by the Lacedaemonians [Spartans]. Desperate efforts were made for their rescue; a new fleet was hastily equipped and manned by a general call to arms. Seldom had an expedition enlisted so many citizens of every class. The new fleet met the enemy off the Arginusae islands, and, in the greatest naval battle ever fought between Greek fleets, won a glorious victory. The generals, wishing to push on in pursuit of the enemy, detailed 47 ships under subordinate officers to rescue the Athenian wounded from the wreckage. A sudden storm made both pursuit and rescue impossible, and more than 4,000 men, probably half of them Athenian citizens, were lost. The blow fell upon so many homes in Athens that public indignation against the generals passed all bounds, and the generals were condemned to death. Not only was the sentence in itself unjust, but it was carried by a vote against the accused in a body, in violation of the law’s guaranty of a separate vote upon the case of every accused citizen. A reaction in feeling followed, a part of the general reaction against the abuses of the democracy. That the popular repentance was not as general or as permanent as it ought to have been is clear from the fact that now, 3 years after the event, Lysias dares appeal to this precedent as ground for righteous severity in the present case; he is evidently not afraid that it will be a warning to them to beware of overseverity when acting under passion. Yet he shows his consciousness that he is on dangerous ground, for he takes pains to state the defense of the generals and the ground on which it was overruled.”

an exaggeration, as it is in §83, where he says that the death of these men and that of their children would not be sufficient punishment for them. No one ever seriously proposed at Athens to put sons to death for their fathers’ crimes, but lesser penalties were put upon them; loss of civil rights was often visited upon the sons of a man condemned, and the common penalty of death and confiscation of property brought heavy suffering to the family (so in the case of the family for which Lysias pleads in Speech XIX). Yet even here the treatment was not inhuman; Demosthenes (27:65) says, Even when you condemn any one, you do not take away everything, but you are merciful to wife or children, and leave some part for them.

For the seizure of the arms of all citizens outside the 3,000 supporters of the Thirty, see Xen. Hell., 2. 3. 20. (…) The seizure of these arms, which many of the citizens had carried through all the years of the Peloponnesian War, was one the most outrageous acts of the Thirty.”

the accused had opportunity for defense before the Senate, and, in the more serious cases, before the Ecclesia or a law court which had final jurisdiction. Under the Thirty the accused lost these privileges of defense.”

They deposed the Thirty, and they elected ten citizens, with full power, to put a stop to the war. [proto-cesarianos] Arist.

Eratosthenes was not one of the new board. The fact that he dared to remain in the city is a strong argument in his favor, which Lysias tries to counteract by throwing upon him the odium of connection with Phidon.”

There was a large conservative element in the city who were dismayed at seeing the radicals with Critias in control; they now took the lead, but were again disappointed in that the new board of Ten fell under sympathy with the Thirty at Eleusis, actively cooperated with them and continued their war policy. It was an instance, not infrequent in modern times, of the better element in a city rising up under a sudden impulse and apparently overthrowing a political machine, only to find the machine still in control after the excitement was over.”

Antiphon was the moving spirit in planning the revolution of 411; Pisander was the most prominent man in its execution; Phrynichus the most daring; and Theramenes, the son of Hagnon, was a prime mover in the abolition of the democracy, a man not without ability as a speaker and thinker.” Thucyd., 8:68

Sophocles, when asked by Pisander whether he, like the other probouloi, approved of the establishment of the 400, said, <Yes.> <But what? Did that not seem to you a bad business?> <Yes,> said he, <for there was nothing better to do.> Arist., Retórica

the people had been persuaded to accept the new form of government in the hope of ending the war through Alcibiades with Persian support; this hope had now failed”

After the deposition of the 400, Antiphon and Archeptolemus were put to death on the charge of having plotted with others of the oligarchs to betray the city to Sparta. Theramenes was at the head of the government, under a moderate constitution, from September 411 to about July 410.”

The English, and usually the Greek, more logically uses for, as giving the grounds for the general statement.”

Xenophon says that the Spartans had already announced the destruction of 10 stadia [2km] of the Long Walls as a condition of peace, and that what Theramenes offered to do was to find out from Lysander whether this was intended as a preliminary to the enslavement of the city, or only as a means of guaranteeing their faithful obedience to the other terms of peace. After remaining 3 months with Lysander he returned to Athens with the report that Lysander had no power in the matter, and that it must be determined by the government at Sparta.” “Ordinarily the Areopagus had no jurisdiction in political or military affairs, but this crisis was so extreme, involving the very existence of the city, that extraordinary action by the Areopagus is not unlikely.” “on the first mission, that to Lysander, Theramenes went alone, but had no authority to negotiate; on the second, he had authority, but it was shared with 9 fellow-ambassadors. Lysias purposely represents it as resting entirely with him.”

Os atenienses levaram meses para destruir as muralhas externas, cumprindo as condições da paz com Esparta. Tal qual a construção de um bom estádio candango, a demolição desses estádios de muro na Antiguidade estourou o prazo que havia sido fixado!…

Dracontides doubtless presented the general plan, and the Thirty were chosen to draft a constitution which should carry it out in detail.”

for the change of this word from an originally good meaning // cp. [compare] the history of English simple and silly.” RUDE SIMPLÓRIO SIMPLES HUMILDE SEM-PECADO IMBECIL DISTORCIDO ABSURDO DESORIENTADO TONTO TOLO AHHHH



adj. -li•er, -li•est, adj.

1. weak-minded or lacking good sense; stupid or foolish.

2. absurd; ridiculous; nonsensical.

3. stunned; dazed: He knocked me silly.

4. Archaic. rustic; plain; homely.

5. Archaic. weak; helpless.

6. Obs. lowly in rank or state; humble.


7. Informal. a silly or foolish person.

(1375–1425; Middle English sely, orig., blessed, happy, guileless, Old English gesaelig happy, derivative of sael happiness; c. Dutch zalig, German selig)

silli•ly, adv.

silli•ness, n.”

It was the plan of Sparta and her Athenian supporters to see to it that the fleet should never be restored. This was the more acceptable to the Thirty as the fleet had always been the center of democratic power. We are not surprised, then, to read in Isocrates (7:66) that the dockyards, which had cost not less than 1000 t., were sold by the Thirty for 3 t. to be broken up. But apparently the work was not completed, for 4 years after the Thirty Lysias (30:22) speaks of the dockyards as then falling into decay.”

PATERfação da MAEteria

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Introdução e Considerações sobre o Discurso

The charge was brought against Mantitheus that he had been a member of the cavalry which had supported the Thirty, and that he was therefore not a fit candidate for the office of senator.”

Before the Peloponnesian War Athens had made very little use of cavalry, but from the beginning of that war to the close of the next century a force of a thousand horsemen was maintained.”

An enrolment which thus offered opportunity for display in time of peace, and a less dangerous and less irksome form of service in war, attracted the more ambitious and proud young men of the aristocracy.”

Xenophon gives a striking testimony to the hatred of the democracy toward the cavalry corps in his statement that when, 4 years after the Return, the Spartans called upon Athens to furnish cavalry to help in the campaign in Asia Minor, the Athenians sent them 300 of those who had served as cavalrymen under the Thirty <thinking it a good thing for the Demos if they should go abroad and die there> (Hell. 3.I.4), a statement which betrays Xenophon’s own feeling toward the people.”

It must have seemed to many of the returned exiles that the men who had so actively supported the lost cause ought to be more than content with permission to live retired lives as private citizens, and that for them to come forward now, seeking public office or any political influence whatever, was the height of presumption”

Aristotle gives the following description of the examination of candidates for the archonship, which probably did not differ materially from the examination for the senatorship, with the exception of the demand on taxes below: <When they are examined, they are asked, first, ‘Who is your father, and of what demo? Who is your father’s father? Who is your mother? Who is your mother’s father, and of what demo?’ Then the candidate is asked whether he has an ancestral Apollo and a household Zeus, and where their sanctuaries are; next, if he possesses a family tomb, and where; then, if he treats his parents well, and pays his taxes, and has served on the required military expeditions.>

He had, in short, to write the speech which the young man would himself have written if he had possessed Lysias’ knowledge of law and politics, and Lysias’ training in argumentation.”

Lysias knew the Athenian audience too well to suppose that plausible proof or valid proof would carry the case.”

This omission of the usual appeal to the feelings of the hearers is quite in keeping with the confident tone of the whole speech. The omission of the peroration is also wise from the rhetorical point of view. Throughout the speech Lysias has repressed everything that could suggest artificial or studied speech; it is in keeping with this that he omits that part of the plea in which rhetorical art was usually most displayed.”

No speech of Lysias offered a better opportunity for his peculiar skill in fitting the speech to the man”

* * *

the Athenians did not venture to make universal their general principle of appointment to office by lot. The lot applied to officials whose work did not absolutely demand political or military experience or technical knowledge.”

30 mines was an average sum in a family of moderate means.”

The son of Alcibiades was alleged to have lost his property at dice.”

Thrasybulus was at first the idol of the people under the restored democracy; but his moderate and conservative policy, sternly opposed to every violation of the amnesty and every indulgence of revenge, grew vexatious to the more radical element. (…) The defeat of the expedition to Corinth in 394 was a blow to his reputation. (…) in the full tide of enthusiasm for the new navy and its commander Conon the people forgot their allegiance to Thrasybulus.”

the Homeric custom of wearing the hair long prevailed always at Sparta, but at Athens from about the time of the Persian Wars only boys wore long hair. When they became of age their hair was cut as a sign of their entering into manhood, and from that time on they wore hair about as short as modern custom prescribes; only the athletes made a point of wearing it close-cut. But there was a certain aristocratic set of young Spartomaniacs who affected Spartan appearance along with their pro-Spartan sentiments, and who were proud of wearing long hair, to the disgust of their fellow-citizens. These were the men who largely made up the cavalry corps.”

SPEECH XIX. ON THE STATE OF ARISTOPHANES [um homônimo do comediante, ao que tudo indica]

Introdução e Considerações sobre o Discurso

O reclamante da fala é supostamente o filho deste Aristófanes (mas o comentário diz que pode ter sido seu cunhado), morto sem julgamento e espoliado por Atenas, em busca da devolução de seus bens familiares ou de parte deles.

The events which led to this speech were connected with two dangerous tendencies in the political life of the 4th century, the enrichment of naval commanders through their office, and the hasty and unreasonable punishment of public officers in response to a fickle public sentiment.”

The city was attempting to take her old place in international affairs, with no sufficient revenue; the people saw in each new confiscation relief for the treasury.”

The case of Nicophemus and Aristophanes is but one among many between 388-386, when these prosecutions were at their height.”

Lísias defendia vários casos de ambos os lados: como promotor de Atenas, acusando a corrupção de homens da marinha e pedindo sua execução e confisco de suas riquezas; e neste, como advogado contra o Tribunal.

Speech against Epicrates: “In my opinion, Athenians, if you should put these men to death without giving them trial or opportunity of defense, they could not be said to have perished <without trial>, but rather to have received the justice that is their due.”

Speech againt Ergocles: “Why should you spare men when you see the fleets that they commanded scattering and going to pieces for lack of funds, and these men, who set sail poor and needy, so quickly become the richest of all the citizens?”

No other proem of Lysias is so long or developed in such detail. The reason is to be found in the fact that the speaker is addressing a jury who are thoroughly prejudiced against his case. Nicophemus and Aristophanes are believed to have been guilty of the gravest crimes, and now the defendant is believed to be concealing their property to the damage of the state. The prosecution have said everything possible to intensify this feeling.

The proem falls into two parts, one general, the other based on the facts peculiar to this case. It is surprising to find that for the first part Lysias has taken a ready-made proem from some book on rhetoric, and used it with slight changes. We discover this fact by comparing §§1-6 with the proem of Andocides’ speech On the Mysteries, delivered 12 years earlier, and the proem of Isocrates’ speech XV, published 34 years after that of Lysias. Andocides has divided the section, inserting a passage applicable to his peculiar case, but the 2 parts agree closely with Lysias’ proem. Isocrates had used a small part of the same material, but much more freely, changing the order and the phraseology, and amplifying the selected parts to fit his own style.” “Blass, arguing from certain phrases of Andocides, attributes the original proem to Antiphon.” “It was possible to compose them in such general terms that any one of them would fit a large class of cases. We hear of such collections by Thrasymachus, Antiphon, and Critias, and the mss. of Demosthenes have preserved to us a large collection of proems of his composition, 5 of which we find actually used in extant speeches of his.”

This adaptation of the language to the personality of the speaker (ethos) is perfected by delicate touches here and there.”

And here lies much of the power of Lysias. We often feel that his arguments are inconclusive; he fails to appeal strongly to the passions; in a case like this, where strong appeal might be made to our pity for the widow and little children, he seems cold. But the personality of the speaker and his friends is so real and their charm so irresistible, that at the close we find ourselves on their side.”

* * *

OS 3 FEDROS DA ATENAS SOCRÁTICA: “the Pheaedrus whom we know through Plato as a young friend of Socrates (Banquete), one of the group who listened to the Sophist Hippias (Protágoras), and the friend and enthusiastic admirer of Lysias, delicately portrayed in Plato’s Phaedrus. It was not strange that when the proposition was made to confiscate the property of Aristophanes, his widow (a de Fedro) turned for help to the friend of her first husband, now at the height of his fame as an advocate, nor that when the present suit against her father’s estate came on Lysias again wrote the defense.”

we have 65 acres at about $70 an acre. This is the only passage in Greek authors which, by giving both the contents and the price of land, enables us to reckon land value. As we know neither the situation nor the nature of this land, even this information is of little worth.”

This avoidance of the common oaths of everyday impassioned speech is as fitting to the calm and simple style of Lysias as is their constant use to the vehement style of Demosthenes.”

of the 15 t. expended in the 4 or 5 years in question, the speaker has reckoned 5 t. for house and land, and 10 t. for the various public services; of this sum 2.83 t. was for ordinary liturgies of a rich citizen (service as choragus and trierarch) and for direct war taxes – an average of a little less than half a talent a year. A still more important source of information as to the public services of rich Athenian citizens is the account which Lysias gives in XXI of the public expenditures of his client for the 1st seven years after he attained his majority; the items are as follows:

1st year.

Choragus (tragic chorus) 3000 dracmae

Choragus (men’s chorus) 2000 dr.

2nd year.

Choragus (Pyrrhic) 800

Choragus (men’s chorus) 5000

3rd year.

Choragus (cyclic chorus) 300

7th year.

Gymnasiarch 1200

Choragus (boys’ chorus) 1500

Trierarch, 7 years 6 talents

War tax 3000 dr.

War tax 4000

TOTAL 9 t. 2800+ dr.

This gives an average contribution of about 1.325 t. a year. But these years were the final years of the Peloponnesian War, when public burdens were extraordinarily heavy; the same man gives smaller sums for the time immediately following. Moreover, the speaker says that the law would have required of him less than ¼ this amount. Unfortunately we have neither in this case nor in that of Aristophanes any knowledge of the total property or income from which these contributions were made, so that we have no sufficient basis for comparison with modern times. We lack the same data in the case of the speaker’s father, whose services of this kind amounted to 9 t. 2000 dr. in a period of 50 years [0.18 t./ano]. We only know that at his death the estate amounted to between 4 and 5 talents”

Callias the 2nd was reputed to be the richest Athenian of his time. Hipponicus the 3rd inherited this wealth. He had 600 slaves let out in the mines; ha gave his daughter, on her marriage to Alcibiades, the unheard-of dowry of 10 talents. His son, the Callias of our text, finally dissipated the family wealth. He affected the new learning, and we have in Plato’s Protagoras (VI-ff.) a humorous description of his house infested by foreign sophists. His lavish expenditures upon flatterers and prostitutes still further wasted his property, and he died in actual want.”

Aristophanes’ attack on Socrates in the Clouds gains much of its force in the picture of the son, corrupted and made impudent by his new learning, contradicting and correcting his old father.”

the minimum of property which subjected a citizen to the liturgies was 3 t.”


Introdução e Considerações sobre o Discurso

This speech was written for a senator who was leading the prosecution of certain retail grain dealers, on the charge that, by buying up a larger stock of grain than the law permitted, they had injured the importers, and raised the price of grain to the consumers. It was probably delivered early in 386.

The successful expedition of Thrasybulus in 389-8 had brought the Hellespont under Athenian control, and thus secured the safety of the grain trade, which had been harassed by hostile fleets. But his death and the transfer of the command into less competent hands made the control of the Hellespont insecure again. At the same time the Spartans, having dislodged the Athenians from Aegina, were able constantly to endanger the grain ships at the home end of the route. The result was a period of unusual disturbance in the grain trade in the winter of 388-7.”

the dealers were forbidden by law to store up more than 1/3 of any cargo; 2/3 had to be thrown upon the market immediately. If then, a sufficient combination could be made among the retail dealers, they could hold the price down effectively.”

instead of passing the grain on to the consumers at a fair profit, the retailers used the low price to increase the stock of grain in their own storerooms, and put the retail price up according to the war rumors of the hour.”

The Senate had final jurisdiction only in case of penalties not greater than a fine of 500 dracmas (Demosthenes 47); in all other judicial cases their findings had to be passed on to a law court for final action.” Aristotle

Only one senator pressed the case against the dealers. The threatening of suits against rich men had become so common on the part of professional blackmailers that reputable men were loath to have anything to do with a case like this. The Senate found the charges sustained, and sent the case to a court under the presidency of the Thesmothetae.

The senator who had become so prominent in the prosecution felt obliged to carry the case through – otherwise he would have been believed to have been bought by the <ring of dealers>. He accordingly employed Lysias to prepare a speech for him to deliver in court. A study of this case involves a knowledge of the Athenian laws relating to commerce.

The small area of the Attic territory in proportion to population, and the poor adaptedness of the soil to grain production as compared with that of olives and figs, left the people largely dependent upon foreign sources for their grain. More than half of the supply came from foreign ports; the greater part from the Hellespont and the Euxine.”

to prevent the accumulation of grains in the retailers’ storerooms, and their consequent control of prices, it was provided by law, under penalty of death, that no retailer should buy more than 50 baskets at a time (but as to how much the standard grain basket held we have no knowledge).” “The whole retail grain trade was supervised by a board of Grain Commissioners; of their appointment and duties we learn as follows from Aristotle:

There were formerly ten, appointed by lot, 5 for the Piraeus, and 5 for the city, but now there are 20 for the city and 15 for the Piraeus.

Thus, the government followed the grain at every step from its reception in the Piraeus to the home of the consumer.” “At the first meeting of the Ecclesia in every prytany a part of the routine business was the consideration of the grain supply.”

The issue was so simple, the case so prejudiced in favor of the prosecution by the preliminary action of the Senate, and the odium of the act so certain, that Lysias was content to present every fact of the prosecution with the utmost simplicity and brevity.”

* * *

it is uncertain whether this was the Anytus who shared in the prosecution of Socrates. That Anytus, a rich tanner, was a leading democrat, associated with Thrasybulus in the Return. [But] this activity in protecting the poor man’s food supply would be quite in keeping with his democratic rôle.”

Neste tipo de caso (economia alimentar), metecos podiam integrar o júri.


Introdução e Considerações sobre o Discurso

Lysias wrote this speech in support of the plea of a crippled artisan for the retention of his name on the list of disabled paupers who received a dole of an obol a day from the public treasury.” “An allowance of 2 obols/day from the treasury was all that saved many people from starvation during the last third of the Peloponnesian War.”

A system of military pensions for men who had been disabled and for the sons and dependent parents of men who had died goes back to the time of Solon and Pisistratus: the soldiers’ pension under Pisistratus, after the example of Solon in the case of a single disabled veteran (Heraclides, cited by Plutarch) support and education of sons, introduced by Solon (Diogenes Laert.). The pension of dependent parents (Plato, Menexeno) presumably goes back to the same time.”

It is to be remembered that the jury pay, available to all who cared to sit in court, and the pay for sitting in the Ecclesia offered no small relief to the poor citizens.”

The ascription of the speech to Lysias seems to have been questioned in antiquity, and has recently been vigorously attacked by Bruns. The first objection raised by Bruns is that the tone and extent of the attack on the complainant are at variance with Lysias’ uniform calmness and restraint in attack; Lysias’ defendants confine their attacks on the prosecutors to their acts in the case itself, and are far from giving a general characterization of the men; the extent of the attack is always well proportioned to the gravity of the case. But in our speech we have a bitter and scornful attack on the whole character of the opponent, and it is as vehement as though the issue were some great thing – not an obol a day. Bruns sees a 2nd violation of the Lysian manner in the failure of the defendant to press the real points at issue –his physical disability and his poverty – and the comical pose in which he is made to give, instead of argument, a picture of himself.”

We may suppose that the complainant had called attention to the horseback riding, something that only the richer citizens could afford, as indicating that the cripple had rich friends who could and would support him; the cripple pretends that the argument was that he was physically sound enough to jump unto a horse and ride it!”

The parody on the common pleas of the day is carried out in the absurd appeal based on the past life of the speaker: he has been no sycophant; he, the cripple, has not been violent; he, the pauper, refrained from sharing in the government of the aristocratic Thirty!”


Introdução e Considerações sobre o Discurso

This speech was written for a citizen who had been one of the 3,000 admitted by the Thirty to a nominal share in their government. The speaker has now, under the restored democracy, been chosen (by vote or lot) to some office.”

his eligibility is challenged on the ground that he was a supporter of the Thirty. The complainants have brought no charge of specific acts, basing their attack upon the principle that former members of the oligarchical party cannot be trusted in office under the democracy. The defense must attack this principle, and it is this fact which raises the speech above the plane of personal questions, and makes it one of the most interesting documents in the history of the period immediately after the Return.

The oath of amnesty provided for the exclusion from the city of certain specified leaders of the oligarchy; to all other citizens it guaranteed oblivion of the past. Under any fair interpretation of this agreement the former supporters of the Thirty, even senators, office holders and soldiers under them, were perfectly eligible to office under the restored democracy. But to keep their pledges in the full spirit of them proved to be a severe test of the self-control of the party of the Return.

The wiser democratic leaders fully recognized the critical nature of the situation. An attempt by one of the returned exiles to violate the agreement and take vengeance on one of the city party was met by the summary seizure of the complainant and his execution by the Senate without trial (Aristotle). This made it clear that there was to be no policy of bloody reprisals; but the feeling of hostility remained.

Then, less than 3 years after the Return, came the attempt of the survivors of the Thirty, settled at Eleusis, to organize an attack by force. The prompt march of the citizen forces, together with their treacherous seizure of the oligarchical leaders, soon put down the movement. But now more than ever it seemed to the democratic masses intolerable that members of the city party should have equal privileges with themselves. Their spokesmen began to say that the aristocrats might consider the people generous indeed in allowing their former enemies to vote in the Ecclesia and to sit on juries; that to ask for more than this was an impertinence (Lys. 26. 2, 3).

Those who had been conspicuous supporters of the Thirty, or personally connected with their crimes of bloodshed and robbery, naturally refrained from thrusting themselves into prominence; indeed, few of these had probably remained in the city. But the first test came when men whose support of the Thirty had been only passive, and against whose personal character no charge could be raised, ventured to become candidates for office.”

This speech was written by Lysias for one of the first cases of this sort – it may have been the very first. The issue was vital. If a man like the speaker, of proved ability and personal character, untainted by crime under all the opportunities offered during the rule of the Thirty, was now to be excluded from office, the reconciliation must soon break down.”

The speech cannot be placed much later than 400, for the speaker, with all his pleas based on his good conduct before and during the rule of the Thirty, says nothing of his conduct since the Return (October, 394), nor does he cite cases of other men of his party holding office. Moreover, his warnings show that there are fugitives of the oligarchical party who still hope for a reaction and a counter blow against the democracy, and are not yet sure what will be the treatment of the former supporters of the Thirty, while he speaks simultaneously of the democracy not as established, but as in process of being established. ”

The sentences are long and dignified. Only after the proem is well under way is there any touch of artificial rhetoric.”

The argument is surprising; in the most blunt way he asserts that men follow self-interest in their attitude toward one form of government or another. He gives the jury to understand that he remained in the city under the Thirty because it was for his personal safety and for the safety of his property that he do so (…) he frankly tells the jury to assume that he acts from an enlightened self-interest” “The cool frankness with which he waives aside all claim of sentimental patriotism (…) must have been refreshing to a jury weary of hearing pious protestations of loyalty and sacrifice for the sacred democracy.”

he makes the keen plea that a man who kept his hands clean in times when there was every encouragement to wrong-doing can be counted on to be a law-abiding citizen under the present settled government.”

The tone of the attack is severe and earnest, but always dignified. There is no display of personal passion. The speaker stands above petty recriminations, and in a most convincing way exposes the conduct of a group of small politicians who were coming to the front on false claims of service in the late civil war, and who were destined to succeed before long in discrediting and thrusting aside the great patriots of the Return.”

The coolness with which the client explained all political attachments on the ground of personal interest had its effect upon Lysias, and he counted upon its having its effect upon others.(*)” Bruns, Literarisches Porträt

(*) “The speech for Mantitheus (XVI) offers a marked contrast in this respect. The young cavalryman is full of talk of his own achievements.”

The style is noticeably more rhetorical than is usual with Lysias.”

* * *

blackmail by the threat of bringing innocent men before the courts on trumped-up charges was the regular work of the <sycophants>. (…) Xenophon tells how, by advice of Socrates, Crito finally supported a lawyer of his own to silence these fellows by counterattacks (Mem. 2. 9.). (…) verdicts are more a matter of chance than of justice, and that it is wise by paying a small sum to be freed from great accusations and the possibility of great pecuniary losses (Isoc. 18. 9-ss.).”

from these words, it is probable that Epigenes, Demophanes and Clisthenes were the complainants in this case.”

Every Athenian official was required every prytany (35 days) to submit an account of his receipts and expenditures to a board of 10 auditors, selected by a lot from the Senate. At the close of his term of office he was also required to present complete accounts to another board”

SPEECH XXXII. THE SPEECH AGAINST DIOGITON (fragmentos) ou: O caso do avô (e tio-avô) escroque

Introdução e Considerações sobre o Discurso

On the death of Diodotus, Diogiton, his brother, became the guardian of his widowed daughter and her 3 children. For a time he concealed from them the fact of Diodotus’ death, and under the pretext that certain documents were needed for conducting his brother’s business, he obtained from his daughter the sealed package of papers that had been left with her. After the death of Diodotus became known, the widow turned over to Diogiton, her father [ou seja, sobrinha que casara com o tio], whatever property was in her possession, to be administered for the family.

Diogiton arranged a second marriage for her with one Hegemon, but gave 1/6 less dowry than the will prescribed. In due time he arranged a marriage for his granddaughter also; there is no claim that he gave with her less than the dowry required by the will.

For 8 years Diogiton supported the boys from the income of the estate, but when the elder came of age, he called them to him and told them that their father had left for them only 2840 dr. (the sum her daughter returned him before), and that this had all been expended for their support; that already he had himself paid out much for them, and that the elder must now take care of himself.” “The elder son was the plaintiff, and his brother-in-law the one delivering this speech prepared by Lysias.”

The mother [of the plaintiff; and daughter of the accused] had documentary proof of Diogiton having received one sum of 7 t. 4000 dr. and Diogiton now acknowledge in his sworn answer that he had received that sum, but he submitted detailed accounts purporting to show that it had all been used for the family [wise scoundrel!].” “The trial can be put in 402-1 or very soon thereafter.”

Dionysius of Halicarnassus¹ [quem proporcionou o manuscrito hoje conhecido, cerca de 400 anos depois, um orador romano, discípulo genuíno de Lísias, portanto] says that in the cause of a suit against members of one’s own family the rhetoricians are agreed that the plaintiff must above all things else guard against prejudice on the part of the jury in the suspicion that he is following an unworthy and litigious course. The plaintiff must show that the wrongs which he is attacking are unendurable; that he is pleading in behalf of other members of the family nearer to him and dependent upon him for securing redress; that it would be wicked for him to refuse his aid. He must show further that he has made every attempt to settle the case out of court.”

¹ D.H., On the ancient orators

The language of the proem, like that of Lysias’s proems in general, is for the most part periodic. A larger group of thoughts than is usual with Lysias is brought together under a single sentence structure from §1 up to §3. The impression is one of dignity and earnestness. There is no rhetorical embellishment either in grouping of cola or in play on words or phrases.”

In this narrative there is a stroke of genius that places it, maybe, above all the others from Lysias. This is the introduction of the mother’s plea in her own words. The mother could not plead in court, but by picturing the scene in the family council Lysias carries the jurors in imagination to that room where a woman pleads with her father, protesting against the unnatural greed that has robbed his own grandsons, and begging him to do simple justice to her children. As the jurors heard how the hearers of that plea arose and left the room, silent and in tears, there was little need for argument.” “The result was a work of art perfect in the concealment of art.”

The examination of the alleged expenditures is sharp and clear. The overcharge seems written on the face of every item, and the series culminates in a case of the most shameless fraud. (…) Out of an accounting of 8 years Lysias selects a very few typical items, makes the most of them in a brief, cutting comment, and then passes on before the hearers are wearied with the discussion of details.”

The word play, a turn of speech rare in Lysias, but a favorite among rhetoricians, is fitted to the sarcastic tone” “The personification, a figure equally rare in Lysias, is in the same sarcastic tone”

GRAU ZERO DA ESCRITURA: “The speaker might be any Athenian gentleman; we get no impression of his age or temperament or character.”

We have certainly a personal portrait of Diogiton, and this by the simplest recital of his words and conduct. There is no piling up of opprobrious epithets. By his own conduct greed is shown to have been the one principle of his life, from the time when he married his daughter to his brother to keep hold of his increasing property, to the day when, with hollow professions of regret and with shameless lies, he turned his grandsons out of doors.”

* * *

for the seclusion of Athenian women see Becker, Charicles (Eng. trans.)

a man of ordinary standing was expected to have a slave attendant as he went about his business. Even the schoolboy had his.” Na democracia grega, os mais liberais, como Aristófanes em suas comédias, lutavam não pela extinção da escravidão, o que seria um preconceito ocidental anacrônico, mas pela equanimidade na distribuição dos escravos entre os mais ricos e a classe média!

The Athenian tombs and monuments were among the finest products of Greek art. There was a tendency to extravagant outlay, but in most artistic form. The expense was great as compared with the expenditure of the living. We know of sums ranging from 3 minae to 2 talents. For full description and illustration see Percy Gardner’s Sculptured Tombs of Hellas.”

The statement that the boys would have been as rich as any boys in the city (having about 12 t. after the payment of expenses for the 8 years and of dowries for mother and sister) seems reasonable from what we know of Athenian fortunes. (…) The fabulously rich men of the older generation, Nicias and Callias, were popularly supposed to have had fortunes of 100 and 200 talents. But a man who had 8 to 10 talents at the close of the Peloponnesian War was a rich man. (…) It was only after Alexander’s conquests had brought Oriental ideas of luxury and the means to grow rich by conquest and by trade on a large scale that the Greek family needed very much money to be <rich> [, life in old Athens being pretty simple and costless].”


Should citizenship with full political rights be open to all Athenian as before the oligarchical revolution, or should it be restricted according to the understanding with Sparta the year before in connection with the surrender?”

Usener holds that the assembly for which the speech of Lysias was written included only the men of the upper classes. (…) Wilamowitz finds confirmation of Usener’s view in the statement of Aristotle that under the amnesty the former officials of the city party were to give their accounting before the citizens whose names were on the assessor’s lists, i.e. the men of the upper classes (…) In our speech of Lysias the appeal is certainly to the property holders, but that is natural in any case (…) For the position against Usener, see Blass; Meyer, Forshungen zur alten Geschichte, II

It might well be presumed that the restoration of the democratic constitution would be considered an affront to Sparta, and it is possible that the Spartans had made definite statements to this effect. (…) Who could guarantee the loyalty of the Demos to the terms of the amnesty, when once demagogue and sycophant should resume their trade?”

Since the amendment of Pericles in 451-0, those who could not show pure Athenian descent through both parents had been by law excluded from citizenship.” “These citizens had married foreign wives, and now many of them with their families were returning to Athens, bringing with them the question of admitting their half-Athenian sons to citizenship.”

This speech of Lysias is of especial interest as being his earliest extant speech, and perhaps the first he wrote for a client. It is, moreover, the only extant speech of his composed for delivery before the Ecclesia. We owe its preservation to Dionysius of Hal., who incorporated it in his treatise on Lysias (op. cit.)” Neither of the 2 other speeches preserved by Dionysius is given in full, and it is probable that he took this part from the beginning of a longer speech.”

The plan of this part is simple: to appeal to the great middle class, men who have shared in the exile and the Return, and to convince them that the loss of the support of the non-landholding citizens will be more dangerous to the restored democracy than the chance of offending Sparta by failing to meet her wishes as to the revision of the constitution. The event proved the soundness of the argument. Sparta did not interfere, and the democracy was soon called upon to take up arms again against the oligarchs at Eleusis.”

The brevity is like Lysias, but not the obscurity. (…) The tricks of the current rhetoric are conspicuous – repeated antithesis and balance of cola, the rhyming of successive cola, and play on the sound of words. We may see in these features evidence of immaturity in practical oratory.” “How soon and how thoroughly Lysias corrected both faults, we see in the speech against Diogiton (written a year or 2 later) and that for Mantitheus (some 10 years later).”

* * *

Much property had been confiscated by the 30, much abandoned in the flight of the owners. The restored Demos put the owners back into possession, and made no attempt at a distribution of land among themselves.”

The event showed that the Spartan insistence upon dictating in the internal affairs of Athens had been due to the personal influence of Lysander. With his fall from power this policy was abandoned, and the restored Athenian democracy was left undisturbed.”

In 418 Argos was forced into alliance with Sparta, and an oligarchical government was set up. But in the next year a successful democratic reaction carried the state over to the Athenian alliance, and with more or less of vigor it supported Athens throughout the war. Mantinea, which had joined Argos against Sparta, was like forced by the events of 418 to return to the Spartan alliance, and remained nominally under Sparta’s lead throughout the war. But she maintained her democratic constitution, and gave only indifferent support to the Spartans.”

If the Spartans conquer, they know that they will not succeed in enslaving the Argives and Mantineans, for both people always rise up again after their defeats, as stubborn as ever. It is not worthwhile, then, for the Spartans to risk serious losses of their own for the slight gain of an incomplete subjugation of their neighbors.”

* * *


The following account is in general based on Lipsius’s revision of Meier & Schömann, Der Attische Process, and his revision of Schömann, Griechische Alterthümer. The conditions described are those of the early part of the 4th century, the time of Lysias’ professional activity.”

The ancient court of Areopagus, composed of the ex-archons, sitting under the presidency of the religious head of the state, had sole jurisdiction in cases of premeditated homicide and arson.”

Any citizen over 30 years of age, who was possessed of full civic rights, was eligible for jury service. (…) In the time of Lysias there was not such a pressure of legal business as in the Periclean period, when the Athenian courts were crowded with cases from the league cities (…) the service might become the regular employment of men who were quite content with small payment for light work, and of old men whose days of physical labor were over. From the time of Pericles the pay of the juryman was an obol for each day of actual service, until Cleon raised it to 3 obols, about the wages of an unskilled laborer.”

It was not customary to arrest the accused and confine him while awaiting trial, except in a special class of crimes, prosecuted by special and more summary procedures; even then the defendant was released if he could furnish sufficient security for his appearance in court.”

Many cases involved the testimony of slaves. This evidence was held valid only when given under torture, on the supposition that the desire for release from the torture on the one side would counterbalance the natural desire of the slave to testify according to his master’s orders on the other. (…) The torture was conducted by the litigants themselves or by men agreed upon by them, or in some cases by public slaves. The point to which the torture should be carried was previously agreed upon by the litigants.”

The court room had wooden seats for the jurors, provision for listeners outside the railing which shut in the jurors’ seats, and 4 platforms.”

The law required every man to deliver his plea in person. If he had not the ability to compose a speech for himself, he could employ a professional speech writer to write it for him; he then committed the speech to memory and delivered it as his own.”

No opportunity for speeches in rebuttal was given except in the case of certain private suits.”

At the close of the speeches there was no exposition of the law by the presiding magistrate, nor was there any opportunity for the jurymen to consult one with another, but the herald of the court called upon them to come forward to the platform immediately and deposit their votes.”

the secrecy of the vote was fully protected.”

Imprisonment was not used as a penalty, but only (…) until the execution of a man condemned to death.”

When one of these professional haranguers, trained in the plausible rhetorical art, popular with the masses, and skilled in moving their emotions, threatened a quiet, law-abiding, wealthy citizen with a lawsuit, the citizen might well think twice before deciding to trust to the protection of the courts; to buy off the prosecutor was the simpler and safer way.”


The Greek rhetoricians, beginning probably with Antisthenes, a contemporary of Lysias, distinguished 3 great types of prose composition.” “They found in Thucydides the perfection of the grand style.” “Lysias was the representative of the plain style.” “Isocrates was the representative of the third style, the intermediate type. His style showed a union of the best qualities of the other two.”

So long as Thucydides, Lysias and Isocrates were the greatest of prose writers these 3 <styles> served the purpose of classification; but when the critics were confronted with the problem of defining and classifying the oratory of Demosthenes, they saw the inadequacy of the old formulae. (…) If he were placed with Isocrates as a representative of the intermediate style, the term would become so inclusive as to break down by its vagueness, and he could certainly be placed with neither of the extremes. The critics solved this problem of classification in two ways: some, like Demetrius, added a 4th style, the powerful style. This new <style> was a recognition of the fact that the real characteristic of Demosthenes’ oratory was not any mingling of grand and simple language, but a great power which moved men. Other critics, like Dionysius, made no attempt to remodel the old system, or to find a place for Dem. within it. They preferred rather to treat the style of Dem. as something outside and above the 3 older types: a style which gathered up into itself the virtues of all, and so was superior to all, a power of which the 3 became the instruments. [same shit!]”

Aristotle in the next generation gives in his Rhetoric (3.9) a discussion of the periodic style, which probably represents the developed theory of Thrasymachus,¹ and which has remained the fundamental exposition of periodic theory for both ancient and modern times. Aristotle calls the running style the strung style. The separate thoughts are strung along one after another like beads; the first gives no suggestion that the 2nd is coming, not the 2nd that a 3rd is to follow; the series may stop at any point, or it may go on indefinitely.

¹ (…) Here, as in almost all matters of rhetoric, we must distinguish between the forms which the practical speakers instinctively shaped for themselves, and the names and theories which the rhetoricians afterward applied to them. The testimony as to Thrasymachus is that of Suidas and of Theophrastus, cited by Dionysius. (…)”

Roberts’s edition (Demetrius on Style, Cambridge, 1902), with its admirable translation, commentary and glossary of technical terms, makes this treatise available as the best starting point for the study of the theory of Greek prose style.”

O período não é a unidade mínima. Dentro do estilo periódico, um período se subdivide em colas.

Lysias, even in his plainest style, followed the custom of his time, and made frequent use of antithetic periods.”

In the English we lose much of the periodic effect in losing the similarity of sound at the beginning and end of the cola, which in the Greek added to the unity produced by the parallelism of thought and construction, and by the uniform length of the cola.”

Spencer, Philosophy of Style

Aristotle holds that there are periods composed of a single colon (3.9.5). (…) He probably had in mind the case of a single colon of considerable length, based on sensus suspensio of words.”

If I have attained to any clearness of style, I think it is partly due to my having had to lecture 20 years as a professor at Harvard. It was always present to my consciousness that whatever I said must be understood at once by my hearers or never. Out of this, I, almost without knowing it, formulated the rule that every sentence must be clear in itself and never too long to be carried, without risk of losing its balance, on a single breath of the speaker.” James Russell Lowell

Aristotle’s theory of the ‘period’ was faulty in that it restricted it to the 2 types of the antithetic and the parallel structure. But the modern rhetoricians have gone to the other extreme in making the sensus suspensio the only basis of the period. From that error it has resulted that they speak of a period as being always a full sentence. (…) We should obtain a better theory of the rhetorical period by returning to the sound doctrine of Demetrius, modifying it only by removing the restriction of 4 cola. We should then treat the period as something quite independent of the sentence (though often coinciding with it)”

The fondness for antithesis, already marked in the earlier literature, reached its height in the rhetorical work of Gorgias and his pupils. As compared with them, Lysias is moderate in its use.”

As rhyme was not an ordinary feature of Greek poetry, its use in prose did not seem to the Greek hearer as incongruous as it does to us.”


While Solon’s other units of measure came into universal use in Athens, his linear foot failed to displace, for common purposes, the old Aeginetan foot of 330mm; but this old foot was reduced, probably to correspond to the reduction in the Solonian foot, giving the common working foot of about 328mm. Attic coinage was based on the talent, the weight of a cubic foot of water (or wine). The unit of coinage was the drachma, a coin of pure silver, weighing 1/6000 of a talent, and equal to 4.32 grams, or 66.667 + grains Troy. The modern bullion value of the drachma would be, for the period 1899-1903, $0.08+, and its value in US coined silver would be $0.1795+.”

1 obol = 3 20th century cents

6 obols = 1 drachma

100 drachmas = 1 mina ($18)

60 minas = 1 talento ($1080)

The standard silver dollar contains 371.25g of fine silver. Our silver <quarter> (our coin nearest to the drachma) contains only 347.22g of fine silver per dollar, but as our concern is chiefly with considerable sums of drachmas, the value is better taken on the dollar standard.”

The daric, a coin of pure gold, passed in Athens as equal to 20 drachmas (~$4).”

In the time of Lysias, a drachma would pay a day’s wages of a carpenter, or stone cutter, or superintendent of building operations.” = R$30 (ou seja: de 3 cents para 10 dólares em ~100 anos!)… 30.000% de inflação.

The average day’s wages in the US in 1900 for men corresponding to the Athenian 1-drachma workmen were: for carpenters, $2,63; to stone cutters, $3,45; brick layers, $3,84; stone setters, $3,82. US Bureau of Labor, Bulletin N. 53, July, 1904.”

MALLEUS MALEFICARUM (O MARTELO DA BRUXA) (com aproximadamente 30% de prólogos e prefácios, de facínoras ou não)

Kramer & Sprenger, 1486 (Summers,1928, 1948, [Wicca Society, 2001].


euhemerism: “The philosophy attributed to and named for Euhemerus, a Greek mythographer, holds that many mythological tales can be attributed to historical persons and events, the accounts of which have become altered and exaggerated over time.”

pitonisa: vidente, cartomante

zigurate: templo piramidal com terraplanagem (vários terraços configurando andares)

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Estimates of the death toll during the Inquisition worldwide range from 600,000 to as high as 9,000,000 (over its 250 year long course) (…) Thus has it been said that The Malleus Maleficarum is one of the most blood-soaked works in human history, in that its very existence reinforced and validated Catholic beliefs which led to the prosecution, torture, and murder of tens of thousands of innocent people.”

At the height of its popularity, The Malleus Maleficarum was surpassed in public notoriety only by The Bible. Its effects were even felt in the New World, where the last gasp of the Inquisition was felt in the English settlements in America (most notably in Salem, Massachusetts during the Salem Witch Trials).”

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IN the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, Amen. Know all men by these presents, whosoever shall read, see or hear the tenor of this official and public document, that in the year of our Lord, 1487, upon a Saturday, being the 19th day of the month of May, at the 5th hour after noon, or thereabouts, in the third year of the Pontificate of our most Holy Father and Lord, the lord Innocent, by divine providence Pope, the 8th of that name, in the very and actual presence of me Arnold Kolich, public notary, and in the presence of the witnesses whose names are hereunder written and who were convened and especially summoned for this purpose, the Venerable and Very Reverend Father Henry Kramer, Professor of Sacred Theology, of the Order of Preachers, Inquisitor of heretical depravity, directly delegated thereto by the Holy See together with the Venerable and Very Reverend Father James Sprenger, Professor of Sacred Theology and Prior of the Dominican Convent at Cologne, being especially appointed as colleague of the said Father Henry Kramer, hath on behalf both of himself and his said colleague made known unto us and declared that the Supreme Pontiff now happily reigning, lord Innocent, Pope, as hath been set out above [tá bom, que estilo grogue até para um nOTÁRIO!], hath committed and granted by a bull duly signed and sealed unto the aforesaid Inquisitors (…) granted (…) the power of making search and inquiry into all heresies, and most especially into the heresy of witches, an abomination that thrives and waxes strong in these our unhappy days, and he has bidden them diligently to perform this duty throughout the five Archdioceses of the five Metropolitan Churches, that is to say, Mainz, Cologne, Trèves, Salzburg and Bremen, granting them every faculty of judging and proceeding against such even with the power of putting malefactors to death (…) upon the tenor of the Apostolic bull, which they hold and possess and have exhibited unto us, a document which is whole, entire, untouched, and in no way lacerated or impaired, in fine whose integrity is above any suspicion. And the tenor of the said bull commences thus: <Innocent, Bishop, Servant of the servants of God, for an eternal remembrance. Desiring with the most heartfelt anxiety, even as Our Apostleship requires, that the Catholic Faith should be especially in this Our day increase and flourish everywhere, . . .> and it concludes thus: <Given at Rome, at S. Peter’s, on the 9 December of the Year of the Incarnation of Our Lord one thousand, four hundred and eighty-four, in the first Year of Our Pontificate.>” Ou seja: dois cretinos psicopatas levaram menos de 3 anos e ½ para escreverem esse verdadeiro TRATADO DE LESA-HUMANIDADE!

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There is left no doubt in the reader’s mind that Rev. Summers not only believed in the existence of witches as the Medieval Church perceived them, but felt that the Inquisition, and the Malleus, were both justified and necessary. In both of his introductions (especially the original 1928 introduction), he seems more intent on using the occasion to convince us that the murder of thousands of innocent people, for the crime of witchcraft, during the Inquisition was somehow noble, and that the authors of the Malleus, Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger, were visionaries of their time. One often finds the text of the introductions reading as if it had been written 500 years previously when the Malleus was originally published and the Inquisition was in full swing.”

There were 14 editions between 1487 and 1520, and at least 16 editions between 1574 and 1669. There are modern translations as well: Der Hexenhammer, J.W.R. Schmidt, 1906, and this one.”

This famous document should interest the historian, the student of witchcraft and the occult, and the psychologist who is interested in the medieval mind as it was confronted with various forces which could only be explained as witchcraft.”

Those readers whose familiarity with The Bible comes from the King James Version may be surprised by the references to these <obscure> books of The Bible, such as Paralipomenon, Apocalypse, Judith, and Tobias. These books were originally a part of The Bible, but were cut from the King James version as it was developed. They exist today primarily as a part of the Douay Rheims Version of The Bible, which is widely used by Catholics.”

DATAÇÃO POR CARBONO-14! “Many participants in this project have questioned my determination to transcribe the text of the Malleus Maleficarum by hand, as opposed to scanning the pages and using Optical Character Recognition (OCR) software to generate the text. While it is certain that the latter would prove more expedient and see the online edition posted much sooner, transcribing the text, while more labor intensive, ensures a more accurate translation to HTML format.” “In an age in which the Malleus Maleficarum could again achieve a relevance in the hands of radical Christian leaders, the accuracy of this online translation is, I believe, all-important.” Lovelace, 1998

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It has indeed lately come to Our ears, not without afflicting Us with bitter sorrow, that in some parts of Northern Germany, as well as in the provinces, townships, territories, districts, and dioceses of Mainz, Cologne, Trèves, Salzburg, and Bremen, many persons of both sexes, unmindful of their own salvation and straying from the Catholic Faith, have abandoned themselves to devils, incubi and succubi, and by their incantations, spells, conjurations, and other accursed charms and crafts, enormities and horrid offences, have slain infants yet in the mother’s womb, as also the offspring of cattle, have blasted the produce of the earth, the grapes of the vine, the fruits of the trees, nay, men and women, beasts of burthen, herd-beasts, as well as animals of other kinds, vineyards, orchards, meadows, pasture-land, corn, wheat, and all other cereals; these wretches furthermore afflict and torment men and women, beasts of burthen, herd-beasts, as well as animals of other kinds, with terrible and piteous pains and sore diseases, both internal and external; they hinder men from performing the sexual act and women from conceiving, whence husbands cannot know their wives nor wives receive their husbands; over and above this, they blasphemously renounce that Faith which is theirs by the Sacrament of Baptism, and at the instigation of the Enemy of Mankind they do not shrink from committing and perpetrating the foulest abominations and filthiest excesses to the deadly peril of their own souls, whereby they outrage the Divine Majesty and are a cause of scandal and danger to very many. And although (…) Henry Kramer and James Sprenger (…) have been by Letters Apostolic delegated as Inquisitors of these heretical pravities, and still are Inquisitors, the first in the aforesaid parts of Northern Germany, wherein are included those aforesaid townships, districts, dioceses, and other specified localities, and the second in certain territories which lie along the borders of the Rhine, nevertheless not a few clerics and lay-folk of those countries, seeking too curiously to know more than concerns them, since in the aforesaid delegatory letters there is no express and specific mention by name of these provinces, townships, dioceses, and districts, and further since the 2 delegates themselves and the abominations they are to encounter are not designated in detailed and particular fashion, these persons are not ashamed to contend with the most unblushing effrontery that these enormities are not practised in these provinces, and consequently the aforesaid Inquisitors have no legal right to exercise their powers of inquisition in the provinces, townships, dioceses, districts, and territories, which have been rehearsed, and that the Inquisitors may not proceed to punish, imprison, and penalize criminals convicted of the heinous offences and many wickednesses which have been set forth. Accordingly in the aforesaid provinces, townships, dioceses, and districts, the abominations and enormities in question remain unpunished not without open danger to the souls of many and peril of eternal damnation.”

We decree and enjoin that the aforesaid Inquisitors be empowered to proceed to the just correction, imprisonment, and punishment of any persons, without let or hindrance, in every way as if the provinces, townships, dioceses, districts, territories, yea, even the persons and their crimes in this kind were named and particularly designated in Our letters.”

We grant permission to the aforesaid Inquisitors, to one separately or to both, as also to Our dear son John Gremper, priest of the diocese of Constance, Master of Arts, their notary, or to any other public notary, who shall be by them, or by one of them, temporarily delegated to those provinces, townships, dioceses, districts, and aforesaid territories, to proceed, according to the regulations of the Inquisition, against any persons of whatsoever rank and high estate, correcting, fining, imprisoning, punishing, as their crimes merit, those whom they have found guilty, the penalty being adapted to the offence.”

DISSIMULANDIBUS: “excommunication, suspension, interdict, and yet more terrible penalties, censures, and punishment, as may seem good to him, and that without any right of appeal, and if he will he may by Our authority aggravate and renew these penalties as often as he list, calling in, if so please him, the help of the secular arm.

Non obstantibus . . . Let no man therefore . . . But if any dare to do so, which God forbid, let him know that upon him will fall the wrath of Almighty God, and of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul.”

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Witchcraft was inextricably mixed with politics. Matthew Paris tells us how in 1232 the Chief Justice Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Kent, (Shakespeare’s <gentle Hubert> in King John), was accused by Peter do (sic) Roches, Bishop of Winchester, of having won the favour of Henry III through <charms and incantations>. In 1324 there was a terrific scandal at Coventry when it was discovered that a number of the richest and most influential burghers of the town had long been consulting with Master John, a professional necromancer, and paying him large sums to bring about by his arts the death of Edward II and several nobles of the court. Alice Perrers, the mistress of Edward III, was not only reputed to have infatuated the old king by occult spells, but her physician (believed to be a mighty sorcerer) was arrested on a charge of confecting love philtres and talismans. Henry V, in the autumn of 1419, prosecuted his stepmother, Joan of Navarre, for attempting to kill him by witchcraft, <in the most horrible manner that one could devise.> The conqueror of Agincourt was exceedingly worried about the whole wretched business, as also was the Archbishop of Canterbury, who ordered public prayers for the king’s safety. In the reign of his son, Henry VI, in 1441, one of the highest and noblest ladies in the realm, Eleanor Cobham, Duchess of Gloucester, was arraigned for conspiring with <a clerk>, Roger Bolingbroke, <a most notorious evoker of demons>, and <the most famous scholar in the whole world in astrology and magic>, to procure the death of the young monarch by sorcery, so that the Duke of Gloucester, Henry’s uncle and guardian, might succeed to the crown.¹ In this plot were further involved Canon Thomas Southwell, and a <relapsed witch>, that is to say, one who had previously (11 years before) been incarcerated upon grave suspicion of black magic, Margery Jourdemayne. Bolingbroke, whose confession implicated the Duchess, was hanged; Canon Southwell died in prison; the witch in Smithfield was <burn’d to Ashes>, since her offence was high treason. The Duchess was sentenced to a most degrading public penance, and imprisoned for life in Peel Castle, Isle of Man. Richard III, upon seizing the throne in 1483, declared that the marriage of his brother, Edward IV, with the Lady Elizabeth Grey, had been brought about by <sorcery and witchcraft>, and further that <Edward’s wife, that monstrous witch, has plotted with Jane Shore to waste and wither his body.> Poor Jane Shore did most exemplary penance, walking the flinty streets of London barefoot in her kirtle. In the same year when Richard wanted to get rid of the Duke of Buckingham, his former ally, one of the chief accusations he launched was that the Duke consulted with a Cambridge <necromancer> to compass and devise his death.

One of the most serious and frightening events in the life of James VII of Scotland (afterwards James I of England) was the great conspiracy of 1590, organized by the Earl of Bothwell. James with good reason feared and hated Bothwell, who, events amply proved, was Grand Master of more than 100 witches, all adepts in poisoning, and all eager to do away with the King. In other words, Francis Stewart, Earl of Bothwell, was the centre and head of a vast political plot. A widespread popular panic was the result of the discovery of this murderous conspiracy. In France as early as 583, when the infant son and heir of King Chilperic, died of dysentery, as the doctors diagnosed it, it came to light that Mumolus, one of the leading officials of the court, had been secretly administering to the child medicines, which he obtained from <certain witches of Paris>. These potions were pronounced by the physicians to be strong poisons. In 1308, Guichard, Bishop of Troyes, was accused of having slain by sorcery the Queen of Philip IV of France (1285-1314), Jeanne of Navarre, who died three years before [1305]. The trial dragged on from 1308 to 1313, and many witnesses attested on oath that the prelate had continually visited certain notorious witches, who supplied him philtres and draughts. In 1315, during the brief reign (1314-1316) of Louis X, the eldest son of Philip IV, was hanged Enguerrand de Marigny, chamberlain, privy councillor, and chief favourite of Philip, whom, it was alleged, he had bewitched to gain the royal favour. The fact, however, which sealed his doom was his consultation with one Jacobus de Lor, a warlock [bruxo], who was to furnish a nostrum warranted to put a very short term to the life of King Louis. Jacobus strangled himself in prison.

In 1317 Hugues Géraud, Bishop of Cahors, was executed by Pope John XXII, who reigned 1316-1334, residing at Avignon. Langlois says that the Bishop had attempted the Pontiff’s life by poison procured from witches.

Perhaps the most resounding of all scandals of this kind in France was the La Voison case, 1679-1682, when it was discovered that Madame de Montespan had for years been trafficking with a gang of poisoners and sorcerers, who plotted the death of the Queen and the Dauphan, so that Louis XIV might be free to wed Athénais de Montespan, whose children should inherit the throne. The Duchesse de Fontanges, a beautiful young country girl, who had for a while attracted the wayward fancy of Louis, they poisoned out of hand. Money was poured out like water, and it has been said that <the entire floodtide of poison, witchcraft and diabolism was unloosed> to attain the ends of that <marvellous beauty> (so Mme. de Sévigné calls her), the haughty and reckless Marquise de Montespan. In her thwarted fury she well nigh resolved to sacrifice Louis himself to her overweening ambition and her boundless pride. The highest names in France – the Princesse de Tingry, the Duchesse de Vitry, the Duchesse de Lusignan, the Duchesse de Bouillon, the Comtesse de Soissons, the Duc de Luxembourg, the Marguis de Cessac – scores of the older aristocracy, were involved, whilst literally hundreds of venal apothecaries, druggists, pseudo-alchemists, astrologers, quacks, warlocks, magicians, charlatans, who revolved round the ominous and terrible figure of Catherine La Voisin, professional seeress, fortune-teller, herbalist, beauty-specialist, were caught in the meshes [teias] of law. No less than 11 volumes of François Ravaison’s huge work, Archives de la Bastille, are occupied with this evil crew and their doings, their sorceries and their poisonings. [Livro-pédia que não podemos deixar de perder!]

During the reign of Urban VIII, Maffeo Barberini, 1623-1644, there was a resounding scandal at Rome when it was discovered that <after many invocations of demons> Giacinto Contini, nephew of the Cardinal d’Ascoli, had been plotting with various accomplices to put an end to the Pope’s life, and thus make way for the succession of his uncle to the Chair of Peter. Tommaso Orsolini of Recanate, moreover, after consulting with certain scryers and planetarians, readers of the stars, was endeavouring to bribe the apothecary Carcurasio of Naples to furnish him with a quick poison, which might be mingled with the tonics and electuaries prescribed for the ailing Pontiff, (Ranke, History of the Popes, ed. 1901, Vol. III, pp. 375-6).”

¹ Se essas coisas fossem mesmo dotadas do mais remoto interesse, Shakespeare usaria muito de magia negra para apimentar suas peças, o que, vê-se, passa longe de ser o caso.

Jean Bodin, the famous jurisconsult (1530-90) whom Montaigne acclaims to be the highest literary genius of his time, and who, as a leading member of the Parlement de Paris, presided over important trials, gives it as his opinion that there existed, not only in France, a complete organization of witches, immensely wealthy, of almost infinite potentialities, most cleverly captained, with centres and cells in every district, utilizing an espionage in ever land, with high-placed adherents at court, with humble servitors in the cottage.”

Not the least dreaded and dreadful weapon in their armament was the ancient and secret knowledge of poisons (veneficia), of herbs healing and hurtful, a tradition and a lore which had been handed down from remotest antiquity.”

Little wonder, then, that later social historians, such as Charles MacKay and Lecky, both absolutely impartial and unprejudiced writers, sceptical even, devote many pages, the result of long and laborious research, to witchcraft. (…) The profoundest thinkers, the acutest and most liberal minds of their day, such men as Cardan; Trithemius; the encylcopædic Delrio; Bishop Binsfeld; the learned physician, Caspar Peucer; Sir Edward Coke, <father of the English law>; Francis Bacon; Malebranche; Bayle; Glanvil; Thomas Browne; Cotton Mather; all these, and scores besides, were convinced of the dark reality of witchcraft, of the witch organization.”

The latest reprint of the original text of the Malleus is to be found in the noble 4-volume collection of Treatises on Witchcraft, <sumptibus Claudii Bourgeat>, 4to., Lyons, 1669.”

It was implicitly accepted not only by Catholic but by Protestant legislature. In fine, it is not too much to say that the Malleus Maleficarum is among the most important, wisest, and weightiest books of the world.

It has been asked whether Kramer or Sprenger was principally responsible for the Malleus, but in the case of so close a collaboration any such inquiry seems singularly superfluous and nugatory. With regard to instances of jointed authorship, unless there be some definite declaration on the part of one of the authors as to his particular share in a work, or unless there be some unusual and special circumstances bearing on the point, such perquisitions and analysis almost inevitably resolve themselves into a cloud of guess-work and bootless hazardry and vague perhaps. It becomes a game of literary blind-man’s-bluff.

Heinrich Kramer was born at Schlettstadt, a town of Lower Alsace, situated some 26 miles south-west of Strasburg. At an early age he entered the Order of S. Dominic, and so remarkable was his genius that whilst still a young man he was appointed to the position of Prior of the Dominican House at his native town. He was a Preacher-General and a Master of Sacred Theology. P.G. and S.T.M., two distinctions in the Dominican Order. At some date before 1474 he was appointed an Inquisitor for the Tyrol, Salzburg, Bohemia, and Moravia. His eloquence in the pulpit and tireless activity received due recognition at Rome, and for many years he was Spiritual Director of the great Dominican church at Salzburg, and the right-hand of the Archbishop of Salzburg, a munificent prelate who praises him highly in a letter which is still extant.” “In 1495, the Master General of the Order, Fr. Joaquín de Torres, O.P., summoned Kramer to Venice in order that he might give public lectures, disputations which attracted crowded audiences, and which were honoured by the presence and patronage of the Patriarch of Venice. He also strenuously defended the Papal supremacy, confuting the De Monarchia of the Paduan jurisconsult, Antonio degli Roselli. At Venice he resided at the priory of Santi Giovanni e Paolo (S. Zanipolo). During the summer of 1497, he had returned to Germany, and was living at the convent of Rohr, near Regensburg. On 31 January, 1500, Alexander VI appointed him as Nuncio and Inquisitor of Bohemia and Moravia, in which provinces he was deputed and empowered to proceed against the Waldenses and Picards, as well as against the adherents of the witch-society.” “His chief works, in addition to the Malleus, are: Several Discourses and Various Sermons upon the Most Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist, Nuremberg, 1496; A Tract Confuting the Errors of Master Antonio degli Roselli, Venice, 1499; and The Shield of Defence of the Holy Roman Church Against the Picards and Waldenses, an incunabulum, without date, but almost certainly 1499-1500. Many learned authors quote and refer to these treatises in terms of highest praise.”

James Sprenger was born in Basel, 1436-8 [que parto longo]. He was admitted a novice in the Dominican house of this town in 1452. His extraordinary genius attracted immediate attention, and his rise to a responsible position was very rapid. According to Pierre Hélyot, the Franciscan (1680-1716), Histoire des Ordres Religieux, III (1715), ch. XXVI, in 1389 Conrad of Prussia abolished certain relaxations and abuses which had crept into the Teutonic Province of the Order of S. Dominic, and restored the Primitive and Strict Obedience. He was closely followed by Sprenger, whose zealous reform was so warmly approved that in 1468 the General Chapter ordered him to lecture on the sentences of Peter Lombard at the University of Cologne, to which he was thus officially attached. A few years later he proceeded Master of Theology, and was elected Prior and Regent of Studies of the Cologne Convent, one of the most famous and frequented Houses of the Order. On 30 June, 1480, he was elected Dean of the Faculty of Theology at the University. His lecture-room was thronged, and in the following year, at the Chapter held in Roma, the Master General of the Order, Fra Salvo Cusetta, appointed him Inquisitor Extraordinary for the Provinces of Mainz, Trèves, and Cologne. His activities were enormous, and demanded constant journeyings through the very extensive district to which he had been assigned. In 1488 he was elected Provincial of the whole German Province, an office of the first importance [ah, o século!]. It is said that his piety and his learning impressed all who came in contact with him. In 1495 he was residing at Cologne, and here he received a letter from Alexander VI praising his enthusiasm and his energy.” “Among Sprenger’s other writings, excepting the Malleus, are The Paradoxes of John of Westphalia Refuted, Mainz, 1479, a closely argued treatise; and The Institution and Approbation of the Confraternity of the Most Holy Rosary, which was first erected at Cologne on 8 September in the year 1475. Sprenger may well be called the Apostle of the Rosary. None more fervent than he in spreading this Dominican elevation.”

Certain it is that the Malleus Maleficarum is the most solid, the most important work in the whole vast library of witchcraft. One turns to it again and again with edification and interest: From the point of psychology, from the point of jurisprudence, from the point of history, it is supreme. It has hardly too much to say that later writers, great as they are, have done little more than draw from the seemingly inexhaustible wells of wisdom which the two Dominicans, Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger, have given us” “What is most surprising is the modernity of the book. There is hardly a problem, a complex, a difficulty, which they have not foreseen, and discussed, and resolved.”

The Malleus Maleficarum is one of the world’s few books written sub specie aeternitatis.

Montague Summers.

7 October, 1946.”

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Sometimes, no doubt, primitive communities were obliged to tolerate the witch and her works owing to fear; in other words, witchcraft was a kind of blackmail; but directly Cities were able to coordinate, and it became possible for Society to protect itself, precautions were taken and safeguards were instituted against this curse, this bane whose object seemed to blight all that was fair, all that was just and good, and that was well-appointed and honourable, in a word, whose aim proved to be set up on high the red standard of revolution; to overwhelm religion, existing order, and the comeliness of life in an abyss of anarchy, nihilism, and despair. In his great treatise De Civitate Dei S. Augustine set forth the theory, or rather the living fact, of the two Cities, the City of God, and the opposing stronghold of all that is not for God, that is to say, of all that is against Him. [humanity itself]”

and nations who had never heard the Divine command put into practice the obligation of the Mosaic maxim: Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live. (Vulgate: Maleficos non patieris vivere. Douay: Wizards thou shalt not suffer to live. Exodus, 22:18.)” // “A feiticeira não deixarás viver.” Êxodo 22:18

It is true that both in the Greek and in the earlier Roman cults, worships often directly derived from secret and sombre sources, ancient gods, or rather demons, had their awful superstitions and their horrid rites, powers whom men dreaded but out of very terror placated; fanes [templos] men loathed but within whose shadowed portals they bent and bowed the knee perforce in trembling fear. Such deities were the Thracian Bendis [a nova Ártemis; ver referências aos jogos e festivais incluindo corridas de cavalos noturnas n’A República], whose manifestation was heralded by the howling of her fierce black hounds, and Hecate the terrible <Queen of the realm of ghosts>, as Euripides calls her, and the vampire Mormo [espécie de bicho-papão da Antiguidade: mas pelo menos era uma mulher! Posteriormente, Lamia] and the dark Summanus who at midnight hurled loud thunderbolts and launched the deadly levin [relâmpago] through the starless sky [Curiosa espécie de anti-Zeus, o Deus do Trovão Diruno. Milton e Camões equiparam-no a Hades.]. Pliny tells us that the worship of this mysterious deity lasted long, and dogs with their puppies were sacrificed to him with atrocious cruelty, but S. Augustine says that in his day <one could scarce find one within a while, that had heard, nay more, that had read so much as the name of Summanus> (De Civitate Dei, 4:23). (…) Towards the end of the 5th century, the Carthaginian Martianus Capella boldly declares that Summanus is none other than the lord of Hell, and he was writing, it may be remembered, only a few years before the birth of S. Benedict(*); some think that he was still alive when the Father of All Monks was born.”

(*) “The Medal of S. Benedict has been found to be extremely potent against all evil spells.”

many strange legends attached to the island of Lemnos, which is situated in the Aegaean Sea, nearly midway between Mt. Athos and the Hellespoint. It is one of the largest of the group, having an area of some 147 square miles. Lemnos was sacred to Hephaestus, who is said to have fallen here when hurled by Zeus from Olympus.” “It should further be noted that the old Italian deity Volcanus, with whom he was to be identified, is the god of destructive fire – fire considered in its rage and terror, as contrasted with fire which is a comfort to the human race, the kindly blaze on the hearth, domestic fire, presided over by the gracious lady Vesta. It is impossible not to think of the fall of Lucifer when one considers the legend of Hephaestus. Our Lord replied, when the disciples reported: Domine, etiam daemonia subiiciuntur nobis in nomine tuo (Lord, the devils also are subject to us in Thy Name), Videbam Satanam sicut fulgur de coelo cadentem (I saw Satan like lightning falling from Heaven); and Isaias says: Quomodo cecidisti de coelo, Lucifer, qui mane oriebaris? Corruisti in terram qui vulnerabas gentes? (How art thou fallen from Heaven, O Lucifer, who didst rise in the morning? How art thou fallen to the earth, that didst wound the nations?). Milton also has the following poetic allusion:

Nor was his name unheard or unador’d

In Ancient Greece; and in Ausonian land

Men called him Mulciber; and how he fell

From Heav’n, they fabl’d, thrown by angry Jove

Sheer o’er the Chrystal Battlements: from Morn

To Noon he fell, from Noon to dewy Eve,

A Summers day; and with the setting Sun

Dropt from the Zenith like a falling Star,

On Lemnos th’Ægæan Ile: thus they relate,

Erring; for he with his rebellious rout

Fell long before; nor aught avail’d him now

To have built in Heav’n high Towers; nor did he scape

By all his Engines, but was headlong sent

With his industrious crew to build in hell.”

Paraíso Perdido, 1:738-51

Levar poeta a sério é pedir pra se queimar na fogueira de São João!

Hephaestus, especially in later days, is represented with one leg shortened to denote his lameness; and throughout the Middle Ages it was popularly believed that his cloven hoof was the one feature which the devil was unable to disguise. In this connexion with Loki, the Vulcan of Northern Europe, will be readily remembered.”

É Hefesto o Lúcifer pagão ou não seria apenas Lúcifer o Hefesto cristão, que não saberá nunca dar a volta por cima? Mas na verdade ele tinha amores, era excelente ferreiro, e foi afinal perdoado e regressou ao Olimpo, pleno de honras!

There were also dark histories of murder and blood connected with Lemnos. When the Argonauts landed here they found it inhabited only by Amazons, who, having murdered all their husbands, had chosen as their queen Hypsipyle, daughter of Thoas, whom she secretly preserved alive. When this was discovered the unfortunate woman was compelled to leave the island, and being subsequently captured by pirates she was sold to Lycurgus, king of the sacred groves that surrounded the temple of Zeus Nemeus in a remote Argive valley. Hypsipyle here became the nurse of the mysterious child Archemorus, the Forerunner of Death, who was bitten by a magic serpent and vanished, portending the doom of the Seven who went against Thebes.”

It is curious to remark that a certain red clay (terra Lemnia) found on the island was, as Pliny tells us, employed as a remedy for wounds, and especially the bite of a snake.”

In Rome black magic was punished as a capital offence by the Law of the Twelve Tables, which are to be assigned to the 5th century B.C., and, as Livy records, from time to time Draconian statutes were directed against those who attempted to blight crops and vineyards or to spread rinderpest amongst flocks and cattle. Nonetheless it is evident from many Latin authors and from the historians that Rome swarmed with occultists and diviners, many of whom in spite of the Lex Cornelia almost openly traded in poisons, and not infrequently in assassination to boot. Sometimes, as in the Middle Ages, a circumstance of which the Malleus Maleficarum most particularly complains, the sorcerers were protected by men of wealth and high estate. This was especially the case in the terrible days of Marius and of Catiline, and during the extreme decadence of the latest Caesars. Yet, paradoxical as it may appear, such emperors as Augustus, Tiberius, and Septimius Severus, whilst banishing from their realms all seers and necromancers, and putting them to death, in private entertained astrologers and wizards among their retinue, consulting their art upon each important occasion, and often even in the everyday and ordinary affairs of life.”

stern and constant official opposition to witchcraft, and the prohibition under severest penalties, the sentence of death itself, of any practice or pursuit of these dangerous and irreligious arts, was demonstrably not a product of Christianity, but had long and necessarily been employed in the heathen world and among pagan peoples and among polytheistic societies. Moreover, there are even yet savage communities who visit witchcraft with death.”

If the disease is universal, the medicine must be sharp.”

a song or a country dance mayhap, innocent enough on the surface, and even pleasing, so often were but the cloak and the mask for something devilish and obscene, that the Church deemed it necessary to forbid and proscribe the whole superstition even when it manifested itself in modest fashion and seemed guileless, innoxious, and of no account.”

I knok this rage upone this stane

To raise the wind in the divellis name,

It sall not lye till I please againe.”

Cântico de bruxas escocesas

A pagan diviner or haruspex could only follow his vocation under very definite restrictions. He was not allowed to be an intimate visitor at the house of any citizen, for friendship with men of this kind must be avoided. The haruspex who frequents the houses of others shall die at the stake, such is the tenor of the code. It is hardly an exaggeration to say that almost every year saw a more rigid application of the laws; although even as today, when fortune-telling and peering into the future are forbidden by the Statute Book, diviners and mediums abound, so then in spite of every prohibition astrologers, clairvoyants, and psalmists had an enormous clientèle of rich and poor alike.

The early legal codes of most European nations contain laws directed against witchcraft. Thus, for example, the oldest document of Frankish legislation, the Salic Law (Lex salica), which was reduced to a written form and promulgated under Clovis, who died 27 November, 511, mulcts (sic) those who practise magic with various fines, especially when it could be proven that the accused launched a deadly curse, or had tied the Witch’s Knot. This latter charm was usually a long cord tightly tied up in elaborate loops, among whose reticulations it was customary to insert the feathers of a black hen, a raven, or some other bird which had, or was presumed to have, no speck of white. This is one of the oldest instruments of witchcraft and is known in all countries and among all nations. It was put to various uses. The wizards of Finland sold wind in the three knots of a rope. If the first knot were undone a gentle breeze sprang up; if the second, it blew a mackerel gale; if the third, a hurricane. But the Witch’s Ladder, as it was often known, could be used with far more baleful effects. The knots were tied with certain horrid maledictions, and then the cord was hidden away in some secret place, and unless it were found and the strands released the person at whom the curse was directed would pine and die. This charm continually occurs during the trials. Thus in the celebrated Island-Magee case, March 1711, when a coven of witches was discovered, it was remarked that an apron belonging to Mary Dunbar, a visitor at the house of the afflicted persons, had been abstracted. Miss Dunbar was suddenly seized with fits and convulsions, and sickened almost to death. After most diligent search the missing garment was found carefully hidden away and covered over, and a curious string which had nine knots in it had been so tied up with the folds of the linen that it was beyond anything difficult to separate them and loosen the ligatures. In 1886 in the old belfry of a village church in England there were accidentally discovered, pushed away in a dark corner, several yards of incle braided with elaborate care and having a number of black feathers thrust through the strands. It is said that for a long while considerable wonder was caused as to what it might be, but when it was exhibited and became known, one of the local grandmothers recognized it was a Witch’s Ladder, and, what is extremely significant, when it was engraved in the Folk Lore Journal an old Italian woman to whom the picture was shown immediately identified it as la ghirlanda delle streghe.”

In 578, when a son of Queen Fredegonde died, a number of witches who were accused of having contrived the destruction of the Prince were executed. (…) what else was there left for the Church to do?” Yea, what else?

HISTERIA COLETIVA: “In 814, Louis le Pieux upon his accession to the throne began to take very active measures against all sorcerers and necromancers, and it was owing to his influence and authority that the Council of Paris in 829 appealed to the secular courts to carry out any such sentences as the Bishops might pronounce. The consequence was that from this time forward the penalty of witchcraft was death, and there is evidence that if the constituted authority, either ecclesiastical or civil, seemed to slacken in their efforts the populace took the law into their own hands with far more fearful results.”

MEDIDAS PROFILÁTICAS:It is quite plain that such a man as Frederick II, whose whole philosophy was entirely Oriental; who was always accompanied by a retinue of Arabian ministers, courtiers, and officers; who was perhaps not without reason suspected of being a complete agnostic, recked little whether heresy and witchcraft might be offences against the Church or not, but he was sufficiently shrewd to see that they gravely threatened the well-being of the State, imperilling the maintenance of civilization and the foundations of society.”

QUANTA BONDADE ECLESIÁSTICA, DEIXAR A PENA DE MORTE PARA O ESTADO! “It may be well here very briefly to consider the somewhat complicated history of the establishment of the Inquisition, which was, it must be remembered, the result of the tendencies and growth of many years, by no means a judicial curia with cut-and-dried laws and a complete procedure suddenly called into being by one stroke of a Papal pen. In the first place, S.[atan] Dominic was in no sense the founder of the Inquisition. Certainly during the crusade in Languedoc he was present, reviving religion and reconciling the lapsed, but he was doing no more than S. Paul or any of the Apostles would have done. The work of S. Dominic was preaching and the organization of his new Order, which received Papal confirmation from Honorius III, and was approved in the Bull Religiosam vitam, 22 December, 1216. S. Dominic died 6 August, 1221, and even if we take the word in a very broad sense, the first Dominican Inquisitor seems to have been Alberic, who in November, 1232, was travelling through Lombardy with the official title of Inquisitor hereticae pravitatis. The whole question of the episcopal Inquisitors, who were really the local bishop, his arch-deacons, and his diocesan court, and their exact relationship with the travelling Inquisitors, who were mainly drawn from the two Orders of friars, the Franciscan and the Dominican, is extremely nice and complicated; whilst the gradual effacement of the episcopal courts with regard to certain matters and the consequent prominence of the Holy Office were circumstances and conditions which realized themselves slowly enough in all countries, and almost imperceptibly in some districts, as necessity required, without any sudden break or sweeping changes. In fact we find that the Franciscan or Dominican Inquisitor simply sat as an assessor in the episcopal court so that he could be consulted upon certain technicalities and deliver sentence conjointly with the Bishop if these matters were involved. Thus at the trial of Gilles de Rais in October, 1440, at Nantes, the Bishop of Nantes presided over the court with the bishops of Le Mans, Saint-Brieuc, and Saint-Lo as his coadjutors, whilst Pierre de l’Hospital, Chencellor of Brittany, watched the case on behalf of the civil authorities, and Frère Jean Blouin was present as the delegate of the Holy Inquisition for the city and district of Nantes. Owing to the multiplicity of the crimes, which were proven and clearly confessed in accordance with legal requirements, it was necessary to pronounce two sentences. The first sentence was passed by the Bishop of Nantes conjointly with the Inquisitor. By them Gilles de Rais was declared guilty of Satanism, sorcery, and apostasy, and there and then handed over to the civil arm to receive the punishment due to such offences. The second sentence, pronounced by the Bishop alone, declared the prisoner convicted of sodomy, sacrilege, and violation of ecclesiastical rights. The ban of excommunication was lifted since the accused had made a clean breast of his crimes and desired to be reconciled, but he was handed over to the secular court, who sentenced him to death, on multiplied charges of murder as well as on account of the aforesaid offences.”

Today the word heresy seems to be as obsolete and as redolent of a Wardour-street vocabulary as if one were to talk of a game of cards at Crimp or Incertain, and to any save a dusty mediaevalist it would appear to be an antiquarian term.” MORTE AOS COMUNAS! “The heretics were just as resolute and just as practical, that is to say, just as determined to bring about the domination of their absolutism as is any revolutionary of today. The aim and objects of their leaders, Tanchelin, Everwacher, the Jew Manasses, Peter Waldo, Pierre Autier, Peter of Bruys, Arnold of Brescia, and the rest, were exactly those of Lenin, Trotsky, Zinoviev, and their fellows.”

Their objects may be summed up as the abolition of monarchy, the abolition of private property and of inheritance, the abolition of marriage, the abolition of order, the total abolition of all religion. It was against this that the Inquisition had to fight, and who can be surprised if, when faced with so vast a conspiracy, the methods employed by the Holy Office may not seem – if the terrible conditions are conveniently forgotten – a little drastic, a little severe? There can be no doubt that had this most excellent tribunal continued to enjoy its full prerogative and the full exercise of its salutary powers, the world at large would be in a far happier and far more orderly position today. Historians may point out diversities and dissimilarities between the teaching of the Waldenses, the Albigenses, the Henricans, the Poor Men of Lyons, the Cathari, the Vaudois, the Bogomiles, and the Manichees, but they were in reality branches and variants of the same dark fraternity, just as the Third International, the Anarchists, the Nihilists, and the Bolsheviks are in every sense, save the mere label, entirely identical.”

There is an apparent absence of motive in this seemingly aimless campaign of destruction to extermination carried on by the Bolsheviks in Russia, which has led many people to inquire what the objective can possibly be. So unbridled are the passions, so general the demolition, so terrible the havoc, that hard-headed individuals argue that so complete a chaos and such revolting outrages could only be affected by persons who were enthusiasts in their own cause and who had some very definite aims thus positively to pursue. The energizing forces of this fanaticism, this fervent zeal, do not seem to be anymore apparent than the end, hence more than one person has hesitated to accept accounts so alarming of massacres and carnage, or wholesale imprisonments, tortures, and persecutions, and has begun to suspect that the situation may be grossly exaggerated in the overcharged reports of enemies and the highly-coloured gossip of scare-mongers.” EUREKA!

Nearly a century and a half ago Anacharsis Clootz(*), <the personal enemy of Jesus Christ> as he openly declared himself, was vociferating God is Evil, To me then Lucifer, Satan! whoever you may be, the demon that the faith of my fathers opposed to God and the Church. This is the credo of the witch.”

(*) Bases constitutionnelles de la République du genre humain, Paris, 1793

Revolucionário francês de tendências cosmopolitas (globais) à frente de seu tempo.

Naturally, although the Masters were often individuals of high rank and deep learning, that rank and file of the society, that is to say, those who for the most part fell into the hands of justice, were recruited from the least educated classes, the ignorant and the poor [já vi isso em algum lugar…]. As one might suppose, many of the branches or covens in remoter districts knew nothing and perhaps could have understood nothing of the enormous system. Nevertheless, as small cogs in a very small wheel, it might be, they were carrying on the work and actively helping to spread the infection. It is an extremely significant fact that the last regularly official trial and execution for witchcraft in Western Europe was that of Anna Göldi, who was hanged at Glaris in Switzerland, 17 June, 1782(*). Seven years before, in 1775, the villian Adam Weishaupt, who has been truly described by Louis Blanc as <the profoundest conspirator that has ever existed,> formed his <terrible and formidable sect>, the Illuminati. The code of this mysterious movement lays down: <it is also necessary to gain the common people (das gemeine Volk) to our Order. The great means to that end is influence in the schools.>“So in the prosecutions at Würzburg we find that there were condemned boys of 10 and 11, two choir boys aged 12, <a boy of 12-years-old in one of the lower forms of the school>, <the two young sons of the Prince’s cook, the eldest 14, the younger 12>, several pages and seminarists, as well as a number of young girls, amongst whom <a child of 9 or 10 and her little sister> were involved.”

(*) Nota corretiva (do próprio reverendo na segunda edição?): “The last trial and judicial execution in Europe itself was probably that of two aged beldames, Satanists, who were burned at the stake in Poland, 1793, the year of the Second Partition, during the reign of Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski.” Mas parece que a correção do reverendo estava errada, prevalecendo a primeira versão, conforme wiki e outras fontes…

In England in the year 1324 no less than 27 defendants were tried at the King’s Bench for plotting against and endeavouring to kill Edward II, together with many prominent courtiers and officials, by the practice of magical arts. A number of wealthy citizens of Coventry had hired a famous <nigromauncer>, John of Nottingham, to slay not only the king, but also the royal favourite, Hugh le Despenser, and his father; the Prior of Coventry; the monastic steward; the manciple; and a number of other important personages. A secluded old manor-house, some 2 or 3 miles out of Coventry, was put at the disposal of Master John, and there he and his servant, Robert Marshall, promptly commenced business. They went to work in the bad old-fashioned way of modelling wax dolls or mommets of those whom they wished to destroy. Long pins were thrust through the figures, and they were slowly melted before a fire.(*) The first unfortunate upon whom this experiment was tried, Richard de Sowe, a prominent courtier and close friend of the king, was suddenly taken with agonizing pains, and when Marshall visited the house, as if casually, in order that he might report the results of this sympathetic sorcery to the wizard, he found their hapless victim in a high delirium. When this state of things was promptly conveyed to him, Master John struck a pin through the heart of the image, and in the morning the news reached them that de Sowe had breathed his last. Marshall, who was by now in an extremity of terror, betook himself to a justice and laid bare all that was happening and had happened, with the immediate result that Master John and the gang of conspirators were arrested. It must be remembered that in 1324 the final rebellion against king Edward II had openly broken forth on all sides. A truce of 13 years had been arranged with Scotland, and though the English might refuse Bruce his royal title he was henceforward the warrior king of an independent country. It is true that in May, 1322, the York Parliament had not only reversed the exile of the Despensers, declaring the pardons which had been granted their opponents null and void, as well as voting for the repeal of the Ordinances of 1311, and the Despensers were working for, and fully alive to the necessity of, good and stable government, but nonetheless the situation was something more than perilous; the Exchequer was well-nigh drained; there was rioting and bloodshed in almost every large town; and worst of all, in 1323 the younger Roger Mortimer had escaped from the Tower and got away safely to the Continent. There were French troubles to boot; Charles IV, who in 1322 had succeeded to the throne, would accept no excuse from Edward for any postponement of homage, and in this very year, 1324, declaring the English possessions forfeited, he proceeded to occupy the territory with an army, when it soon became part of the French dominion. There can be not doubt that the citizens of Coventry were political intriguers, and since they were at the moment unable openly to rebel against their sovran lord, taking advantage of the fact that he was harassed and pressed at so critical a juncture, they proceeded against him by the dark and tortuous ways of black magic.

(*) “This is certainly one of the oldest and most universal of spells. To effect the death of a man, or to injure him by making an image in his likeness, and mutilating or destroying this image, is a practice found throughout the whole wide world from its earliest years. It is common both in Babylon and in the Egypt of the Pharoahs, when magicians kneaded puppets of clay or pitch moistened with honey. If it were possible to mingle therewith a drop of a man’s blood, the parings of his nails, a few hairs from his body, a thread or two from his garments, it gave the warlock the greater power over him. In ancient Greece and Rome precisely the same ideas prevailed, and allusions may be found in Theocritus (Idyll II), Virgil (Eclogue VIII, 75-82), Ovid (Heroides, VI, 91, sqq.; Amores, III, vii, 29, sqq.), and many more. (See R. Wunsch, Eine antike Rachepuppe, Philologus, lxi, 1902, pp. 26-31.) We find this charm among the Ojebway Indians, the Cora Indians of Mexico, the Malays, the Chinese and Japanese, the aborigines throughout Australia, the Hindoos, both in ancient India and at the present day, the Burmese, many Arab tribes of Northern Africa, in Turkey, in Italy and the remoter villages of France, in Ireland and Scotland, nor is it (in one shape and form or another) yet unknown in the country districts of England.”

An astrologer, attached to the Duke’s house-hold, when taken and charged with <werchyrye of sorcery against the King,> confessed that he had often cast the horoscope of the Duchess to find out if her husband would ever wear the English crown, the way to which they had attempted to smooth by making a wax image of Henry VI and melting it before a magic fire to bring about the king’s decease. A whole crowd of witches, male and female, were involved in the case, and among these was Margery Jourdemain, a known a notorious invoker of demons and an old trafficker in evil charms.”

In the days of Edward IV it was commonly gossiped that the Duchess of Bedford was a witch, who by her spells had fascinated the king with the beauty of her daughter Elizabeth, whom he made his bride, in spite of the fact that he had plighted his troth to Eleanor Butler, the heiress of the Earl of Shrewsbury. So open did the scandal become that the Duchess of Bedford lodged an official complaint with the Privy Council, and an inquiry was ordered, but, as might have been suspected, this completely cleared the lady.”

O Edward, Edward! fly and leave this place,

Wherein, poor silly King, thou are enchanted.

This is her dam of Bedford’s work, her mother,

That hath bewitch’d thee, Edward, my poor child.


Her ascendancy over the king was attributed to the enchantments and experiments of a Dominican friar, learned in many a cantrip and cabala, whom she entertained in her house, and who had fashioned 2 pictures of Edward and Alice which, when suffumigated with the incense of mysterious herbs and gums, mandrakes, sweet calamus, caryophylleae, storax, benzoin, and other plants plucked beneath the full moon what time Venus was in ascendant, caused the old king to dote upon this lovely concubine. With great difficulty by a subtle ruse the friar was arrested, and he thought himself lucky to escape with relegation to a remote house under the strictest observance of his Order, whence, however, he was soon to be recalled with honour and reward, since the Good Parliament shortly came to an end, and Alice Perrers, who now stood higher in favour than ever, was not slow to heap lavish gifts upon her supporters, and to visit her enemies with condign punishment.”

There was nobody more thoroughly scared of witchcraft than Henry VIII’s daughter, Elizabeth, and as John Jewel was preaching his famous sermon before her in February, 1560, he described at length how <this kind of people (I mean witches and sorcerers) within these few last years are marvellously increased within this Your Grace’s realm;> he then related how owing to dark spells he had known many <pine away even to death.> <I pray God,> he unctuously cried, <they may never practise further than upon the subjects!> This was certainly enough to ensure that drastic laws should be passed particularly to protect the Queen, who was probably both thrilled and complimented to think that her life was in danger. It is exceedingly doubtful, whether there was any conspiracy at all which would have attempted Elizabeth’s personal safety.”

That it was a huge and far-reaching political conspiracy is patent form the fact that the lives of Louis XIV, the Queen, the Dauphin, Louise de la Vallière, and the Duchesse de Fontanges had been attempted secretly again and again, whilst as for Colbert, scores of his enemies were constantly entreating for some swift sure poison, constantly participating in unhallowed rites which might lay low the all-powerful Introduction of Minister.”

As early as 600 S. Gregory I had spoken in severest terms, enjoining the punishment of sorcerers and those who trafficked in black magic. It will be noted that he speaks of them as more often belonging to that class termed servi, that is to say, the very people from whom for the most part Nihilists and Bolsheviks have sprung in modern days.” Não consigo encontrar referências para os serui – segundo a grafia moderna poderiam ser os servi, os sérvios? Dostoievsky é o epítome da literatura niilista pré-Revolução Russa. Mas e daí? Ele queimou alguém na fogueira? Na verdade até onde eu sei era um beato (viciado em jogo, mas um beato). Nenhuma pista, só um palpite.

On 13, December, 1258, Pope Alexander IV (Rinaldo Conti) issued a Bull to the Franciscan Inquisitors bidding them refrain from judging any cases of witchcraft unless there was some very strong reason to suppose that heretical practice could also be amply proved. On 10 January, 1260, the same Pontiff addressed a similar Bull to the Dominicans.

DEFENDENDO O INDEFENSÁVEL: “Sixtus IV was an eminent theologian, he is the author of an admirable treatise on the Immaculate Conception, and it is significant that he took strong measures to curb [restrain] the judicial severities of Tomás de Torquemada [que bonzinho], whom he had appointed Grand Inquisitor of Castile, 11 February, 1482. During his reign he published three Bulls directly attacking sorcery, which he clearly identified with heresy, an opinion of the deepest weight when pronounced by one who had so penetrating a knowledge of the political currents of the day [ó!]. There can be no doubt that he saw the society of witches to be nothing else than a vast international of anti-social revolutionaries. (sic!!!)

It has been necessarily thus briefly to review this important series of Papal documents to show that the famous Bull Summis desiderantes affectibus, 9 December, 1484, which Innocent VIII addressed to the authors of the Malleus Maleficarum, is no isolated and extraordinary document, but merely one in the long and important record of Papal utterances, although at the same time it is of the greatest importance and supremely authoritative. It has, however, been very frequently asserted, not only by prejudiced and unscrupulous chroniclers, but also by scholars of standing and repute, that this Bull of Innocent VIII, if not, as many appear to suppose, is actually the prime cause and origin of the crusade against witches, at any rate gave the prosecution and energizing power and an authority which hitherto they had not, and which save for this Bull they could not ever have, commanded and possessed.” “a Bull is an instrument of especial weight and importance, and it differs both in form and detail from constitutions, encyclicals, briefs, decrees, privileges, and rescripts. It should be remarked, however, that the term Bull has conveniently been used to denote all these, especially if they are Papal letters of any early date. By the 15th century clearer distinctions were insisted upon and maintained.”

Alexander VI published two Bulls upon the same theme, and in a Bull of Julius II there is a solemn description of that abomination the Black Mass, which is perhaps the central feature of the worship of Satanists, and which is unhappily yet celebrated today in London, in Paris, in Berlin, and in many another great city.” Leo X, the great Pope of Humanism, issued a Bull on the subject; but even more important is the Bull Dudum uti nobis exponi fecisti, 20 July, 1523, which speaks of the horrible abuse of the Sacrament in sorceries and the charms confuted by witches.”

There is a Constitution of Gregory XV, Omnipotentis Dei, 20 March, 1623; and a Constitution of Urban VIII, Inscrutabilis iudiciorum Dei altitudo, 1st April [hehe], 1631, which – if we except the recent condemnation of Spiritism in the19th century – may be said to be the last Apostolic document directed against these foul and devilish practices.

The noble and momentous sentences are built-up word by word, beat by beat, ever growing more and more authoritative, more and more judicial, until they culminate in the minatory and imprecatory clauses which are so impressive, so definite, that no loophole is left for escape, no turn for evasion. <Nulli ergo omnino hominum liceat hanc paganim nostrae declarationis extentionis concessionis et mandati infringere vel ei ausu temeraris contrarie Si qui autem attentate praesumpserit indignationem omnipotentis Dei ac beatorum Petri et Pauli Apostolorum eius se noverit incursurum.> If any man shall presume to go against the tenor let him know that therein he will bring down upon himself the wrath of Almighty God and of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul.

infallibility is claimed on the ground, not indeed of the terms of the Vatican definition, but of the constant practice of the Holy See, the consentient teaching of the theologians, as well as the clearest deductions of the principles of faith.” “Without exception non-Catholic historians have either in no measured language denounced or else with sorrow deplored the Bull of Innocent VIII as a most pernicious and unhappy document, a perpetual and irrevocable manifesto of the unchanged and unchangeable mind of the Papacy. From this point of view they are entirely justified, and their attitude is undeniably logical and right. The Summis desiderantes affectibus is either a dogmatic exposition by Christ’s Vicar upon earth or it is altogether abominable.” Choose for the second!

It is all the more amazing to find that the writer of the article upon Witchcraft in the Catholic Encyclopaedia quotes Hansen with complete approval and gleefully adds with regard to the Bull of Innocent VIII, <neither does the form suggest that the Pope wishes to bind anyone to believe more about the reality of witchcraft than is involved in the utterances of Holy Scripture,> a statement which is essentially Protestant in its nature, and, as is acknowledged by every historian of whatsoever colour or creed, entirely untrue. By its appearance in a standard work of reference, which is on the shelves of every library, this article upon Witchcraft acquires a certain title to consideration which upon its merits it might otherwise lack. It is signed Herbert Thurston, and turning to the list of <Contributors to the Fifteenth Volume> we duly see <Thurston, Herbert, S.J., London.> Since a Jesuit Father emphasizes in a well-known (and presumably authoritative) Catholic work an opinion so derogatory to the Holy See and so definitely opposed to all historians, one is entitled to express curiosity concerning other writings which may not have come from his pen. I find that for a considerable number of years Fr. Thurston has been contributing to The Month a series of articles upon mystical phenomena and upon various aspects of mysticism, such as the Incorruption of the bodies of Saints and Beati, the Stigmata, the Prophecies of holy persons, the miracles of Crucifixes that bleed or pictures of the Madonna which move, famous Sanctuaries, the inner life of and wonderful events connected with persons still living who have acquired a reputation for sanctity. This busy writer directly or incidentally has dealt with that famous ecstatica Anne Catherine Emmerich; the Crucifix of Limpias; Our Lady of Campocavallo; S. Januarus; the Ven. Maria d’Agreda; Gemma Galgani; Padre Pio Pietralcina; that gentle soul Teresa Higginson, the beauty of whose life has attracted thousands, but whom Fr. Thurston considers hysterical and masochistic and whose devotions to him savour of the <snowball> prayer; Pope Alexander VI; the origin of the Rosary; the Carmelite scapular; and very many themes beside. Here was have (sic) a mass of material, and even a casual glance through these pages will suffice to show the ugly prejudice which informs the whole. The intimate discussions on miracles, spiritual graces and physical phenomena, which above all require faith, reverence, sympathy, tact and understanding, are conducted with a roughness and a rudeness infinitely regrettable. What is worse, in every case Catholic tradition and loyal Catholic feeling are thrust to one side; the note of scepticism, of modernism, and even of rationalism is arrogantly dominant. Tender miracles of healing wrought at some old sanctuary, records of some hidden life of holiness secretly lived amongst us in the cloister or the home, these things seem to provoke Fr. Thurston to such a pitch of annoyance that he cannot refrain from venting his utmost spleen. The obsession is certainly morbid. It is reasonable to suppose that a lengthy series of papers all concentrating upon certain aspects of mysticism would have collected in one volume, and it is extremely significant that in the autumn of 1923 a leading house announced among Forthcoming Books: The Physical Phenomena of Mysticism. By the Rev. Herbert Thurston, S.J. Although in active preparation, this has never seen the light. I have heard upon good authority that the ecclesiastical superiors took exception to such a publication. I may, of course, be wrong, and there can be no question that there is room for a different point of view, but I cannot divest my mind of the idea that the exaggerated rationalization of mystical phenomena conspicuous in the series of articles I have just considered may be by no means unwelcome to the Father of Lies [é coisa do demo usar a cabeça]. It really plays into his hands: first, because it makes the Church ridiculous by creating the impression that her mystics, particularly friars and nuns, are for the most part sickly hysterical subjects, deceivers and deceived, who would be fit inmates of Bedlam; that many of her most reverend shrines, Limpias, Campocavallo, and the sanctuaries of Naples, are frauds and conscious imposture; and, secondly, because it condemns and brings into ridicule that note of holiness which theologians declare is one of the distinctive marks of the true Church.” Finalmente alguém sensato na parada!

INFALIBILIDADE DOS DEMÔNIOS EM PELE DE CORDEIRO: “and Fr. Thurston for 15 nauseating pages insists upon <the evil example of his private life>. This is unnecessary; it is untrue; it shows contempt of Christ’s Vicar on earth.”

For a full account of the Papal Bulls, see my Geography of Witchcraft, 1927” Deve ser um livro interessantíssimo. Um catálogo das páginas mais execráveis já escritos por homens de autoridade na era dos domínios de Deus-Filho sobre a superfície da redonda terra.

* * *

Verbete W I K I sobre Thurston:

Thurston wrote more than 150 articles for the Catholic Encyclopedia (1907-1914), and published nearly 800 articles in magazines and scholarly journals, as well a dozen books. He also re-edited Alban Butler’s Lives of the Saints (1926-1938). Many of Thurston’s articles show a skeptical attitude towards popular legends about the lives of the saints and about holy relics. On the other hand, his treatment of spiritualism and the paranormal was regarded as <too sympathetic> by some within the Catholic community.” “Thurston attributed the phenomena of stigmata to the effects of suggestion.” Livro que parece o mais interessante como inicial: The Physical Phenomena of Mysticism (1952). Vemos, portanto, que o livro foi “enrolado”, mas saiu, após a segunda e nefastérrima edição do Malleus do reverendinho SummersWinters!

* * *


It should be borne in mind too that frequent disturbances, conspiracies of anarchists, and nascent Bolshevism showed that the district was rotted to the core, and the severities of Kramer and Sprenger were by no means so unwarranted as is generally supposed.” “Unfortunately full biographies of these two remarkable men, James Sprenger and Henry Kramer, have not been transmitted to us, but as many details have been succinctly collected in the Scriptores Ordinis Praedicatorum of Quétif and Echard, Paris, 1719, I have thought it convenient to transcribe the following accounts from that monumental work.”

PAPAS PROCRIADORES (MAS SANTOS): (*) Burchard was only aware of two children of Innocent VIII. But Egidio of Viterbo wrote: <Primus pontificum filios filiasque palam ostentavit, primus eorum apertas fecit nuptias.>

(*) “One writer, professing himself a Christian, declares that it is at least doubtful whether Our Lord instituted The Holy Sacrifice of the Altar. This, of course, is tantamount to a denial of Christ.”

6 6 6

The British Museum has five editions of the 15th century: 4to., 1490? (IA 8634); folio, 1490 (IB 8615); 4to., 1494 (IA 7468); folio, 1494 (IB 5064); 4to., 1496 (IA 7503).” “Malleus Maleficarum, 8vo., Paris, an edition to which the British Museum catalogue assigns the date of <1510?>.”

Malleus Maleficarum . . . per F. Raffaelum Maffeum Venetum et D. Jacobi a Judeca instituti Servorum summo studio illustratis et a multis erroribus vindicatus . . . Venetiis Ad Candentis Salamandrae insigne. 1576, 8vo. (This is a disappointing reprint, and it is difficult to see in what consisted the editorial care of the Servite Raffaelo Maffei [Rafael Má-fé!], who may or may not have been some relation of the famous humanist of the same name (d. 25 January, 1522)(*), and who was of the monastery of San Giacomo della Guidecca. He might have produced a critical edition of the greatest value, but as it is there are no glosses, there is no excursus, and the text is poor. For example, in a very difficult passage, Principalis Quaestio II, Pars II, where the earliest texts read <die dominico sotularia ivuenum fungia . . . perungunt,> Venice, 1576, has <die dominica sotularia ivuenum fungia . . . perungent.>)” (*) Não é Raffaello Sanzio, que morreu em 1520.

Malleus Maleficarum, 4 vols., <sumptibus Claudii Bourgeat,> 4to., Lyons, 1669. This would appear to be the latest edition of the Malleus Maleficarum

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The derivation of Femina from fe minus is notorious, and hardly less awkward is the statement that Diabolus comes <a Dia, quod est duo, et bolus, quod est morsellus; quia duo occidit, scilicet corpus et animam.>

O show de horrores continua…

Possibly what will seem even more amazing to modern readers is the misogynic trend of various passages, and these not of the briefest nor least pointed. However, exaggerated as these may be, I am not altogether certain that they will not prove a wholesome and needful antidote in this feministic age, when the sexes seem confounded, and it appear to be the chief object of many females to ape the man, an indecorum by which they not only divest themselves of such charm as they might boast, but lay themselves open to the sternest reprobation in the name of sanity and common-sense. For the Apostle S. Peter says: Let wives be subject to their husbands: that if any believe not the word, they may be won without the word, by the conver[sa]tion of the wives, considering your chaste conversation with fear. Whose adorning let it not be the outward plaiting of the hair, or the wearing of god, or the putting on of apparel; but the hidden man of the heart is the incorruptibility of a quiet and meek spirit, which is rich in the sight of God. For after the manner heretofore the holy women also, who trusted God, adorned themselves, being in subjection to their own husbands: as Sara obeyed Abraham, calling him lord: whose daughters you are, doing well, and not fearing any disturbance.”

(*) “The extremer Picards seem to have been an off-shoot of the Behgards and to have professed the Adamite heresy. They called their churches Paradise whilst engaged in common worship stripped themselves quite nude. Shameful disorders followed. A number of these fanatics took possession of an island in the river Nezarka and lived in open communism. In 1421 Ziska, the Hussite leader, practically exterminated the sect. There have, however, been sporadic outbreaks of these Neo-Adamites. Picards was also a name given to the <Bohemian Brethren>, who may be said to have been organized in 1457 by Gregory, the nephew of Rokyzana.”

Montague Summers.

In Festo Expectationis B.M.V.


Já vai tarde, martelador de coisas erradas!

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It was published in 1487, but two years previously the authors had secured a bull from Pope Innocent VIII, authorizing them to continue the witch hunt in the Alps which they had already instituted against the opposition from clergy and secular authorities. They reprinted the bull of December 5, 1484 to make it appear that the whole book enjoyed papal sanction.

Anybody with a grudge or suspicion, very young children included, could accuse anyone of witchcraft and be listened to with attention; anyone who wanted someone else’s property or wife could accuse; any loner, any old person living alone, anyone with a misformity, physical or mental problem was likely to be accused. Open hunting season was declared on women, especially herb gatherers, midwives, widows and spinsters. Women who had no man to supervise them were of course highly suspicious. It has been estimated by Dr. Marija Gimbutas, professor of archaeology at the University of California, that as many as 9 million people, overwhelmingly women, were burned or hanged during the witch-craze. For nearly 250 years the Witches’ Hammer was the guidebook for the witch hunters, but again some of the inquisitioners had misgivings about this devilish book. In a letter dated November 27, 1538 Salazar advised the inquisitioners not to believe everything they read in Malleus Maleficarum, even if the authors write about it as something they themselves have seen and investigated (Henningson, p.347).”

Edo Nyland – The Witch Burnings: Holocaust Without Equal

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every alteration that takes place in a human body – for example, a state of health or a state of sickness – can be brought down to a question of natural causes, as Aristotle has shown in his 7th book of Physics. And the greatest of these is the influence of the stars. But the devils cannot interfere with the stars. This is the opinion of Dionysius in his epistle to S. Polycarp. For this alone God can do. Therefore it is evident the demons cannot actually effect any permanent transformation in human bodies; that is to say, no real metamorphosis. And so we must refer the appearance of any such change to some dark and occult cause.”

For devils have no power at all save by a certain subtle art. But an art cannot permanently produce a true form. (And a certain author says: Writers on Alchemy know that there is no hope of any real transmutation.) Therefore the devils for their part, making use of the utmost of their craft, cannot bring about any permanent cure – or permanent disease.”

But the power of the devil is stronger than any human power” (Job 40) Ou a tradução para Português perde muito do sentido original ou o autor se equivoca muito ao interpretar os versos de Jó XL como sobre o demônio, quando só falam de Deus onipotente, do homem impotente e, no máximo, do animal beemote, que é um crente, age com sabedoria, não se desespera, porque conhece a própria fraqueza melhor do que o homem.

For the imagination of some men is so vivid that they think they see actual figures and appearances which are but the reflection of their thoughts, and then these are believed to be the apparitions of evil spirits or even the spectres of witches.”



an infidel and worse than a heathen”

tempstation du mal, ô Être!

Deuteronômio 18: Este, pois, será o direito dos sacerdotes, a receber do povo, dos que oferecerem sacrifício, seja boi ou gado miúdo; que darão ao sacerdote a espádua e as queixadas e o bucho.”

Ça ser dote ou não ser, eis a questão

Entre ti não se achará quem faça passar pelo fogo a seu filho ou a sua filha, nem adivinhador, nem prognosticador, nem agoureiro, nem feiticeiro;

Nem encantador, nem quem consulte a um espírito adivinhador, nem mágico, nem quem consulte os mortos;

Pois todo aquele que faz tal coisa é abominação ao Senhor; e por estas abominações o Senhor teu Deus os lança fora de diante de ti.


estas nações, que hás de possuir, ouvem os prognosticadores e os adivinhadores; porém a ti [descendente sacerdotal] o Senhor teu Deus não permitiu tal coisa. [Daí estaria implícito que a adivinhação e o ato de aconselhar [?] estão permitidos para todas as tribos não-sacerdotais; são simplesmente naturais dentre o povaréu. Não deveriam ser os e as possuidoras de tantos e atípicos talentos vítimas de apedrejamento, apenas deixad@s em sua ‘cegueira espiritual inerente’, para serem julgad@s na Esfera competente Quando de competência!]

Porém o profeta que tiver a presunção de falar alguma palavra em meu nome, que eu não lhe tenha mandado falar [um Genocídio teria de advir], ou o que falar em nome de outros deuses, esse profeta morrerá.” Não disse de quê.

Quando o profeta falar em nome do Senhor, e essa palavra não se cumprir, nem suceder assim; esta é palavra que o Senhor não falou; com soberba a falou aquele profeta; não tenhas temor dele.” Jesus tem ainda uns 30 mil anos de crédito, relaxai…

Levíticos 19: “The soul which goeth to wizards and soothsayers to commit fornication with them, I will set my face against that soul, and destroy it out of the midst of my people.”

Levíticos 20: “A man, or woman, in whom there is a pythonical or divining spirit dying, let them die: they shall stone them.”

IV Kings I // 2 Reis 1: “His brother and successor, Joram, threw down the statue of Baal, erected by Achab”

(…) Ide, e perguntai a Baal-Zebube, deus de Ecrom, se sararei desta doença.

Mas o anjo do Senhor disse a Elias, o tisbita: Levanta-te, sobe para te encontrares com os mensageiros do rei de Samaria, e dize-lhes: Porventura não há Deus em Israel, para irdes consultar a Baal-Zebube, deus de Ecrom?

E por isso assim diz o Senhor: Da cama, a que subiste, não descerás, mas sem falta morrerás. Então Elias partiu.


Então o rei (…) disse-lhe: Homem de Deus, o rei diz: Desce.

Mas Elias respondeu, e disse ao capitão de cinqüenta: Se eu, pois, sou homem de Deus, desça fogo do céu, e te consuma a ti e aos teus cinqüenta. Então fogo desceu do céu, e consumiu a ele e aos seus cinqüenta.


E tornou a enviar um terceiro capitão de cinqüenta, com os seus cinqüenta; então subiu o capitão de cinqüenta e, chegando, pôs-se de joelhos diante de Elias, e suplicou-lhe, dizendo: Homem de Deus, seja, peço-te, preciosa aos teus olhos a minha vida, e a vida destes cinqüenta teus servos.

Eis que fogo desceu do céu, e consumiu aqueles dois primeiros capitães de cinqüenta, com os seus cinqüenta; porém, agora seja preciosa aos teus olhos a minha vida.

Então o anjo do Senhor disse a Elias: Desce com este, não temas. E levantou-se, e desceu com ele ao rei.


Assim, pois, morreu, conforme a palavra do Senhor, que Elias falara (…)”

I Paralipomenon 10 (Bíblia Vulgata, English translation – equivalente a 1 Crônicas 10): “Saul is slain for his sins: he is buried by the men of Jabes. Now the Philistines fought against Israel, and the men of Israel fled from before the Philistines, and fell down wounded in mount Gelboe. And the Philistines drew near pursuing after Saul, and his sons, and they killed Jonathan, and Abinadab, and Melchisua the sons of Saul. And the battle grew hard against Saul and the archers reached him, and wounded him with arrows. And Saul said to his armour-bearer: Draw thy sword, and kill me: lest these uncircumcised come, and mock me. But his armour-bearer would not, for he was struck with fear: so Saul took his sword, and fell upon it. [réprobo dos réprobos!] And when his armour-bearer saw it, to wit, that Saul was dead, he also fell upon his sword and died. So Saul died, and his 3 sons, and all his house fell together. And when the men of Israel, that dwelt in the plains, saw this, they fled: and Saul and his sons being dead, they forsook their cities, and were scattered up and down: and the Philistines came, and dwelt in them. And the next day the Philistines taking away the spoils of them that were slain, found Saul and his sons lying on mount Gelboe. And when they had stripped him, and cut off his head, and taken away his armour, they sent it into their land, to be carried about, and shown in the temples of the idols and to the people. And his armour they dedicated in the temple of their god, and his head they fastened up in the temple of Dagon. And when the men of Jabes Galaad had heard this, to wit, all that the Philistines had done to Saul, All the valiant men of them arose, and took the bodies of Saul and of his sons, and brought them to Jabes, and buried their bones under the oak that was in Jabes, and they fasted 7 days. So Saul died for his iniquities, because he transgressed the commandment of the Lord, which he had commanded, and kept it not: and moreover consulted also a witch, And trusted not in the Lord: therefore he slew him, and transferred his kingdom to David the son of Isai.”

I will not mention those very many other places where S. Thomas in great detail discusses operations of this kind. As, for example, in his Summa contra Gentiles, Book 3, c. 1 and 2, in part one, question 114, argument 4. And in the Second of the Second, questions 92 and 94. We may further consult the Commentators and the Exegetes who have written upon the wise men and the magicians of Pharaoh, Exodus 7. We may also consult what S. Augustine says in The City of God, Book 18, c. 17. See further his second book On Christian Doctrine. Very many other doctors advance the same opinion, and it would be the height of folly for any man to contradict all these, and he could not be held to be clear of the guilt of heresy. For any man who gravely errs in an exposition of Holy Scripture is rightly considered to be a heretic.”

For they say, and S. Thomas agrees with them, that if witchcraft takes effect in the event of a marriage before there has been carnal copulation, then if it is lasting it annuls and destroys the contract of marriage, and it is quite plain that such a condition cannot in any way be said to be illusory and the effect of imagination.”

DSM-0 (IMPOTENCIAS FEITICIRIVS): “they lay down whether it is to be treated as a lasting or temporary infirmity if it continued for more than the space of 3 years”

Any person, whatsoever his rank or position, upon such an accusation may be put to torture, and he who is found guilty, even if he confesses his crime, let him be racked, let him suffer all other tortures prescribed by law in order that he may be punished in proportion to his offences.

Note: In days of old such criminals suffered a double penalty and were often thrown to wild beast to be devoured by them. Nowadays they are burnt at the stake, and probably this is because the majority of them are women.”

A tênue linha entre a Mãe Diná, David Copperfield e o Capeta.

Here it must be noticed that there are fourteen distinct species which come under the genus superstition, but these for the sake of brevity it is hardly necessary to detail, since they have been most clearly set out by S. Isidore in his Etymologiae, (*) Book 8, and by S. Thomas in his Second of the Second, question 92.” “The category in which women of this sort are to be ranked is called the category of Pythons, persons in or by whom the devil either speaks or performs some astonishing operation, and this is often the first category in order.”

(*) “Throughout the greater part of the Middle Ages it was the text-book most in use in educational institutions. Arevalo, who is regarded as the most authoritative editor of S. Isidore (7 vols., Rome, 1797-1803), tells us that it was printed no less than ten times between 1470 and 1529.”

it is necessary that there should be made a contract with the devil, by which contract the witch truly and actually binds herself to be the servant of the devil and devotes herself to the devil, and this is not done in any dream or under any illusion

CAVALGAR, ASSUNTO FEMININO POR EXCELÊNCIA: “although these women imagine they are riding (as they think and say) with Diana or with Herodias, in truth they are riding with the devil, who calls himself by some such heathen name and throws a glamour before their eyes. (…) the act of riding abroad may be merely illusory, since the devil has extraordinary power over the minds of those who have given themselves up to him, so that what they do in pure imagination, they believe they have actually and really done in the body.” “Whether witches by their magic arts are actually and bodily transported from place to place, or whether this merely happens in imagination, as is the case with regard to those women who are called Pythons, will be dealt with later in this work, and we shall also discuss how they are conveyed.”

The Evil Damnation

Devi[l-]da[-]mente orden[h]ado

that God very often allows devils to act as His ministers and His servants, but throughout all it is God alone who can afflict and it is He alone who can heal, for <I kill and I make alive> (Deuteronomy 32:39).”

(*) “<Lex Cornelia.> De Sicariis et Ueneficis. Passed circa 81 B.C. This law dealt with incendiarism as well as open assassination and poisoning, and laid down penalties for accessories to the fact.”

Yet perhaps this may seem to be altogether too severe a judgement mainly because of the penalties which follow upon excommunication: for the Canon prescribes that a cleric is to be degraded [?] and that a layman is to be handed over to the power of the secular courts, who are admonished to punish him as his offence deserves. Moreover, we must take into consideration the very great numbers of persons who, owing to their ignorance, will surely be found guilty of this error. And since the error is very common the rigor of strict justice may be tempered with mercy. And it is indeed our intention to try to make excuses for those who are guilty of this heresy rather than to accuse them of being infected with the malice of heresy. It is preferable then that if a man should be even gravely suspected of holding this false opinion he should not be immediately condemned for the grave crime of heresy. (See the gloss of Bernard upon the word Condemned.)”

since an idea merely kept to oneself is not heresy unless it be afterwards put forward, obstinately and openly maintained, it should certainly be said that persons such as we have just mentioned are not to be openly condemned for the crime of heresy. But let no man think he may escape by pleading ignorance. For those who have gone astray through ignorance of this kind may be found to have sinned very gravely. For although there are many degrees of ignorance, nevertheless those who have the cure of souls [padres?] cannot plead invincible ignorance, as the philosophers call it, which by the writers on Canon law and by the Theologians is called Ignorance of the Fact.” “For sometimes persons do not know, they do not wish to know, and they have no intention of knowing. For such persons there is no excuse, but they are to be altogether condemned.”

If it be asked whether the movement of material objects from place to place by the devil may be paralleled by the movement of the spheres, the answer is No. Because material objects are not thus moved by any natural inherent power of their own, but they are only moved by a certain obedience to the power of the devil, who by the virtue of his own nature has a certain dominion over bodies and material things; he has this certain power, I affirm, yet he is not able to add to created material objects any form or shape, be it substantial or accidental, without some admixture of or compounding with another created natural object.”

The planets and stars have no power to coerce and compel devils to perform any actions against their will, although seemingly demons are readier to appear when summoned by magicians under the influence of certain stars. It appears that they do this for two reasons. First, because they know that the power of that planet will aid the effect which the magicians desire. Secondly, They do this in order to deceive men, thus making them suppose that the stars have some divine power or actual divinity, and we know that in days of old this veneration of the stars led to the vilest idolatry.”

alchemists make something similar to gold, that is to say, in so far as the external accidents are concerned, but nevertheless they do not make true gold, because the substance of gold is not formed by the heat of fire which alchemists employ, but by the heat of the sun, acting and reacting upon a certain spot where mineral power is concentrated and amassed, and therefore such gold is of the same likeness as, but is not of the same species as, natural gold.”

Raimundo de Sabunde, espanhol, traduzido até por Montaigne (Theologia Naturalis).

we learn from the Holy Scriptures of the disasters which fell upon Job, how fire fell from heaven and striking the sheep and the servants consumed them, and how a violent wind threw down the four corners of a house so that it fell upon his children and slew them all. The devil by himself without the co-operation of any witches, but merely by God’s permission alone, was able to bring about all these disasters. Therefore he can certainly do many things which are often ascribed to the work of witches.”

uma sálvia podre, arremessada numa corrente d’água, pode causar terríveis tempestades e borrascas.”

Um dos argumentos muito repetidos: Citamos Aristóteles, que diz, no terceiro livro de sua Ética: O Mal é um ato voluntário, o que se prova pelo fato de que ninguém executa uma ação injusta, e um homem que comete um estupro o faz em busca do seu próprio prazer, não é que prejudique apenas por prejudicar ou queira cometer o mal pelo próprio mal. Mas não é assim que entende a Lei. O diabo está apenas usando a bruxa como seu instrumento; logo, neste caso a bruxa é apenas um títere; a bruxa não deveria ser punida pelo seu ato.” [!!!]

Gálatas 3: “O senseless Galatians, who hath bewitched you that you should not obey the truth?”

And the gloss upon this passage refers to those who have singularly fiery and baleful eyes [inflamados, perniciosos], who by a mere look can harm others, especially young children.” ???

Alguns podem seduzir e hipnotizar pelo mero olhar” Avicena

O ímã assustava os crentes até no mínimo Santo Agostinho. O “poder” feminino da maquiagem é colocado em pé de igualdade com aquele poder de atração magnética!

Moisés atacou o Egito com dez pragas por intermédio do ministério dos bons Anjos; já os magos do Faraó foram capazes tão-só de realizar três desses milagres pela ajuda de Satanás. E a peste que caiu sobre as pessoas por 3 dias devido ao pecado de Davi, que enumerou as pessoas, e os 72 mil homens que foram massacrados numa noite, do exército de Senacheribe, foram milagres produzidos por Anjos de Deus, i.e., Anjos bons tementes a Deus e sabedores de Sua Vontade.”

No tempo de Jó não havia feiticeiros nem bruxas. A Providência quis que o exemplo de Jó servisse para alertar sobre os poderes ocultos do Anjo caído manifestáveis mesmo contra os justos (…) lembre-se: nada ocorre senão a vontade de Deus.”

Vincent of Beauvais(*) in his Speculum historiale, quoting many learned authorities, says that he who first practised the arts of magic and of astrology was Zoroaster, who is said to have been Cham the son of Noe. And according to S. Augustine in his book Of the City of God, Cham laughed aloud when he was born, and thus showed that he was a servant of the devil, and he, although he was a great and mighty king, was conquered by Ninus the son of Belus,¹ who built Ninive, whose reign was the beginning of the kingdom of Assyria in the time of Abraham.”

(*) “Little is known of the personal history of this celebrated encyclopaedist. The years of his birth and death are uncertain, but the dates most frequently assigned are 1190 and 1264 respectively. It is thought that he joined the Dominicans in Paris shortly after 1218, and that he passed practically his whole life in his monastery in Beauvais, where he occupied himself incessantly upon his enormous work, the general title of which is Speculum Maius, containing 80 books, divided into 9.885 chapters. The third part, Speculum Historiale, in 31 books and 3,793 chapters, bring the History of the World down to A.D. 1250.”

¹ Grego antigo Bēlos; a reencarnação antropomórfica de Marduk; e ainda suposto neto de Hércules! Belus é algumas vezes associado à Assíria, outras à Babilônia e ainda outras ao Egito como um “pai civilizacional” e mestre militar ou semideus da guerra. Na última versão (a egípcia), teria se casado com a filha do deus-rio Nilo. De 12 autores clássicos que citaram Belus, 4 atribuem sua paternidade a Poseidon. Não estão tampouco descartadas relações do nome Belus com Ba’al do Velho Testamento (conseqüentemente, Ba’al e Marduque possuem verossimilhanças e correlações).

From this time men began to worship images as though they were gods; but this was after the earliest years of history, for in the very first ages there was no idolatry, since in the earliest times men still preserved some remembrance of the creation of the world, as S. Thomas says, Book 2, question 95, article 4. Or it may have originated with Nembroth [Nimrod], who compelled men to worship fire; and thus in the second age of the world there began Idolatry, which is the first of all superstitions, as Divination is the second, and the Observing of Times and Seasons the third.

The practices of witches are included in the second kind of superstition, since they expressly invoke the devil. And there are 3 kinds of this superstition: — Necromancy, Astrology, or rather Astromancy, the superstitious observation of stars, and Oneiromancy.Freud bruxão

The prophet Isaiah (6:6) says: The earth is filled with the knowledge of the Lord. And so in this twilight and evening of the world, when sin is flourishing on every side and in every place, when charity is growing cold, the evil of witches and their inequities superabound.”

And since Zoroaster was wholly given up to the magic arts, it was the devil alone who inspired him to study and observe the stars.”

For the eyes direct their glance upon a certain object without taking notice of other things, and although the vision be perfectly clear, yet at the sight of some impurity, such, for example, a woman during her monthly periods, the eyes will as it were contract a certain impurity. This is what Aristotle says in his work On Sleep and Waking, and thus if anybody’s spirit be inflamed with malice or rage, as is often the case with old women, then their disturbed spirit looks through their eyes, for their countenances are most evil and harmful, and often terrify young children of tender years, who are extremely impressionable.” “Os olhos dirigem sua mirada a certos objetos sem se concentrar sobre ou perceber outros, e ainda que o sentido da visão resulte perfeitamente claro, quando abstraído por alguma impureza, como, por exemplo, uma mulher em seu período menstrual, os olhos serão contaminados pela mesma impureza. Isto é o que Aristóteles diz em sua obra Sobre o Sono e a Vigília [livro contido na obra maior, Da Alma]; destarte, se a alma de alguém estiver dominada pela malícia ou fúria, o que é amiúde o caso das mulheres velhas, sua alma perturbada transparece através dos olhos; basta observar o quanto seus semblantes parecem maus e daninhos, e como assustam com tanta facilidade as crianças pequenas nos anos da inocência, que são extremamente impressionáveis.”

A lenda do “olhar letal” do basilisco: quiçá a fonte do Mito da Medusa.

EVIL NEVER DIES: “Réalité de la Magie et des Apparitions, Paris, 1819 (pp. xii-xiii), has: <Le monde, purgé par le déluge, fut repeuplé par les trois fils de Noé. Sem et Japhet imitèrent la vertu de leur père, et furent justes comme lui. Cham, au contraire, donna entrée au démon dans son coeur, remit au jour l’art exécrable de la magie, en composa les règles, et en instruisit son fils Misraim.>


Caldeu, astrólogo e mago eram três sinônimos perfeitos.”

And now with reference to the second point, namely, that blood will flow from a corpse in the presence of a murderer.” Superstição lida hoje em Tom Sawyer!

Now there are two circumstances which are certainly very common at the present day, that is to say, the connexion of witches with familiars, Incubi and Succubi, and the horrible sacrifices of small children. (…) Now these demons work owing to their influence upon man’s mind and upon his free will, and they choose to copulate under the influence of certain stars rather than under the influence of others, for it would seem that at certain times their semen can more easily generate and beget children.”

At first it may truly seem that it is not in accordance with the Catholic Faith to maintain that children can be begotten by devils, that is to say, by Incubi and Succubi: for God Himself, before sin came into the world, instituted human procreation, since He created woman from the rib of man to be a help-meet unto man: And to them He said: Increase, and multiply, Genesis 2:24. Likewise after sin had come into the world, it was said to Noé: Increase, and multiply, Genesis 9:1. In the time of the new law also, Christ confirmed this union: Have ye not read, that he who made man from the beginning, Made them male and female? S. Matthew 19:4. Therefore, men cannot be begotten in any other way than this.

But it may be argued that devils take their part in this generation not as the essential cause, but as a secondary and artificial cause, since they busy themselves by interfering with the process of normal copulation and conception, by obtaining human semen, and themselves transferring it.”

to collect human semen from one person and to transfer it to another implies certain local actions. But devils cannot locally move bodies from place to place. And this is the argument they put forward. The soul is purely a spiritual essence, so is the devil: but the soul cannot move a body from place to place except it be that body in which it lives and to which it gives life: whence if any member of the body perishes it becomes dead and immovable. Therefore devils cannot move a body from place to place, except it be a body to which they give life. It has been shown, however, and is acknowledged that devils do not bestow life on anybody, therefore they cannot move human semen locally”

the power that moves and the movement are one and the same thing according to Aristotle in his Physics. It follows, therefore, that devils who move heavenly bodies must be in heaven, which is wholly untrue, both in our opinion, and in the opinion of the Platonists.”

as Walafrid Strabo says in his commentary upon Exodus 7:2: And Pharaoh called the wise men and the magicians: Devils go about the earth collecting every sort of seed, and can by working upon them broadcast various species. And again in Genesis 6 the gloss makes 2 comments on the words: And the sons of God saw the daughters of men. First, that by the sons of God are meant the sons of Seth, and by the daughters of men, the daughters of Cain. Second, that Giants were created not by some incredible act of men, but by certain devils, which are shameless towards women. For the Bible says, Giants were upon the earth.”

For through the wantonness of the flesh they have much power over men; and in men the source of wantonness lies in the privy parts, since it is from them that the semen falls, just as in women it falls from the navel.”

men may at times be begotten by means of Incubi and Succubi”

We leave open the question whether it was possible for Venus to give birth to Aeneas through coition with Anchises. For a similar question arises in the Scriptures, where it is asked whether evil angels lay with the daughters of men, and thereby the earth was then filled with giants, that is to say, preternaturally big and strong men.” Santo Agostinho

Satyrs are wild shaggy creatures of the woods, which are a certain kind of devils called Incubi.”

As to that of S. Paul in I Corinthians 11, A woman ought to have a covering on her head, because of the angels, many Catholics believe that because of the angels refers to Incubi. Of the same opinion is the Venerable Bede in his History of the English; also William of Paris in his book De Universo, the last part of the 6th treatise. Moreover, S. Thomas speaks of this (I. 25 and II. 8, and elsewhere; also on Isaiah 12 and 14). Therefore he says that it is rash to deny such things. For that which appears true to many cannot be altogether false, according to Aristotle (at the end of the De somno et vigilia, and in the 2nd Ethics). I say nothing of the many authentic histories, both Catholic and heathen, which openly affirm the existence of Incubi.”

I Corinthians 11: Every man who prays or prophesies with his head covered dishonors his head. But every woman who prays or prophesies with her head uncovered dishonors her head—it is the same as having her head shaved. For if a woman does not cover her head, she might as well have her hair cut off; but if it is a disgrace for a woman to have her hair cut off or her head shaved, then she should cover her head. A man ought not to cover his head, since he is the image and glory of God; but woman is the glory of man.”

materially life springs from the semen, and an Incubus devil can, with God’s permission, accomplish this by coition. And the semen does not so much spring from him, as it is another man’s semen received by him for this purpose (see S. Thomas, I. 51, art. 3). For the devil is Succubus to a man, and becomes Incubus to a woman. In just the same way they absorb the seeds of other things for the generating of various thing, as S. Augustine says, de Trinitate 3.”

INNER-BREEDING HERMAPHRODITE MUTUAL CONCEPTION: “one devil, allotted to a woman, should receive semen from another devil, allotted to a man [esperma feminino, vale dizer], that in this way each of them should be commissioned by the prince of devils to work some witchcraft; since, to each one is allotted his own angel, even from among the evil ones; or because of the filthiness of the deed, which one devil would abhor to commit.”

the soul occupies by far the lowest grade in the order of spiritual beings, and therefore it follows that there must be some proportionate relation between it and the body which it is able to move by contact. But it is not so with devils, whose power altogether exceeds corporeal power. (…) And just as the higher heavenly bodies are moved by the higher spiritual substances, as are the good Angels, so are the lower bodies moved by the lower spiritual substances, as are the devils. And if this limitation of the devils’ power is due to the essence of nature, it is held by some that the devils are not of the order of those higher angels, but are part of this terrestrial order created by God; and this was the opinion of the Philosophers. And if it is due to condemnation for sin, as is held by the Theologians, then they were thrust from the regions of heaven into this lower atmosphere for a punishment, and therefore are not able to move either it or the earth. (…) Also there is the argument that objects that the motion of the whole and of the part is the same thing, just as Aristotle in his 4th Physics instances the case of the whole earth and a clod of soil; and that therefore if the devils could move a part of the earth, they could also move the whole earth. But this is not valid, as is clear to anyone who examines the distinction.”

through such action complete contraception and generation by women can take place, inasmuch as they can deposit human semen in the suitable place of a woman’s womb where there is already a corresponding substance. (…) wherefore the child is the son not of the devil, but of some man.”

FREEZER ANTIGO: “devils are able to store the semen safely, so that its vital heat is not lost; or even that it cannot evaporate so easily on account of the great speed at which they move by reason of the superiority of the move over the thing moved.”

I Corinthians 15: “As long as the world endures Angels are set over Angels, men over men, and devils over devils. Also in Job 40 it speaks of the scales of Leviathan, which signify the members of the devil, how one cleaves to another. Therefore there is among them diversity both of order and of action.” “It is Catholic to maintain that there is a certain order of interior and exterior actions, and a degree of preference among devils. Whence it follows that certain abominations are committed by the lowest orders, from which the higher orders are precluded on account of the nobility of their natures.”

Dionysus also lays it down in his 10th chapter On the Celestial Hierarchy that in the same order there are 3 separate degrees; and we must agree with this, since they are both immaterial and incorporeal. See also S. Thomas (2:2).”

For though one and the same name, that of devil, is generally used in Scripture because of their various qualities, yet the Scriptures teach that One is set over these filthy actions, just as certain other vices are subject to Another. For it is the practice of Scripture and of speech to name every unclean spirit Diabolus, from Dia, that is Two, and Bolus, that is Morsel [pedaço]; for he kills two things, the body and the soul. And this is in accordance with etymology, although in Greek Diabolus means shut in Prison, which also is apt, since he is not permitted to do as much harm as he wishes. Or Diabolus may mean Downflowing, since he flowed down, that is, fell down, both specifically and locally. He is also named Demon, that is, Cunning over Blood, since he thirsts for and procures sin with a threefold knowledge, being powerful in the subtlety of his nature, in his age-long experience, and in the revelation of the good spirits. He is called also Belial, which means Without Yoke or Master; for he can fight against him to whom he should be subject. He is called also Beelzebub, which means Lord of Flies, that is, of the souls of sinners who have left the true faith of Christ. Also Satan, that is, the Adversary; see I Peter 2: For your adversary the devil goeth about, etc. Also Behemoth, that is, Beast, because he makes men bestial.

But the very devil of Fornication, and the chief of that abomination, is called Asmodeus, which means the Creature of Judgement: for because of this kind of sin a terrible judgement was executed upon Sodom and the 4 other cities. Similarly the devil of Pride is called Leviathan, which means Their Addition; because when Lucifer tempted our first parents he promised them, out of his pride, the addition of Divinity. Concerning him the Lord said through Isaiah: I shall visit it upon Leviathan, that old and tortuous serpent. And the devil of Avarice and Riches is called Mammon, whom also Christ mentions in the Gospel (Matthew 6): Ye cannot serve God, etc.

Segundo este panfleto, Lúcifer e os “diabos mais altos” jamais cometeriam um ato tão impuro quanto a fornicação! Demônios pudicos…

certain men who are called Lunatics are molested by devils more at one time than at another; and the devils would not so behave, but would rather molest them at all times, unless they themselves were deeply affected by certain phases of the Moon.”

the choleric are wrathful, the sanguine are kindly, the melancholy are envious, and the phlegmatic are slothful.”

S. Augustine (de Civitate Dei, V), where he resolves a certain question of 2 brothers who fell ill and were cured simultaneously, approves the reasoning of Hippocrates rather than that of an Astronomer. For Hippocrates answered that it is owing to the similarity of their humours; and the Astronomer answered that it was owing the identity of their horoscopes. For the Physician’s answer was better, since he adduced the more powerful and immediate cause.”

Saturn has a melancholy and bad influence and Jupiter a very good influence”

(*) “Although in Cicero and in Seneca mathematicus means a mathematician, in later Latin it always signifies an astrologer, a diviner, a wizard. The Mathematici were condemned by the Roman law as exponents of black magic. Their art is indeed forbidden in severest terms by Diocletian (A.D. 284-305): <Artem geometriae discere atque exervere oublice interest, ars autem mathematica damnabilis interdicta est omnino.>

Also, as William of Paris says in his De Universo, it is proved by experience that if a harlot tries to plant an olive it does not become fruitful, whereas if it is planted by a chaste woman it is fruitful.”

And here it is to be noted that a belief in Fate is in one way quite Catholic, but in another way entirely heretical.” “Fate may be considered to be a sort of second disposition, or an ordination of second causes for the production of foreseen Divine effects. And in this way Fate is truly something.”

as Aristotle says, the brain is the most humid of all the parts of the body, therefore it chiefly is subject to the operation of the Moon, which itself has power to incite humours. Moreover, the animal forces are perfected in the brain, and therefore the devils disturb a man’s fancy according to certain phases of the Moon, when the brain is ripe for such influences. And these are reasons why the devils are present as counsellors in certain constellations. They may lead men into the error of thinking that there is some divinity in the stars.”

And as for that concerning I Kings 16: that Saul, who was vexed by a devil, was alleviated when David played his harp before him, and that the devil departed, etc. It must be known that it is quite true that by the playing of the harp, and the natural virtue of that harmony, the affliction of Saul was to some extent relieved, inasmuch as that music did somewhat calm his sense through hearing; through which calming he was made less prone to that vexation.”

parteiras, que ultrapassam todas as outras em maldade.”

there are three things in nature, the Tongue, an Ecclesiastic, and a Woman, which know no moderation in goodness or vice; and when they exceed the bounds of their condition they reach the greatest heights and the lowest depths of goodness and vice.”

Avoid as you would the plague a trading priest, who has risen from poverty to riches, from a low to a high estate.”

Ecclesiasticus 25: “There is no head above the head of a serpent: and there is no wrath above the wrath of a woman. I had rather dwell with a lion and a dragon than to keep house with a wicked woman.”

O que mais é uma mulher senão um inimigo da amizade, uma punição inescapável, um mal necessário, uma tentação natural, uma calamidade desejável, um perigo doméstico, um prejuízo deleitável, um mal da natureza disfarçado de beleza?” João Crisóstomo

Cicero in his second book of The Rhetorics says: The many lusts of men lead them into one sin, but the lust of women leads them into all sins; for the root of all woman’s vices is avarice. And Seneca says in his Medea: A woman either loves or hates; there is no third grade. And the tears of woman are a deception, for they may spring from true grief, or they may be a snare. When a woman thinks alone, she thinks evil.”

Intelectualmente, as mulheres são como crianças.” Terêncio

Nenhuma mulher compreendia filosofia exceto Temeste.” Lactâncio, Instituições Divinas

Provérbios 11: “Como uma jóia de ouro no focinho dum porco, assim é uma mulher bonita que não tem modos.”

And when the philosopher Socrates was asked if one should marry a wife, he answered: If you do not, you are lonely, your family dies out, and a stranger inherits; if you do, you suffer perpetual anxiety, querelous complaints, reproaches concerning the marriage portion, the heavy displeasure of your relations, the garrulousness of a mother-in-law, cuckoldom, and no certain arrival of an heir. [fonte?] This he said as one who knew. For S. Jerome in his Contra Iovinianum says: This Socrates had 2 wives, whom he endured with much patience, but could not be rid of their contumelies and clamorous vituperations. So one day when they were complaining against him, he went out of the house to escape their plaguing, and sat down before the house; and the women then threw filthy water over him. But the philosopher was not disturbed by this, saying, <I knew the rain would come after the thunder.>

If we inquire, we find that nearly all the kingdoms of the world have been overthrown by women. Troy, which was a prosperous kingdom, was, for the rape of one woman, Helen, destroyed, and many thousands of Greeks slain. The kingdom of the Jews suffered much misfortune and destruction through the accursed Jezebel, and her daughter Athaliah, queen of Judah, who caused her son’s sons to be killed, that on their death she might reign herself; yet each of them was slain. The kingdom of the Romans endured much evil through Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt, that worst of women. And so with others. Therefore it is no wonder if the world now suffers through the malice of women.”

There is no man in the world who studies so hard to please the good God as even an ordinary woman studies by her vanities to please men.”

All witchcraft comes from carnal lust, which is in women insatiable.”

We know of an old woman who, according to the common account of the brothers in that monastery even up to this day, in this manner not only bewitched 3 successive Abbots, but even killed them, and in the same way drove the 4th out of his mind. For she herself publicly confessed it, and does not fear to say: I did so and I do so, and they are not able to keep from loving me because they have eaten so much of my dung – measuring off a certain length on her arm. I confess, moreover, that since we had no case to prosecute her or bring her to trial, she survives to this day.”

APARENTEMENTE, A REFUTAÇÃO DO ‘FENÔMENO’ DA POSSESSÃO: “And a third kind of mutation can be added, which is when a good or bad angel enters into the body, in the same way that we say that God alone is able to enter into the soul, that is, the essence of life. But when we speak of an angel, especially a bad angel, entering the body, as in the case of an obsession, he does not enter beyond the limits of the essence of the body; for in this way only God the Creator can enter, Who gave it to be as it were the intrinsic operation of life. But the devil is said to enter the body when he effects something about the body: for when he works, there he is, as S. John Damascene says. And then he works within the bounds of corporeal matter, but not within the very essence of the body.”

the devil can directly prevent the erection of that member which is adapted to fructification, just as he can prevent local motion.”

And again, it was a greater thing to turn Lot’s wife into a pillar of salt than it is to take away the male organ; and that (Genesis 19) was a real and actual, not an apparent, metamorphosis (for it is said that that pillar is still to be seen), And this was done by a bad Angel; just as the good Angels struck the men of Sodom with blindness, so that they could not find the door of the house. And so it was with the other punishments of the men of Gomorrah. The gloss, indeed, affirms that Lot’s wife was herself tainted with that vice, and therefore she was punished.”

PRECISO PROVAR QUE A ODISSÉIA NÃO FOI REAL, ORA QUAL É O MEU PROBLEMA? “it is read in the books of the Gentiles that a certain sorceress named Circe changed the companions of Ulysses into beasts; but that this was due to some glamour or illusion, rather than an actual accomplishment, by altering the fancies of men”

(*) “Crohns in his Die Summa theologica des Antonin von Florenz und die Schützung des Weibes im Hexenhammer, Helsingfors, 1903, has set out to show that the very pronounced misogyny which is apparent in the Malleus Maleficarum can be traced to the Summa of S. Antoninus.”

(*) “During the 16th century in France lycanthropy was very prevalent, and cannibalism were rife in many county districts.”

penitent witches have often told to us and to others, saying: No one does more harm to the Catholic Faith than midwives. For when they do not kill children, then, as if for some other purpose, they take them out of the room and, raising them up in the air, offer them to devils.”

Evil will be for all time, even to the perfecting of the universe.” Dionysius

as through the persecution of the tyrants came the patience of the martyrs, and through the works of witches come the purgation or proving of the faith of the just”

God in His justice permits the prevalence of evil, both that of sin and that of pain, and especially now that the world is cooling and declining to its end”

SALADA MISTA TEO-GENTÍLICA: “See Apocalypse 12. The dragon falling from heaven drew with him the third part of the stars. And he lives in the form of Leviathan, and is king over all the children of pride. And, according to Aristotle (Metaph., V), he is called king of princes, inasmuch as he moves those who are subject to him according to his will and command.”

Do alto de uma montanha (Escolástica, pressentimento de Dia do Juízo iminente) é fácil dizer que “a ordem do cosmo” exige descer até o último andar do porão na escada metafísica da perfeição gradual de cada coisa a seu tempo…

Democritus and the other natural philosophers were in error when they ascribed whatever happened to the inferior creation to the mere chance of matter.”

the sins of witches are more grievous than those of the bad angels and our first parents. Wherefore, just as the innocent are punished for the sins of their fathers, so are many blameless people damned and bewitched for the sins of witches.”

Adam sinned only in doing that which was wrong in one of two ways; for it was forbidden, but was not wrong in itself: but witches and other sinners sin in doing that which is wrong in both ways, wrong in itself, and forbidden, such as murders and many other forbidden things.”

in fornication a young man sins, but an old man is mad.”

For they are called witches (maleficae) on account of the enormity of their crimes”

For the sin of infidelity consists in opposing the Faith; and this may come about in 2 ways, by opposing a faith which has not yet been received, or by opposing it after it has been received. Of the first sort is the infidelity of the Pagans or Gentiles. In the second way, the Christian Faith may be denied in 2 ways: either by denying the prophecies concerning it, or by denying the actual manifestation of its truth. And the first of these is the infidelity of the Jews, and the second the infidelity of Heretics.”

II Pedro 2: “the infidelity of the heretics, who while professing the faith of the Gospel fight against it by corrupting it, is a greater sin than that of the Jews and Pagans.”

they received the prophecy of the Christian Faith in the Old Law, which they corrupt through badly interpreting it, which is not the case with the Pagans.”

a Saracen fasts, to observe the law of Mohammed as to fasting, and a Jew observes his Feast days; but in such things he is guilty of mortal sin.”

For, besides the punishment of excommunication inflicted upon them, Heretics, together with their patrons, protectors and defenders, and with their children to the 2nd generation on the father’s side, and to the first degree on the mother’s side, are admitted to no benefit or office of the Church. And if a Heretic have Catholic children, for the heinousness of his crime they are deprived of their paternal inheritance. And if a man be convicted, and refuse to be converted and abjure his heresy, he must at once be burned, if he is a layman. For if they who counterfeit money are summarily put to death, how much more must they who counterfeit the Faith? But if he is a cleric, after solemn degradation he is handed over to the secular Court to be put to death. But if they return to the Faith, they are to be imprisoned for life.”

For, bodily speaking, sons are a property of the father, and slaves and animals are the property of their masters; and so the sons are sometimes punished for their parents. Thus the son born to David from adultery quickly died; and the animals of the Amalekites were bidden to be killed. Yet the reason for these things remains a mystery.”

SOBRE DEUS INFLIGIR SOFRIMENTO SEM CULPA DO “CRENTE”: “For he says that for 5 causes God scourges man in this life, or inflicts punishment. First, that God may be glorified; and this is when some punishment or affliction is miraculously removed, as in the case of the man born blind (S. John 9), or of the raising of Lazarus (S. John 11).” Ou quando ele me deu 10 graus de miopia, para se gloriar na seqüência com meus infinitos livros.

And the species of the first form of Divination, that is, an open invocation of devils, are the following: Sorcery, Oneiromancy, Necromancy, Oracles, Geomancy, Hydromancy, Aeromancy, Pyromancy, and Soothsaying (see S. Thomas, Second of the Second, quest. 95, 26, and 5). The species of the 2nd kind are Horoscopy, Haruspicy, Augury, Observation of Omens, Cheiromancy and Spatulamancy.

But let no one think that such practices are lawful because the Scripture records that the soul of the just Prophet, summoned from Hades to predict the event of Saul’s coming war, appeared through the means of a woman who was a witch. For, as S. Augustine says to Simplicianus: It is not absurd to believe that it was permitted by some dispensation, or by the potency of any magic art, but by some hidden dispensation unknown to the Pythoness or to Saul, that the spirit of that just man should appear before the sight of the king, to deliver the Divine sentence against him.

Oneiromancy may be practised in two ways. The first is when a person uses dreams so that he may dip into the occult with the help of the revelation of devils invoked by him, with whom he has entered into an open pact. The second is when a man uses dreams for knowing the future, in so far as there is such virtue in dreams proceeding from Divine revelation, from a natural and intrinsic or extrinsic cause”

when we study at the time of the dawn we are given an understanding of certain occult matters in the Scriptures.”

MUITA FÉ NO ARI.: “doctors are very often helped by dreams in their diagnosis (as Aristotle says in the same book).”

when they desire to see what their fellow-witches are doing, it is their practice to lie down on their left side in the name of their own and of all devils; and these things are revealed to their vision in images.”

The other species of divination, which are performed with a tacit, but not an open, invocation of devils, are Horoscopy, or Astrology, so called from the consideration of the stars at birth; Haruspicy, which observes the days and hours; Augury, which observes the behaviour and cries of birds; Omens, which observe the words of men; and Cheiromancy, which observes the lines of the hand, or of the paws of animals.”

although the sin of Satan is unpardonable, this is not on account of the greatness of his crime, having regard to the nature of the Angels, with particular attention to the opinion of those who say that the Angels were created only in a state of nature, and never in a state of grace. And since the good of grace exceeds the good of nature, therefore the sins of those who fall from a state of grace, as do the witches by denying the faith which they received in baptism, exceed the sins of the Angels.”

A certain well-born citizen of Spires had a wife who was of such an obstinate disposition that, though he tried to please her in every way, yet she refused in nearly every way to comply with his wishes, and was always plaguing him with abusive taunts. It happened that, on going into his house one day, and his wife railing against him as usual with opprobrious words, he wished to go out of the house to escape from quarrelling. But she quickly ran before him and locked the door by which he wished to go out; and loudly swore that, unless he beat her, there was no honesty or faithfulness in him. At these heavy words he stretched out his hand, not intending to hurt her, and struck her lightly with his open palm on the buttock; whereupon he suddenly fell to the ground and lost all his senses, and lay in bed for many weeks afflicted with a most grievous illness. Now it is obvious that this was not a natural illness, but was caused by some witchcraft of the woman. And very many similar cases have happened, and been made known to many.”

it is to be said that witches are not generally rich for this reason: that the devils like to show their contempt for the Creator by buying witches for the lowest possible price. And also, lest they should be conspicuous by their riches.”

And because we are now dealing with matters relating to morals and behaviour, and there is no need for a variety of arguments and disquisitions, since those matters which now follow under their headings are sufficiently discussed in the foregoing Questions; therefore we pray God that the reader will not look for proofs in every case, since it is enough to adduce examples that have been personally seen or heard, or are accepted at the word of credible witnesses.

There are 3 classes of men blessed by God, whom that detestable race cannot injure with their witchcraft. And the first are those who administer public justice against them, or prosecute them in any public official capacity. The second are those who, according to the traditional and holy rites of the Church, make lawful use of the power and virtue which the Church by her exorcisms furnishes in the aspersion of Holy Water, the taking of consecrated salt, the carrying of blessed candles on the Day of the Purification of Our Lady, of palm leaves upon Palm Sunday, and men who thus fortify themselves are acting so that the powers of devils are diminished; and of these we shall speak later. The third class are those who, in various and infinite ways, are blessed by the Holy Angels.”

FAÇA O SINAL DA CRUZ, OTÁRIO! “When I had invoked the devil that I might commit such a deed with his help, he answered me that he was unable to do any of those things, because the man had good faith and diligently defended himself with the sign of the cross; and that therefore he could not harm him in his body, but the most he could do was to destroy an 11th part of the fruit of his lands.”

Therefore we may similarly say that, even if the administrators of public justice were not protected by Divine power, yet the devils often of their own accord withdraw their support and guardianship from witches, either because they fear their conversion, or because they desire and hasten their damnation.”

But since self-praise is sordid and mean, it is better to pass them over in silence than to incur the stigma of boastfulness and conceit. But we must except those which have become so well-known that they cannot be concealed.”

Not even the forbidden books of Necromancy contain such knowledge; for witchcraft is not taught in books, nor is it practised by the learned, but by the altogether uneducated; having only one foundation, without the acknowledgement or practice of which it is impossible for anyone to work witchcraft as a witch.”

But these are only the children who have not been re-born by baptism at the font, for they cannot devour those who have been baptized, nor any without God’s permission.”

The first method is when witches meet together in the conclave on a set day, and the devil appears to them in the assumed body of a man, and urges them to keep faith with him, promising them worldly prosperity and length of life; and they recommend a novice to his acceptance. And the devil asks whether she will abjure the Faith, and forsake the holy Christian religion and the worship of the Anomalous Woman (for so they call the Most Blessed Virgin MARY), and never venerate the Sacraments; and if he finds the novice or disciple willing, then the devil stretches out his hand, and so does the novice, and she swears with upraised hand to keep that covenant. And when this is done, the devil at once adds that this is not enough; and when the disciple asks what more must be done, the devil demands the following oath of homage to himself: that she give herself to him, body and soul, for ever, and do her utmost to bring others of both sexes into his power. He adds, finally, that she is to make certain unguents from the bones and limbs of children, especially those who have been baptized; by all which means she will be able to fulfil all her wishes with his help.”

Another, named Walpurgis, was notorious for her power of preserving silence, and used to teach other women how to achieve a like quality of silence by cooking their 1st-born sons in an oven.”

O SUPER-HOMEM ESTUDA DEMONOLOGIA: “For just as a physician sees signs in a sick man which a layman would not notice, so the devil sees what no man can naturally see.”

As bruxas evitavam fazer bruxarias aos sábados, o dia da Santa Virgem. Hohoho, quão poderosas!

And though we are 2 who write this book, one of us has very often seen and known such men. For there is a man who was once a scholar, and is now believed to be a priest in the diocese of Freising, who used to say that at one time he had been bodily carried through the air by a devil, and taken to the most remote parts.”

This is clear in the case of certain men who walk in their sleep on the roofs of houses and over the highest buildings, and no one can oppose their progress either on high or below. And if they are called by their own names by the other by-standers, they immediately fall crashing to the ground.” HAHAHA

For it is manifest that some of them, which the common people call Fauns, and we call Trolls, which abound in Norway, are such buffoons and jokers that they haunt certain places and roads and, without being able to do any hurt to those who pass by, are content with mocking and deluding them, and try to weary them rather than hurt them. And some of them only visit men with harmless nightmares.”

Did not the devil take up Our Saviour, and carry Him up to a high place, as the Gospel testifies?”

Indeed the natural power or virtue which is in Lucifer is so great that there is none greater among the good Angels in Heaven. For just as he excelled all the Angels in his nature, and not his nature, but only his grace, was diminished by his Fall, so that nature still remains in him, although it is darkened and bound.”

Two objections which someone may bring forward are not valid. First, that man’s soul could resist him, and that the text seems to speak of one devil in particular, since it speaks in the singular, namely Lucifer. And because it was he who tempted Christ in the wilderness, and seduced the first man, he is now bound in chains. And the other Angels are not so powerful, since he excels them all. Therefore the other spirits cannot transport wicked men through the air from place to place.

These arguments have no force. For, to consider the Angels first, even the least Angel is incomparably superior to all human power, as can be proved in many ways. First, a spiritual is stronger than a corporeal power, and so is the power of an Angel, or even of the soul, greater than that of the body. Secondly, as to the soul; every bodily shape owes its individuality to matter, and, in the case of human beings, to the fact that a soul informs it”

(GOLDEN) WITCHING (S)HOU(E)R: “Here is an instance of a visible transportation in the day-time. In the town of Waldshut on the Rhine, in the diocese of Constance, there was a certain witch who was so detested by the townsfolk that she was not invited to the celebration of a wedding which, however, nearly all the other townsfolk were present. Being indignant because of this, and wishing to be revenged, she summoned a devil and, telling him the cause of her vexation, asked him to raise a hailstorm and drive all the wedding guests from their dancing; and the devil agreed, and raising her up, carried her through the air to a hill near the town, in the sight of some shepherds. And since, as she afterwards confessed, she had no water to pour into the trench, she made a small trench and filled it with her urine instead of water, and stirred it with her finger, after their custom, with the devil standing by.”

Know, moreover, that the air is in every way a most changeable and fluid matter: and a sign of this is the fact that when any have tried to cut or pierce with a sword the body assumed by a devil, they have not been able to; for the divided parts of the air at once join together again. From this it follows that air is in itself a very competent matter, but because it cannot take shape unless some other terrestrial matter is joined with it, therefore it is necessary that the air which forms the devil’s assumed body should be in some way inspissated [condensado], and approach the property of the earth, while still retaining its true property as air. And devils and disembodied spirits can effect this condensation by means of gross vapours raised from the earth, and by collecting them together into shapes in which they abide, not as defilers of them, but only as their motive power which give to that body the formal appearance of life, in very much the same way as the soul informs the body to which it is joined.”

From this there may arise an incidental question as to what should be thought when a good or bad Angel performs some of the functions of life by means of true natural bodies, and not in aerial bodies; as in the case of Balaam’s ass, through which the Angel spoke, and when the devils take possession of bodies. It is to be said that those bodies are not called assumed, but occupied. See S. Thomas, 2:8, Whether Angels assume bodies.”

To return to the point. Devils have no lungs or tongue, though they can show the latter, as well as teeth and lips, artificially made according to the condition of their body; therefore they cannot truly and properly speak. But since they have understanding, and when they wish to express their meaning, then, by some disturbance of the air included in their assumed body, not of air breathed in and out as in the case of men, they produce, not voices, but sounds which have some likeness to voices, and send them articulately through the outside air to the ears of the hearer. And that the likeness of a voice can be made without respiration of air is clear from the case of other animals which do not breathe, but are said to make a sound, as do also certain other instruments, as Aristotle says in the De Anima. For certain fishes, when they are caught, suddenly utter a cry outside the water, and die.” “If anyone wishes to inquire further into the matter of devils speaking in possessed bodies, he may refer to S. Thomas in the Second Book of Sentences, dist. 8, art. 5. For in that case they use the bodily organs of the possessed body; since they occupy those bodies in respect of the limits of their corporeal quantity, but not in respect of the limits of their essence, either of the body or of the soul.”

HAHAHA: “Therefore it must be said that in no way does an Angel, either good or bad, see with the eyes of its assumed body, nor does it use any bodily property as it does in speaking, when it uses the air and the vibration of the air to produce sound which becomes reproduced in the ears of the hearer. Wherefore their eyes are painted eyes.” “For if the secret wishes of a man are read in his face, and physicians can tell the thoughts of the heart from the heart-beats and the state of the pulse, all the more can such things be known by devils.”

JESUS CRISTO NÃO CAGAVA: “In Christ the process of eating was in all respects complete, since He had the nutritive and metabolistic powers; not, be it said, for the purpose of converting food into His own body, for those powers were, like His body, glorified; so that the food was suddenly dissolved in His body, as when one throws water on to fire.”

in times long past the Incubus devils used to infest women against their wills, as is often shown by Nider in his Formicarius, and by Thomas of Brabant in his books On the Universal Good, or On/About Bees.”

And it is no objection that those of whom the text speaks were not witches but only giants and famous and powerful men; for, as was said before, witchcraft was not perpetuated in the time of the law of Nature, because of the recent memory of the Creation of the world, which left no room for Idolatry. But when the wickedness of man began to increase, the devil found more opportunity to disseminate this kind of perfidy.”

a witch is either old and sterile, or she is not. And if she is, then he naturally associates with the witch without the injection of semen, since it would be of no use, and the devil avoids superfluity in his operations as far as he can. But if she is not sterile, he approaches her in the way of carnal delectation which is procured for the witch. And should be disposed to pregnancy, then if he can conveniently possess the semen extracted from some man, he does not delay to approach her with it for the sake of infecting her progeny.” “But this also cannot altogether be denied, that even in the case of a married witch who has been impregnated by her husband, the devil can, by the commixture of another semen, infect that which has been conceived.”

they have greater opportunity to observe many people, especially young girls, who on Feast Days are more intent on idleness and curiosity, and are therefore more easily seduced by old witches.”

But with regard to any bystanders, the witches themselves have often been seen lying on their backs in the fields or the woods, naked up to the very navel, and it has been apparent from the disposition of those limbs and members which pertain to the venereal act and orgasm, as also from the agitation of their legs and thighs, that, all invisibly to the bystanders, they have been copulating with Incubus devils; yet sometimes, howbeit this is rare, at the end of the act a very black vapour, of about the stature of a man, rises up into the air from the witch. And the reason is that that Schemer knows that he can in this way seduce or pervert the minds of girls or other men who are standing by.”

Husbands have actually seen Incubus devils swiving [fodendo] their wives, although they have thought that they were not devils but men. And when they have taken up a weapon and tried to run them through, the devil has suddenly disappeared, making himself invisible. And then their wives have thrown their arms around them, although they have sometimes been hurt, and railed at their husbands, mocking them, and asking them if they had eyes, or whether they were possessed of devils.”

CARTEIRADA NAS ESTRELAS: “those changes which were miraculously caused in the Old or New Testament were done by God through the good Angels; as, for example, when the sun stood still for Joshua, or when it went backward for Hezekiah, or when it was supernaturally darkened at the Passion of Christ. But in all other matters, with God’s permission, they can work their spells, either the devils themselves, or devils through the agency of witches; and, in fact, it is evident that they do so.”

(*) <Carnival.> These Pagan practices are sternly reprobated in the Liber Poenitentiali of S. Theodore, 7th Archbishop of Canterbury. In Book 37 is written: <If anyone at the Kalends of January goeth about as a stag or a bull-calf, that is, making himself into a wild animal, and dressing in the skins of a herd animal, and putting on the heads of beast; those who in such wise transform themselves into the appearance of a wild animal, let them do penance for 3 years, because this is devilish.> The Council of Auxèrre in 578 (or 585) forbade anyone <to masquerade as a bull-calf or a stag on the 1st of January or to distribute devilish charms.>

In the town of Ratisbon a certain young man who had an intrigue with a girl, wishing to leave her, lost his member; that is to say, some glamour was cast over it so that he could see or touch nothing but his smooth body. In his worry over this he went to a tavern to drink wine; and after he had sat there for a while he got into conversation with another woman who was there, and told her the cause of his sadness, explaining everything, and demonstrating in his body that it was so. The woman was astute, and asked whether he suspected anyone; and when he named such a one, unfolding the whole matter, she said: <If persuasion is not enough, you must use some violence, to induce her to restore to you your health.> So in the evening the young man watched the way by which the witch was in the habit of going, and finding her, prayed her to restore to him the health of his body. And when she maintained that she was innocent and knew nothing about it, he fell upon her, and winding a towel tightly about her neck, choked her, saying: <Unless you give me back my health, you shall die at my hands.> Then she, being unable to cry out, and growing black, said: <Let me go, and I will heal you.> The young man then relaxed the pressure of the towel, and the witch touched him with her hand between the thighs, saying: <Now you have what you desire.> And the young man, as he afterwards said, plainly felt, before he had verified it by looking or touching, that his member had been restored to him by the mere touch of the witch.”

As when a man who is awake sees things otherwise than as they are; such as seeing someone devour a horse with its rider, or thinking he sees a man transformed into a beast, or thinking that he is himself a beast and must associate with beasts. For then the exterior senses are deluded and are employed by the interior senses. For by the power of devils, with God’s permission, mental images long retained in the treasury of such images, which is the memory, are drawn out, not from the intellectual understanding in which such images are stored, but from the memory,¹ which is the repository of mental images, and is situated at the back of the head, and are presented to the imaginative faculty. And so strongly are they impressed on that faculty that a man has an inevitable impulse to imagine a horse or a beast, when the devil draws from the memory an image of a horse or a beast; and so he is compelled to think that he sees with his external eyes such a beast when there is actually no such beast to see; but it seems to be so by reason of the impulsive force of the devil working by means of those images.”

¹ Trecho absolutamente silogístico.

Meu problema é que fui possuído por algo maligno que começa com “D”, Diagnóstico. E essa coisa de que falei me diz que eu estou (com) outra coisa que começa com “B”. Eu (e)s(t)ou (com) uma Besta!

Me disseram que minha visão foi transtornada

Pela rigorosa fé no mais puro nada!

CRIAÇÃO DE MINHOCAS: “And what, then, is to be thought of those witches who in this way sometimes collect male organs in great numbers, as many as 20 or 30 members together, and put them in a bird’s nest, or shut them up in a box, where they move themselves like living members, and eat oats and corn, as has been seen by many and is a matter of common report?”

But in the second sense there is a distinction to be drawn between creatures; for some are perfect creatures, like a man, and an ass, etc. And other are imperfect, such as serpents, frogs, mice, etc., for they can also be generated from putrefaction.”

TRACTATUS DE ÓTICA MEDIEVAL: “For in a glamour there may be an exterior object which is seen, but it seems other than it is. But imaginary vision does not necessarily require an exterior object, but can be caused without that and only by those inner mental images impressed on the imagination.”

It is to be said that the soul is thought to reside in the centre of the heart, in which it communicates with all the members by an out-pouring of life. An example can be taken from a spider, which feels in the middle of its web when any part of the web is touched.”

A CONVENIÊNCIA DO DIABO NÃO PODER FAZER DE MULHERES INOCENTES BRUXAS (POIS QUALQUER PIA E LINDA MOÇA ACUSADA DE BRUXARIA É AUTOMATICAMENTE CULPADA E BOA CARNE DE CHURRASCO): “although the devil can blacken men’s reputations in respect of other vices, yet it does not seem possible for him to do so in respect of this vice [the pact] which cannot be perpetrated without his cooperation.” “it has never yet been known that an innocent person has been punished on suspicion of witchcraft, and there is no doubt that God will never permit such a thing to happen.”

For we have often found that certain people have been visited with epilepsy or the falling sickness by means of eggs which have been buried with dead bodies, especially the dead bodies of witches, together with other ceremonies of which we cannot speak, particularly when these eggs have been given to a person either in food or drink.”

DISFIGURING DIVINE JUSTICE: “And there are witches who can bewitch their judges by a mere look or glance from their eyes, and publicly boast that they cannot be punished; and when malefactors have been imprisoned for their crimes, and exposed to the severest torture to make them tell the truth, these witches can endow them with such an obstinacy of preserving silence that they are unable to lay bare their crimes.”

For the devil knows that, because of the pain of loss, or original sin, such children [mortas antes do batismo] are debarred from entering the Kingdom of Heaven. And by this means the Last Judgement is delayed, when the devils will be condemned to eternal torture; since the number of the elect is more slowly completed, on the fulfilment of which the world will be consumed. And also, as has already been shown, witches are taught by the devil to confect from the limbs of such children an unguent which is very useful for their spells.”

REALMENTE UM ROMANCE DIGNO DE CERVANTES:A certain man relates that he noticed that his wife, when her time came to give birth, against the usual custom of women in childbirth, did not allow any woman to approach the bed except her own daughter, who acted as midwife. Wishing to know the reason for this, he hid himself in the house and saw the whole order of the sacrilege and dedication to the devil, as it has been described. He saw also, as it seemed to him, that without any human support, but by the power of the devil, the child was climbing up the chain by which the cooking-pots were suspended. In great consternation both at the terrible words of the invocation of the devils, and at the other iniquitous ceremonies, he strongly insisted that the child should be baptized immediately. While it was being carried to the next village, where there was a church, and when they had to cross a bridge over a certain river, he drew his sword and ran at his daughter, who was carrying the child, saying in the hearing of 2 others who were with them: <You shall not carry the child over the bridge; for either it must cross the bridge by itself, or you shall be drowned in the river.> The daughter was terrified and, together with the other women in the company, asked him if he were in his right mind (for he had hidden what had happened from all the others except the 2 men who were with him). Then he answered: <You vile drab, by your magic arts you made the child climb the chain in the kitchen; now make it cross the bridge with no one carrying it, or I shall drown you in the river.> And so, being compelled, she put the child down on the bridge, and invoked the devil by her art; and suddenly the child was seen on the other side of the bridge. And when the child had been baptized, and he had returned home, since he now had witnesses to convict his daughter of witchcraft (for he could not prove the former crime of the oblation to the devil, inasmuch as he had been the only witness of the sacrilegious ritual), he accused bot her daughter and wife before the judge after their period of purgation; and they were both burned, and the crime of midwives of making that sacrilegious offering was discovered.”

For the devil hates above all the Blessed Virgin, because she bruised his head.” Quando a Virgem Boxista Maria golpeou o crânio do Belzebu?

The second result to the children of this sacrilege is as follows. When a man offers himself as a sacrifice to God, he recognizes God as his Beginning and his End; and this sacrifice is more worthy than all the external sacrifices which he makes, having its beginning in his creation and its end in his glorification, as it is said: A sacrifice to God is an afflicted spirit, etc. In the same way, when a witch offers a child to the devils, she commends it body and soul to him as its beginning and its end in eternal damnation; wherefore not without some miracle can the child be set free from the payment of so great a debt.” The dead lion which is the daily miracle.

Finally, we know from experience that the daughters of witches are always suspected of similar practises, as imitators of their mothers’ crimes; and that indeed the whole of a witch’s progeny is infected. And the reason for this and for all that has been said before is, that according to their pact with the devil, they always have to leave behind them and carefully instruct a survivor, so that they may fulfill their vow to do all they can to increase the number of witches. For how else could it happen, as it has very often been found, that tender girls of 8 or 10 years have raised up tempests and hailstorms, unless they had been dedicated to the devil under such a pact by their mothers? For the children could not do such things of themselves by abjuring the Faith, which is how all adult witches have to begin, since they have no knowledge of any single article of the Faith.”

I have sometimes seen men coming in and out to my mother; and when I asked her who they were, she told that they were our masters to whom she had given me, and that they were powerful and rich patrons. The father was terrified, and asked her if she could raise a hailstorm then. And the girl said: Yes, if I had a little water. Then he led the girl by the hand to a stream, and said: Do it, but only on our land. Then the girl put her hand in the water and stirred it in the name of her master, as her mother had taught her; and behold! the rain fell only on that land. Seeing this, the father said: Make it hail now, but only on one of our fields. And when the girl had done this, the father was convinced by the evidence, and accused his wife before the judge. And the wife was taken and convicted and burned; but the daughter was reconciled and solemnly dedicated to God, since which hour she could no more work these spells and charms.”

But when this is publicly preached to the people they get no bad information by it; for however much anyone may invoke the devil, and think that by this alone he can do this thing, he deceives himself, because he is without the foundation of that perfidy, not having rendered homage to the devil or abjured the Faith. I have set this down because some have thought that several of the matter of which I have written ought not to be preached to the people, on account of the danger of giving them evil knowledge; whereas it is impossible for anyone to learn from a preacher how to perform any of the things that have been mentioned. But they have been written rather to bring so great a crime into detestation, and should be preached from the pulpit, so that judges may be more eager to punish the horrible crime of the abnegation of the Faith.”

it is very true that many cattle are said to have been bewitched in some districts, especially in the Alps; and it is known that this form of witchcraft is unhappily most widespread.”

For in devils there are 3 things to be considered – their nature, their duty and their sin; and by nature they belong to the empyrean of heaven, through sin to the lower hell, but by reason of the duty assigned to them, as we have said, as ministers of punishment to the wicked and trial to the good, their place is in the clouds of the air. For they do not dwell here with us on the earth lest they should plague us too much; but in the air and around the fiery sphere they can so bring together the active and passive agents that, when God permits, they can bring down fire and lightning from heaven.”

In the same work we hear of a certain leader or heresiarch of witches named Staufer, who lived in Berne and the adjacent country, and used publicly to boast that, whenever he liked, he could change himself into a mouse in the sight of his rivals and slip through the hands of his deadly enemies; and that he had often escaped from the hands of his mortal foes in this manner. But when the Divine justice wished to put an end to his wickedness, some of his enemies lay in wait for him cautiously and saw him sitting in a basket near a window, and suddenly pierced him through with swords and spears, so that he miserably died for his crimes.”

ATÉ UM ESPIRRO DO PROSCRITO PODIA CONDENÁ-LO: “For when they use words of which they do not themselves know the meaning, or characters and signs which are not the sign of the Cross, such practices are altogether to be repudiated, and good men should beware of the cruel arts of these warlocks.”

Also it appears that it is very rarely that men are delivered from a bewitchment by calling on God’s help or the prayers of the Saints. Therefore it follows that they can only be delivered by the help of devils; and it is unlawful to seek such help.”

it is submitted that the exorcisms of the Church are not always effective in the repression of devils in the matter of bodily afflictions, since such are cured only at the discretion of God; but they are effective always against those molestations of devils against which they are chiefly instituted, as, for example, against men who are possessed, or in the matter of exorcising children.”

No Angel is more powerful than our mind, when we hold fast to God. For if power is a virtue in this world, then the mind that keeps close to God is more sublime than the whole world. Therefore such minds can undo the works of the devil.” Augustine, o Sofista

There are 7 metals belonging to the 7 planets; and since Saturn is the Lord of lead, when lead is poured out over anyone who has been bewitched, it is his property to discover the witchcraft by his power.”

In this way we have answered the arguments that no spell of witchcraft must be removed. For the first 2 remedies are altogether unlawful. The 3rd remedy is tolerated by the law, but needs very careful examination on the part of the ecclesiastical judge. And what the civil law tolerates is shown in the chapter on witches, where it is said that those who have skill to prevent men’s labours from being vitiated by tempests and hailstorms are worthy, not of punishment, but of reward. S. Antoninus also, in his Summa, points out this discrepancy between the Canon Law and civil law. Therefore it seems that the civil law concedes the legality of such practices for the preservation of crops and cattle, and that in any event certain men who use such arts are not only to be tolerated but even rewarded.”

With regard to the bewitchment of human beings by means of Incubus and Succubus devils, it is to be noted that this can happen in 3 ways. First, when women voluntarily prostitute themselves to Incubus devils. Secondly, when men have connection with Succubus devils; yet it does not appear that men thus devilishly fornicate with the same full degree of culpability

As for instances where young maidens are molested by Incubus devils in this way, it would take too long to mention even those that have been known to happen in our own time, for there are very many well-attested stories of such bewitchments. But the great difficulty of finding a remedy for such afflictions can be illustrated from a story told by Thomas of Brabant in his Book on Bees.”

William of Paris notes also that Incubus seem chiefly to molest women and girls with beautiful hair; either because they devote themselves too much to the care and adornment of their hair, or because they are boastfully vain about it, or because God in His goodness permits this so that women may be afraid to entice men by the very means by which the devils wish them to entice men.”

At times also women think they have been made pregnant by an Incubus, and their bellies grow to an enormous size; but when the time of parturition comes, their swelling is relieved by no more than the expulsion of a great quantity of wind. For by taking ants’ eggs in drink, or the seeds of spurge or of the black pine, an incredible amount of wind and flatulence is generated in the human stomach. And it is very easy for the devil to cause these and even greater disorders in the stomach. This has been set down in order that too easy credence should not be given to women, but only to those whom experience has shown to be trustworthy, and to those who, by sleeping in their beds or near them, know for a fact that such things as we have spoken of are true.”

the devil can inflame a man towards one woman and render him impotent towards another; and this he can secretly cause by the application of certain herbs or other matters of which he well knows the virtue for this purpose.” “he can prevent the flow of the semen to the members in which is the motive power, by as it were closing the seminal duct so that it does not descend to the genital vessels, or does not ascend again from them, or cannot come forth, or is spent vainly.”

He who loves his wife to excess is an adulterer [!]. And they who love in this way are more liable to be bewitched after the manner we have said.”

it is assumed to be temporary if, within the space of 3 years, by using every possible expedient of the Sacraments of the Church and other remedies, a cure can be caused. But if, after that time, they cannot be cured by any remedy, then it is assumed to be permanent.”

But some may find it difficult to understand how this function can be obstructed in respect of one woman but not of another. S. Bonaventura answers that this may be because some witch has persuaded the devil to effect this only with respect to one woman, or because God will not allow the obstruction to apply save to some particular woman. The judgement of God in this matter is a mystery, as in the case of the wife of Tobias. But how the devil procures this disability is plainly shown by what has already been said. And S. Bonaventura says that he obstructs the procreant function, not intrinsically by harming the organ, but extrinsically by impeding its use; and it is an artificial, not a natural impediment; and so he can cause it to apply to one woman and not to another. Or else he takes away all desire for one or another woman; and this he does by his own power, or else by means of some herb or stone or some occult creature. And in this he is in substantial agreement with Peter of Palude.” Philocaption, or inordinate love of one person for another, can be caused in 3 ways. Sometimes it is due merely to a lack of control over the eyes; sometimes to the temptation of devils; sometimes to the spells of necromancers and witches, with the help of devils.” The second cause arises from the temptation of devils. In this way Amnon loved his beautiful sister Tamar, and was so vexed that he fell sick for love of her (II Samuel 13). For he could not have been so totally corrupt in his mind as to fall into so great a crime of incest unless he had been grievously tempted by the devil.”

when a man often puts away his beautiful wife to cleave to the most hideous of women, and when he cannot rest in the night, but is so demented that he must go by devious ways to his mistress; and when it is found that those of noblest birth, Governors, and other rich men, are the most miserably involved in this sin (for this age is dominated by women, and was foretold by S. Hildegard, as Vincent of Beauvais records in the Mirror of History, although he said it would not endure for as long as it already has); and when the world is now full of adultery, especially among the most highly born; when all this is considered, I say, of what use is it to speak of remedies to those who desire no remedy?” Indeed, sir: why bother?

Avicenna mentions 7 remedies which may be used when a man is made physically ill by this sort of love; but they are hardly relevant to our inquiry except in so far as they may be of service to the sickness of the soul. For he says, in Book III, that the root of the sickness may be discovered by feeling the pulse and uttering the name of the object of the patient’s love; and then, if the law permits, he may be cured by yielding to nature [?]. Or certain medicines may be applied, concerning which he gives instructions. Or the sick man may be turned from his love by lawful remedies which will cause him to direct his love to a more worthy object. Or he may avoid her presence, and so distract his mind from her. Or, if he is open to correction, he may be admonished and expostulated with, to the effect that such love is the greatest misery. Or he may be directed to someone who, as far as he may with God’s truth, will vilify the body and disposition of his love, and so blacken her character that she may appear to him altogether base and deformed. Or, finally, he is to be set to arduous duties which may distract his thoughts.”

(*) “No formal canonization of S. Hildegard has taken place, but many miracles were wrought at her intercession, and her name is in the Roman Martyrology. The feast is celebrated on 17 September in the dioceses of Speyer, Mainz, Trier and Limburg, and by the Solesmes monks on 18 September with a proper Office. The Relics of the Saint are at Eibingen, of which town she is patron. The convent of S. Hildegard there was formally constituted on 17 September, 1904.”

When a sick man wishes to confess, and if on the arrival of the priest he is rendered dumb by his infirmity, or falls into a frenzy, those who have heard him speak must give their testimony. And if he is thought to be at the point of death, let him be reconciled with God by the laying on of hands and the placing of the Sacrament in his mouth. S. Thomas also says that the same procedure may be used with baptized people who are bodily tormented by unclean spirits, and with other mentally distracted persons. And he adds, in Book IV, dist. 9, that the Communion must not be denied to demoniacs unless it is certain that they are being tortured by the devil for some crime. To this Peter of Palude adds: In this case they are to be considered as persons to be excommunicated and delivered up to Satan.”

such was the case of the Corinthian fornicator (I Corinthians 5) who was excommunicated by S. Paul and the Church, and delivered unto Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that his spirit might be saved in the day of our Lord JESUS Christ (…) For so great was the power and the grace of S. Paul, says the gloss, that by the mere words of his mouth he could deliver to Satan those who fell away from the faith.”

For in the primitive Church, when men had to be drawn into the faith by signs, just as the Holy Spirit was made manifest by a visible sign, so also a bodily affliction by the devil was the visible sign of a man who was excommunicated. And it is not unfitting that a man whose case is not quite desperate should be delivered to Satan; for he is not given to the devil as one to be damned, but to be corrected, since it is in the power of the Church, when she pleases, to deliver him again from the hands of the devil. So says S. Thomas.”

This man was casting a devil out of a man possessed in the monastery, and the devil asked him to give him some place to which he could go. This pleased the Brother, and he jokingly said, <Go to my privy [vaso sanitário].> So the devil went out; and when in the night the Brother wished to go and purge his belly, the devil attacked him so savagely in the privy that he with difficulty escaped with his life.” HAHAHA

But a man possessed by a devil can indirectly be relieved by the power of music, as was Saul by David’s harp, or of a herb, or of any other bodily matter in which there lies some natural virtue. Therefore such remedies may be used, as can be argued both from authority and by reason.” although it is good that in the liberation of a bewitched person recourse should be had to an exorcist having authority to exorcise such bewitchments, yet at times other devout persons may, either with or without any exorcism, cast out this sort of diseases.”

ETIMOLOGIA DO TERMO ENERGÚMENO: “But if anyone asks what is the difference between the aspersion of Holy Water and exorcism, since both are ordained against the plagues of the devil, the answer is supplied by S. Thomas, who says: The devil attacks us from without and from within. Therefore Holy Water is ordained against his attacks from without; but exorcism against those from within. For this reason those for whom exorcism is necessary are called Energoumenoi, from En, meaning In, and Ergon, meaning Work, since they labour within themselves. But in exorcising a bewitched person both methods are to be used, because he is tormented both within and without.”

A FÊMEA É DUAS VEZES MAIS DIABÓLICA QUE O DIABO (MORE EVIL THAN THE DEVIL): “the labour required in the case of the bewitched is twofold, whereas it is only single in the case of the possessed.”

The miracle of the removal of a mountain was actually performed by S. Gregory Thaumaturgus, Bishop of Neocaesarea (d. circa 270-275), as the Venerable Bede tells us in his Commentary upon S. Mark XI: <Hoc quoque fieri potuisset, ut mons ablatus de terra mitteretur in mare, si necessitas id fieri poscisset. Quomodo legimus factum precibus beati patris Gregorii Neocaesareae Ponti Antistitis, viri mentis et virtutibus eximii, ut mons in terra tantum loco cederet, quantum incolae civitatis opus habebant. Cum enim volens aedificare ecclesiam in loco apto, vident eum angustiorem esse quam res exigebat, eo quod ex una parte rupe maris, ex alia monte proximo coarctaretur; venit nocte ad locum, et genibus flexis admonuit Dominum promissionis suae, ut montem longius juxta fidem petentis ageret. Et mane facto reversus invenit montem tantum spatii reliquisse structoribus ecclesiae, quantum opus habuerant.>

Also, because when witches wish to deprive a cow of milk they are in the habit of begging a little of the milk or butter which comes from that cow, so that they may afterwards by their art bewitch the cow; therefore women should take care, when they are asked by persons suspected of this crime, not to give away the least thing to them.”

In addition to the setting up of the sign of the Cross which we have mentioned, the following procedure is practised against hailstorms and tempests. Three of the hailstones are thrown into the fire with an invocation of the Most Holy Trinity, and the Lord’s Prayer and the Angelic Salutation are repeated twice or 3 times, together with the Gospel of S. John, In the beginning was the Word. And the sign of the Cross is made in every direction towards each quarter of the world. Finally, The Word was made Flesh is repeated 3 times, and 3 times By the words of this Gospel may this tempest be dispersed. And suddenly, if the tempest is due to witchcraft, it will cease. This is most true and need not be regarded with any suspicion. For if the hailstones were thrown into the fire without the invocation of the Divine Name, then it would be considered superstitious.” And for this reason it is a general practice of the Church to ring bells as a protection against storms, both that the devils may flee from them as being consecrated to God and refrain from their wickedness” And although, according to this rule, the ceremonies and legal procedures of the Old Testament are not now observed, since they are to be understood figuratively, whereas the truth is made known in the New Testament, yet the carrying out of the Sacrament or of Relics to still a storm does not seem to militate against this rule.”

Another terrible thing which God permits to happen to men is when their own children are taken away from women, and strange children are put in their place by devils. And these children, which are commonly called changelings, or in the German tongue Wechselkinder, are of 3 kinds. For some are always ailing and crying, and yet the milk of four women is not enough to satisfy them. Some are generated by the operation of Incubus devils, of whom, however, they are not the sons, but of that man from whom the devil has received the semen as a Succubus, or whose semen he has collected from some nocturnal pollution in sleep. For these children are sometimes, by Divine permission, substituted for the real children. And there is a third kind, when the devils at times appear in the form of young children and attach themselves to the nurses. But all 3 kinds have this in common, that though they are very heavy, they are always ailing and do not grow, and cannot receive enough milk to satisfy them, and are often reported to have vanished away.”

Again in Deuteronomy 22: God says that men shall not put on the garments of women, or conversely; because they did this in honour of the goddess Venus, and others in honour of Mars or Priapus.

(*) “So in Ireland the fairies are called <good people>, and traditionally seem to be of a benevolent and capricious and even mischievous disposition. In some parts of Highland Scotland fairies are called daoine sithe or men of peace, and it is believed that every year the devil carries off a 10th part of them. It will be readily remembered that to the Greeks the Fairies were the gracious goddesses.”

ACENDE A BANANA DE DINAMITE E SAI CORRENDO: “Certainly those whose high privilege it is to judge concerning matters of the faith ought not to be distracted by other business; and Inquisitors deputed by the Apostolic See to inquire into the pest of heresy should manifestly not have to concern themselves with diviners and soothsayers, unless these are also heretics, nor should it be their business to punish such, but they may leave them to be punished by their own judges. Nor does there seem any difficulty in the fact that the heresy of witches is not mentioned in that Canon.”

Again, Solomon showed reverence to the gods of his wives out of complaisance, and was not on that account guilty of apostasy from the Faith; for in his heart he was faithful and kept the true Faith. So also when witches give homage to devils by reason of the pact they have entered into, but keep the Faith in their hearts, they are not on that account to be reckoned as heretics.” But should be burnt!

a heretic is different from an apostate, and it is heretics who are subject to the Court of the Inquisition” “Let the Bishops and their representatives strive by every means to rid their parishes entirely of the pernicious art of soothsaying and magic derived from Zoroaster; and if they find any man or woman addicted to this crime, let him be shamefully cast out of their parishes in disgrace.”

But if, just as these arguments seem to show it to be reasonable in the case of Inquisitors, the Diocesans also wish to be relieved of this responsibility, and to leave the punishment of witches to the secular Courts, such a claim could be made good by the following arguments. For the Canon says, c. ut inquisitionis: We strictly forbid the temporal lords and rulers and their officers in any way to try to judge this crime, since it is purely an ecclesiastical matter: and it speaks of the crime of heresy. It follows therefore that, when the crime is not purely ecclesiastical, as is the case with witches because of the temporal injuries which they commit, it must be punished by the Civil and not by the Ecclesiastical Court. Besides, in the last Canon Law concerning Jews it says: His goods are to be confiscated, and he is to be condemned to death, because with perverse doctrine he opposed the Faith of Christ. But if it is said that this law refers to Jews who have been converted, and have afterwards returned to the worship of the Jews, this is not a valid objection. Rather is the argument strengthened by it; because the civil Judge has to punish such Jews as apostates from the Faith; and therefore witches who abjure the Faith ought to be treated in the same way; for abjuration of the Faith, either wholly or in part, is the essential principle of witches.” A canalhice do clero de que Montesquieu tão bem falou: aplicar o N.T. na esfera civil para se apropriar dos próprios bens e terras judias.

Besides, if the trial and punishment of such witches were not entirely a matter for the civil Judge, what would be the purpose of the laws which provide as follows?” “But in contradiction of all these arguments, the truth of the matter is that such witches may be tried and punished conjointly by the Civil and the Ecclesiastical Courts.” And again, although a secular prince may impose the capital sentence, yet this does not exclude the judgement of the Church, whose part it is to try and judge the case. Indeed this is perfectly clear from the Canon Law in the chapters de summa trin. and fid. cath., and again in the Law concerning heresy, c. ad abolendam and c. urgentis and c. excommunicamus, 1 and 2. For the same penalties are provided by both the Civil and the Canon Laws, as is shown by the Canon Laws concerning the Manichaean and Arian heresies. Therefore the punishment of witches belongs to both Courts together, and not to one separately.”

MAS NÓS, OS OPERADORES DO CADAFALSO, TEMOS NOSSA PRÓPRIA CÔRTE: “If it is an ecclesiastical crime needing ecclesiastical punishment and fine, it shall be tried by a Bishop who stands in favour with God, and not even the most illustrious Judges of the Province shall have a hand in it. And we do not wish the civil Judges to have any knowledge of such proceedings; for such matters must be examined ecclesiastically and the souls of the offenders must be corrected by ecclesiastical penalties, according to the sacred and divine rules which our laws worthily follow.”

Our main object here is to show how, with God’s pleasure, we Inquisitors of Upper Germany may be relieved of the duty of trying witches, and leave them to be punished by their own provincial Judges; and this because of the arduousness of the work: [!!!] provided always that such a course shall in no way endanger the preservation of the faith and the salvation of souls. And therefore we engaged upon this work, that we might leave to the Judges themselves the methods of trying, judging and sentencing in such cases.

Therefore in order to show that the Bishops can in many cases proceed against witches without the Inquisitors; although they cannot so proceed without the temporal and civil Judges in cases involving capital punishment [o melhor dos mundos para o Inquisidor]; it is expedient that we set down the opinions of certain other Inquisitors in parts of Spain, and (saving always the reverence due to them), since we all belong to one and the same Order of Preachers, to refute them, so that each detail may be more clearly understood.” ‘Com todo o respeito, mas discordo de vossas eminências espanholas latinas e frouxas’, parecem dizer os inquisidores saxões a cada linha…

so many more burdens are placed upon us Inquisitors which we cannot safely bear in the sight of the terrible Judge who will demand from us a strict account of the duties imposed upon us.” “the presbyter Udalricus went to a secret place with a certain infamous person, that is, a diviner, says the gloss, not with the intention of invoking the devil, which would have been heresy, but that, by inspecting the astrolabe, he might find out some hidden thing. And this, they say, is pure divination or sortilege.”

(*) “As Clement V died before the collection had been generally published, John XXII promulgated it anew, 25 October, 1317, and sent it to the University of Bologna as the authoritative Corpus of decretals to be used in the courts and schools.”

BEM QUE ALEMÃES SÃO REPUTADOS POR GOSTAR DE ENCHER LINGÜIÇA: “This being the case, it follows that however serious and grave may be the sin which a person commits, if it does not necessarily imply heresy, then he must not be judged as a heretic, although he is to be punished. Consequently an Inquisitor need not interfere in the case of a man who is to be punished as a malefactor, but not as a heretic, but may leave him to be tried by the Judges of his own Province.”

For a person rightly to be adjudged a heretic he must fulfill five conditions. First, there must be an error in his reasoning. Secondly, that error must be in matters concerning the faith, either being contrary to the teaching of the Church as to the true faith, or against sound morality and therefore not leading to the attainment of eternal life [fé da igreja e fé verdadeira explicitamente diferenciadas?]. Thirdly, the error must lie in one who has professed the Catholic faith, for otherwise he would be a Jew or a Pagan, not a heretic. [Benza Pan!] Fourthly, the error must be of such a nature that he who holds it must confess some of the truth of Christ as touching either His Godhead or His Manhood; for if a man wholly denies the faith, he is an apostate. Fifthly, he must pertinaciously and obstinately hold to and follow that error.”

REPENT! “if a man commits fornication or adultery, although he is disobeying the command Thou shalt not commit adultery, yet he is not a heretic unless he holds the opinion that it is lawful to commit adultery.”

EU NÃO SABIA QUE PODIA HAVER DISCUSSÕES MAIS ESTÉREIS DO QUE “FOI PÊNALTI OU NÃO FOI”, MAS EI-LAS: “a simonist is not in the narrow and exact sense of the word a heretic; but broadly speaking and by comparison he is so, according to S. Thomas, when he buys or sells holy things in the belief that the gift of grace can be had for money. But if, as is often the case, he does not act in this belief, he is not a heretic. Yet he truly would be if he did believe that the gift of grace could be had for money.”

For according to Aristotle every wicked man is either ignorant or in error. Therefore, since they who do such things have evil in their wills, they must have an error in their understandings.”

A Theologian will say that it is in the first instance a matter for the Apostolic See to judge whether a heresy actually exists or is only to be presumed in law. And this may be because whenever an effect can proceed from a two-fold cause, no precise judgement can be formed of the actual nature of the cause merely on the basis of the effect. Therefore, since such effects as the worship of the devil or asking his help in the working of witchcraft, by baptizing an image, or offering to him a living child, or killing an infant, and other matters of this sort, can proceed from 2 separate causes, namely, a belief that it is right to worship the devil and sacrifice to him, and that images can receive sacraments; or because a man has formed some pact with the devil, so that he may obtain the more easily from the devil that which he desires in those matters which are not beyond the capacity of the devil; it follows that no one ought hastily to form a definite judgement merely on the basis of the effect as to what is its cause, that is, whether a man does such things out of a wrong opinion concerning the faith. So when there is no doubt about the effect, still it is necessary to inquire farther into the cause; and if it be found that a man has acted out of a perverse and erroneous opinion concerning the faith, then he is to be judged a heretic and will be subject to trial by the Inquisitors together with the Ordinary. But if he has not acted for these reasons, he is to be considered a sorcerer, and a very vile sinner.”

(*) “Extravagantes. This word designates some Papal decretals not contained in certain canonical collections which possess a special authority, that is, they are not found in (but <wander outside>, <extra vagari>) the Decree of Gratian, or the 3 great official collections of the Corpus Iuri (the Decretals of Gregory IX; the 6th Book of the Decretals; and the Clementines). The term is now applied to the collections known as the Extravagantes Joannis XXII and the Extravagantes Communes. When John XXII (1316-34) published the Decretals already known as Clementines, there also existed various pontifical documents, obligatory upon the whole Church indeed, but not included in the Corpus Juris, and these were called Extravagantes. In 1325, Zenselinus de Cassanis added glosses to 20 constitutions of John XXII, and named this collection Viginti Extravagantes papae Joannis XXII. Chappuis also classified these under 14 titles containing all 20 chapters.”

And a Bishop can proceed without an Inquisitor, or an Inquisitor without a Bishop; or, if either of their offices be vacant, their deputies may act independently of each other, provided that it is impossible for them to meet together for joint action within 8 days of the time when the inquiry is due to commence; but if there be no valid reason for their not meeting together, the action shall be null and void in law.”

we treat of 20 methods of delivering sentence, 13 of which are common to all kinds of heresy, and the remainder particular to the heresy of witches.”

The first method is when someone accuses a person before a judge of the crime of heresy, or of protecting heretics, offering to prove it, and to submit himself to the penalty of talion if he fails to prove it. The second method is when someone denounces a person, but does not offer to prove it and is not willing to embroil himself in the matter” “The third method involves an inquisition, that is, when there is no accuser or informer, but a general report that there are witches in some town or place; and then the Judge must proceed, not at the instance of any party, but simply by the virtue of his office. Here it is to be noted that a judge should not readily admit the first method of procedure. For one thing, it is not actuated by motives of faith, nor is it very applicable to the case of witches, since they commit their deeds in secret. Then, again, it is full of danger to the accuser, because of the penalty of talion which he will incur if he fails to prove his case.” “Note also that in the case of the 2nd method the following caution should be observed. For it has been said that the 2nd method of procedure and of instituting a process on behalf of the faith is by means of an information, where the informer does not offer to prove his statement and is not ready to be embroiled in the case, but only speaks because of a sentence of excommunication, or out of zeal for the faith and for the good of the State. Therefore the secular Judge must specify in his general citation or warning aforesaid that none should think that he will become liable to a penalty even if he fails to prove his words; since he comes forward not as an accuser but as an informer.” Invejável engenharia do clima de denuncismo impune – laboratório avant-la-lettre do fascismo!

A figura do “laico-religioso” (com conhecimento de Direito): “if a Notary is not to be procured, then let there be two suitable men in the place of the Notary. For this is dealt with in the c. ut officium, § verum, lib. 6, where it is said: But because it is expedient to proceed with great caution in the trial of a grave crime, that no error may be committed in imposing upon the guilty a deservedly severe punishment; we desire and command that, in the examination of the witnesses necessary in such a charge, you shall have 2 religious and discreet persons, either clerics or laymen.

O PRO-FORMA DA INQUISIÇÃO (Manual de Redação da Caça às Bruxas)

In the Name of the Lord. Amen.

In the year of Our Lord —, on the — day of the — month, in the presence of me the Notary and of the witnesses subscribed, N. of the town of — in the Diocese of —, as above, appeared in the person at — before the honourable Judge, and offered him a schedule to the following effect.”

And if he says that he has seen anything, as, for example, that the accused was present at such a time of tempest, or that he had touched an animal, or had entered a stable, the Judge shall ask when he saw him, and where, and how often, and in what manner, and who were present. If he says that he did not see it, but heard of it, he shall ask him from whom he heard it, where, when, and how often, and in whose presence, making separate articles of each of the several points above mentioned. And the Notary or scribe shall set down a record of them immediately after the aforesaid denunciation”

The third method of beginning a process is the commonest and most usual one, because it is secret, and no accuser or informer has to appear. But when there is a general report of witchcraft in some town or parish, because of this report the Judge may proceed without a general citation or admonition as above, since the noise of that report comes often to his ears; and then again he can begin a process in the presence of the persons, as we have said before.”

Since we have said that in the 2nd method the evidence of the witnesses is to be written down, it is necessary to know how many witnesses there should be, and of what condition. The question is whether a Judge may lawfully convict any person of the heresy of witchcraft on the evidence of 2 legitimate witnesses whose evidence is entirely concordant, or whether more than 2 are necessary. And we say that the evidence of witnesses is not entirely concordant when it is only partially so; that is, when 2 witnesses differ in their accounts, but agree in the substance or effect: as when one says <She bewitched my cow>, and the other says, <She bewitched my child>, but they agree as to the fact of witchcraft.” “although 2 witnesses seem to be enough to satisfy the rigour of law (for the rule is that that which is sworn to by 2 or 3 is taken for the truth); yet in a charge of this kind 2 witnesses do not seem sufficient to ensure an equitable judgement, on account of the heinousness of the crime in question. For the proof of an accusation ought to be clearer than daylight; and especially ought this to be so in the case of the grave charge of heresy.” “the prisoner is not permitted to know who are his accusers. But the Judge himself must by virtue of his office, inquire into any personal enmity felt by the witnesses towards the prisoner; and such witnesses cannot be allowed, as will be shown later. And when the witnesses give confused evidence on account of something lying on their conscience, the Judge is empowered to put them through a 2nd interrogatory.” “if the prisoner is the subject of an evil report, a period should be set for his purgation; and if he is under strong suspicion on account of the evidence of 2 witnesses, the Judge should make him abjure the heresy, or question him, or defer his sentence. For it does not seem just to condemn a man of good name on so great a charge on the evidence of only 2 witnesses, though the case is otherwise with a person of bad reputation. This matter is fully dealt with in the Canon Law of heretics, where it is set down that the Bishop shall cause 3or+ men of good standing to give evidence on oath to speak the truth as to whether they have any knowledge of the existence of heretics in such a parish.” “But when, in spite of certain discrepancies, the witnesses agree in the main facts, then the matter shall rest with the Judge’s discretion

But it may be asked whether the Judge can compel witnesses to sweat an oath to tell the truth in a case concerning the Faith or witches, or if he can examine them many times. We answer that he can do so, especially an ecclesiastical Judge, and that in ecclesiastical cases witnesses can be compelled to speak the truth, and this on oath, since otherwise their evidence would not be valid. For the Canon Law says: The Archbishop or Bishop may make a circuit of the parish in which it is rumoured that there are heretics, and compel 3or+ men of good repute, or even, if it seems good to him, the whole neighbourhood, to give evidence. And if any through damnable obstinacy stubbornly refuse to take the oath, they shall on that account be considered as heretics.”

Note that persons under a sentence of excommunication, associates and accomplices in the crime, notorious evildoers and criminals, or servants giving evidence against their masters, are admitted as witnesses in a case concerning the Faith. And just as a heretic may give evidence against a heretic, so may a witch against a witch; but this only in default of other proofs, and such evidence can only be admitted for the prosecution and not for the defence: this is true also of the evidence of the prisoner’s wife, sons and kindred; for the evidence of such has more weight in proving a charge than in disproving it.” Wit(chn)ess.

The case of evidence given by perjurers, when it is presumed that they are speaking out of zeal for the faith, is dealed with in the Canon c. accusatus, § licet, where it says that the evidence of perjurers, after they have repented, is admissible; and it goes on to say: If it manifestly appears that they do not speak in a spirit of levity, or from motives of enmity, or by reason of a bribe, but purely out of zeal for the orthodox faith, wishing to correct what they have said, or to reveal something about which they had kept silence, in defence of the faith, their testimony shall be as valid as that of anyone else “So great is the plague of heresy that, in an action involving this crime, even servants are admitted as witnesses against their masters, and any criminal evildoer may give evidence against any person soever.” “But if it is asked whether the Judge can admit the mortal enemies of the prisoner to give evidence against him in such a case, we answer that he cannot; for the same chapter of the Canon says: You must not understand that in this kind of charge a mortal personal enemy may be admitted to give evidence.” “And a mortal enmity is constituted by the following circumstances: when there is a death feud or vendetta between the parties, or when there has been an attempted homicide, or some serious wound or injury which manifestly shows that there is mortal hatred on the part of the witness against the prisoner. And in such a case it is presumed that, just as the witness has tried to inflict temporal death on the prisoner by wounding him, so he will also be willing to effect his object by accusing him of heresy; and just as he wished to take away his life, so he would be willing to take away his good name.” “But there are other serious degrees of enmity (for women are easily provoked to hatred), which need not totally disqualify a witness, although they render his evidence very doubtful, so that full credence cannot be placed in his words unless they are substantiated by independent proofs, and other witnesses supply an indubitable proof of them. For the Judge must ask the prisoner whether he thinks that he has any enemy who would dare to accuse him of that crime out of hatred, so that he might compass his death; and if he says that he has, he shall ask who that person is; and then the Judge shall take note whether the person named as being likely to give evidence from motives of malice has actually done so. And if it is found that this is the case, and the Judge has learned from trustworthy men the cause of that enmity, and if the evidence in question is not substantiated by other proofs and the words of other witnesses, then he may safely reject such evidence. But if the prisoner says that he hopes he has no such enemy, but admits that he has had quarrels with women; or if he says that he has an enemy, but names someone who, perhaps, has not given evidence, in that case, even if other witnesses say that such a person has given evidence from motives of enmity, the Judge must not reject his evidence, but admit it together with the other proofs. § There are many who are not sufficiently careful and circumspect, and consider that the depositions of such quarrelsome women should be altogether rejected, saying that no faith can be placed in them, since they are nearly always actuated by motives of hatred. Such men are ignorant of the subtlety and precautions of magistrates, and speak and judge like men who are colour-blind.”

PROCESSO DE CONDENAÇÃO SUMÁRIA: It often happens that we institute a criminal process, and order it to be conducted in a simple straightforward manner without the legal quibbles and contentions which are introduced in other cases. (…) The Judge to whom we commit such a case need not require any writ, or demand that the action should be contested; he may conduct the case on holidays for the sake of the convenience of the public, he should shorten the conduct of the case as much as he can by disallowing all dilatory exceptions, appeals and obstructions, the impertinent contentions of pleaders and advocates, and the quarrels of witnesses, and by restraining the superfluous number of witnesses; but not in such a way as to neglect the necessary proofs” the Judge ought to advise the accuser to set aside his formal accusation and to speak rather as an informer, because of the grave danger that is incurred by an accuser. And so he can proceed in the 2nd manner, which is commonly used, and likewise in the 3rd manner, in which the process is begun not at the instance of any party.”

…Asked further how he could distinguish the accused’s motive, he answered that he knew it because he had spoken with a laugh. § This is a matter which must be inquired into very diligently; for very often people use words quoting someone else, or merely in temper, or as a test of the opinions of other people; although sometimes they are used assertively with definite intention.” “Here it must always be noted that in such an examination at least 5 persons must be present, namely, the presiding Judge, the witness of informer, the respondent or accused, who appears afterwards, and the 3rd is the Notary or scribe: where there is no Notary the scribe shall co-opt another honest man, and these 2, as has been said, shall perform the duties of the Notary; and this is provided for by Apostolic authority” For this is a common custom of witches, to stir up enmity against themselves by some word or action, as, for example, to ask someone to lend them something or else they will damage his garden, or something of that sort, in order to make an occasion for deeds of witchcraft; and they manifest themselves either in word or in action, since they are compelled to do so at the instance of the devils, so that in this way the sins of Judges are aggravated while the witch remains unpunished.”

Asked why she touched a child, and afterwards it fell sick, she answered. Also she was asked what she did in the fields at the time of a tempest, and so with many other matters. Again, why, having 1 or 2 cows, she had more milk than her neighbours who had 4 or 6. Let her be asked why she persists in a state of adultery or concubinage; for although this is beside the point, yet such questions engender more suspicion than would the case with a chaste and honest woman who stood accused.”

It is asked 1st what is to be done when, as often happens, the accused denies everything. We answer that the Judge has 3 points to consider, namely, her bad reputation, the evidence of the fact [nada mais genérico], and the words of the witnesses; and he must see whether all these agree together. And if, as very often is the case, they do not altogether agree together, since witches are variously accused of different deeds committed in some village or town; but the evidences of the fact are visible to the eye, as that a child has been harmed by sorcery, or, more often, a beast has been bewitched or deprived of its milk [o ser humano babaca vê o que quer ver; aliás, o ser humano em geral!]; and if a number of witnesses have come forward whose evidence, even if it show certain discrepancies (as that one should say she had bewitched his child, another his beast, and a 3rd should merely witness to her reputation, and so with the others), but nevertheless agree in the substance of the fact, that is, as to the witchcraft [substância etérea!], and that she is suspected of being a witch; although those witnesses are not enough to warrant a conviction without the fact of the general report, or even with that fact, yet, taken in conjunction with the visible and tangible evidence of the fact, the Judge may decide that the accused is to be reputed, not as strongly or gravely under suspicion, but as manifestly taken in the heresy of witchcraft; provided, that is, that the witnesses are of a suitable condition and have not given evidence out of enmity, and that a sufficient number of them, say 6 or 8 or 10, have agreed together under oath. And then, according to the Canon Law, he must subject her to punishment, whether she has confessed her crime or not.

It is true that S. Bernard speaks of an evident fact, and we here speak of the evidence of the fact; but this is because the devil does not work openly, but secretly.” O diabo é igualzinho deus.

If [s]he confesses and is impenitent, he is to be handed over to the secular courts to suffer the extreme penalty, according to the chapter ad abolendam, or he is to be imprisoned for life, according to the chapter excommunicamus. But if he does not confess, and stoutly maintains his denial, he is to be delivered as an impenitent to the power of the Civil Court to be punished in a fitting manner, as Henry of Segusio shows in his Summa, where he treats of the manner of proceeding against heretics.” “he should consign the accused to prison for a time, or for several years, in case perhaps, being depressed after a year of the squalor of prison, she may confess her crimes.”

This gives rise to the question whether the method employed by some to capture a witch is lawful, namely, that she should be lifted from the ground by the officers, and carried out in a basket or on a plank of wood so that she cannot again touch the ground. This can be answered by the opinion of the Canonists and of certain Theologians, that this is lawful in 3 respects. First, because it is clear from the opinion of such Doctors as Duns Scotus, Henry of Segusio and Godfrey of Fontaines, that it is lawful to oppose vanity with vanity. Also we know from experience and the confessions of witches that when they are taken in this manner they more often lose the power of keeping silence under examination: indeed many who have been about to be burned have asked that they might be allowed at least to touch the ground with one foot; and when it had been asked why they made such a request, they’d answered that if they had touched the ground they would have liberated themselves, striking many other people dead with lightning.”

But if it is only a slight matter of which she is accused, and she is not of bad reputation, and there is no evidence of her work upon children or animals, then she may be sent back to her house. But because she has certainly associated with witches and knows their secrets, she must give sureties; and if she cannot do so, she must be bound by oaths and penalties not to go out of her house unless she is summoned. But her servants and domestics, of whom we spoke above, must be kept in custody, yet not punished.”

(*) House should be searched.” Thus in the famous witch trial of Dame Alive Kyteler and her coven before the Bishop of Ossory in 1324, John le Poer, the husband of Dame Alice, deposed that in her closet were discovered mysterious vials and elixirs, strange necromantic instruments and ghastly relics of mortality which she used in her horrid craft. Holinshed in his Chronicle of Ireland (London, 1587, p. 93), sub anno 1323, has: <In rifling the closet of the ladie, they found a wafer of sacramental bread, having the divels name stamped thereon in steed of JESUS Christ, and a pipe of ointment, wherewith she greased a staffe, upon whish she ambled and gallopped through thicke and thin when and in what manner she wished.>

If the accused says that she is innocent and falsely accused and wishes to see and hear her accusers, it is a sign that she is asking to defend herself. But it is an open question whether the Judge is bound to make the deponents known to her and bring them to confront her face to face. (…) Although different Popes have had different opinions on this matter, none of them has ever said that in such a case the Judge is bound to make known to the accused the names of the informers or accusers. But, finally, Bonifice VIII(*) decreed as follows: If in a case of heresy it appear to the Bishop or Inquisitor that grave danger would be incurred by the witnesses of informers on account of the powers of the persons against whom they lay their depositions, should their names be published, he shall not publish them.” “any such Judge, even if he be secular, has the authority of the Pope, and not only of the Emperor.”

(*) “the collection of Bonifice VIII is known as Liber Sixtus

BELA APLICAÇÃO DE PONTA-CABEÇA DA “BOA-NOVA” E DO PARAÍSO AOS POBRES! “it is more dangerous to make known the names of the witnesses to an accused person who is poor, because such a person has many evil accomplices, such as outlaws and homicides, associated with him, who venture nothing but their own persons, which is not the case with anyone who is nobly born or rich, and abounding in temporal possessions.

let the Judge take notice that he must keep the names of the witnesses secret, under pain of excommunication. It is in the power of the Bishop thus to punish him if he does otherwise. Therefore he should very implicitly [!???] warn the Judge not to reveal the name from the very beginning of the process.”

IF, therefore, the accused asked to be defended, how can this be admitted when the names of the witnesses are kept altogether secret? It is to be said that 3 considerations are to be observed in admitting any defence. First, that an Advocate shall be allotted to the accused. Second, that the names of the witnesses shall not be made known to the Advocate even under an oath of secrecy, but that he shall be informed of everything contained in the depositions. Third, the accused shall as far as possible be given the benefit of every doubt, provided that this involves no scandal to the faith nor is in any way detrimental to justice (…) and the Advocate can act also in the name of procurator.

As to the first of these points: it should be noted that an Advocate is not to be appointed at the desire of the accused, as if he may choose which Advocate he will have; but the Judge must take great care to appoint neither a litigious nor an evil-minded man, nor yet one who is easily bribed (as many are), but rather an honourable man to whom no sort of suspicion attaches.” “Henry of Segusio holds an opposite view concerning the return of the fee in a case in which the Advocate has worked very hard. Consequently if an Advocate has wittingly undertaken to defend a prisoner whom he knows to be guilty, he shall be liable for the costs and expenses”

First, his behaviour must be modest and free from prolixity or pretentious oratory.” Acaba-se de abolir qualquer advogado no mundo de defender uma “bruxa”!

if he unduly defends a person already suspect of heresy, he makes himself as it were a patron of that heresy, and lays himself under not only a light but a strong suspicion”

though these means may savour of cunning and even guile, yet the Judge may employ them for the good of the faith and the State; for even S. Paul says: But being crafty, I caught you by guile. And these means are especially to be employed in the case of a prisoner who has not been publicly defamed, and is not suspected because of the evidence of any fact; and the Judge may also employ them against prisoners who have alleged enmity on the part of the deponents, and wish to know all the names of the witnesses.”

Common justice demands that a witch should not be condemned to death unless she is convicted by her own confession. But here we are considering the case of one who is judged to be taken in manifest heresy for direct or indirect evidence of the fact, or the legitimate production of witnesses; and in this case she is to be exposed to questions and torture to extort a confession of her crimes.

and behold! he was suddenly bewitched so that his mouth was stretched sideways as far as his ears in a horrible deformity, and he could not draw it back, but remained so deformed for a long time.” :O :T

indirect evidence of the fact is different from direct evidence; yet though it is not so conclusive, it is still taken from the words and deeds of witches, and it is judged from witchcraft which is not so immediate in its effect, but follows after some lapse of time from the utterance of the threatening words. May we conclude that this is the case with such witches who have been accused and have not made good their defence (or have failed to defend themselves because this privilege was not granted them; and it was not granted because they did not ask for it). But what we are to consider now is what action the Judge should take, and how he should proceed to question the accused with a view to extorting the truth from her so that sentence of death may finally be passed upon her.” he must not be too quick for this reason: unless God, through a holy Angel, compels the devil to withhold his help from the witch, she will be so insensible to the pains of torture that she will sooner be torn limb from limb than confess any of the truth. But the torture is not to be neglected for this reason, for they are not all equally endowed with this power, and also the devil sometimes of his own will permits them to confess their crimes without being compelled by a holy Angel.” For there are some who obtain from the devil a respite of 6 or 8 or 10 years before they have to offer him their homage, that is, devote themselves to him body and soul; whereas others, when they first profess their abjuration of the faith, at the same time offer their homage. And the reason why the devil allows that stipulated interval of time is that, during that time, he may find out whether the witch has denied the faith with her lips only but not in her heart, and would therefore offer him her homage in the same way.”

we may say that it is as difficult, or more difficult, to compel a witch to tell the truth as it is to exorcise a person possessed of the devil. Therefore the Judge ought not to be too willing or ready to proceed to such examination, unless the death penalty is involved.” very often meditation, and the misery of imprisonment, and the repeated advice of honest men, dispose the accused to discover the truth.” let the accused be stripped; or if she is a woman, let her first be led to the penal cells and there stripped by honest women of good reputation. And the reason for this is that they should search for any instrument of witchcraft sewn into her clothes; for they often make such instruments, at the instruction of devils. And when such instruments have been disposed of, the Judge shall use his own persuasions and those of other honest men zealous for the faith to induce her to confess the truth voluntarily; and if she will not, let him order the officers to bind her with cords, and apply her to some engine of torture; and then let them obey at once but not joyfully, rather appearing to be disturbed by their duty. Then let her be released again at someone’s earnest request, and taken on one side, and let her again be persuaded; and in persuading her, let her be told that she can escape the death penalty.” she may be promised her life on the following conditions: that she be sentenced to imprisonment for life on bread and water, provided that she supply evidence which will lead to the conviction of other witches. And she is not to be told, when she is promised her life, that she is to be imprisoned in this way; but should be led to suppose that some other penance, such as exile, will be imposed on her as punishment. And without doubt notorious witches, especially such as use witches’ medicines and cure the bewitched by superstitious means, should be kept in this way, both that they may help the bewitched, and that they may betray other witches. But such a betrayal by them must not be considered of itself sufficient ground for a conviction, since the devil is a liar, unless it is also substantiated by the evidence of the fact, and by witnesses.

Others think that, after she has been consigned to prison in this way, the promise to spare her life should be kept for a time, but that after a certain period she should be burned.”

But if neither threats nor such promises will induce her to confess the truth, then the officers must proceed with the sentence, and she must be examined, not in any new or exquisite manner, but in the usual way, lightly or heavily according as the nature of her crimes demands. And while she is being questioned about each several point, let her be often and frequently exposed to torture, beginning with the more gentle of them; for the Judge should not be too hasty to proceed to the graver kind. And while this is being done, let the Notary write all down, how she is tortured and what questions are asked and how she answers.

And note that, if she confesses under torture, she should then be taken to another place and questioned anew, so that she does not confess only under the stress of torture.

The next step of the Judge should be that, if after being fittingly tortured she refuses to confess the truth, he should have other engines of torture brought before her, and tell her that she will have to endure these if she does not confess. If then she is not induced by terror to confess, the torture must be continued on the 2nd or 3rd day, but not repeated at that present time unless there should be some fresh indication of its probable success.”

The Judge should also take care that during that interval there should always be guards with her, so that she is never left alone, for fear lest the devil will cause her to kill herself. But the devil himself knows better than anyone whether he will desert her of his own will, or be compelled to do so by God.”

THE Judge should act as follows in the continuation of the torture. First he should bear in mind that, just as the same medicine is not applicable to all the members, but there are various and distinct salves for each several member, so not all heretics or those accused of heresy are to be subjected to the same method of questioning, examination and torture as to the charges laid against them; but various and different means are to be employed according to their various natures and persons. Now a surgeon cuts off rotten limbs; and mangy sheep are isolated from the healthy; but a prudent Judge will not consider it safe to bind himself down to one invariable rule in his method of dealing with a prisoner who is endowed with a witch’s power of taciturnity, and whose silence he is unable to overcome. For if the sons of darkness were to become accustomed to one general rule they would provide means of evading it as a well-known snare set for their destruction.”

For we are taught both by the words of worthy men of old and by our own experience that this is a most certain sign, and it has been found that even if she be urged and exhorted by solemn conjurations to shed tears, if she be a witch she will not be able to weep: although she will assume a tearful aspect and smear her cheeks and eyes with spittle to make it appear that she is weeping; wherefore she must be closely watched by the attendants.” Não que uma sincera torrente de lágrimas garanta algo além de uma vida encarcerada ou a cremação numa fogueira…

I conjure you by the bitter tears shed on the Cross by our Saviour the Lord JESUS Christ for the salvation of the world, and by the burning tears poured in the evening hour over His wounds by the most glorious Virgin MARY, His Mother, and by all the tears which have been shed here in this world by the Saints and Elect of God, from whose eyes He has now wiped away all tears, that if you be innocent you do now shed tears, but if you be guilty that you shall by no means do so. In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, Amen.”

for S. Bernard tells us that the tears of the humble can penetrate to heaven and conquer the unconquerable. Therefore there can be no doubt that they are displeasing to the devil, and that he uses all his endeavour to restrain them, to prevent a witch from finally attaining to penitence.

But it may be objected that it might suit with the devil’s cunning, with God’s permission, to allow even a witch to weep; since tearful grieving, weaving and deceiving are said to be proper to women. We may answer that in this case, since the judgements of God are a mystery, if there is no other way of convicting the accused, by legitimate witnesses or the evidence of the fact, and if she is not under a strong or grave suspicion, she is to be discharged”

they must not allow themselves to be touched physically by the witch, especially in any contact of their bare arms or hands; but they must always carry about them some salt consecrated on Palm Sunday and some Blessed Herbs.”

And we know from experience that some witches, when detained in prison, have importunately begged their gaolers to grant them this one thing, that they should be allowed to look at the Judge before he looks at them; and by so getting the first sight of the Judge they have been able so to alter the minds of the Judge or his assessors that they have lost all their anger against them and have not presumed to molest them in any way, but have allowed them to go free.”

And no one need think that it is superstitious to lead her in backwards”

RAPE AS TORTURE: “The 3rd precaution to be observed in this 10th action is that the hair should be shaved from every part of her body. The reason for this is the same as that for stripping her of her clothes, which we have already mentioned; for in order to preserve their power of silence they are in the habit of hiding some superstitious object in their clothes or in their hair, or even in the most secret parts of the their bodies which must not be named.

But it may be objected that the devil might, without the use of such charms, so harden the heart of a witch that she is unable to confess her crimes; just as it is often found in the case of other criminals, no matter how great the tortures to which they are exposed, or how much they are convicted by the evidence of the facts and of witnesses. We answer that it is true that the devil can affect such taciturnity without the use of such charms; but he prefers to use them for the perdition of souls and the greater offence to the Divine Majesty of God.

This can be made clear from the example of a certain witch in the town of Hagenau,. She used to obtain this gift of silence in the following manner: she killed a newly-born first-born male child who had not been baptized, and having roasted it in an oven together with other matters which it is not expedient to mention, ground it to powder and ashes; and if any witch or criminal carried about him some of this substance he would in no way be able to confess his crimes.”

MANUAL DO GUERRILHEIRO DAS CRUZADAS: “this power of taciturnity can proceed from 3 causes. First, from a natural hardness of heart; for some are soft-hearted, or even feeble-minded, so that at the slightest torture they admit everything, even some things which are not true; whereas others are so hard that however much they are tortured the truth is not to be had from them; and this is especially the case with those who have been tortured before, even if their arms are suddenly stretched or twisted.”

But what is to be said of a case that happened in the Diocese of Ratisbon? Certain heretics were convicted by their own confession not only as impenitent but as open advocates of that perfidy; and when they were condemned to death it happened that they remained unharmed in the fire. At length their sentence was altered to death by drowning, but this was no more effective. All were astonished, and some even began to say that their heresy must be true; and the Bishop, in great anxiety for his flock, ordered a 3 days fast. When this had been devoutly fulfilled, it came to the knowledge of someone that those heretics had a magic charm sewed between the skin and the flesh under one arm; and when this was found and removed, they were delivered to the flames and immediately burned. Some say that a certain necromancer learned this secret during a consultation with the devil, and betrayed it; but however it became known, it is probably that the devil, who is always scheming for the subversion of faith, was in some way compelled by Divine power to reveal the matter.”

Now in the parts of Germany such shaving, especially of the secret parts, is not generally considered delicate, and therefore we Inquisitors do not use it; but we cause the hair of their head to be cut off, and placing a morsel of Blessed Wax in a cup of Holy Water and invoking the most Holy Trinity, we give it them to drink 3 times on a fasting stomach, and by the grace of God we have by this means caused many to break their silence. But in other countries the Inquisitors order the witch to be shaved all over her body. And the Inquisitor of Como has informed us that last year, that is, in 1485, he ordered 41 witches to be burned, after they had been shaved all over. And this was in the district and county of Burbia, commonly called Wormserbad, in the territory of the Archduke of Austria, towards Milan.”

(*) “Our Lady of Tears, Santa Maria delle Lagrime, is the Patroness of Spoleto. A picture of Our Lady, painted upon the wall of the house belonging to Diotallevio d’Antonio, which stood on the road from Spoleto to Trevi, was seen to shed tears in great abundance. Many graces and favours were obtained before the miraculous picture. A small chapel was erected on the spot in August 1485, and Mass was daily offered therein. On 27 March 1487, the large basilica was begun, which on its completion, 8 March 1489, was entrusted to the Olivetans.”

(*) “Helen Guthrie, in 1661 dug up the body of an unbaptized infant, which was buried in the churchyard near the southeast door of the church and took several pieces thereof, as the feet, hands, part of the head, and a part of the buttocks, and made a pie thereof, that she might eat of it and by this means might never make a confession of witchcraft.” Talento para ser comunista…

Finally, if he sees that she will not admit her crimes, he shall ask her whether, to prove her innocence, she is ready to undergo the ordeal by red-hot iron. And they all desire this, knowing that the devil will prevent them from being hurt; therefore a true witch is exposed in this manner. The Judge shall ask her how she can be so rash as to run so great a risk, and all shall be written down; but it will be shown later that they are never to be allowed to undergo this ordeal by red-hot iron. Medinho?

Let the Judge also note that when witches are questioned on a Friday, while the people are gathered together at Holy Mass to await our Saviour, they very often confess.”

As a 5th precaution, when all the above have failed, let her, if possible, be led to some castle; and after she has been kept there under custody for some days, let the castellan pretend that he is going on a long journey. And then let some of his household, or even some honest women, visit her and promise that they will set her entirely at liberty if she will teach them how to conduct certain practices. And let the Judge take note that by this means they have very often confessed and been convicted.”

For trial by combat is allowable in a criminal case for the protection of life, and in a civil case for the protection of property; then wherefore not the trial by red-hot iron or boiling water? (…) Again, a judge, who is responsible for the safety of the community, may lawfully allow a smaller evil that a greater may be avoided; as he allows the existence of harlots in towns in order to avoid a general confusion of lust. For S. Augustine On Free Will says: Take away the harlots, and you will create a general chaos and confusion of lust. So, when a person has been loaded with insults and injuries by any community, he can clear himself of any criminal or civil charge by means of a trial by ordeal.”

PAVOR DA SANTIFICAÇÃO MILAGROSA E INAUDITA DA BRUXA: “the Canon says in that chapter not that they who use such practices tempt God, but that they appear to tempt Him, so that it may be understood that, even if a man engage in such a trial with none but good intentions, yet since it has the appearance of evil, it is to be avoided.” That which is not sanctioned in the writings of the Sainted Fathers is to be presumed superstitious.” And it is not wonderful witches are able to undergo this trial by ordeal unscathed with the help of devils; for we learn from naturalists that if the hands be anointed with the juice of a certain herb they are protected from burning. Now the devil has an exact knowledge of the virtues of such herbs: although he can cause the hand of the accused to be protected from the red-hot iron by invisibly interposing some other substance, yet he can procure the same effect by the use of natural objects.”

An incident illustrative of our argument occurred hardly 3 years ago in the Diocese of Constance. For in the territory of the Counts of Fuerstenberg and the Black Forest there was a notorious witch who had been the subject of much public complaint. (…) she was released from her chains and lives to the present time, not without grave scandal to the Faith in those parts.

(*) “When scandalous reports were circulated concerning her honour, although her husband could not for a moment suspect her purity, she insisted upon an appeal to the trial by ordeal, and having walked unhurt over the red-hot plough-shares, publicly testified her innocence. The story is immensely popular in German poetry and German art. A print by Hans Burgkmair shows her stepping over the shares, one of which she holds in her hand. Upon her shrine in the Cathedral at Bamburg a bas-relief by Hans Thielmann of Warzburg depicts the same incident. Having already retired to a Benedictine cloister, upon the death of her husband S. Cunegond she took the veil.” Como eu disse, trata-se de um milagre de santa!

S. Augustine says that we must not pronounce sentence against any person unless he has been proved guilty, or has confessed. Now there are 3 kinds of sentence – interlocutory, definitive, and preceptive. These are explained as follows by S. Raymond. An interlocutory sentence is one which is given not on the main issue of the case, but on some other side issues which emerge during the hearing of a case; such as a decision whether or not a witness is to be disallowed, or whether some digression is to be admitted, and such matters as that. Or it may perhaps be called interlocutory because it is delivered simply by word of mouth without the formality of putting it into writing. A definitive sentence is one which pronounces a final decision as to the main issue of the case. A preceptive sentence is one which is pronounced by a lower authority on the instruction of a higher.

Now it is laid down by law that a definitive sentence which has been arrived at without a due observance of the proper legal procedure in trying a case is null and void in law; and the legal conduct of a case consists in 2 things. One concerns the basis of the judgement; for there must be a due provision for the hearing of arguments both for the prosecution and the defence, and a sentence arrived at without such a hearing cannot stand. The other is not concerned with the basis of the judgement, but provides that the sentence must not be conditional; for example, a claim for possession should not be decided conditionally upon some subsequent claim of property; but where there is no question of such an objection the sentence shall stand.”

the Judge need not require a writ, or demand that the case should be contested. But he must allow opportunity for the necessary proofs, and issue his citation, and exact the protestation of the oath concerning calumny, etc. Therefore there has lately been a new law made as to the method of procedure in such cases.”

the sentence should be pronounced by the Judge and no one else, otherwise it is not valid. Also the Judge must be sitting in a public and honourable place; and he must pronounce it in the day-time and not in the darkness; and there are other conditions to be observed; for example, the sentence must not be promulgated upon a Holy Day, nor yet merely delivered in writing.”

Note again that, although in criminal actions the execution of the sentence is not to be delayed, this rule does not hold good in 4 cases, with 2 of which we are here concerned. First, when the prisoner is a pregnant woman; and then the sentence shall be delayed until she has given birth. Secondly, when the prisoner has confessed her crime, but has afterwards denied it again”

And the Canonists note that suspicion is of 3 kinds. The first of which the Canon says, You shall not judge anyone because he is suspect in your own opinion. The second is Probably; and this, but not the first, leads to a purgation. The third is Grave, and leads to a conviction; and S. Jerome understands this kind of suspicion when he says that a wife may be divorced either for fornication or for a reasonably suspected fornication.” “Applying this to our discussion of the heresy of witches and to the modern laws, we say that in law there are 3 degrees of suspicion in the matter of heresy: the first slight, the second great, and the third very great.”

As an example of simple heresy, if people are found to be meeting together secretly for the purpose of worship, or differing in their manner of life and behaviour from the usual habits of the faithful; or if they meet together in sheds and barns, or at the more Holy Seasons in the remoter fields or woods, by day or by night, or are in any way found to separate themselves and not to attend Mass at the usual times or in the usual manner, or form secret friendships with suspected witches: such people incur at least a light suspicion of heresy, because it is proved that heretics often act in this manner. And of this light suspicion the Canon says: They who are by a slight argument discovered to have deviated from the teaching and path of the Catholic religion are not to be classed as heretics, nor is a sentence to be pronounced against them.

And here are especially to be noted those men or women who cherish some inordinate love or excessive hatred, even if they do not use to work any harm against men or animals in other ways. For those who behave in this way in any heresy are strongly to be suspected.”

Those who have been found to rest under a probable suspicion should prove their innocence by a fitting purgation; if not, they are to be stricken with the sword of anathema as a worthy satisfaction in the sight of all men. And if they continue obstinate in their excommunication for the period of a year, they are utterly condemned as heretics.”

ERRAR É HUMANO, PERSISTIR É PECAR! “He who has been involved in one kind or sect of heresy, or has erred in one article of the faith or sacrament of the Church, and has afterwards specifically and generally abjured his heresy: if thereafter he follows another kind or sect of heresy, or errs in another article or sacrament of the Church, it is our will that he be judged a backslider.”

Let care be taken not to put anywhere in the sentence that the accused is innocent or immune, but that it was not legally proved against him; for if after a little time he should again be brought to trial, and it should be legally proved, he can, notwithstanding the previous sentence of absolution, then be condemned.”

that you may be in good odour among the company of the faithful we impose upon you as by law a canonical purgation, assigning to you such a day of such a month at such hour of the day, upon which you shall appear in person before us with so many persons of equal station with you to purge you of your defamation. Which sponsors must be men of the Catholic faith and of good life who have known your habits and manner of living not only recently but in time past. And we signify that, if you should fail in this purgation, we shall hold you convicted, according to the canonical sanctions.”

We N., by the mercy of God Bishop of such a town, or Judge in the territory subject to the rule of such a Prince, having regard to the merits of the process conducted by us against you N., of such a place in such a Diocese, and after careful examination, find that you are not consistent in your answers, and that there are sufficient indications besides that you ought to be exposed to the question and torture. Therefore, that the truth may be known from your own mouth and that from henceforth you may not offend the ears of your Judges with your equivocations, we declare, pronounce, and give sentence that on this present day at such an hour you are to be subjected to an interrogatory under torture. This sentence was given, etc.”

Neither are they to be branded with the sign of the Cross, for such is the sign of a penitent heretic; and they are not convicted heretics, but only suspected, therefore they are not to be marked in this way. But they can be ordered either to stand on certain solemn days within the doors of a church, or near the altar, while Holy Mass is being celebrated, bearing in their hands a lighted candle of a certain weight; or else to go on some pilgrimage, or something of the kind, according to the nature and requirements of the case.”

Therefore inasmuch as you are bound by the chain of excommunication from the Holy Church, and are justly cut off from the number of the Lord’s flock, and are deprived of the benefits of the Church, the Church can do no more for you, having done all that was possible. We, the said Bishop and Judges on behalf of the Faith, sitting in tribunal as Judges judging, and having before us the Holy Gospels that our judgement may proceed as from the countenance of god and our eyes see with equity, and having before our eyes only God and the truth of the Holy Faith and the extirpation of the plague of heresy, on this day and at this hour and place assigned to you for the hearing of your final sentence, we give it as our judgement and sentence that you are indeed an impenitent heretic, and as truly such to be delivered and abandoned to the secular Court: wherefore by this sentence we cast you away as an impenitent heretic from our ecclesiastical Court, and deliver or abandon you to the power of the secular Court: praying the said Court to moderate or temper its sentence of death against you.” Ah, com certeza…

but you have been given up to your sin and led away and seduced by an evil spirit, and have chosen to be tortured with fearful and eternal torment in hell, and that your temporal body should here be consumed in the flames, rather than to give ear to better counsels and renounce your damnable and pestilent errors, and to return to the merciful bosom of our Holy Mother Church.”

6 6 6


Agostinho – De Natura Daemonis, 411 d.C.

Beothius – De Consolatione Philosophiae

Caesarius – Dialogue magnus visionum atque miraculorum, Libri XII.

Collin de Plancy – Dictionnaire Infernal, sixième édition, 1863.

Mirabeau – Erotika Biblion (pseudo-Rome), 1783.

Sinistrari – Demoniality, 1927.

Stefano Infessura – Diarium urbis Rome

POLÍTICA 2.0 (revisitação) – Aristóteles (e cotejo com anotações sucintas de uma primeira leitura, em março de 2011)

Estou cada vez mais convencido de que este livro não passa de um rascunho com anotações desordenadas de um imaturo (ou senil?) Aristóteles, que estava destinado a aprimorar sua obra, mas foi interrompido por um “erro divino” e teve de abandonar seu projeto ou, pois não!, já agonizava na demência e nem que vivesse mais 10 anos poderia dar forma e estilo ao que essencialmente não tem conteúdo nem originalidade algumas (conforme veremos, reiteradamente)…

A natureza, com efeito, não age com parcimônia, como os artesãos de Delfos que forjam suas facas para vários fins; fins; ela destina cada coisa a um uso especial (…) Somente entre os bárbaros a mulher e o escravo estão no mesmo nível. (…) Foi isso que fez com que o poeta acreditasse que os gregos tinham, de direito, poder sobre os bárbaros, como se, na natureza, bárbaros e escravos se confundissem.” “O poeta Hesíodo tinha razão ao dizer que era preciso antes de tudo A casa, e depois a mulher e o boi lavrador, já que o boi desempenha o papel do escravo entre os pobres.”

todos os homens que antigamente viveram e ainda vivem sob reis dizem que os deuses vivem da mesma maneira, atribuindo-lhes o governo das sociedades humanas, já que os imaginam sob a forma do homem.”

Bastar-se a si mesma é uma meta a que tende toda a produção da natureza e é também o mais perfeito estado. É, portanto, evidente que toda cidade está na natureza e que o homem é naturalmente feito para a sociedade política. Aquele que, por sua natureza e não por obra do acaso, existisse sem nenhuma pátria seria um indivíduo detestável, muito acima ou muito abaixo do homem, segundo Homero(*)

Assim, o homem é um animal cívico, mais social do que as abelhas e os outros animais que vivem juntos.”

O Estado, ou sociedade política, é até mesmo o primeiro objeto a que se propôs a natureza. O todo existe necessariamente antes da parte. As sociedades domésticas e os indivíduos não são senão as partes integrantes da cidade, todas subordinadas ao corpo inteiro, todas distintas por seus poderes e suas funções, e todas inúteis quando desarticuladas, semelhantes às mãos e aos pés que, uma vez separados do corpo, só conservam o nome e a aparência, sem a realidade, como uma mão de pedra. O mesmo ocorre com os membros da cidade: nenhum pode bastar-se a si mesmo. (*)Aquele que não precisa dos outros homens, ou não pode resolver-se a ficar com eles, ou é um deus, ou um bruto.

Por si mesmas, as armas e a força são indiferentes ao bem e ao mal: é o princípio motor que qualifica seu uso. Servir-se delas sem nenhum direito e unicamente para saciar suas paixões rapaces ou lúbricas é atrocidade e perfídia. Seu uso só é lícito para a justiça. O discernimento e o respeito ao direito formam a base da vida social e os juízes são seus primeiros órgãos.”

Chamaremos despotismo o poder do senhor sobre o escravo; marital, o do marido sobre a mulher; paternal, o do pai sobre os filhos (dois poderes para os quais o grego não tem substantivos).”

outros consideram que o poder senhorial não tem nenhum fundamento na natureza e pretendem que esta nos criou a todos livres, e a escravidão só foi introduzida pela lei do mais forte e é, por si mesma, injusta como um puro efeito da violência.”

as propriedades são uma reunião de instrumentos e o escravo, uma propriedade instrumental animada, como um agente preposto a todos os outros meios.”

Se cada instrumento pudesse executar por si mesmo a vontade ou a intenção do agente, como faziam, dizem, as marionetes de Dédalo ou os tripés de Vulcano, que vinham por si mesmos, segundo Homero, aos combates dos deuses, se a lançadeira tecesse sozinha a tela, se o arco tirasse sozinho de uma cítara o som desejado, os arquitetos não mais precisariam de operários, nem os mestres de escravos.”

A vida consiste no uso, não na produção.” “O senhor não é senão o proprietário de seu escravo, mas não lhe pertence; o escravo, pelo contrário, não somente é destinado ao uso do senhor, como também dele é parte. Isto basta para dar uma idéia da escravidão e para fazer conhecer esta condição. O homem que, por natureza, não pertence a si mesmo, mas a um outro, é escravo por natureza”

Mas faz a natureza ou não de um homem um escravo? É justa e útil a escravidão ou é contra a natureza? É isto que devemos examinar agora.” “Não é apenas necessário, mas também vantajoso que haja mando por um lado e obediência por outro; e todos os seres, desde o primeiro instante do nascimento, são, por assim dizer, marcados pela natureza, uns para comandar, outros para obedecer.”

A natureza ainda subordinou um dos dois animais ao outro. Em todas as espécies, o macho é evidentemente superior à fêmea: a espécie humana não é exceção.”

o uso dos escravos e dos animais é mais ou menos o mesmo e tiram-se deles os mesmos serviços para as necessidades da vida.” Tal como abanar na rede e ler uma epopéia…

Vemos corpos robustos talhados especialmente para carregar fardos e outros usos igualmente necessários; outros, pelo contrário, mais disciplinados, mas também mais esguios e incapazes de tais trabalhos, são bons apenas para a vida política, isto é, para os exercícios da paz e da guerra. Ocorre muitas vezes, porém, o contrário: brutos têm a forma exterior da liberdade e outros, sem aparentar, só têm a alma de livre.”

A deusa Hera deve ser feia por dentro.

Além da servidão natural, existe aquela que chamamos servidão estabelecida pela lei; esta lei é uma espécie de convenção geral, segundo a qual a presa tomada na guerra pertence ao vencedor.

Será justo? Sobre isso, os jurisconsultos não chegam a um acordo, nem tampouco, aliás, sobre a justiça de muitas outras decisões tomadas nas assembléias populares, contra as quais eles reclamam. Consideram cruel que um homem que sofreu violência se torne escravo do que o violentou e só tem sobre ele a vantagem da força. Este, pelo menos, é um ponto muito controverso para eles e, se têm muitos contraditores, têm também muitos partidários, mesmo entre os filósofos.” “uns não podem separar o direito da benevolência, outros afirmam que é da própria essência do direito que o mais valente comande. (…) A superioridade de coragem não é uma razão para sujeitar os outros.”

Ora, o escravo faz, por assim dizer, parte de seu senhor: embora separado na existência, é como um membro anexado a seu corpo. Ambos têm o mesmo interesse e nada impede que estejam ligados pelo sentimento da amizade, quando foi a conveniência natural que os reuniu.”

O governo doméstico é uma espécie de monarquia: toda casa se governa por uma só pessoa; o governo civil, pelo contrário, pertence a todos os que são livres e iguais.”

em Siracusa, uma espécie de preceptor abriu uma escola de escravidão e exigia dinheiro para preparar as crianças para este estado, com todos os pormenores de suas funções. Pode haver um ensino completo dessa espécie de profissão, assim como existem preceitos para a cozinha e outros gêneros de serviço, ou mais estimados, ou mais necessários, pois também o serviço tem os seus graus.”

Há servos e servos e há senhores e senhores.”

Quanto à ciência do senhor, como não é nem na aquisição, nem na posse, mas no uso de seus escravos que está o seu domínio, ela se reduz a saber fazer uso deles, isto é, a saber ordenar-lhes o que eles devem saber fazer.” APLICAÇÃO DOMÉSTICA RETROATIVA: Meu pai, senhor, não era um bom administrador, por isso perdeu o controle de seus escravos.

(cont.) “Não há aí nenhum trabalho grande ou sublime, e assim os que têm meios de evitar esse estorvo desembaraçam-se dele com algum intendente, quer para se dedicar à política, quer para se dedicar à filosofia.” Para se dedicar ao trabalho (como escravo de outros senhores), o caso do meu progenitor em particular. Com isso, nenhuma vantagem obteve, pois não havia superintendente. Nossos casos são análogos se eu pensar naquilo em que me dedico, tendo escasso tempo para ordenar uma futura humanidade a fazer o que eu quero. Mas como não viverei para fruir de uma eventual decepção, estou em vantagem. Sempre posso acreditar, até a minha morte, que fui um melhor mestre!

O talento para adquirir um bem parece-se mais com a arte militar ou com a caça.” “A arte de adquirir bens será idêntica à ciência do governo doméstico? Faz parte dela ou será apenas um de seus meios?”

É uma primeira questão dizer se a agricultura, que é apenas uma maneira de obter os alimentos necessários à vida, ou alguma outra indústria que também tenha os alimentos como objeto, pertencem à arte de se enriquecer.”

Mas existe também um outro gênero de bens e de meios que comumente chamamos, e com razão, especulativo, e que parece não ter limites.”

Tampouco foi a natureza que produziu o comércio que consiste em comprar para revender mais caro. A troca era um expediente necessário para proporcionar a cada um a satisfação de suas necessidades. Ela não era necessária na sociedade primitiva das famílias, onde tudo era comum.”

Quando uma tribo tem de sobra o que falta a outra, elas permutam o que têm de supérfluo através de trocas recíprocas; vinho por trigo ou outras coisas que lhes podem ser de uso, e nada mais. Trata-se de um gênero de comércio que não está nem fora das intenções da natureza, nem tampouco é uma das maneiras naturais de aumentar seus pertences, mas sim um modo engenhoso de satisfazer as respectivas necessidades.”

Não era cômodo transportar para longe as mercadorias ou outras produções para trazer outras, sem estar certo de encontrar aquilo que se procurava, nem que aquilo que se levava conviria. Podia acontecer que não se precisasse do supérfluo dos outros, ou que não precisassem do vosso. Estabeleceu-se, portanto, dar e receber reciprocamente em troca algo que, além de seu valor intrínseco, apresentasse a comodidade de ser mais manejável e de transporte mais fácil, como o metal, tanto o ferro quanto a prata ou qualquer outro, que primeiramente se determinou pelo volume ou pelo peso e a seguir se marcou com um sinal distintivo de seu valor, a fim de não se precisar medi-lo ou pesá-lo a toda hora.”

Tendo a moeda sido inventada, portanto, para as necessidades de comércio, originou-se dela uma nova maneira de comerciar e adquirir. A princípio, era bastante simples; depois, com o tempo, passou a ser mais refinada, quando se soube de onde e de que maneira se podia tirar dela o maior lucro possível. É este lucro pecuniário que ela postula; ela só se ocupa em procurar de onde vem mais dinheiro: é a mãe das grandes fortunas. De fato, comumente se faz consistir a riqueza na grande quantidade de dinheiro.” “Ora, é absurdo chamar riquezas um metal cuja abundância não impede de se morrer de fome; prova disso é o Midas da fábula, a quem o céu, para puni-lo de sua insaciável avareza, concedera o dom de transformar em ouro tudo o que tocasse.” “As verdadeiras riquezas são as da natureza; apenas elas são objeto da ciência econômica.”

A outra maneira de enriquecer pertence ao comércio, profissão voltada inteiramente para o dinheiro, que sonha com ele, que não tem outro elemento nem outro fim, que não tem limite onde possa deter-se a cupidez.” “O fim a que se propõe o comércio não tem limite determinado. Ele compreende todos os bens que se podem adquirir; mas é menos a sua aquisição do que seu uso o objeto da ciência econômica; esta, portanto, está necessariamente restrita a uma quantidade determinada.”

O dinheiro serve ao comerciante para dois usos análogos e alternativos: um, para comprar as coisas e revendê-las mais caro; outro, para emprestar e retirar, após o prazo estabelecido, seu capital com juros. Estes dois ramos do seu tráfico não diferem, como se vê, senão porque um interpõe as coisas para aumentar o dinheiro, enquanto o outro o faz servir imediatamente ao seu próprio aumento.”

A coragem, por exemplo, não foi dada ao homem pela natureza para acumular bens, mas para proporcionar tranqüilidade. Não é esse tampouco o objeto da profissão militar, nem o da medicina, tendo uma por objeto vencer, e outra curar.” “elas se tornam o único fim da maioria das pessoas que entram nessas carreiras e subordinam tudo à meta que se propuseram.”

para a família gozar de saúde, convém mais o médico do que o chefe de família; assim como para o abastecimento e a abundância, este cuidado pode caber antes aos ministros do Estado.”

O que há de mais odioso, sobretudo, do que o tráfico de dinheiro, que consiste em dar para ter mais e com isso desvia a moeda de sua destinação primitiva?” “em grego demos à moeda o nome de tokos, que significa progenitura, porque as coisas geradas se parecem com as que as geraram.”

Existem escritores que se ocuparam desses diversos assuntos, tais como Carés de Paros, Apolodoro de Lemnos, autores de tratados sobre a cultura dos campos e dos pomares, e outros ainda, sobre outras matérias. Os curiosos devem consultá-los.”

Como censuravam Tales de Mileto pela pobreza e zombavam de sua inútil filosofia, o conhecimento dos astros permitiu-lhe prever que haveria abundância de olivas. Tendo juntado todo o dinheiro que podia, ele alugou, antes do fim do inverno, todas as prensas de óleo de Mileto e de Quios. Conseguiu-as a bom preço, porque ninguém oferecera melhor e ele dera algum adiantamento. Feita a colheita, muitas pessoas apareceram ao mesmo tempo para conseguir as prensas e ele as alugou pelo preço que quis. Tendo ganhado muito dinheiro, mostrou a seus amigos que para os filósofos era muito fácil enriquecer, mas que eles não se importavam com isso. Foi assim que mostrou sua sabedoria. Em geral, o monopólio é um meio rápido de fazer fortuna. Assim, algumas cidades, quando precisam de dinheiro, usam desse recurso. Reservam-se a si mesmas a faculdade de vender certas mercadorias e, por conseguinte, de fixar seus preços como querem.

Na Sicília, um homem que obtivera vários depósitos de dinheiro apoderou-se dos ferros das forjas. Quando os mercadores vieram de todas as partes para obtê-los, só ele pôde vendê-los, contentando-se com o dobro, de maneira que o que lhe custara 50 talentos vendia por 100. Dionísio, o tirano, informado do caso, não confiscou seu lucro, mas ordenou-lhe que saísse de Siracusa por ter imaginado, para enriquecer, um expediente prejudicial aos interesses do chefe de Estado. Aquele homem tivera a mesma idéia que Tales: ambos do monopólio fizeram uma arte.”

É bom que os que governam os Estados conheçam esse recurso, pois é preciso dinheiro para as despesas públicas e para as despesas domésticas, e o Estado está menos do que ninguém em condições de dispensá-lo. Assim, o capítulo das finanças é quase o único a que alguns prestam atenção.”

A autoridade dos pais sobre os filhos é uma espécie de realeza; todos os títulos ali se encontram: o da geração, o da autoridade afetuosa e o da idade. É até mesmo o protótipo da autoridade real; foi o que fez com que Homero dissesse de Zeus:

É o pai imortal dos homens e dos deuses¹

¹ Interessante que é uma paternidade “que não passa”; além do mais, Zeus segue eternamente mais jovem que seus ancestrais. Ele não é o protótipo da realeza, mas do despotismo.

Deve uma mulher ser sábia, corajosa e justa? Deve uma criança ter contenção e sobriedade?”

Se as mesmas qualidades lhes são necessárias, por que então o mando cabe a um e a obediência a outro? A diferença entre os dois não é do mais para o menos, mas sim específica e produz efeitos essencialmente diversos.” Ininteligível.

Todos têm, portanto, virtudes morais, mas a temperança, a força, a justiça não devem ser, como pensava Sócrates, as mesmas num homem e numa mulher. A força de um homem consiste em se impor; a de uma mulher, em vencer a dificuldade de obedecer.”

Mais vale, como Górgias, estabelecer a lista das virtudes do que se deter em semelhantes definições e imitar, no mais, a precisão do poeta que disse que

um modesto silêncio é a honra da mulher,

ao passo que não fica bem no homem.”

um profissional está numa espécie de servidão limitada; mas a natureza que faz os escravos não faz os sapateiros, nem os outros artesãos.”

A educação das mulheres e das crianças deve ser da alçada do Estado, já que importa à felicidade do Estado que as mulheres e as crianças sejam virtuosas.”

O Estado é o sujeito constante da política e do governo; a constituição política não é senão a ordem dos habitantes que o compõem.”

Alguém que é cidadão numa democracia não o é numa oligarquia.” “É cidadão aquele que, no país em que reside, é admitido na jurisdição e na deliberação. É a universalidade deste tipo de gente, com riqueza suficiente para viver de modo independente, que constitui a cidade ou o Estado. O costume é dar o nome de cidadão apenas àquele que nasceu de pais cidadãos. De nada serviria que o pai o fosse, se a mãe não for.”

Operários (artesãos, comerciantes) livres não são cidadãos. As obras da virtude são impraticáveis para quem quer que leve uma vida mecânica e mercenária.” “Em Tebas, o próprio comércio dificulta o acesso à cidadania. Havia uma lei que exigia que se tivesse fechado a loja e deixado de vender há dez anos para ser admitido.”


  • virtudes absolutas (nobreza)¹ X virtude limitada ou específica (mediania)

  • Todo homem de bem é bom cidadão.

  • Poucos bons cidadãos são também homens de bem.

  • Sempre comanda (porém, via de regra, em Ari., quem sabe comandar também sabe obedecer)¹ X deve sempre saber obedecer e não lhe está vedado saber comandar (ex: o soldado de ontem pode ser o general de amanhã, que é um servo do governo)

¹ Segundo Aristóteles, as mulheres não estão excluídas da classe suprema (homens de bem), mas suas limitações são evidentes (devem mais obedecer que comandar, ser discretas, guardar-se de atos de valentia).

num grupo de dançarinos, é preciso mais talento para o papel de corifeu do que para o de corista. A desigualdade de mérito é, pois, evidente.”

Entre as pessoas que estão em servidão, é preciso contar os trabalhadores manuais que vivem, como indica seu nome, do trabalho de suas mãos e os artesãos que se ocupam dos ofícios sórdidos.” Definição do “idiota político” clássico (ou antigo), que não é nem homem de bem nem cidadão.

Ah, a poluição da palavra!

* * *

Aqueles que se propõem [a] dar aos Estados uma boa constituição prestam atenção principalmente nas virtudes e nos vícios que interessam à sociedade civil, e não há nenhuma dúvida de que a verdadeira cidade (a que não o é somente de nome) deve estimar acima de tudo a virtude.

Sem isso, não será mais do que uma liga ou associação de armas, diferindo das outras ligas apenas pelo lugar, isto é, pela circunstância indiferente da proximidade ou do afastamento respectivo dos membros. Sua lei não é senão uma simples convenção de garantia, capaz, diz o sofista Licofrão, de mantê-los no dever recíproco, mas incapaz de torná-los bons e honestos cidadãos.”

Eles fizeram um pacto de não-agressão no que toca a seus comércios e até prometeram tomar armas para sua mútua defesa, mas não têm outra comunicação a não ser o comércio e seus tratados. Mais uma vez, esta não será uma sociedade civil. Por quê, então?” “A cidade, portanto, NÃO é precisamente uma comunidade de lugar, nem foi instituída simplesmente para se defender contra as injustiças de outrem ou para estabelecer comércio. Tudo isso deve existir antes da formação do Estado, mas não basta para constituí-lo.”

É isto o que chamamos uma vida feliz e honesta. A sociedade civil é, pois, menos uma sociedade de vida comum do que uma sociedade de honra e de virtude.”

PAI & FILHO, CARA & COROA: “Todos vemos que não é pelos bens exteriores que se adquirem e conservam as virtudes, mas sim que é pelos talentos e virtudes que se adquirem e conservam os bens exteriores e que, quer se faça consistir a felicidade no prazer ou na virtude, ou em ambos, os que têm inteligência e costumes excelentes a alcançam mais facilmente com uma fortuna medíocre do que os que têm mais do que o necessário e carecem dos outros bens.” “Os bens da alma não são apenas honestos, mas também úteis, e quanto mais excederem a medida comum, mais terão utilidade.” “A felicidade é muito diferente da boa fortuna. Vêm-nos da fortuna os bens exteriores, mas ninguém é justo ou prudente graças a ela, nem por seu meio.”

Que vida preferir, a que toma parte do governo e dos negócios públicos ou a vida retirada e livre de todos os embaraços do gênero? Não entra no plano da Polítíca determinar o quê pode convir a cada indivíduo, mas sim o que convém à pluralidade. Em nossa Étíca, aliás, tratamos do primeiro ponto.

AS MELHORES CONSTITUIÇÕES APUD GRÉCIA ANTIGA: “Em Esparta e em Creta, a quase totalidade de sua disciplina e de suas numerosas regras é dirigida para a guerra. Em todas as nações que têm o poder de crescer, entre os citas, entre os persas, entre os trácios, entre os celtas, não há nenhuma profissão mais estimada do que a das armas. Em alguns lugares, existem leis para estimular a coragem guerreira. Em Cartago, as pessoas são decoradas com tantos anéis quantas foram as campanhas que fizeram. Na Macedônia, uma lei pretendia que aqueles que não houvessem matado nenhum inimigo tivessem que andar de cabresto. Entre os citas, aquele que estivesse nesse caso sofria a afronta de não beber à roda, na taça das refeições solenes. A Ibéria, nação belicosa, levanta ao redor das tumbas tantos obeliscos quantos inimigos o defunto matou.”

Não é ofício nem do médico nem do piloto persuadir ou fazer violência, um a seus doentes, o outro a seus marinheiros. Mas muitos parecem considerar a dominação como o objeto da política, e aquilo que não cremos nem justo nem útil para nós não temos vergonha de tentar contra os outros.” “Se a natureza estabeleceu esta distinção, pelo menos não se deve tentar dominar a todos, mas apenas aos que só servem para serem submetidos. É assim que não se vai à caça para pegar os homens e comê-los ou matá-los, mas apenas para pegar os animais selvagens que são comestíveis.

não é exato elevar a inação acima da vida ativa, já que a felicidade consiste em ação, e as ações dos homens justos e moderados têm sempre fins honestos.”

Entre semelhantes, a honestidade e a justiça consistem em que cada um tenha a sua vez. Apenas isto conserva a igualdade. A desigualdade entre iguais e as distinções entre semelhantes são contra a natureza e, por conseguinte, contra a honestidade. Se, porém, se encontrasse alguém que ultrapassasse todos os outros em mérito e em poder e tivesse provado seu valor com grandes façanhas, seria belo ceder a ele e justo obedecer-lhe. Mas não basta ter mérito, é preciso ter bastante energia e atividade para estar certo do êxito.”

Como a maioria dos homens tem mania de dominar os outros para obter todas as comodidades, Tíbron e todos os que escreveram sobre o governo de Esparta parecem admirar seu legislador por ter aumentado muito seu império, tendo exercitado a nação nos perigos da guerra. Mas, agora que os espartanos não dominam mais, deixaram de ser felizes, e seu legislador de merecer sua reputação. Não é ridículo que, persistindo sob as leis de Licurgo e não tendo nada que os impedisse de valer-se delas, eles tenham deixado escapar sua felicidade?”

Não é um sinal de sabedoria para o legislador treinar seu povo para vencer seus vizinhos. Disso só podem resultar grandes males, e aquele que for bem-sucedido não vai deixar de investir contra a sua própria pátria e, se puder, de assenhorear-se dela. Essa é a censura que os espartanos fazem ao rei Pausânias, cuja ambição não se contentou com este alto grau de honra.”

Ao fazer a guerra, vários Estados se conservaram, mas, assim que conquistaram a superioridade, entraram em decadência, semelhantes ao ferro que se enferruja pela inação.”

Não há repouso para os escravos, diz o provérbio. Ora, os que não têm coragem para se expor aos perigos tornam-se escravos de seus agressores.”

os que parecem felizes e, semelhantes aos habitantes das Ilhas Afortunadas de que falam os poetas, gozam de tudo o que pode contribuir para a felicidade, precisam mais do que os outros de justiça e de temperança. Quanto mais opulência e lazer tiverem, mais precisarão de filosofia, de moderação e de justiça, e o Estado que quiser ser feliz e florescente deve inculcar-lhes estas virtudes o máximo possível. Se há algo de ignóbil em não saber gozar das riquezas, há bem mais ainda em fazer mau uso delas quando só se tem isso para fazer. É revoltante que homens, aliás, dignos de estima nos trabalhos e nos perigos da guerra se comportem como escravos no descanso e na paz.”

há dois tipos de hábitos, uns apaixonados, ou provindos da sensibilidade, outros intelectuais. E, assim como o corpo é gerado antes da alma, a parte carente de razão o é, igualmente, antes da razoável. Isto se observa pelos rasgos de cólera, pelos desejos e pelas vontades mostradas pelas crianças tão logo nascem.”

deve preocupar-se com a sucessão das crianças; que não haja entre elas e os pais uma distância de idade grande demais, pois neste caso os filhos não podem mostrar seu reconhecimento aos pais na velhice, nem os pais podem ajudar seus filhos tanto quanto preciso.”

O final da procriação ocorre, para os homens, aos 70 anos; para as mulheres, aos 50. Sua união deve começar na mesma proporção. A dos adolescentes não vale nada para a progenitura. Em todas as espécies animais, os frutos prematuros de sujeitos jovens demais, sobretudo se se tratar da fêmea, são imperfeitos, fracos e de pequena estatura. O mesmo ocorre com a espécie humana. Observa-se, com efeito, esta imperfeição em todos os lugares em que as pessoas se casam jovens demais. Só nascem abortos.” Continuando com a proporção 70/50: 20/14, 30/21, 40/28, 50/35…

Aquelas que conhecem cedo demais o uso das familiaridades conjugais são de ordinário mais lascivas. Por outro lado, nada retarda ou detém mais depressa o crescimento dos moços jovens do que se entregar cedo demais ao relacionamento com as mulheres, sem esperar que a natureza tenha neles elaborado completamente o licor prolífico. Há para o crescimento uma época precisa, além da qual não se cresce mais.”

verdadeira idade para casar as moças é aos 18 anos e para os homens aos 37, aproximadamente. Com isso a conjunção dos corpos se fará em pleno vigor, e a geração, depois, terminará num tempo conveniente tanto para um como para outro. Da mesma forma, a sucessão dos filhos a seus pais estará melhor colocada, se nascerem convenientemente no intervalo entre a força da idade e o declínio, que começa por volta dos 70.” [!!!]

Quanto à estação do ano própria à geração, o inverno é a que mais convém, como hoje se observa quase em toda parte.” “os físicos ensinam que ventos são favoráveis ao ato sexual; por exemplo, eles preferem o vento do norte ao do sul.”

Diremos somente que a compleição atlética não é útil nem à saúde, nem à geração, nem aos empregos civis; o mesmo ocorre com os corpos fracos, acostumados ao regime médico.”

Pedonomia: parte da pedagogia que estipula as regras (formas) da aplicação da pedagogia, i.e., do conteúdo em si da educação.

Se o corpo precisa de movimento, o espírito necessita de repouso e de tranqüilidade. No ventre da mãe os filhos recebem, como os frutos da terra, a impressão do bem e do mal.”

Sobre o destino das crianças recém-nascidas, deve haver uma lei que decida os que serão expostos e os que serão criados. Não seja permitido criar nenhuma que nasça mutilada, isto é, sem algum de seus membros; determine-se, pelo menos, para evitar a sobrecarga do número excessivo, se não for permitido pelas leis do país abandoná-los, até que número de filhos se pode ter e se faça abortarem as mães antes que seu fruto tenha sentimento e vida, pois é nisto que se distingue a supressão perdoável da que é atroz.” Até eugênicos antigos têm escrúpulos morais “anteprotestantes”…

Desde os primeiros momentos do nascimento, é bom acostumar as crianças ao frio; isto faz um bem infinito à saúde e dispõe às funções militares.”

Na idade seguinte, até os cinco anos, não é conveniente dar nada para as crianças aprenderem, nem submetê-las a qualquer trabalho. Isto poderia impedir seu crescimento. Basta mantê-las em movimento para preservar seus corpos da preguiça e do peso. Este movimento deve consistir apenas nas funções da vida e nas brincadeiras, tomando cuidado somente para que elas não sejam nem desonestas nem penosas, nem destituídas demais de ação.”

Em certos lugares, comete-se o erro de proibir à criança o choro e os movimentos expansivos. Todos estes atos servem para seu desenvolvimento e fazem parte, por assim dizer, dos exercícios corporais. O ato de reter a respiração dá força aos que trabalham. Isto também ocorre no próprio esforço das crianças para gritar.”

impedir muita conversa e familiaridade, sobretudo com os escravos.”

SIGA SEU MESTRE: “Se proibimos as conversas indecentes, com mais forte razão proibiremos as pinturas e as exibições do mesmo gênero. Os magistrados, portanto, não admitirão nem estátuas, nem pinturas lúbricas, a não ser as de certas divindades cujo culto a lei reserva aos homens adultos, a quem ela permite sacrifícios, tanto por eles quanto por suas mulheres e crianças.”

Também se deve proibir aos jovens os teatros e sobretudo a comédia, até que tenham atingido a idade de participar das refeições públicas e a boa educação os tenha colocado em condições de experimentar impunemente a bebedeira dos banquetes, sem contrair a embriaguez ou os outros vícios que a acompanham. Passaremos rapidamente por esta matéria, para voltar a ela uma outra vez e discutir se este costume deve ser mantido, e como.

Não há de se aprovar, segundo cremos, a partilha que fazem certas pessoas que dividem toda a vida de 7 em 7 anos. Mais vale seguir o ritmo da natureza. Ela apenas esboçou suas obras. A obra da educação, assim como a de todas as artes, deve unicamente completar o que falta ao ser das obras da natureza.”

Como não há senão um fim comum a todo o Estado, só deve haver uma mesma educação para todos os súditos. Ela deve ser feita não em particular, como hoje, quando cada um cuida de seus filhos, que educa segundo sua fantasia e conforme lhe agrada; ela deve ser feita em público. Tudo o que é comum deve ter exercícios comuns. É preciso, ademais, que todo cidadão se convença de que ninguém é de si mesmo, mas todos pertencem ao Estado, de que cada um é parte e que, portanto, o governo de cada parte deve naturalmente ter como modelo o governo do todo.”

Não se sabe se se deve ensinar às crianças as coisas úteis à vida ou as que conduzem à virtude, ou as altas ciências, que se podem dispensar. Cada uma destas opiniões tem seus partidários. Não há nem mesmo nada de certo a respeito da virtude, não sendo o mesmo gênero de virtude apreciado unanimemente. Também se diverge sobre o gênero de exercícios a praticar.”

Não é fora de propósito conceder algum tempo a certas ciências, mas entregar-se a elas por inteiro e querer ser consumado nelas não deixa de ter seus inconvenientes e pode ser nocivo às graças da imaginação.”

Quanto à música, sua utilidade não é igualmente reconhecida. Muitos hoje a aprendem apenas por prazer. Mas os antigos fizeram dela, desde os primeiros tempos, uma parte da educação, pois a natureza não procura apenas dar exatidão às ações, mas também dignidade ao repouso. A música é o princípio de todos os encantos da vida.”

Se possível, é melhor descartar o jogo entre as ocupações. Quem trabalha precisa de descanso: o jogo não foi imaginado senão para isto. O trabalho é acompanhado de fadiga e de esforços. É preciso entremeá-lo convenientemente de recreações, como um remédio.”

Não que ela seja necessária: ela não o é. Não que ela tenha tanta importância quanto a escrita, que serve para o comércio, para a administração doméstica, para as ciências e para a maioria das funções civis, ou quanto a pintura, que nos permite julgar melhor a obra dos artistas, ou quanto a ginástica, que ajuda a saúde e o desenvolvimento das forças; a música não faz nada disso. Mas ela serve pelo menos para passar agradavelmente o lazer. É por isso que ela foi posta na moda. Ela pareceu a seus inventores a diversão mais conveniente às pessoas livres.

Existem povos que não evitam os massacres e são ávidos de carne humana, mas que, quando atacados, são tudo, menos valentes; por exemplo, os aqueus e os heniocos do Ponto Euxino, e outras nações mais distantes que pertencem às terras da mesma região, sendo que as outras preferem a profissão de ladrões.”

Aqueles que expõem em demasia os jovens aos exercícios do ginásio e os deixam sem instrução sobre as coisas mais necessárias, fazem deles, na verdade, apenas reles guarda-costas, que servem no máximo para uma das funções da vida civil, uma função, porém, que, se consultarmos a razão, é a menor de todas. Não é por suas proezas antigas, mas sim pelas do presente que devem ser julgados.”

até a puberdade só se praticarão exercícios leves, sem sujeitar os corpos aos excessos de alimentação, nem aos trabalhos violentos, por temor de que isso impeça o crescimento. A prova do efeito funesto deste regime forçado é que entre os que venceram nos jogos olímpicos em sua juventude dificilmente se encontrarão dois ou três que também venceram numa idade mais avançada. Por que isto? Porque a violência dos exercícios a que se tinham submetido desde a infância esgotara sua força e seu vigor.”

PRÉ-ROUSSEAU: “Com efeito, não se deve atormentar ao mesmo tempo o espírito e o corpo. Desses exercícios, um impede o outro; o do corpo é nocivo ao espírito, e o do espírito ao corpo.”

Se estiver em nosso poder escolhê-la segundo o desejo, a situação da Cidade deve ser próxima do mar e do campo; assim, a ajuda seria fácil de um lugar para outro e de toda parte, assim como a exportação e a importação das mercadorias. Haveria comodidade para transportar a madeira e todos os outros materiais do país.” “a comodidade do mar faz com que se envie para o exterior ou se receba na cidade uma multidão de mercadores, o que é igualmente pernicioso para o Estado.” “Somente a atração do lucro faz com que estabeleça em seu território mercados abertos a todos. Há aí uma avareza condenável, e não é assim que um Estado ou uma cidade devem praticar o comércio.”

Os soldados da marinha, pelo contrário, são livres e, assim como seus oficiais, provêm da infantaria. São eles que comandam os marinheiros [que, diferente dos soldados da marinha, não são cidadãos]. Quanto à tripulação, é completada com camponeses e lavradores dos arredores. É o que se pratica em certos lugares, por exemplo Heracléia, cujas galeras estão sempre bem-tripuladas, embora a cidade seja muito menor do que várias outras.”

se as águas são raras ou de diversas qualidades, deve-se separar, como se faz nas cidades bem-cuidadas, as que são boas para beber das que podem servir para outros usos.”

no que se refere às casas particulares, elas serão bem mais agradáveis e mais cômodas se seu espaço for bem-distribuído, com uma estrutura à maneira moderna, ao gosto de Hipódamos.¹”

¹ Hipódamos de Mileto foi um polímata do século V a.C., tido como fundador da concepção de Planejamento Urbano, que estendia a preocupação da arquitetura para toda a polis em si. Planejou pela primeira vez a simetria geométrica da disposição das ruas e das casas e, ao mesmo tempo, a existência de um centro despovoado e amplamente aberto, i.e., a Ágora. As casas que ele planejou eram mais espaçosas e tinham dois andares.

Não se alinharão todas as ruas de um extremo ao outro, mas apenas certas partes, tanto quanto o permitir a segurança e o exigir a decoração.”

Embora não seja muito honroso opor muros de defesa a guerreiros da mesma têmpera que não têm uma grande vantagem numérica, é possível que os sitiantes consigam um tal acréscimo de forças que todo valor humano, mas com poucas pessoas, não possa resistir-lhes. Portanto, se não se quer morrer, nem se expor ao ultraje, deve-se considerar como uma das medidas mais autorizadas pelas leis da guerra manter suas muralhas no melhor estado de fortificação, principalmente hoje, quando se imaginaram tantos instrumentos e máquinas engenhosas para atacar fortificações. Não querer cercar as cidades com muros é como abrir o país às incursões dos inimigos e retirar os obstáculos de sua frente, ou como se recusar a fechar com muros as casas particulares, de medo que os que nelas habitam se tornem medrosos.”

é claro que num Estado tão perfeitamente constituído que não admita como cidadãos senão pessoas de bem, não apenas sob certos aspectos, mas integralmente virtuosos, não devemos contar entre eles aqueles que exercem profissões mecânicas ou comerciais, sendo esse gênero de vida ignóbil e contrário à virtude” TERCEIRA REPETIÇÃO!

primeiro, na juventude, o comando da força armada para defender o Estado; depois, quando maduros, a autoridade para governá-lo.”

Convém não ligar ao culto divino senão cidadãos, e não se devem educar para o sacerdócio nem lavradores que puxam arado, nem trabalhadores que saem de sua forja. Tendo a universalidade dos cidadãos sido dividida em duas classes, a dos homens de guerra e a dos homens de lei, é aí que se devem tomar os ministros da religião.”

Esta necessidade de dividir o Estado em classes diversas, segundo a variedade das funções, e de separar os homens de guerra dos lavradores não é uma invenção de hoje, nem um segredo recém-descoberto pelos filósofos que se ocupam de política. Tal distinção foi introduzida no Egito pelas leis de Sesóstris e em Creta pelas de Minos.¹ Elas ainda subsistem atualmente nestes lugares.”

¹ Afinal de contas Minos ter existido como homem de carne e osso é hipótese tão verossímil quanto com Licurgo e Sólon?

Os sábios do país contam que um certo Italus foi rei na Enótria. Os habitantes tomaram seu nome e, em vez de enotrianos, se chamaram italianos. O nome de Itália ficou também para a costa da Europa entre o golfo de Cilética e o golfo Lamético, distantes meia jornada um do outro. Segundo estes historiadores, foi Italus quem, de pastores errantes, tornou os enotrianos lavradores sedentários. Entre outras leis que lhes deu, estabeleceu pela primeira vez que comessem juntos. Este costume ainda hoje se observa entre alguns de seus descendentes, assim como algumas outras de suas leis. Os ópicos, antigamente chamados ou cognominados ausônios, nome que lhes ficou, habitavam a costa do Tirreno; e os caonianos, descendentes dos enotrianos, a praia chamada Sirtes, entre a Lapígia e a Jônia.”

É bem crível que muitas outras coisas foram inventadas várias vezes, talvez ao infinito, na longa seqüência dos séculos. Ao que parece, inicialmente a necessidade inventou as coisas necessárias; em seguida, por adjunção, as que servem para um maior conforto e para ornamento. O mesmo ocorre com a legislação e as constituições civis. Podemos conjeturar como elas são antigas pelo exemplo dos egípcios, que remontam à mais alta antiguidade e desde sempre tiveram leis e uma constituição. Cabe a nós aproveitar suas boas invenções e lhes acrescentar o que lhes falta.”

Todos concordam que as mesas comuns e as refeições públicas convêm às cidades bem-organizadas politicamente. Isto também nos agrada, mas é preciso que nelas todos os cidadãos sejam recebidos gratuitamente; caso contrário, não será fácil para aqueles que só têm o estrito necessário fornecer a sua parte e ainda arcar com o sustento de sua família.”

* * *


MODALIDADES IDEAIS: “Chamamos monarquia (1) o Estado em que o governo que visa a este interesse comum pertence a um só; aristocracia (2), aquele em que ele é confiado a mais de um, denominação tomada ou do fato de que as poucas pessoas a que o governo é confiado são escolhidas entre as mais honestas, ou de que elas só têm em vista o maior bem do Estado e de seus membros [aristo+cracia = governo dos melhores]; república (3), aquele em que a multidão governa para a utilidade pública; este nome também é comum a todos os Estados.

MODALIDADES CORROMPIDAS: “A tirania (4) não é, de fato, senão a monarquia voltada para a utilidade do monarca; a oligarquia (5), a aristocracia voltada para a utilidade dos ricos; a democracia (6), a república voltada para a utilidade dos pobres.”

A oligarquia estabeleceu-se desde os tempos mais remotos em todos os lugares que tinham na cavalaria a sua principal força, como os eretrianos, os de Cálcides, os magnésios do Meandro e vários outros povos asiáticos. Montava-se a cavalo para combater os inimigos dos arredores.”


No Estado de Esparta,¹ p.ex., há uma monarquia das mais legítimas, mas o poder do rei não é absoluto, a não ser quando o monarca estiver fora de seus Estados e em situação de guerra, pois então ele tem a autoridade suprema sobre seu exército. Além disso, ele tem no interior a superintendência do culto e das coisas sagradas. Esta espécie de monarquia não é, pois, senão um generalato perpétuo, com plenos poderes, sem porém ter o direito de vida e de morte, a não ser em certo domínio ou, nas expedições militares, quando se está combatendo, como era costume antigamente. É o que se chama lei do golpe de mão. Homero refere-se a ela. Segundo ele, Agamêmnon, na Assembléia do povo, tolerava as palavras menos respeitosas. Fora dali, de armas na mão, tinha o poder de morte sobre os soldados delinqüentes.”

¹ Platão e Montesquieu, por exemplo, recusam o status de monarquia a Esparta/Lacedemônia.

O comando militar inamovível é, portanto, um primeiro tipo de monarquia, sendo umas hereditárias e outras eletivas.”

DESACERTO NOS CRITÉRIOS: “Tendo os bárbaros naturalmente a alma mais servil do que os gregos e os asiáticos, eles suportam mais do que os europeus, sem murmúrios, que sejam governados pelos senhores. É por isso que essas monarquias, embora despóticas, não deixam de ser estáveis e sólidas, fundadas que são na lei e transmissíveis de pai para filho. Pela mesma razão, sua guarda é real, e não tirânica, pois os reis são protegidos por cidadãos armados, ao passo que os déspotas recorrem a estrangeiros. Aqueles governam de acordo com a lei súditos de boa vontade; estes, pessoas que só obedecem contrafeitas. Aqueles são protegidos pelos cidadãos; estes, contra os cidadãos. São, portanto, dois tipos diferentes de monarquia.”

Antes do aparecimento da figura de um César, A. prefigura a instituição do ditador da República Romana final, no plano teóricoa, como sendo um governo monárquico não-tirânico, posto que legal. É verdade que matiza este raciocínio depois: “Estes principados são, portanto, ao mesmo tempo despóticos pela maneira com que a autoridade é exercida e reais pela eleição e submissão espontânea do povo.” Este último critério transformaria quase todos os governos atuais da Terra em monarquias constitucionais, quando vemos não passar de tiranias, se é para dicotomizar entre as duas! Hitler como um monarca constitucional seria uma piada de humor negro. Mas é ao que a taxonomia aristotélica conduz…

Os reis dos primeiros séculos tinham autoridade sobre todos os negócios de Estado, tanto dentro quanto fora, e para sempre. A partir daí, quer porque abandonaram por si mesmos uma parte da autoridade, quer porque tenham sido despojados dela pelo povo, foram reduzidos em alguns Estados à simples qualidade de soberanos sacrificadores ou pontífices e, nos lugares onde se conservou o nome de rei, à simples faculdade de comandar os exércitos além das fronteiras.”


O nome de aristocracia convém perfeitamente ao regime que já mencionamos acima, pois não se deve, com efeito, dar este nome senão à magistratura composta de pessoas de bem sem restrição e não a essas boas pessoas em que toda a retidão se limita ao patriotismo.”

Aristóteles perde a mão em suas classificações, sem uma exceção sequer! “Há um ar de aristocracia em toda parte onde se observa a virtude, embora sejam prezadas também a riqueza e a popularidade, como entre os espartanos, que unem a popularidade às considerações devidas à virtude. São estas duas espécies de aristocracia, além da primeira [essas subdivisões não guardam o menor interesse], as únicas a merecerem o nome de excelente e perfeita República [no sentido lato: todos os seis governos!].”

3. “REPÚBLICA” (é o próprio Aristóteles que coloca o título entre aspas!)

Reservamo-la para o final [meio!] não por ser uma depravação da aristocracia, de que acabamos de falar (pois é normal começar, como fizemos, pelas formas puras e depois ir às formas desviadas), mas porque ela reúne o que há de bom em dois regimes degenerados, a oligarquia e a democracia.

Na oligarquia, a lei não concede aos pobres nenhum salário para administrar a justiça e estabelece penas contra os ricos, caso se recusem a fazer parte de uma assembléia; na democracia, a lei dá um salário aos pobres mas não aplica nenhuma pena aos ricos. A mistura conveniente ao Estado, que ocupa o meio entre estes governos e é composta pelos dois, é conceder o salário aos pobres e aplicar a multa aos ricos.” “É democrático, por exemplo, escolher os magistrados por sorteio; oligárquico, elegê-los; democrático, não considerar a renda”

SÓ PIORA: “É o que se observa em Esparta: muitos, com efeito, a colocam na classe das democracias, porque ela tem muitas instituições dessa natureza. [!!!] Na educação das crianças, a comida é a mesma para os filhos dos ricos e para os dos pobres, a mesma instrução, a mesma severidade no trato; na idade seguinte, o mesmo gênero de vida quando se tornam homens.”

Apenas definições negativas e compósitas de “república”, além de ininteligíveis! Desistam de se apoiar nesses conceitos aristotélico, pelo BEM de todos nós!


Quanto mais a monarquia se aproxima idealmente do governo celeste, mais sua alteração é detestável. A monarquia não passa de um vão nome, se não se distingue pela grande excelência de quem reina. O vício mais diametralmente contrário a sua instituição é a tirania. Portanto, é também o pior dos governos.”


Os postos são concedidos aos mais ricos e nomeiam a si próprios em caso de vacância. Se a escolha se fizesse entre todos, seria aristocrática; o que a torna oligárquica é que ela se faz numa classe determinada. Todavia, não sendo poderosos o suficiente para governar sem leis, transformam em leis a preferência que se arrogam.

Se seu número diminuir e sua riqueza tiver novos aumentos, forma-se um segundo grau de oligarquia, no qual, aproveitando a ascendência que adquiriram por seus postos, fazem com que se ordene por uma nova lei que seus filhos serão seus sucessores.”

Tendo aumentado ainda mais sua riqueza e seu crédito, a potência dos oligarcas aproxima-se da monarquia. Este vício é semelhante tanto à tirania que se introduz nas monarquias quanto à última espécie de democracia, de que falaremos. Chama-se dinastia ou, mais exatamente, politirania.”


INDIRETA A PLATÃO? “Não se deve, como costumavam fazer certas pessoas, definir simplesmente a democracia como o governo em que a maioria domina. Nas próprias oligarquias e em qualquer outra parte, é sempre a maioria que se sobressai.”

Se os poderes se distribuíssem de acordo com a estatura [!], como acontece, segundo certos autores, na Etiópia, ou de acordo com a beleza [Ganimedolândia ou quiçá Ilha dos alcibíadas], haveria oligarquia, porque a beleza e a alta estatura não pertencem à maioria.”

Aristóteles se esquece do espírito de um governo e da tendência das sociedades. Procura uma classificação tirando fotos, ou seja, espúria e ingênua.

Uns e outros abundam em alguns lugares, como os pescadores em Tarento e em Bizâncio, os marinheiros em Atenas, os negociantes na ilha de Egina e em Quios, os barqueiros em Tenedos. Devem-se juntar a eles os trabalhadores manuais e todos os que não são abastados o suficiente para ficar sem fazer nada, os que não nasceram de pai e mãe livres e toda espécie de populaça semelhante.”

Como o Estado não pode existir sem magistrados e precisa de homens capazes de realizar suas funções, precisa também de pessoas que executem suas ordens e estejam encarregadas do serviço, quer para sempre, quer alienadamente.”

A CARICATURA ARISTOTÉLICA (JULGA QUE NÃO HÁ DINÂMICA DE CLASSES OU ESTRATOS, E QUE QUEM ASCENDE AO PODER NÃO ENRIQUECE NEM SE DISTINGUE EM POUCO TEMPO): “A quarta é aquela que se introduziu em último lugar nas Cidades que se tornaram maiores e mais opulentas do que eram nos primeiros tempos. Ela exibe a igualdade absoluta, isto é, a lei coloca os pobres no mesmo nível que os ricos e pretende que uns não tenham mais direito ao governo do que os outros, mas que a condição destes e daqueles seja semelhante. Pois se a alma da democracia consiste, como pensam alguns, na liberdade, sendo todos iguais a este respeito, devem ter a mesma parte nos bens civis e principalmente nos grandes cargos; e, como o povo é superior em número e o que agrada à pluralidade é lei, tal Estado deve necessariamente ser popular. Mas, se todos são indistintamente admitidos no governo, é a massa que se sobressai e, sendo os pobres assalariados, podem deixar o trabalho e permanecer ociosos, não os retendo em casa a preocupação com seus próprios negócios. É, pelo contrário, um obstáculo para os ricos que não assistem às Assembléias nem se preocupam com o papel de juiz. Resulta daí que o Estado cai no domínio da multidão indigente e se vê subtraído ao império das leis. Os demagogos calcam-nas com os pés e fazem predominar os decretos. Tal gentalha é desconhecida nas democracias que a lei governa. Os melhores cidadãos têm ali o primeiro lugar. Mas onde as leis não têm força pululam os demagogos. O povo torna-se tirano. Trata-se de um ser composto de várias cabeças; elas dominam não cada uma separadamente, mas todas juntas. Não se sabe se é desta multidão ou do governo alternado e singular de vários de que fala Homero quando diz que <não é bom ter vários senhores>. De qualquer modo, o povo, tendo sacudido o jugo da lei, quer governar só e se torna déspota. Seu governo não difere em nada da tirania. Os bajuladores são honrados, os homens de bem sujeitados. O mesmo arbítrio reina nos decretos do povo e nas ordens dos tiranos. Trata-se dos mesmos costumes. O que fazem os bajuladores de côrte junto a estes, fazem os demagogos junto ao povo. Gozam do mesmo crédito.”

Se pretendermos que a democracia seja uma das formas de governo, então não se deverá nem mesmo dar este nome a esse caos em que tudo é governado pelos decretos do dia, não sendo então nem universal nem perpétua nenhuma medida.”

* * *

Sobre a divisão dos poderes, existente em qualquer forma de governo, em tempos bem anteriores a Montesquieu e às noções modernas…

1. ???

Devo ter ficado burro, porque me tornei incapaz de entender Aristóteles: “No que se chama democracia, principalmente na de hoje, em que o povo é senhor de tudo, até das leis, seria bom, para se conseguirem boas deliberações, que as Assembléias fossem ordenadas e regulamentadas como os tribunais das oligarquias, ou ainda melhor, se possível. Ali são aplicadas penas aos que são nomeados para a judicatura, a fim de obrigá-los a julgar, ao passo que na democracia é proposto um salário aos pobres. Ora, delibera-se melhor quando todos deliberam em comum, o povo com os nobres e os nobres com a multidão.”

o corpo deliberativo, o verdadeiro soberano do Estado.” Quem é o <corpo deliberativo> (que deveria ser o título deste tópico 1)? Por eliminação (categorias a seguir), seria o poder legislativo. Mas pelo que se lê acima esta categoria ou corpo ou poder é uma composição caótica de tudo que entendemos por poder executivo, legislativo e judiciário hoje


Já é difícil determinar quem são os que devem chamar-se magistrados. A sociedade civil precisa de vários servidores. O nome de magistrados não convém a todos os que são nomeados por eleição ou por sorteio. É o caso dos sacerdotes, sendo seu ministério de natureza diferente da dos ofícios políticos, dos diretores de coro, dos arautos, dos embaixadores, embora também eles sejam eletivos.” “É de pouca utilidade o modo como são chamados, já que sua denominação, que é discutível, ainda não ficou bem decidida. Mas não é de pouca importância bem distinguir os seus atributos.”

O primeiro cuidado do governo é fazer com que se encontrem nos mercados os víveres necessários. Para tanto, deve haver um magistrado que cuide de que tudo seja feito de boa fé e que a decência seja observada.” O Brasil de hoje já não atende ao primeiro requisito de Aristóteles…

O oficio que se segue imediatamente é de primeira necessidade, mas também de enorme dificuldade: é o de executor das sentenças de condenação, o de pregoeiro de bens apreendidos e o de guarda das prisões. É difícil prestar-se a estas funções por causa dos ódios a que elas expõem, e não se aceitam semelhantes trabalhos a menos que sejam muito lucrativos [ou que estejamos falando de indivíduos sádicos]. Quando são aceitos, não se ousa seguir o rigor da lei, que é, porém, algo indispensável. De nada serviria sustentar uma causa e obter uma sentença se não houvesse ninguém para fazer com que ela fosse obedecida. Sem a execução, é impossível que a sociedade subsista.”

Se a mesma pessoa condena e faz executar, é alvo de um duplo ódio. Se se depara com o mesmo executor em toda parte, trata-se de um meio de fazer com que ele seja universalmente odiado.

Em vários lugares, a profissão de carcereiro é separada da de executor, como em Atenas, no tribunal dos Onze. Esta separação é uma atenuação não menos necessária do que a precedente. Tais ofícios têm a desvantagem de serem evitados pelas pessoas de bem tanto quanto possível, e não é seguro confiá-los a malandros. Estes precisam muito mais ser eles próprios vigiados do que vigiarem. Portanto, estas funções não devem pertencer a um cargo fixo, nem estar sempre nas mesmas mãos, mas sim ser realizadas ora por um, ora por outro, principalmente nos lugares em que a guarda da cidade é confiada a companhias de jovens.”

POLÍCIA: “Depois destes ofícios de maior urgência, vêm outros não menos necessários, mas de uma ordem mais elevada e de um maior valor representativo, pois exigem mais experiência e necessitam de maior confiança.” “Nos pequenos [lugares], basta para todos um comandante em chefe. Chamam-se estes chefes Estrategos ou Polemicas, a cavalaria, a infantaria ligeira, os arqueiros, a marinha têm cada qual seus oficiais particulares chamados Navarcas (almirantes), Hiparcas (generais de cavalaria), Taxiarcas (coronéis), e seus oficiais subalternos, Trierarcas, Locagos, Filarcas e outros subordinados, todos ocupados única e exclusivamente com os trabalhos de guerra.”

Embora nem todas as funções de que acabamos de falar participem do manejo do dinheiro público, mas como algumas estão amplamente envolvidas nisso, é preciso que haja acima delas um outro magistrado que, sem que ele mesmo administre coisa alguma, faça com que os outros prestem contas de sua administração e a corrijam. Uns o chamam auditor; outros, inspetor de contas; outros, grande procurador.

Além disso, uma magistratura suprema de que dependam todas as outras é, enfim, necessária. Ela tem ao mesmo tempo o direito ordinário de impor os impostos e de inspecionar a sua percepção. Em toda parte onde o povo é senhor, ela preside às Assembléias (pois é preciso que aqueles que as convocam tenham nelas a principal autoridade). Em alguns lugares, ela é chamada a Probulia, ou Consulta, porque prepara as deliberações. Nas democracias, em que a massa decide soberanamente, dão-lhe o nome de senado.” Realmente é curioso: senado executor!

Recapitulando toda esta exposição, constataremos que todos os ofícios ou ministérios necessários têm por objeto quer as honras devidas ao Ser supremo, quer o serviço militar, quer a administração das finanças, vale dizer, a receita ou a despesa das rendas públicas, quer o abastecimento dos mercados ou a polícia das cidades, dos portos e dos campos, além da administração da justiça, o tabelionato dos contratos, a execução das sentenças, a guarda das prisões, a auditoria e o exame das contas, a reforma dos abusos e das prevaricações, enfim, as deliberações sobre os negócios de Estado.

Os povos que gozam de maior lazer e de uma paz profunda, ou que estão em condições de sentir o secreto encanto do bem-estar e de obtê-lo para si mesmos, têm ofícios próprios, como a Nomofilacia ou guarda das leis, a inspeção do comportamento das mulheres, a disciplina das crianças, o reitorado dos ginásios, a intendência dos exercícios ginásticos, das festas de Baco e outros espetáculos do mesmo gênero.

Destes ofícios, alguns – como a disciplina das mulheres e das crianças – não convêm à democracia, cujo povo quase só é composto de pobres que, não tendo condições de se fazer servir por outros, são forçados a empregar suas mulheres e suas crianças como domésticos.”

Nas cidades pequenas, a falta de gente força a que se confiram vários ofícios à mesma pessoa. Não se encontram pessoas nem para todas as funções, nem para a sucessão de cada uma delas. Às vezes, porém, elas precisam das mesmas magistraturas e da mesma constituição que as grandes, com a única diferença de que umas são com freqüência forçadas a voltar sempre às mesmas pessoas, e as outras só são obrigadas a isto após longos intervalos. É assim que se suspendem em um mesmo lustre várias velas.”

É própria da aristocracia a inspeção das mulheres e das crianças. Tal função não é nem democrática, nem oligárquica. Como, com efeito, impedir as mulheres dos pobres de saírem ou censurar as mulheres dos oligarcas, acostumadas a viver no luxo?”

Estas diversidades podem combinar-se duas a duas, de modo que tais magistrados sejam eleitos por tais cidadãos e os outros por todos; uns escolhidos dentre eles, outros tirados de tal classe; uns escolhidos por sorteio, outros por eleição.”


Além destes tribunais [sete], existem juízes para os casos mínimos, tais como os de 1 até 5 dracmas, ou pouco mais, pois, se é preciso julgar estas queixas, elas não merecem ser levadas diante dos grandes tribunais.”

Nada de relevo neste tópico. Aliás, a obra como um todo se mostra fraca, indigna do maior discípulo de Platão.

* * *

Os povos que habitam as regiões frias, principalmente da Europa, são pessoas corajosas, mas de pouca inteligência e poucos talentos. Vivem melhor em liberdade, pouco civilizados, de resto, e incapazes de governar seus vizinhos.

Os asiáticos são mais inteligentes e mais próprios para as artes, mas nem um pouco corajosos, e por isso mesmo são sujeitados por quase todos e estão sempre sob o domínio de algum senhor.” Um preconceito eterno?

Situados entre as duas regiões, os gregos também participam de ambas. (…) Poderiam mandar no mundo inteiro se formassem um só povo e tivessem um só governo.”

PSICOLOGIA AGORA? “O coração é, de fato, a faculdade da alma de que procede a benevolência e pela qual nós amamos; quando, porém, ele se crê desprezado, irrita-se mais contra as pessoas que são conhecidas e com as quais convive do que contra os desconhecidos.”

PSEUDO-OVO DE COLOMBO: “Pois não é suficiente conhecer a melhor forma, é preciso ver, em cada caso particular, qual é aquela que é possível estabelecer”

Corrigir a constituição que existe não é menos incômodo do que instituir outras, assim como é tão difícil perder quanto contrair hábitos.”

UM POLEMISTA DE ÉPOCA: “Ora, como pode conseguir isto se ignorar quantas espécies de governo existem? Nossos atuais políticos, por exemplo, só conhecem uma espécie de democracia e de oligarquia; trata-se, como vimos, de um erro, pois existem várias.”

VIM PARA CONFUNDIR, NÃO PARA ESCLARECER: “Dir-se-á, talvez, que cabe à lei dominar e que não se pode agir de pior maneira do que substituindo-a pela vontade de um homem, sujeito como os demais a suas paixões. Mas, se a própria lei for ditada pelo espírito de oligarquia ou de democracia, de que nos servirá para elucidar a questão proposta?”

há uma enorme afinidade entre a monarquia e a aristocracia, elas têm quase a mesma disciplina e os mesmos costumes e seus chefes não precisam de educação diferente da que forma o homem virtuoso.” “A monarquia é, na nossa opinião, um dos melhores regimes.” Vozes da cabeça de Ari.. De todo modo, ser “um dos melhores” quando existem 4 ou 5 tipos de governo não é lá grande coisa, concordam?!

SÓ FIZ MARIAS, DIGO, SOFISMARIAS: “Querer que o espírito comande equivale a querer que o comando pertença a Deus e às leis. Entregá-lo ao homem é associá-lo ao animal irracional. Com efeito, a paixão transforma todos os homens em irracionais. (…) A lei, pelo contrário, é o espírito desembaraçado de qualquer paixão.”

A amizade supõe igualdade e semelhança.” Não leu o Lísis.

Se antigamente se deixaram governar por reis, é, sem dúvida, porque raramente se encontravam ao mesmo tempo várias pessoas eminentes quanto ao mérito, sobretudo nas pequenas cidades, como eram as dos velhos tempos.”

ISSO É UM DADO HISTÓRICO OU UMA ASSUNÇÃO METAFÍSICA? “Mas, quando os homens de mérito começaram a se multiplicar, não se quis mais aquele governo; procurou-se algo mais conveniente ao interesse comum e se formou uma República.”

Se supusermos, porém, que em geral a monarquia convém mais aos grandes Estados, que partido tomar com relação aos filhos dos reis? Deve ser hereditário o cetro? Ficaremos expostos a cair nas mãos de maus sucessores, como aconteceu algumas vezes. Dir-se-á que o pai terá o poder de não lhe passar a coroa. Mas não devemos esperar por isto: esta renúncia está muito acima da virtude que a natureza humana comporta.”

alguém aconselhou aos siracusanos que regulassem da mesma forma a importância da guarda que lhes pedia Dionísio.” Quem você quer nomear quando não nomeia?

Mas já falei bastante da monarquia” Sim, já falaste bastante de muitas coisas e mal cheguei à metade da obra…

DANCE CONFORME A MÚSICA: “como a harmonia é dividida por alguns em dois modos, o dórico e o frígio, aos quais relacionam todos os demais e dão nome a todas as suas composições musicais, de ordinário se formam, a exemplo desses dois modos, todas as Repúblicas. Mas é melhor só admitir como bem-constituídas uma ou no máximo duas espécies. As outras são como que desvios ou da boa harmonia, ou do bom governo”

A igualdade parece ser a base do direito, e o é efetivamente, mas unicamente para os iguais e não para todos. A desigualdade também o é, mas apenas para os desiguais. Ora uns e outros põem de lado esta restrição e se iludem, já que é sobre eles próprios que sentenciam; pois de maneira bastante ordinária os homens são maus juízes a seu próprio respeito. A igualdade da qual resulta a justiça ocorre, como igualmente o demonstra a nossa Ética, nas pessoas e nas coisas. Concorda-se facilmente sobre a igualdade das coisas.”

Os Estados democráticos ostentam acima de tudo a igualdade. Foi este zelo que fez com que imaginassem o ostracismo. Nenhuma ascendência é tolerada, nem por riqueza, nem por credibilidade, nem por poder, e desde que um homem alcance tal preponderância é banido por um tempo determinado pela lei. A mitologia ensina-nos que foi este o motivo pelo qual os argonautas devolveram Hércules à terra e o abandonaram. Não queria remar com os outros no Argos, acreditando-se muito acima dos marinheiros.”

O ostracismo tem por objeto apenas deter e afastar os que se distinguem demais. Os soberanos agem da mesma forma para com Estados ou nações inteiras. Foi assim que agiram os atenienses para com os de Samos, de Quios e de Lesbos. Tão logo puderam, os rebaixaram, contra a fé dos tratados. Da mesma forma, o rei da Pérsia humilhou e saqueou os medos, os babilônios e outros insolentes que não se cuidaram durante a prosperidade.”

NADA MAIS ERRADO: “o público julga melhor do que ninguém sobre música ou poesia. Uns criticam um trecho, os demais um outro, e todos captam o forte e o fraco do conjunto da obra.”

AH, ZEITGEIST! “Entendemos por médico tanto aquele que pratica a medicina como artista [acepção de formado profissionalmente] como aquele que ordena e aquele que adquiriu conhecimentos na arte tais como se encontram em todos os demais [autodidata]. Estes últimos não são menos competentes para julgar do que os doutores.”

* * *


Ora, um dos apanágios da liberdade é que todos alternadamente mandem e obedeçam. Desta diferença entre perpetuidade e alternância dependem a disciplina e a instituição. Se houvesse uma raça de homens que superasse tanto os outros quanto imaginamos que os deuses e os heróis o fazem; se essa superioridade se manifestasse primeiramente pelo porte e pela boa aparência, depois pelas qualidades da alma, e fosse indubitável para os inferiores, o melhor sem contestação seria que seu governo fosse perpétuo e que as pessoas se submetessem a ele de uma vez por todas. Mas como, com exceção, segundo Scyllax, dos indianos, de ordinário os reis não apresentam superioridade tão acentuada sobre seus súditos, é preciso que todos os cidadãos mandem e obedeçam alternadamente, e isto por várias razões.”

Aos descontentes se soma a gente do campo, sempre ávida de novidades, e qualquer que seja o número dos altos funcionários não pode ser grande o bastante para que eles sejam os mais fortes.”

Ninguém se zanga ou se sente desonrado por ceder aos mais velhos, na esperança de alcançar as mesmas honras quando tiver a idade conveniente. Pode-se, portanto, dizer que os mesmos mandam e obedecem, mas são, porém, diferentes; assim, a disciplina deve ser em parte a mesma e em parte diferente. Pois, de acordo com o provérbio, para bem comandar é preciso ter antes obedecido.

várias funções que à primeira vista pareceriam servis podem ser executadas honestamente por homens livres. A honestidade e a torpeza residem menos na natureza do ato do que no motivo que faz agir.”

um homem não deve se submeter a ninguém, ou que isto só deve acontecer se houver desforra, conseqüência necessária da liberdade distribuída a todos em igual medida.” Memes de internet são desforra?


(*)“os magistrados devem ser sorteados, ou todos sem exceção, ou pelo menos aqueles cujo cargo não requer nem luzes, nem experiência”

(*)“não se deve ter (…) nenhuma consideração para com a fortuna”

(*)“a mesma magistratura não deve ser conferida mais de uma vez à mesma pessoa, ou pelo menos que isto aconteça raramente e para pouquíssimos cargos, a não ser os militares”

(*)“todos os cargos devem ser de curta duração, ou pelo menos aqueles onde esta breve duração for conveniente”

(*)“todos devem passar pela judicatura, de qualquer classe que sejam, e ter poder para julgar sobre todos os casos em qualquer matéria, mesmo as causas da mais alta importância para o Estado, tais como as contas e a censura, a reforma do governo, assim como as convenções particulares”

(*)Judiciário fraco, legislativo e executivo sumamente poderosos (limite da abordagem pré-Montesquieu).

(*)“os membros do senado não devem ser indistintamente assalariados. Os salários arruínam o poder da magistratura; o povo, ávido de salários, atrai tudo para si”

(*)“Não se deve tolerar nenhuma magistratura perpétua. Portanto, se sobrar alguma magistratura do antigo regime, suas atribuições serão reduzidas e, de eletiva, passará a depender de sorteio. Eis o espírito de todas as democracias.

Sem contestação, o melhor povo é o que se ocupa de agricultura. Existe, pois, disposição natural para a democracia em todos os lugares em que o povo tira sua subsistência da agricultura ou da criação de gado.” “Consideram mais agradável trabalhar do que permanecer sentadas, de braços cruzados, a deliberar sobre o governo ou gerir magistraturas, a menos que haja muito que ganhar neste trabalho, pois a maioria prefere o lucro à honra. A prova de sua despreocupação quando não se desperta sua cupidez é que suportaram muito bem seus antigos déspotas e ainda hoje se acostumam com a oligarquia quando os deixam trabalhar e não tiram seus pertences. Então, eles logo alcançam a riqueza, ou pelo menos a abastança. Se tiverem além disso alguma ambição, ela é mais do que satisfeita pelo direito de voto que lhes dão nas eleições e na auditoria das contas. E mesmo que nem todos tivessem direito de assistir a elas, mas apenas o de ser voz deliberativa nas Assembléias primárias. Com efeito, é preciso considerar isto como uma das formas do governo democrático. Era esta que havia em Mantinéia.”

Esta Constituição deixará contentes os homens de bem e os nobres. Por um lado, terão a vantagem de não serem governados por pessoas baixas; por outro lado, quando chegar a sua vez, tomarão mais cuidado para governar eqüitativamente, pois terão contas a prestar e outras pessoas que os julgarão, pois é bom depender de alguém e não ter toda a liberdade para fazer o que se quer. Esta liberdade indefinida é uma má garantia contra o fundo de maldade que todo homem traz consigo ao nascer. Resulta necessariamente desta precaução a maior vantagem para todo Estado, que é ser governado por pessoas de bem que a responsabilidade torna por assim dizer impecáveis, e isto sem ameaçar a superioridade do povo. É evidente que a melhor de todas as democracias é a que é assim constituída. Por quê? Porque nela o povo tem sua importância.”

Dentre as excelentes leis que existiam antigamente entre vários povos, observamos sobretudo as que não permitiam a ninguém possuir terras ou acima de certa quantidade, ou a uma distância grande demais da cidade onde se mora. Em vários Estados era proibido alienar a herança paterna. Uma lei de Oxilus, cujo efeito é aproximadamente o mesmo, proibia que se hipotecasse parte dela aos credores. Podemos retificá-la por um texto dos afitianos que vem bem a propósito. Esse povo, embora numeroso, possuía um território bastante pequeno; todos eram lavradores, mas nos registros do censo não constava a totalidade de suas propriedades. Dividiam-nas em certo número de partes disponíveis, para que os pobres pudessem adquiri-las em quantidade suficiente para ultrapassar até mesmo os ricos.

Depois dos agricultores, o melhor povo é o que leva a vida pastoril e explora o gado. Tem muitas afinidades com o primeiro. Ambos, habituados ao trabalho corporal, são excelentes para as expedições militares e resistem perfeitamente aos incômodos do bivaque [acampamento e vigília militar].

Quase todos os outros povos que compõem o restante das democracias estão muito abaixo destes dois. Nada de mais vil, nem de mais alheio a todo tipo de virtude do que esta multidão de operários, de mercenários e de gente sem profissão. Esta espécie de indivíduos corre sem parar pela cidade e pelas praças públicas e só fica contente nas Assembléias.”

Vemos como deve ser constituída a primeira e a melhor democracia, e também como podem sê-lo as outras. Basta que nos afastemos gradualmente da primeira e adicionemos aos poucos a populaça, à medida que a democracia for piorando.”

A XENOFOBIA DE VERDADE NASCE QUANDO A XENOFOBIA PASSA A SER COISA DO PASSADO: “Para constituí-la [a última democracia] e firmar o poder do povo, os governantes costumam receber o máximo possível de pessoas e conceder direito de cidadania não apenas aos que têm um nascimento legítimo mas até aos bastardos e aos mestiços de qualquer dos dois lados, paterno ou materno.” “preciso introduzir a atenuante de só admitir recém-chegados na medida em que forem necessários para intimidar os nobres e a classe média, sem jamais ultrapassar este limite. Se isso acontecer, a desordem não tardará a reinar por toda parte. Os nobres, que já têm muita dificuldade para suportar este governo, se irritarão cada vez mais. Esta foi a causa do levante de Cirene. Fecham-se os olhos diante de um pequeno inconveniente, mas quando ele assume certa dimensão, não podemos deixar de vê-lo.”

Deve-se dividir o povo em tribos e cúrias, dissolver os cultos particulares e reconduzi-los à unidade do culto público; numa palavra, imaginar todos os meios possíveis para unir todos os cidadãos e extinguir todas as corporações anteriores; nem mesmo desdenhar certas invenções que, embora de origem tirânica, não deixam de ser populares, como o desregramento dos escravos, que pode ser útil até certo ponto, a emancipação das mulheres e das crianças, a conivência sobre o gênero de vida que agrada a cada um: nada tem melhores efeitos para essa democracia. A dissolução agrada a muito mais gente do que uma conduta regrada.”

* * *


Na melhor oligarquia: “A divisão pelo censo deve ser tal que aqueles que têm a renda exigida sejam mais numerosos e mais fortes dos que os que não são admissíveis. Mas também é preciso ter sempre a intenção de que aqueles que são associados ao governo venham somente da parte sadia do povo.”

É o número e a abundância de homens que salvam as democracias; sua consistência vem de uma razão diametralmente oposta ao mérito. A oligarquia, pelo contrário, só pode conservar-se pela melhor ordem de suas partes.

Assim como a multidão se compõe principalmente de quatro classes, a saber: 1a os agricultores, 2a os ligados às artes e ofícios, 3a os comerciantes, 4a os trabalhadores manuais,¹ assim também existem quatro tipos de guerreiros, a saber: 1° a cavalaria, 2° os hoplitas ou infantaria armada dos pés à cabeça, 3° a infantaria ligeira, 4° a marinha.”

¹ Curioso como hoje em dia mal se pode distinguir uma da outra!

Os lugares mais propícios à primeira espécie de oligarquias são os chamados bippasimos, isto é, próprios, por suas campinas, à criação de cavalos. Esses lugares são propícios à oligarquia mais poderosa. Seus habitantes são protegidos e conservados pela cavalaria. Ora,

só a classe opulenta pode ter haras.

Quando o lugar só oferece homens e armas, a segunda oligarquia convém-lhe mais. A armadura completa necessária à grande infantaria só pode ser fornecida pelos ricos e ultrapassa os recursos dos pobres.

É a arraia-miúda que compõe a infantaria ligeira e os marinheiros. Em toda parte onde abunda essa turbaperigo de democracia para os ricos. Se acontece alguma divisão, os combates de ordinário terminam desfavoravelmente para eles. Para sanar este inconveniente, é preciso contar com hábeis generais que misturem à cavalaria e à infantaria pesada um número suficiente dessa tropa ligeira; assim apoiada, ela combate com maior desenvoltura. Porém, criar uma força dessa espécie, vinda do seio do povo, é armar-se contra si mesmo e